A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

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        Handbook of Statistics 2006-07 (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2007, 514 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        What: The Handbook of Statistics 2006-07 provides a comprehensive collection of statistical data relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development, for individual countries and for economic and trade groupings. The publication presents consolidated reference statistics considered of particular importance for describing how developing countries and economies in transition have evolved in the context of globalization. Data are presented in an analytical way in order to facilitate their interpretation. How: The printed edition of the Handbook is a valuable tool for research, policy making and education, which can also be used in conjunction with the DVD or the Internet version of the publication. The latter two contain the full time series of data. Who: Researchers and faculty in the areas of international trade, investment and development.

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        Handbook of Statistics 2018 (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 104 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2018 provides a wide range of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment, maritime transport and development. This year’s edition includes, for the first time in the history of the Handbook, short-term forecasts for a selection of key variables: the value of world merchandise exports (chapter 1), the value of world services exports (chapter 2), and world real gross domestic product (chapter 3). This innovation responds to an increased demand for up-to-date information to monitor global international trade, study the impact of economic or political developments, and guide policy responses. The presented forecasts are not derived from global macroeconomic models or exogenous scenarios on the future state of the global economy. They are applications of what is commonly referred to in the literature as a nowcast or contemporaneous forecast: a real-time evaluation of a variable based on a series of relevant and timely indicators. They are based on the latest data available in October 2018. A summary of the methodological approach applied is included in annex 6.3 Calculation methods.

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        Handbook on Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access and Rules of Origin for Least Developed Countries – Part Ii : Other Developed Countries and Developing Countries (English)
        Manual by Inama, Stefano / UNCTAD, 2012, 206 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This handbook reviews the progress made to implement the Hong Kong (China) Ministerial Decision on the Duty-Free Quota-Free (DFQF) by other Developed countries and Developing countries in the light of past initiatives and ongoing negotiations in the context of the Doha round of trade negotiations.

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        Handbook on Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access and Rules of Origin for Least Developed Countries – Part I : Quad Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 82 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The present handbook reviews the progress made to implement the Hong Kong (China) decision until the Nairobi WTO Ministerial of 2015 and subsequent changes that individual QUAD countries have made to their schemes till 31 December 2017. Part I of this handbook focuses on the special provisions in favour of LDCs and related rules of origin, as contained in the GSP schemes of the Quad countries, namely Canada, those of the European Union Japan and the United States.

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        Handbook on Establishing Effective Labour Migration Policies - Mediterranean Edition (English)
        Manual by OSCE, ILO, IOM, 2007, 278 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development

        This Handbook aims to assist states in their efforts to develop new policy approaches, solutions and practical measures for better management of labour migration in countries of origin and of destination. It analyses effective policies and practices and draws on examples from the OSCE participating States, the southern Mediterranean countries as well as other countries that have considerable experience in this field containing specific models, practical guidelines and examples.

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        Handbook on Negotiating Preferential Trade Agreements: Services Liberalization (English)
        Manual by Pierre Sauvé, Simon Lacey, 2013, 94 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Manual oriented to policymakers and trade negotiators in developing countries and economies in transition. It explains Aid for Trade in services and insights on PTA provisions. It includes a thorough explanation on how to prepare for negotiations by identifying actors, consulting stakeholders, conducting research, setting goals and performance. The second part, describes how to conduct the negotiations themselves and the third part goes into some detail on Aid for Trade and how to increase the capacity for exporting services. Finally, as a final stage of the negotiation process; Implementation, monitoring and enforcement techniques are suggested, as well as a brief introduction to dispute settlement.

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        Handbook on the Special and Preferential Tariff Scheme of China for Least Developed Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 219 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        China started to grant duty-free treatment to LDCs with diplomatic relations with China in 2001. In China’s customs tariff schedules (that is, the Customs Tariff of Import and Export of the People’s Republic of China), “duty-free” is referred to as “special and preferential tariff treatment for least developed countries” (herein after referred to as the “LDC scheme”). In response to the WTO decision on DFQF for LDC exports adopted at the sixth Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong (China) in December 2005, China announced at the United Nations High-Level Event on Millennium Development Goals held in 2008 that it would increase gradually the coverage of its LDC scheme to reach 95 per cent of the country’s total tariff lines. As a further step to help boost LDC exports to China, in March 2013 at the BRICS1 Summit held in South Africa, China announced its decision to increase its duty-free coverage to 97 per cent by 2015. The decision was implemented on 1 January 2015. Thus, China became the first developing country in WTO to fully meet the tariff line coverage requirement set out in the sixth Ministerial Declaration.

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        The Harmonized System - Amendments and Their Impact on WTO Members' Schedules (English)
        Manual by Yu, Dayong /WTO, 2008, 25 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As an internationally standardized product nomenclature, the Harmonized System (HS) is used by WTO Members in their schedules of concessions and in the definitions of product coverage for a number of WTO agreements. This paper starts by providing an overview of the HS amendments and proposing a categorization of those HS changes in the context of transposition. It then looks back at the history of the introduction of the HS and its subsequent amendments into the WTO schedules and assesses the difficulties and problems which have been faced by WTO Members. On the basis of such analysis, it introduces the successful procedures and methodologies used by WTO Members and the WTO Secretariat to deal with the recent HS2002 transposition. The paper also discusses the implications of the HS amendments to three WTO agreements and the possible approaches to transpose their product lists into a new HS nomenclature.

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        Harmonizing Cyberlaws and Regulations: The Experience of the East African Community (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 65 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        The first part discusses the need for regional harmonization and the challenges faced with regard to the implementation of cyberlaws in the EAC region. The second gives a detailed account of the status of cyberlaws in each country. It is hoped that the work of the EAC Task Force on Cyberlaws and this study offer some useful lessons and tools for other countries and regions engaging in cyberlaw reforms.

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        Harnessing the Potential for Trade and Sustainable Growth in Zambia (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2016, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper sets out Zambia’s existing trade policy framework and identifies areas of possible reform and options for maximizing the contribution of trade to inclusive growth and sustainable development. It contains a review of the macroeconomic and trade performance of the economy between 1995 and 2013. It discusses the current trade policies and institutions so as to identify the major opportunities and challenges inherent in the Zambian economy and outlines the options for enhancing Zambia’s trade and sustainable real growth in the economy. Following a review of Zambia’s trade performance and the current tariff structure, the framework recommends a strategic trade policy calibrated to support industrial sector interests. Tariff-setting is an essential component of improving Zambia’s trade performance but is not the sole determinant. Other factors play a critical role in preventing the country from increasing its exports and ultimately the creation of employment, increased incomes and reduction of poverty, such as the cost of doing business and high trade costs.

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        Harnessing Trade for Sustainable Development and a Green Economy
        Manual by WTO, 2011, 24 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        In 1992 the United Nations convened a landmark conference in Rio de Janeiro which set the tone and ambition for global policy on development and environment for the years to come. The results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Earth Summit, were reaffirmed in Johannesburg in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Global leaders will reconvene in Rio in 2012 at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). They will consider progress made since the two earlier meetings, assess remaining challenges, and reset the world on a path towards sustainable development. Part II of this brochure offers a set of messages on sustainable development and trade that may be pronounced at the Rio+20 Conference. Part III looks at the workings of the WTO and how the multilateral trading system supports countries’ efforts to realize sustainable development and a green economy. Part IV examines the contribution of trade to sustainable development. Part V refers to green economy measures and discusses how WTO rules and monitoring mechanisms help ensure such measures are not disguised protectionism. Part VI looks at WTO efforts to help developing countries maximize the benefits of participation in international trade. And Part VII discusses the contribution to sustainable development that can be made through a successful completion of the Doha Round.

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        ¿Hay Vida Después del SGP? Implicancias de la Posible Exclusión de Argentina de los Sistemas Generalizados de Preferencias de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea (English)
        Policy brief by Dalle, Demián, Lavopa, Federico, 2011, 12 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        El Sistema Generalizado de Preferencias (“SGP”) es una de las manifestaciones centrales del principio del “Trato Especial y Diferenciado” que los países desarrollados accedieron a otorgar a aquellos en vías de desarrollo en el ámbito de Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles y Comercio (“GATT”) y su sucesora, la Organización Mundial del Comercio (“OMC”). Este principio deriva de uno de los aspectos más elementales de cualquier noción de justicia: la igualdad entre desiguales no es igualdad. Traducido a la jerga de la OMC, este imperativo implica que los países desarrollados miembros de la OMC están autorizados a realizar concesiones unilaterales a países en desarrollo sin la obligación de extender automática e incondicionalmente dichas preferencias a todos los países miembros de la OMC. Funciona, por lo tanto, como una excepción a uno de los pilares de dicho organismo: el principio de no discriminación y, en particular, la Cláusula de la Nación Más Favorecida.

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        Highlights of Recent Trends in Global Infrastructure: New Players and Revised Game Rules (in UNCTAD's Transnational Corporations (Vol. 17, No.1) (English)
        Note by Ryan J. Orr and Jeremy R. Kennedy, 2008, 36 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, Investment

        This article highlights recent trends in global infrastructure, focusing on new sources and sponsors of funds and their objectives as they relate to foreign direct investment in developing countries and regions. It also discusses the role of new geopolitical strategic investors such as China and addresses the implications of these developments for research, government policy and company strategy. It concludes by providing an overview of the implications of these developments for project sponsors, construction and engineering firms, pension funds and micro lenders, as well as for the multilateral institutions. The article finally highlights the areas where additional research is needed to ascertain the future characteristics of international infrastructure financing.

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        The History and Challenges of Latin American Development (English)
        Working paper by José Antonio Ocampo, 2013, 32 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        The publication offers rethinking the development agenda. It contains insights on capacity-building, technological progress, job opportunities and access to social benefits and how to include all of these into the interweaving them in society. It discusses employment with rights as a tool to eradicate inequality, close gaps and mainstreaming perspectives of gender, ethnic and racial equity. In essence this short publication suggests structural changes for making qualitative changes in the production structures of the countries in Latin America.

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        The Hong Kong Ministerial and Beyond (English)
        Other by Virtual Institute, 2005
        Categories: VI Members Research, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: A collection of articles by Virtual Institute members assessing the challenges for the current WTO ministerial in Hong Hong and beyond. These articles look at the development challenge of the current multilateral negotiations from the perspective of developed countries, middle income developing countries and the Least Developed Countries. Who: For anyone interested in WTO issues and the current debates around the outcome of the WTO ministerial in Hong Kong. How: A series of short articles introduce several key issues which could provide a succinct resource for discussion and further research.

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        How Are the Poor Affected by International Trade in India: An Empirical Approach (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 134 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This document takes an alternative approach to the issue of impact of international trade on poverty. The framework of the study traces the role played by international trade in influencing the four facts of human development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability.

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        How Do Food Prices Affect Producers and Consumers in Developing Countries? (English)
        Study by ICTSD, 2009, 12 pages
        Categories: Commodities

        High food prices in 2008 brought global attention to the difficulties that producers and consumers in developing countries have faced for many years. This note examines trends in global agricultural production and surveys some of the newest information that has come to light to probe how food prices have affected agriculture.

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        How to Access Trade Finance: A Guide for Exporting SMEs (English)
        Manual by ITC, 2009, 149 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Guide dealing with the processes involved in obtaining finance for exporting SMEs – explains the credit process of financial institutions from pre-application to loan repayment; examines the SME sector and barriers to finance, as well as the risks in lending to the SME sector as perceived by financial institutions; addresses SMEs’ internal assessment of financial needs, determining the right financing instruments, and finding the appropriate lenders and service providers; discusses how to approach and negotiate with banks; tackles cash flow and risk management issues; includes examples of real-life business plans and loan requests; includes bibliography

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        How to Prevent and Manage Investor-state Disputes - Lessons from Peru (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2011, 86 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This study examines the case of Peru which designed a dispute prevention policy (DPP) and implemented a dispute prevention mechanism (DPM), which foresees the promotion of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms and the implementation of prevention policies. This is an example of a case of good practice in the prevention and management of investor-State disputes.

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        How To Utilize FDI To Improve Transport Infrastructure - Ports: Lessons From Nigeria (English)
        Case study by UNCTAD, 2011, 87 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade Facilitation

        The international trading system relies on the fast, low-cost movement of goods through global value chains. Maritime transportation systems are the most cost-effective way to ship freight over long-distances.Despite their importance, ports in many developing countries are characterized by underinvestment, low productivity, inefficient use of resources, high user prices, long delays, and ineffective services. In response to these problems, a rising number of developing countries have reformed governance models and introduced private investment and management in formerly State-dominated ports. Nigeria has been selected as a case study of a developing country that has exhibited best policy practices in attracting and benefiting from FDI in port terminals. This report reviews the reforms and concession process to identify lessons for other developing countries.

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        How Would a Trade Deal on Cotton Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Working paper by ICTSD, 2010, 59 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper aims to provide policy-makers, negotiators and other stakeholders with a clear and accurate assessment of the likely implications of a trade deal on cotton along the lines of that being discussed in the WTO’s Doha Round. The study also examines the implications of various alternative trade policy scenarios, taking into consideration recent historical trends in cotton prices, production and trade in different countries and geographical regions, and analyses the relevance of internal policy reforms in the EU and the US in particular.

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        How Would a Trade Deal on Sugar Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Report by Elobeid, Amani/ICTSD, 2009, 62 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This study examines how exporting and importing countries could be affected by a trade deal on sugar along the lines of that under discussion in the WTO’s Doha Round, as well as in bilateral and regional negotiations. The study takes into consideration the preferential access arrangements that currently exist, recent historical trends in sugar trade in different countries and geographical regions, and the internal market reforms in importing regions such as the EU.How would a trade deal on sugar affect exporting and importing countries?How would a trade deal on sugar affect exporting and importing countries?

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        How Would a WTO Agreement on Bananas Affect Exporting and Importing Countries? (English)
        Report by Anania, Giovanni/ICTSD, 2009, 49 pages
        Categories: Commodities, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Bananas, an essential source of export revenue for many developing countries, have been an important source of disagreement in the Doha Round of trade talks. This study employs economic modeling to assess the implications of a deal on trade in bananas. The scenarios it uses focus on the role of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and a conclusion to the WTO Doha Round.

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        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World (English)
        Report by UNDP, 2013, 216 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It analyzes more than 40 developing countries and specifically looks at the strategies of those which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012. It looks at the results of new trade and technology partnerships within the South itself. The report identifies four specific areas of focus for sustaining development momentum: enhancing equity; enabling greater voice and participation of citizens; confronting environmental pressures; and managing demographic change. With fresh analytical insights and clear proposals for policy reforms, the report calls for a better representation of the South in global governance systems and points to potential new sources of financing within the South.

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        Human Development Report 2013 – The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNDP, 2013, 28 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Globalization and Development Strategies

        The Human Development Report examines the profound shift in global dynamics driven by the fast-rising new powers of the developing world and its long-term implications for human development. It identifies more than 40 countries and analyzes the causes and consequences of their achievements and related challenges. The report specifically looks at the strategies of those countries which lifted their HDI value substantially between 1990 and 2012.

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