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Building knowledge for trade and development

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        ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Considerations for Policymakers (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Trade and Environment

        Climate Change is expected to increase the likelihood of extreme weather events and contribute to longer-term changes in temperature and precipitation. Given agriculture’s reliance on the weather, the agricultural sector will be seriously impacted by climate change. The sector is also a significant contributor of greenhouse gasses and will need to play a role in mitigating climate change. At the same time, however, increased demands on the sector will require that agricultural production more than double by 2050. Given these challenges, global food security requires substantial adaptation efforts directed towards the agricultural sector. Emphasis must be placed on strengthening adaptive capacities in developing countries, with an eye toward also promoting socio-economic development and food security

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        ICT Solutions to Facilitate Trade at Border Crossings and in Ports (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2006, 17 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade Facilitation

        What: This note calls on developing countries to improve their ICT usage in transport and customs, in order to keep pace with globalization, liberalization, and the global exigencies for supply chain security. The use of ICT in customs is particularly discussed in the context of the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA). All in all, the paper advises developing countries to adopt the following measures: capacity building, IT infrastructure development, a regulatory reform, and a cooperative framework. How: An informative reading for courses on trade facilitation. Who: Anyone interested in the use of ICT for trade facilitation.

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        Identifying Asian LDCs’ High Potential Export Sectors (English)
        Report by ITC, 2013, 33 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies

        This report aims at identifying at least two sectors that show a high potential for exports in several Asian LDCs vis-à-vis China and vis-à-vis developing countries in Asia in general. Expanding exports by targeting dynamic markets is critical for future development and poverty alleviation in many developing countries and, yet, Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs) like many other LDCs remain marginal players in the global economy and need technical assistance to fully grasp the benefits from international trade. Governments seek to complement general (“horizontal”) policies that improve the overall business environment by more targeted, sector-specific policies. Identifying sectors on which to put priority is necessary for a sound allocation of limited public resources. Governments, donors and other stakeholders want to make an informed decision on which priority sectors to select, and thus need to assess the export potential of individual sectors. As important as knowing what to export is the question where to export. Given the stagnating demand in many developed economies, emerging regional markets, first and foremost China, may offer export opportunities to Asian LDCs that are yet to be explored.

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        Identifying Core Elements in Investment Agreements in the APEC Region - UNCTAD Series on International Investment Policies for Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 156 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        International investment agreements (IIAs) in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum adopt a range of approaches to addressing the main provisions (the "core elements") of these treaties. This report is based on analysis of a sample of 28 IIAs between and/or involving APEC member economies. These comprise 14 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and 14 preferential trade and investment agreements (PTIAs). The report provides a means of considering how different IIAs address three possible objectives: investment liberalization, investment protection, and investment promotion. It explains how APEC economies address the legal issues of international investment, the nature and effect of the core elements that appear in IIAs, and how they interact together. It also identifies the purpose of these provisions and where APEC member countries take common and different approaches. Finally, it compares the approaches taken in "APEC IIAs" with three key "APEC investment instruments": the Non-Binding Investment Principles (NBIP), the Menu of Options, and the Transparency Standards on Investment.

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        Identifying New Product And Service Export Opportunities For South Africa Using A Decision Support Model
        Working paper by North-West University, 2013
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        This paper examines the role of the Decision Support Model (DSM) for products and services. The Decision Support Model (DSM) is an export market selection tool that makes use of a sophisticated filtering process to sift through an extensive range of product-/service- and country-related data to reveal the export opportunities that are the most realistic and sustainable. The paper illustrates how the use of these models can herald the start of a new era in export market selection and promotion in South Africa.

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        IIA Issue Note No. 1/2012: Latest Developments in Investor-State Dispute Settlement (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2012, 21 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        In 2011, the number of known treaty-based investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases filed under international investment agreements (IIAs) grew by at least 46, bringing the total number of known treaty-based cases to 450 by the end of 2011. This constitutes the highest number of known treaty-based disputes ever filed in one year. Since most arbitration forums do not maintain a public registry of claims, the total number of actual treaty-based cases is likely to be higher. This issue note looks at the recent trends in investor-state dispute settlement, covers the key issues of the decisions made in year 2011 and gives concluding remarks at the end.

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        IIA Issues Note - Investor-state Dispute Settlement: an Information Note on the United States and the European Union (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2014, 14 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The Information Note discusses facts and figures regarding Investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) cases brought by investors from the US and from EU Member States, and ISDS cases against the US and EU Member States. This discussion is preceded by an overview of the IIA networks of the US and the EU and its Member States.

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        IIA Issues Note No. 1/2013: Recent Developments in Investor-state Dispute Settlement (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2013, 36 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, International Financial System, Investment

        This issue note analyses the recent developments in investor state dispute settlement (ISDS). As the public discourse about the usefulness and legitimacy of the ISDS mechanism is gaining momentum, reform options with respect to their feasibility, expected effectiveness and implementation methods remains wanting. The note advocates a multilateral policy dialogue to help to develop a consensus about the preferred course for reform and ways to put it into action.

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        IIA Issues Note - Reform of the Iia Regime: Four Paths of Action and a Way Forward (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2014, 9 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        While almost all countries are party to one or more IIAs, many are dissatisfied with the current regime. Concerns relate mostly to the development dimension of IIAs, the balance of rights and obligations of investors and States, and the systemic complexity of the IIA regime. Countries' current efforts to address these challenges reveal four different paths of action:(i)maintaining the status quo, largely refraining from changes in the way they enter into IIA commitments; (ii)disengaging from the IIA regime, unilaterally terminating existing treaties or denouncing multilateral arbitration conventions; and (iii)implementing selective adjustments, modifying models for future treaties but leaving the treaty core and the body of existing treaties largely untouched. Finally, (iv) there is the path of systematic reform that aims to comprehensively address the IIA regime's challenges in a holistic manner. While each of these paths has benefits and drawbacks, systemic reform could effectively address the complexities of the IIA regime and bring it in line with the sustainable development imperative.

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        Iia Issues Notes No.2 - Sovereign Debt Restructuring and International Investment Agreements - July 2011 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2011, 10 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This Note examines the extent to which international investment agreements (IIAs)may affect the ability of States to implementsovereign debt restructurings when a debtor nation has defaulted or is close to default on its debt.

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        IIA Monitor No. 1/2007: Intellectual Property Provisions in International Investment Arrangements (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2007, 8 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        This IIA Monitor takes an initial look at the variety of ways in which intellectual property provisions are treated in bilateral investment treaties and preferential trade and investment agreements. While there are similarities between certain sets of agreements in their provisions relating to IP, there are also differences that have important legal ramifications.

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        IIA Monitor No. 2/2006: Developments in International Investment Agreements in 2005 (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2006, 15 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The trend from previous years of an expansion and increasing sophistication of international investment rulemaking at the bilateral, regional and interregional level continued in 2005. In 2005 alone, 162 international investment agreements (IIAs)1 were concluded, bringing the total number of IIAs to almost 5,500. The evolving system of international investment rules contributes further to the enabling framework for FDI. At the same time, the increasingly complex multilayered and multifaceted universe of IIAs becomes more demanding, particularly in order to keep it coherent, and ensure its effective functioning and making it conducive for national development objectives.

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        IIA Monitor No. 2/2007: Development Implications of International Investment Agreements (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2007, 11 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The universe of international investment agreements (IIAs) continues to expand and is becoming increasingly complex. As of the end of 2006, more than 2,500 bilateral investment treaties (BITs), 2,600 double taxation treaties and 240 other agreements with investment provisions – such as free trade agreements – existed. This impressive IIA network has several characteristics which present opportunities and challenges for countries, in particular developing countries. This issue of the IIA Monitor sheds more light on them from a development perspective.

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        IMF Policies for Financial Crises Preventions in Emerging Markets (English)
        Discussion paper by Lorenzo, Fernando; Noya, Nelson, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, International Financial System, Macroeconomic Policy

        In emerging markets, policies for preventing and managing financial crises should be understood following the standard open economy macroeconomics text treatment. This, however, will prevent us from fully comprehending how to deal with these crises. To deal with financial crises in emerging markets, this paper brings about more promising theoretical tools borrowed from the interdisciplinary field of optimal policy design. It also considers the possibility that more than one market failure may occur simultaneously. The theoretical tools discussed here should serve to improve existing prevention and management policies. Admittedly, the interdisciplinary field of optimal policy design is comparatively young, thus offering scarce empirical support for disentangling competing models. Given this inability to decide upon the best possible model, we should consider at least two constraints that policy makers will deal with in the real world of financial crises. First, given that policy makers make crucial choices between parsimonious and innovative measures, this paper recommends parsimony because of the uncertainty about the true model. Second, high political implementation costs will always be present, and these are positively correlated with supranational institutional requirements. Considering issues of both parsimony and political constraints, we argue that any attempt to internationally harmonize rules and codes must be done with caution. With this framework in mind, we review some of the recent proposals about emerging markets crisis prevention. From the point of view of emerging countries and creditor countries taken as a Whole, and benevolent IFIs, we conclude that promoting GDP indexed sovereign bonds is the best available proposal for crises prevention. In this paper, we leave aside the debate of the political economy or governance reform issues of the IFIs.

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        Impact Des Accords De L’OMC Sur L’économie De La Mauritanie, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre, Avril 2006 (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 32 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Pays à forte tradition commerciale, la Mauritanie a vu s’installer sur ses côtes dès le 16e siècle des comptoirs hollandais, portugais, anglais et français, comptoirs dont l’installation, a attisé les convoitises et entraîné de fortes rivalités entre les puissances européennes de l’époque. Le principal objet de ce commerce était la gomme arabique, sève d’une espèce d’acacia très répandue en Mauritanie avant la grande sécheresse des années 1970. Puis ce fut autour du minerai de fer et des produits halieutiques de constituer l’essentiel des exportations mauritaniennes. En termes de valeur, la balance commerciale a connu une évolution en dents de scie entre 1990 et 2004 caractérisée par une tendance déficitaire très marquée en 1997 en raison du concours des facteurs suivants : - la baisse des captures et des cours des produits halieutiques, - la crise financière asiatique de la fin des années 1990 qui s’est répercutée sur l’économie et la monnaie du Japon principal acheteur du poisson mauritanien (notamment les céphalopodes à grande valeur marchande). - La baisse continue des cours du minerai de fer. Mais, en dépit de la refonte de l’arsenal juridique régissant l’activité privée et l’entreprise de manière générale, un ensemble de facteurs entravent le développement du secteur du commerce. On citera en particulier l’absence d’orientations clairement définies, la prévalence de la « logique commerçante» dans la gestion des entreprises, la forte présence puis le retrait soudain de l’Etat d’un ensemble de secteurs clés de l’économie dont il détenait le monopôle, l’absence d’unités de production agro-industrielles, le coût élevé du crédit, l’absence de culture du service,le coût élevé des facteurs de production, l’exiguïté du marché domestique….etc.

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        Impact Des Accords De L’OMC Sur L’économie Du Cameroun, Négociation et Mise En Oeuvre (French)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 69 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        Le Cameroun est signataire de puis 1960 de plusieurs accords commerciaux bilatéraux et multilatéraux et s’inscrit résolument dans la logique de diversification de ses partenaires. Membre de l’organisation Mondiale du Commerce (OMC) depuis le 1er janvier 1995, il coopère avec l’Union Européenne dans la zone franche sur le plan monétaire et au sein des pays ACP dans le cadre des Accords de Partenariat Economique signés en 2000 à Cotonou (UE/ACP) dont les négociations en cours s’achèvent en 2007. L’issue des négociations du cycle actuel de Doha relative au nouveau Système Commercial Multilatéral et des accords de partenariat économique régionaux conditionne par conséquent le développement économique du pays, tant il est vrai en principe que l’expansion des échanges internationaux dans le contexte du libre échange est un facteur de développement mutuel des partenaires à l’échange. Le besoin d’une stratégie de négociation indispensable à l’optimisation des gains nécessaire à la réalisation de l’option du gouvernement pour la réduction de la pauvreté et l’atteinte des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement s’avère important et urgent. Les contours de cette stratégie se fondent sur l’impact actuel des différents accords de l’OMC et des accords régionaux sur l’économie camerounaise. La présente étude sur l’impact des Accords de l’OMC et positions de négociations à l’initiative de la CNUCED dans le cadre du Projet JITAP II vient opportunément aider à la préparation des négociations d’une part, à l’harmonisation et à l’amélioration de la législation et de la réglementation nationale d’autre part.

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        The Impact of Bioethics and Consumer Demand on Process and Production Methods (ppms) in the Wto: Considerations for Colombian Biotrade (English)
        Working paper by Calle-Saldarriaga, María Alejandra / Universidad EAFIT, 2011, 50 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This paper aims to contribute to the existing legal studies on Process and Production Methods and their connection to consumer preferences for bioethical and environmentally friendly systems of production, in particular by identifying the case of Colombian biotrade.

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        The impact of FDI on Development: Globalization of R&D by TNCs (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2004, 16 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment, Science and Technology

        What: A note prepared by UNCTAD identifying key issues related to the trends in the globalization of R&D and its implications for developing countries. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and development, and its impact on processes of globalization. How: Background reading for courses on FDI, globalization. Also offers a lot of relevant reference materials.

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        The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment (English)
        Article by Luis Carlos Arango Vieira, 2009, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.

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        Impact of Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) on Egypt and Jordan: A Critical Analysis (English)
        Case study by Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim and Taleb Awad, 2009
        Categories: Investment, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        Paper presents a detailed outlook on the impact of qualifying industrial zones (QIZ)from the perspective of both Egypt and Jordan. It explains the objective and purpose of the QIZ, the performance of the QIZ (in terms of employment opportunities, gender and technology transfer) and it concludes with a comparative analysis between Egypt and Jordan.

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        The Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Debt Sustainability in Developing Countries
        Note by UNCTAD, 2009, 24 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development, International Financial System

        This paper is prepared in response to a request by the former President of the General Assembly H.E. Miguel d´Escoto dated 6 July 2009 for UNCTAD to prepare a paper on the impact of the crisis on debt sustainability. Furthermore, this paper is a contribution to the follow up of the United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and its Impact on Development held in June 2009. The paper is divided into three parts. The first part (Section 2) describes the impact of the crisis on developing countries. It shows that this crisis has demonstrated, once again, the vulnerability of developing countries to exogenous shocks and that the global downturn raises concerns with regard to the capacity of developing countries to weather the storm without laying the foundations for a debt crisis in the years to come. In this context, it is essential for policy makers to be aware of key determinants of debt sustainability and how they have evolved over the last two years. However, debt sustainability should not be viewed as simply the capacity to continue servicing debt obligations without taking into account the fact that higher debt serving costs necessarily mean fewer funds available for fighting poverty and meeting MDGs. The second part of the paper (Sections 3) shows that developing countries suffer debt crises with debt levels which, for the standard of the advanced economies, are relatively low (a phenomenon often referred to as debt-intolerance). The paper rejects the conventional wisdom that this phenomenon is due to poor policies or institutions and argues that the key determinants of debt intolerance are the economic and debt structure of developing countries. The third part of the paper (Section 4) discusses international and domestic long-term policies aimed at reducing the probability of debt crises. This section also points out that, even with better policies, debt crises and sovereign defaults are bound to happen and that the cost of such crises could be attenuated by putting in place an international debt resolution mechanism which would allow a speedy, equitable and transparent debt restructuring process.

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        Impact of the Global Slowdown on India’s Exports and Employment (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2013, 46 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper forecasts the impact of the slowdown in global GDP on India’s total exports and exports of 10 major sectors. It also estimates economy-wide and sectoral employment impacts in October 2009 and November 2010. Further, the study identifies vulnerable sectors with high potential for employment generation for immediate policy interventions.

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        Implementation of multimodal transport rules (English)
        Report by UNCTAD Trade and transport facilitation branch, 2001, 55 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Trade Facilitation

        Gives an overview of multimodal transport rules and international, regional and national legislations. It argues in favor of an harmonization of legislation and studies transport laws in selected regions and developing countries. Background reading for teachers and researchers of trade facilitation issues. Provides examples on regional agreements (MERCOSUR, ASEAN etc.) and developing countries (Argentina, China, India etc.)

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        Implementation of multimodal transport rules - Comparative Tables (English)
        Annex by UNCTAD Trade and transport facilitation branch, 2001, 18 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation

        Comparative tables based on the paper Implementation of multimodal transport rules. Good summary of legislation in different countries and regional agreements (Mercosur, Asean, India, China, Paraguay…)

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        Implementing Competition-related Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Is It Possible to Obtain Development Gains? (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2006, 198 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This publication presents the results of an UNCTAD/IDRC project on Trade and Competition Issues: Experiences at Regional Level. It consists of three chapters written by UNCTAD and academic experts on the topic as well as an annex with reports from the workshops that have been conducted for the project. This publication considers the interrelationship between competition law and policy, economic development and trade. It sHows the constraints faced by developing countries in using existing cooperation mechanisms and suggests ways to foster a culture of competition in developing-country markets. It also stresses the importance of improving the institutional capacities of recently established competition authorities in developing countries to deal with anti-competitive practices in their own markets and help their enterprises deal with them in international markets. How: Raising awareness and enhancing expertise among all stakeholders. Who: Policy makers wanting to understand the negotiation and implementation of regional and bilateral trade agreements with respect to competition policies, but also other stakeholders in the process.

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        Implementing Gender-Aware Ex Ante Evaluations to Maximize the Benefits of Trade Reforms for Women (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2016, 4 pages
        Categories: Trade and Gender, Trade Facilitation

        This policy brief aims to provide stakeholders with an understanding of the scope of ex ante evaluations. It unpacks the complex relationship between trade policies and gender in terms of liberalization and policy reform. It states that ex ante impact assessments constitute a valuable tool for identifying the impact of trade policies on gender-related outcomes and can contribute to the formation of policies or accompanying measures that maximize benefits for women.

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        Implications for China of the December 2008 Draft Agricultural Modalities (English)
        Report by Zhihong, Tian/ICTSD, 2009, 50 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        With nearly 900 million people dependent on agriculture for income, China produces more wheat and paddy than any other country, yet it is a country dependent upon trade to both employ and feed its people. Moreover, China has some of the lowest agricultural tariffs of any WTO Member and yet subsidies that rival the EU’s in total. The ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations at the WTO may significantly alter the relationship of Chinese agriculture with the world. This study explores the latest draft WTO agreement on agriculture and what it means for China.

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        Implications of Global Value Chains for Trade, Investment, Development and Jobs (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD OECD WTO, 2013, 29 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Brief prepared for the G-20 Leaders Summit Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)on the highlights on trade and investment openness. Main points regarding value chains encompassing an emphasis on trade facilitation, non-tariff measures, market efficiency, competitiveness, investment trade policy implications and strategies for development and job creation.

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        Implications of the Asian Miracle on Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Textile/Garment Sector in Senegal and China (English)
        Case study by Mbaye, Ahmadou Aly and Yang Weiyong, 2008, 43 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        In this paper, a case study approach is used to further the understanding of trade patterns between Asia and Africa, focusing on textiles in Senegal and China. It presents an analysis of compared trajectories of textile/clothing in Senegal and China which reveals huge differences between both countries. While this sector is booming in China, it is experiencing tremendous difficulties in Senegal, due mainly to decreasing productivity, high unit labor costs and prices of non-tradable inputs. Hence bilateral trade of textile and clothing is almost one way, flowing from China to Senegal, and supported by a growing community of Chinese traders based in Dakar. The paper argues to support Chinese/Senegalese joint ventures in order to further intensify trade flows between both countries and to reap additional benefits for both countries. The paper is interesting to researchers with an interest either in the international textile sector or in Senegalese economic structures. The interviews with Chinese traders in Dakar make it a piece of primary research that did some data collection, besides the analytical part.

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        Improving Market Access for the Least Developed Countries in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2015, 4 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This policy brief proposes a package of actions for attaining the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In particular it addresses the goals of doubling the share of global exports of the least developed countries (LDCs) by 2020; and providing duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access to LDCs as one of the main pillars of international support for export expansion by LDCs.

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        Improving the competitiveness of SMEs in developing countries (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2002, 156 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Finance for Development

        What: Access to finance has been identified as a key element for SMEs to succeed in their drive to build productive capacity, to compete, to create jobs and to contribute to poverty alleviation in developing countries. Without finance, SMEs cannot acquire or absorb new technologies nor can they expand to compete in global markets or even strike business linkages with larger firms. This publication contains a background study which describes a number of innovations used by leading banks to improve the profitability of lending to SMEs. Who: Useful for teachers and students studying on improving SMEs' competitiveness. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on access to finance for enterprise development.

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        Improving the Trade-Poverty Relationship through the International Trade Regime (English)
        Presentation by Michael Herrmann, UNCTAD, 2004, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Poverty

        A clear presentation that uses key data to question some of the central issues regarding the relationship between trade and poverty. Based on the UNCTAD Least Developed Countries Report, 2004 This is relevant for anyone studying or teaching trade in an LDC context concerned with poverty issues The data from the presentation be used as the basis of a lecture or seminar on trade and poverty

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        Incentives - UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2004, 108 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        What: Incentives are frequently used as a policy instrument to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to benefit more from it. They can be classified as financial, fiscal or other (including regulatory) incentives. The issue of incentives is a relatively new phenomenon in international investment agreements (IIAs). Up to now, the great majority of IIAs have not contained specific provisions related to them. Who: Relevant for anyone researching or teaching the new trend of incentives in international investment agreements. How: Can be used for research or lectures on incentives to attract FDI.

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        India: A New Player in Asian Production Networks (English)
        Case study by ESCAP, 2011, 181 pages
        Categories: Investment

        While the IPN phenomenon has accelerated trade and investment linkages between countries in East and South-East Asia, the remainder of the region has not matched those countries in this process. The objective of the study is to explore the reasons for this by using India's performance in the Asian IPNs as a case study for other countries that are trailing behind in this area. The study seeks to identify the reason why India has performed below its potential in this new form of international division of labour, even though that country possess several supportive factors including: (a) the sheer size of the economy and population; (b) a large pool of engineers; (c) relatively sound intellectual property protection; and (d) an increasingly open trade and investment climate resulting from progressive economic reforms.

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        Indisputably Essential- The Economics of Dispute Settlement Institutions in Trade Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Keck, Alexander /WTO, Schropp, Simon /University of St. Gallen, HEI Geneva and NCCR Democracy, 2007, 29 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        This paper is a step towards the formulation of a coherent economic theory of dispute settlement. It challenges traditional models of enforcement (primarily concerned with acts of punishment) for being insufficient in explaining the existence of dispute settlement institutions. The authors perform a comprehensive analysis of the economics of dispute settlement institutions and demonstrate to what extent the literatures of trade cooperation and dispute institutions are (and should be) interlinked. On the basis of these theories, they show that dispute settlement institutions in trade agreements may assume a variety of roles, including that of an information repository and disseminator, an honest broker, an arbitrator and calculator of damages, an active information gatherer or an adjudicator.

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        Industrialization in developing countries: Some evidence from a new economic geography perspective (English)
        Discussion Paper by Jörg Mayer, 2004, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies

        What: This paper shows how the current process of globalization has had a crucial effect on the geographical location of industrial activities and goes on to discuss some of the important empirical questions as to the impact of the current wave of globalization on development. The paper provides a number of reference materials for more in-depth reading. Who: Teachers, students and researchers of new economic geography models in particular or in globalization and industrialization issues in general. How: The paper contains discussions of some of the key data and measurement issues that are invariably involved in this kind of research. This paper could be used as an example of the application of trade analysis techniques.

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        The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries - A First Look (English)
        Report by Tekeste Biadgleng, Ermias, Maur, Jean-Christophe, 2011, 52 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are gaining prominence among trade liberalization efforts. Yet little remains known about the extent to which the intellectual property (IP) provisions of PTAs translate into actual changes in domestic institutions and laws. This paper investigates one important dimension of this question by looking at disciplines covering intellectual property rights (IPRs) and surveying the implementation of agreements negotiated by the European Union and the United States with developing countries. The EU and United States are the two chief proponents of stronger standards and enforcement of IPRs. This work is among the first to look at implementation issues related to IPRs in the PTA context.

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        The Informal Sector in Francophone Africa: Firm Size, Productivity, and Institutions
        Study by Benjamin, Nancy and Mbaye, Ahmadou Ali with Diop, Ibrahima Thione, Golub, Stephen S., Haughton, Dominique, and Niang, Birahim Bouna, 2012, 264 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Enterprise Development

        The book provides detailed description and analysis of the characteristics and functioning of informal sector firms, the causes of the pervasiveness of these firms, the relations between formal and informal firms, the consequences of informality for economic development, and appropriate policy responses. This study focuses on the urban informal sector in three capital cities: Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

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        Information and Communication Technology Policy and Legal Issues for Central Asia - Guide for ICT Policymakers (English)
        Manual by UNECE, 2007, 67 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        This guide has been prepared at the request of the Project Working Group on ICT for Development, created in December 2005 within the framework of the United Nations Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia (SPECA). SPECA was launched in 1998 to strengthen subregional cooperation in Central Asia and its integration into the world economy.The member countries of SPECA are Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The guide is intended for use as a reference manual by ICT policymakers in countries with economies in transition. The content is designed to respond to the needs of SPECA member countries, incorporating feedback received during the series of capacity-building events conducted in 2006 and 2007.

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        The Information Economy Report 2007-2008 Overview (Science and Technology for Development: the New Paradigm of ICT) (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2008, 37 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2007-2008: Science and technology for development - the new paradigm of ITC (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2008, 386 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion. It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights. How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

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        Information Economy Report 2009: Trends and Outlook in Turbulent Times (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 153 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2009 (IER 2009) offers a fresh assessment of the diffusion of key ICT applications between 2003 and 2008. While fixed telephone subscriptions are now in slight decline, mobile and Internet use continues to expand rapidly in most countries and regions. At the same time, there is a widening gap between high-income and low-income countries in broadband connectivity. Broadband penetration is now eight times higher in developed than in developing countries. The report explores policy options for countries seeking to improve broadband connectivity. The IER 2009 includes a chapter on the use of ICTs in the business sector. Drawing on unique data, it examines how ICT use differs both between and within countries, highlighting the rural-urban divide as well as that between large and small companies. The report recommends that governments in developing countries give more attention to ICT uptake and use by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as they are lagging behind larger firms. And it discusses those aspects of ICT where government intervention can make a difference. A third chapter is devoted to the impact of the financial crisis on ICT trade. While a growing share of exports of ICT goods and services is accounted for by developing economies, especially in Asia, the crisis has affected goods and services quite differently. ICT goods are among the categories of trade most negatively affected by the recession, while IT and ICT-related services appear to be among the most resilient.

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        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICTs, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 172 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology, Trade and Poverty

        The Information Economy Report 2010: ICT, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation is the fifth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). As one of few annual reports that monitor global trends related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) from a development perspective, the Report is a valuable reference source for policymakers in developing countries. In the 2010 edition, special attention is given to the potential impact of ICTs in enterprises for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods. The evidence presented in this Report suggests that more attention should be given by policymakers and other stakeholders to opportunities in this area.

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        The Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 164 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2011: ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 4 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        Subtitled, ICTs as an Enabler for Private Sector Development (PSD), this is the sixth in the flagship series published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation.

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        Information Economy Report 2012 - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 17 pages

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2012: The Software Industry and Developing Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 72 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2012: The Software Industry and Developing Countries - Overview (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2012, 17 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2012 finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate. Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole.

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        Information Economy Report 2013: The Cloud Economy and Developing Countries (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2013, 136 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        The Information Economy Report 2013 marks the first time the United Nations is examining the economic potential of cloud computing for low- and middle-income countries, where rates of adoption are currently low. With governments, businesses and other organizations in the developing world considering whether to migrate some or all of their data and activities to the cloud, this publication is especially timely.

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        Information Economy Report 2015 - Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries  (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 136 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Information Economy Report 2015: Unlocking the Potential of E-commerce for Developing Countries - Overview
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2015, 18 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The 2015 edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

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        Information Economy Report 2017 - Digitalization, Trade and Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 129 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report 2017: Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy.

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        Information Economy Report 2017 - Overview (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2017, 17 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Science and Technology

        The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report 2017: Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy.

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        Infrastructure and Employment Creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
        Case study by Antonio Estache, Elena Ianchovichina, Robert Bacon,Ilhem Salamon, 2013, 114 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Trade Facilitation

        The study discusses how infrastructure investments can help to stimulate employment creation in the immediate future while building foundations for sustainable growth and job creation in the MENA region.

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        Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration: Assessing Regional Integration in Africa Vii (English)
        Also available in French
        Report by UNECA/AUC/AfDb, 2016, 148 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Science and Technology

        This joint publication 'Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII' reviews the relationship between regional integration, innovation and competitiveness. It argues that by knitting together networks of institutions, people and markets a loose connection between two or more nations is bound to facilitate innovation and related creative activities. The report presents chapters on innovation and global intellectual property regulations and science, technology and innovation policies, along with case studies from India and the Southeast Asian nations.

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        In Search of Cross-Border E-Commerce Trade Data: UNCTAD Technical Notes on Ict for Development N°6 (English)
        Note by UNCTAD, 2016, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report explores possible sources of data for gauging cross-border e-commerce. Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce accounts for the dominant share of global e-commerce and is therefore also likely to be the most important component of cross-border sales online (UNCTAD 2015a). However, as data on B2B e-commerce are generally scarce, attention is also given to consumer-oriented shopping (i.e. Business to Consumer (B2C) and Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)).

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        Instruments of Monetary Policy In China and Their Effectiveness: 1994-2006 (English)
        Discussion paper by Geiger, Michael/UNCTAD, 2008, 52 pages
        Categories: Macroeconomic Policy

        China’s monetary policy applies to two sets of monetary policy instruments: (i) instruments of the Central Bank (CB), the People’s Bank of China (PBC); and (ii) non-central bank (NCB) policy instruments. Additionally, the PBC’s instruments include: (i) price-based indirect; and (ii) quantity-based direct instruments. The simultaneous usage of these instruments leads to various distortions that ultimately prevent the interest rate channel of monetary transmission from functioning. Moreover, the strong influences of quantity-based direct instruments and non-central bank policy instruments bring into question the approach of indirect monetary policy in general.

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        Integración Regional En América Latina: Desafíos Y Oportunidades
        Study by UNCTAD Virtual Institute, 2010, 163 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, VI Members Research

        The publication comprises six papers (written in Spanish with English summaries) dealing with the regional integration process in Latin America. The authors, from Vi member universities of Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil, Spain, as well as Switzerland, analyze political, economic and legal aspects of regional trade agreements between South American countries and trading partners from both the South and the North.

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        Integración Y Convergencia En Unasur
        Working paper by Reinoso, Alan Fairlie, 2013, 17 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        En UNASUR coexisten países con diferentes estrategias de desarrollo e inserción internacional, que han llevado a tensiones y/o conflictos complicados. Por un lado tenemos países que han impulsado un proceso de liberación y apertura combinado con la suscripción de acuerdos comerciales regionales, principalmente Norte-Sur (TLCs). Por otro lado hay países que no solo cuestionan estas estrategias y han planteado una nueva intervención del Estado para manejar la renta de los recursos naturales, sino que también cuestionan los TLC porque entienden que no contribuyen al desarrollo de sus países. Este documento se concentra en discutir sobre las posibilidades de convergencia que habría en el plano económico – comercial, estratégico, en el espacio de UNASUR.

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        Integration of Markets vs. Integration by Agreements (English)
        Working paper by Aminian, Nathalie; Fung, K.C.; Ng, Francis / World Bank, 2008, 38 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This paper provides an analysis of the two channels of regional integration: integration via markets and integration via agreements. Given that East Asia and Latin America are two fertile regions where both forms of integrations have taken place, the authors examine the experiences of these two areas. There are four related results. First, East Asia had been integrating via markets long before formal agreements were in vogue in the region. Latin America, by contrast, has primarily used formal regional trade treaties as the main channel of integration. Second, despite the relative lack of formal regional trade treaties until recently, East Asia is more integrated among itself than Latin America. Third, from a purely economic and trade standpoint, the proper sequence of integrations seems to be first integrating via markets and subsequently via formal regional trade agreements. Fourth, regional trade agreements often serve multiple constituents. The reason why integrating via markets first can be helpful is because this can give stronger political bargaining power to the outward-looking economic-oriented forces within the country.

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        Intellectual Property in the World Trade Organization (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 87 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The paper examines the development implications of the World Trade Organization(WTO) Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and aims to offer suggestions on how to reduce the agreement’s development deficit and increase its development friendliness. The paper provides a historic overview of the TRIPS negotiations, the agreement itself and the development deficits therein. It also presents the broader context surrounding intellectual property (IP) issues, namely, on the one hand, the increasing trend towards higher IP standards and on the other hand, the growing insight on the need to rebalance existing IP rules. It also analyses selected aspects of the TRIPS Agreement,highlighting their development implications.

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        Intellectual Property Provisions of Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements in light of U.S. Federal Law (English)
        Case study by Abbott, Frederick M., 2006, 36 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: This paper examines recent regional and bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) from the perspective of the United States law and policies. It also analyzes crucial and sensitive issues in these agreements in light of the background provided by U.S. regulatory and case law experience. One of the lessons of the paper is that existing differences in the capacity of the United States and many developing countries to create and manage legal infrastructure may lead to a disparity in the way FTA rules are implemented. How: Useful to highlight the intellectual property provisions of bilateral and regional trade agreements in international economics classes. Who: Lecturers and researchers in the area of intellectual property rights, particularly when put into the context of trade agreements

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        Intellectual Property Rights and the TRIPS Agreement: An Overview of Ethical Problems and Some Proposed Solutions (English)
        Working paper by Sonderholm, Jorn/World Bank, 2010, 48 pages
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights negotiated in 1986 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the institutional predecessor of the World Trade Organization, incorporated substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights into the international trade system. A large body of contemporary academic literature suggests that intellectual property rights on socially valuable goods such as essential medicines give rise to a number of ethical problems. This review paper seeks to give an overview of these problems. Moreover, it offers an outline and discussion of a number of proposals as to how these problems might be alleviated. The paper is primarily descriptive in character. This means that although a personal perspective is sometimes offered, the primary ambition of the paper is not to argue for, and defend, a particular solution to the issues discussed. The aim is rather to highlight, explain and put into perspective a number of important arguments in the debate on the ethical nature of intellectual property rights so that policy-makers and other stakeholders are relatively well-equipped to make up their own mind on the issue.

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        Interaction Between Trade and Environment Policies with Special Interest Politics (English)
        Working paper by Keswani Mehra, Mehra/JNU, 2007, 31 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        It is a theoretical paper on the politics of environment and trade policy, useful for analytical research or teaching in an optional course in a graduate program in economics.

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        The Interface Between Access and Benefit-Sharing Rules and Biotrade in Vietnam (English)
        Report by Dr. Trang Thi Huong Tran/UNCTAD, 2016, 49 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        This report identifies and explores main regulatory challenges in Vie Nam; addresses issues of concern and policy options to develop in response to the challenges; assesses the country's national competent authorities ABS frameworks supportive of BioTrade, and considers the outlook for businesses and other relevant stakeholders in line with the new obligations under the Nagoya Protocol in Viet Nam.

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        The Interface Between The Trade And Climate Change Regimes : Scoping The Issues
        Working paper by Low, Patrick, Marceau, Gabrielle, Reinaud, Julia, 2011, 45 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment, WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        As governments increasingly adopt policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, concern has grown on two fronts. First, carbon leakage can occur when mitigation policies are not the same across countries and producers seek to locate in jurisdictions where production costs are least affected by emission constraints. The risk of carbon leakage raises questions about the efficacy of climate change policies in a global sense. Secondly, it is precisely the cost-related consequences of differential mitigation policies that feed industry concerns about competitiveness. We thus have a link between environmental and competitiveness perspectives that fuses climate change and trade regimes in potentially problematic ways as governments contemplate trade actions to manage the environmental and/or competitiveness consequences of differential climate change policies. On the trade side of this relationship, we have the reality that the GATT/WTO rules were not originally drafted to accommodate climate change policies and concerns. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevance of certain WTO rules to the interface between climate change and trade, focusing in particular on border measures, technical regulations on trade, standards and labelling, and subsidies and countervailing duties. It concludes that in the absence of clear international understandings on how to manage the climate change and trade interface, we run the risk of a clash that compromises the effectiveness of climate change policies as well as the potential gains from specialization through trade.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues, 2003 Review (English)
        Book by UNCTAD, 2004, 271 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        What: This volume highlights important topics with respect to corporate governance disclosure, including case studies on Brazil, France, Kenya, the Russian Federation and the United States, as well as current trends and issues in reporting on the impact of corporations on society. Each case study discusses the institutional and legislative framework for disclosure, including stock exchanges; codes of conduct and company practices; assessment of the extent to which best practices are reflected in the disclosure requirements of selected countries and how enterprises generally comply with these requirements; and overview of implementation challenges. Who: Useful for anyone teaching international accounting and reporting issues. How: Some of the case studies can be used for courses on accounting and reporting.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues: 2006 Review (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2007, 207 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        Through the (ISAR), UNCTAD has provided an intellectual home and an open forum for considering issues of corporate transparency — such as financial reporting, corporate governance and corporate responsibility — that have important implications for the economic development of member States. The twenty-third annual session of the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) was held in Geneva from 10 to 12 October 2006. This session addressed issues central to current challenges in corporate transparency, including the practical implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the use of corporate responsibility reporting in annual reports, and the promotion of good practices in corporate governance disclosure. The globalization of the investment community is putting new demands on comparable financial reporting. While the year 2005 saw an unprecedented number of enterprises and countries around the world adopt IFRS as their basis for financial reporting, 2006 witnessed the ongoing practical implementation of these new standards. This presents a number of challenges, including the need to be sensitive to the circumstances of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), while fostering a consistent implementation of the standards. Meanwhile, the same social and economic forces that are shaping global trade and development are also driving changes in the type of information various stakeholders want from companies. Enterprises have begun to recognize the value that environmental, social and governance reporting has in building investor confidence and stakeholder support. Over the longer run, experts agree that the current practice of financial reporting will need to be complemented by more non-financial information, including both corporate responsibility reporting and corporate governance disclosure. Building an appropriate institutional framework and implementing robust corporate reporting requirements are essential to the broader process of economic development. These issues are at the centre of ISAR’s work. It is my hope that policymakers, regulators, members of boards of directors, corporate executives, academics and other readers interested in advancing corporate transparency issues will find this publication to be a timely and useful resource.

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        International Accounting and Reporting Issues 2011 Review
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 121 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development

        This volume contains a review of the main developments in the area of accounting and reporting during 2011. It contains discussion and analysis of a number of corporate reporting issues that policy-makers, regulators, standard-setters, private sector as well as public sector accountants, auditors, academia, and other interested readers will find useful for keeping up-to-date with developments in the corporate reporting arena, including financial and non-financial reporting.

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        International Cartel Enforcement: Lessons from the 1990s (English)
        Working paper by Simon J. Evenett, Margaret C. Levenstein, and Valerie Y. Suslow, 2001, 34 pages
        Categories: Competition Policy

        What: A study of international cartels and the possible measures that would prevent them from distorting the rules of developing countries' economies. Who: Researchers in competition and economic distortions, teachers in international economic relations/law. How: A good source of information for a course on international business or competition policy. Table 2 also gives ideas for possible case studies.

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        International Climate Change Negotiations and Agriculture (English)
        Policy brief by ICTSD, 2009, 14 pages
        Categories: Commodities, Policy Reviews and Briefs, Trade and Environment

        The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing international climate change agreements and the international negotiations underway and to point out the ways in which the agricultural sector - is - or may be - addressed in the international climate regulatory framework. In 2008 the International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council (IPC) and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) launched The ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade: Promoting Policy Coherence. This paper is part of this initiative. This interdisciplinary platform of climate change, agricultural and trade experts seeks to promote increased policy coherence to ensure effective climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security and a more open and equitable global food system.

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        The international climate regime: towards consolidation or collapse? (English)
        Article by Pierre Berthaud, Denise Cavard and Patrick Criqui, 2003, 20 pages
        Categories: Trade and Environment

        This article (in French) addresses the problem of collective action, drawing on the issues related to international climate negotiations. It focuses on the concept of "hegemony" from the perspective of the International Political Economy (IPE) and International Regime (IR) Theory.

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        International finance course syllabus (English)
        Outline by Talib M. Awad, University of Jordan, Department of Economics, 2004
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building

        This course examines international trade, finance and investment. Essential topics include: the international balance of payments, foreign exchange with emphasis on exchange rate determination, exchange risk, hedging, and interest arbitrage, international money and capital markets, international financing, and international portfolio management.

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        International Government Debt (English)
        Discussion paper by Panizza, Ugo; Sturzenegger Federico; Zettelmeyer Jeromin/ UNCTAD, 2010, 28 pages
        Categories: Finance for Development

        This paper presents a non-technical survey of the modern literature on international government debt. In doing so, it aims to match predictions made by theoretical models with the existing empirical evidence and to identify the models that best explain the real world experience of sovereign debt and sovereign default. The paper starts by describing how the levels and structure of international government debt have evolved during the last 40 years. Next, it reviews economic theories of sovereign debt, whose defining characteristic is the impossibility of enforcing repayment and discusses recent attempts to reconcile the theory with the evidence. Finally, the paper discusses the role of debt structure and presents two alternative views on the relationship between debt structure and crises.

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        International Investment Rule-making: Stocktaking, Challenges and the Way Forward (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2008, 126 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This paper has a three-fold objective. It reviews sixty years of international investment rule-making and identifies main trends in current treaty practice, as the core characteristics of the existing universe of international investment agreements (IIAs) at the beginning of the 21st century. Based on this analysis, the second part describes the main challenges for policy makers and IIA negotiators deriving from the present IIA system, and makes a number of suggestions on how to deal with them. The third part of this paper presents some considerations concerning the future evolution of the IIA universe.

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        Internationalization of Finance and Changing Vulnerabilities in Emerging and Developing Economies
        Report by Akyüz, Yılmaz /UNCTAD, 2014, 72 pages
        Categories: International Financial System

        This paper analyses the salient features of the recent pace and pattern of integration of major Emerging and Developing Economies (EDEs) into the global financial system and their changing vulnerabilities to external financial shocks. In discussing the pattern of integration and the associated vulnerabilities, the paper focuses on the size and composition of gross external balance sheets, particularly gross liabilities.

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        The International Mobility of Highly Educated Workers Among OECD Countries (English)
        Article by Globerman, Steven; Shapiro, Daniel, 2008, 36 pages
        Categories: Migration and Development, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The study, published in the "Transnational Corporations" journal's edition of April 2008, analyzes the determinants of bilateral migration flows of highly educated workers (HEWs) within OECD countries using an augmented gravity model. The results for all migrants irrespective of their level of education confirm the importance of bilateral FDI and trade as stimuli for bilateral migration flows. The level of migration at all levels of education is higher between countries with large populations and lower when geographic, linguistic and religious “distances” are relatively large. All migrants also tend to leave countries where economic conditions are relatively poor (high unemployment; low GDP per capita) and move to areas where conditions are better. With regard to the migration of HEWs in particular, bilateral trade and FDI have an even greater impact. In addition, HEWs are more influenced by the “pull” of economic conditions in host countries, while those with less education are more heavily influenced by the “push” of economic factors in their home countries. The study provides an interesting analytical framework for the modeling of migration and also adds to current literature by using recent OECD data on migrants by level of education (such data, although not used in this study, is also available for migrants from non-OECD countries) and includes measures of bilateral trade and FDI as determinants of bilateral migration.

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        International R&D Strategies in Companies from Developing Countries – the Case of China (English)
        Case study by Maximilian von Zedtwitz, Research Center for Global R&D Management, Tsinghua University, 2005, 11 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Enterprise Development, Science and Technology

        What: Traditionally, international R&D is a phenomenon of firms originating from advanced countries such as North America, Europe, and Japan. Based on the analysis of 1269 R&D locations, a new research framework is proposed that accounts for the increasing share of R&D toward or from developing countries. Investigating technology-intensive Chinese firms, motivations, strategies, and barriers to R&D internationalization are analyzed. The paper proposes two concepts of international R&D:\\n “innovation capability enhancing” and “innovation capability exploiting”, respectively, denoting superimposed networks that allow the absorption and implementation of new technologies. Who: Can be used by a lecturer on a course on R&D outsourcing to developing countries. How: For a course on R&D and the role of TNCs.

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        International Regulation and Treatment of Trade Finance : What Are The Issues? (English)
        Working paper by Auboin, Marc, 2010, 23 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        The paper discusses a number of issues related to the treatment of trade credit internationally, a priori (treatment by banking regulators) and a posteriori (treatment by debtors and creditors in the case of default), which are currently of interest to the trade finance community, in particular the traditional providers of trade credit and guarantees, such as banks, export credit agencies, regional development banks, and multilateral agencies. The paper does not deal with the specific issue of regulation of official insured-export credit, under the OECD Arrangement, which is a specific matter left out of this analysis. Traditionally, trade finance has received preferred treatment on the part of national and international regulators, as well as by international financial agencies in the treatment of trade finance claims, on grounds that trade finance was one of the safest, most collateralized, and selfliquidating forms of trade finance. Preferred treatment of trade finance also reflects the systemic importance of trade, as in sovereign or private defaults a priority is to "treat" expeditiously trade lines of credits to allow for such credit to be restored and trade to flow again. It is not only a matter of urgency for essential imports to be financed, but also a pre-condition for economic recovery, as the resumption of trade is necessary for ailing countries to restore balance of payments equilibrium.

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        The International Regulation of Sovereign Wealth Funds. Which Role for the European Union? (English)
        Article by Michele Barbieri, 2009
        Categories: International Economic Law, VI Members Research

        The object of this paper is to review the existing international instruments providing for standards and principles applicable to SWFs, to their investments and to the policies adopted by recipient States. The analyse will be carried out from the point of view of the European Union (EU), i. e. paying particular attention to the participation of the EU in the works of the IMF and the OECD in the elaboration of such instruments.

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        International Supply Chains and Trade Elasticity in Times of Global Crisis (English)
        Working paper by Escaith, Hubert, Lindenberg, Nannette, Miroudot, Sébastien, 2010, 42 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The paper investigates the role of global supply chains in explaining the trade collapse of 2008-2009 and the long-term variations observed in trade elasticity. Building on the empirical results obtained from a subset of input-output matrices and the exploratory analysis of a large and diversified sample of countries, a formal model is specified to measure the respective short-term and long-term dynamics of trade elasticity. The model is then used to formally probe the role of vertical integration in explaining changes in trade elasticity. Aggregated results on long-term trade elasticity tend to support the hypothesis that world economy has undertaken in the late 1980s a "traverse" between two underlying economic models. During this transition, the expansion of international supply chains determined an apparent increase in trade elasticity. Two supply chains related effects (the composition and the bullwhip effects) explain also the overshooting of trade elasticity that occurred during the 2008-2009 trade collapse. But vertical specialization is unable to explain the heterogeneity observed on a country and sectoral level, indicating that other contributive factors may also have been at work to explain the diversity of the observed results.

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        International Trade After the Economic Crisis: Challenges and New Opportunities
        Study by UNCTAD, 2010, 158 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The purpose of this year’s UNCTAD-JETRO joint research is to investigate the new economic realities in international trade that are evident particularly after the 2008 financial crisis, and to highlight the issues that are key to the future of pro-trade as well as pro-development international trading system.

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        International Trade and Carbon Leakage: An Analytical Framework for India and Russia (English)
        Study by Mehra Keswani, Meeta; Sawhney, Aparna; Rastogi, Rashmi; Piskulova, Natalia; Abramova, Anna, 2011
        Categories: Trade and Environment, VI Members Research

        The paper, the result of a Japan-funded Vi joint research project, explores the linkages between international trade and carbon leakage, and formulates recommendations for national and international policies to reduce future emissions and facilitate the negotiating process for signing a new international climate agreement.

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        International Trade and Inter-industry Wage Inequality in Developing Countries (English)
        Discussion paper by KOUTY Manfred, 2012, 18 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources, VI Members Research

        The last two decades are characterized by the expansion of world trade and inequalities in developing countries (DCs). In contrast to most existing studies that focus on income inequality in particular country or region, this paper focuses on the inter-industry wage inequality. Using the dynamic panel data of 96 developing countries over the 1985- 2003, the study finds that trade flows (import and export) are not significantly related to interindustry wage inequality in DCs. The increase of number of tariff line s increases the interindustrial wage inequality.

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        International Trade and Real Transmission Channels of Financial Shocks in Globalized Production Networks (English)
        Working paper by Escaith, Hubert, Gonguet, Fabien, 2009, 33 pages
        Categories: International Financial System, Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The article analyses the role of international supply chains as transmission channels of a financial shock. Because individual firms are interdependent and rely on each other, either as supplier of intermediate goods or client for their own production, an exogenous financial shock affecting a single firm, such as the termination of a line of credit, reverberates through the productive chain. The transmission of the initial financial shock through real channels is tracked by modelling input-output interactions. The paper indicates that when banks operate at the limit of their institutional capacity, defined by the capital adequacy ratio, and if assets are priced to market, then a resonance effect amplifies the back and forth transmission between real and monetary circuits. The paper illustrates the proposed methodology by computing a supply-driven indicator (IRSIC) and indirect demand-driven impacts on five interconnected economies of different characteristics: China, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand and the United States.

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        International Trade in GMOs and GM Products: National and Multilateral Legal Frameworks (English)
        Report by Simonetta Zarrilli, 2005, 61 pages
        Categories: Commodities, International Economic Law, Science and Technology

        What: The debate about the application of biotechnology to agriculture is one of the most vocal and passionate in recent years. This paper analyses different legal frameworks on agro-biotechnology in selected developed and developing countries. It outlines the complexity of the issue especially for developing countries who have to reconcile trade interests with food safety, environmental protection and international obligations. Who: Students, teachers or researchers interested in the effects of biotechnology on agriculture and trade in developing countries. How: As a key reading in any course dealing with trade and the environment.

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        International Trade in Services and Economic Growth: The Case of Jordan
        Working paper by Buthaina Muhtaseb/ University of Jordan, 2013
        Categories: Trade Related Capacity Building, VI Members Research

        The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of services imports on Jordanian economic growth during 1990 – 2012 . The regression analysis is based on an output growth equation, utilizing the Fully-Modified Ordinary Least Square method after performing the appropriate statistical tests.

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        International trade negotiations, regional integration and South-South trade, especially in commodities (English)
        Note by UNCTAD Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities, 2005, 19 pages
        Categories: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        What: Background note on the importance of economic cooperation in South-South trade and in international negotiations. This paper puts the emphasis on the expanding trade between developing countries and elaborates an agenda for South-South trade in the annex. Who: Relevant for students or teachers interested in regional integration and in building capacity for negotiations. How: Good introductory reading to the issue of economic cooperation and regional integration.

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        International Trade Statistics 2008 (English)
        Report by WTO, 2008, 255 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International Trade Statistics is the WTO’s annual compilation of global trade statistics. This Report provides comprehensive statistics on trade in merchandise and commercial services, with an assessment of world trade flows by country, region and main product groups or service categories. Some 250 tables and charts depict trade developments from various perspectives and provide a number of long-term time series. Major trade developments are summarized and discussed in the first part of the report under Overview. Detailed trade statistics are provided in Appendix tables.

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        International Trade Statistics 2009
        Data by WTO, 2009, 262 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International Trade Statistics 2009 offers a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade, covering the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services by category. Each chapter is introduced by a highlights section that identifies the most salient trends in the data and illustrates them with numerous charts and maps. There is also a methodological chapter that explains essential concepts and definitions used in compiling the statistics, and an appendix with detailed data on trade by region up to 2008. International Trade Statistics 2009 continues to serve as an invaluable reference for researchers, policy makers, and anyone interested in international trade.

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        International Trade Statistics 2012
        Book by WTO, 2012, 274 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        The 2012 edition provides comprehensive and detailed data required to describe major trends and developments in international trade and market access.

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        International Trade Statistics 2013
        Report by WTO, 2013, 208 pages
        Categories: Trade Policy Analysis and Trade Data Sources

        International trade statistics provides the facts that firms and policy makers need to take decisions. Equally, it provides the information that analysts and academics need to provide advice to decision makers. This year's edition includes a new chapter on trade in global value chains, offering new perspectives on world trade and economic growth. The new data highlight, for example, that trade in intermediate goods is just as concentrated among large players as overall trade. The new data in this publication reveal the leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, an important indicator of increased fragmentation in production chains. The new chapter also highlights the sectoral contributions of the value added to exports, demonstrating the interdependency of domestic and foreign sectors. Finally, the new chapter provides information outlining the level of exchanges within their multinational parent company carried out by US-owned affiliates.

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        Internet Broadband for an Inclusive Digital Society
        Report by UNCTAD, 2015, 38 pages
        Categories: Science and Technology

        This study provides an overview of key issues relating to broadband ICTs in the context of international objectives for socioeconomic development. The discussion summarizes recent research, policy developments and practices associated with broadband ICTs around the world and offers a set of frameworks for considering and developing new public and private initiatives to promote broadband development.

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        Interpretation of IIAs: What States Can Do ? (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2011, 17 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This note is divided into three parts. Part one describes the shared authority of States and tribunals in the interpretive process, and sketches some of the current deficiencies in investment arbitration. It advocates a greater involvement of States in the interpretive process, but also considers limitations to a more proactive role of the contracting parties. Part two presents international law principles of interpretation and explains how they can guide States in their actions towards fostering a “better” (i.e. more rigorous, consistent and coherent) interpretation of IIAs. Finally, part three sets out different tools States may employ to guide arbitral tribunals in the interpretation of IIAs.

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        Introduction to Negotiation Skills and Strategies - A Brief History of Negotiations (English)
        Summary by Virtual Institute, UNCTAD, 2006
        Categories: WTO Issues/Multilateral Trading System

        What: This paper offers both a brief summary of the history of diplomacy and international negotiations as well as a review on the history of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Who: Especially for teachers and students in classes on international relations that deal with international negotiations. How: Can be used as a starting point to get an overview on the history of negotiations. On points of interest, the paper can be complemented by additional reading. The content of the paper could also be used to design a PowerPoint presentation on the topic.

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        Investment and Enterprise Responsibility Review. Analysis of Investor and Enterprise Policies on Corporate Social Responsibility. (English)
        Report by Unctad, 2010, 95 pages
        Categories: Enterprise Development, Investment

        Transnational corporations (TNCs) play an ever more important role in sustainable development as conduits of capital, technology and management know-how. Increasingly, TNCs are being called upon to address broader environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. At the same time, large, globally active investment institutions are becoming increasingly aware of the potential impact of a range of non-financial issues (e.g. climate change, human rights, corporate governance practices) of an investment proposition. This review of the current state of practices in the area of corporate social responsibility (CSR)among the world's 100 largest TNCs and responsible investment (RI)among the 100 largest institutional investors reveals a number of important insights.

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        Investment and technology policies for competitiveness: review of successful country experiences (English)
        Discussion paper by UNCTAD Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development, 2003, 79 pages
        Categories: Competitiveness, Investment, Science and Technology

        Paper that discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the transfer of technology and policy options for developing countries. The annex provides good examples of FDI and development policies in South East Asia. Of interest for teacher/researcher interested in the issues of investment and technology transfer Gives interesting case studies of development policies through transfer of technology.

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        Investment by TNCs and Gender: Preliminary Assessment and Way Forward (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2014, 62 pages
        Categories: Investment, Trade and Gender

        This report examines the impact that investment by transnational corporations (TNCs) – that is, direct investment conducted by TNCs as well as activities by non-equity modalities (NEMs), has on gender, particularly in the context of developing host countries. The objective is to review the gender-related effects of investment by TNCs, in the context of investment and social sustainability, and provide initial evidence with regard to the positive and negative effects on women.

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        Investment Country Profile : Greece (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 28 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Greece. It shows the situation of the FDI flows and stock in general, by type of investment. More precisely, it looks at the flows and the stocks in the host economy and abroad by industry and by geographical origin. It also presents data on the employment, of the sales and of the on value added of foreign affiliates of home-based TNCs, all of them by industry and by geographical origin.

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        Investment Country Profile : South Africa (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 15 pages
        Categories: Investment

        Paper by the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD, that presents data collected about Foreign Direct Investment flows in South Africa ; its composition, sources, investing countries and share of industry.

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        Investment Country Profile : Tunisia (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 20 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Tunisia. It presents the situation of the FDI flows and stock in general, by type of investment. More precisely, it looks at the flows in the host economy and abroad by industry and by geographical origin. It also presents data on the number of affiliates of foreign TNCs and of employment of affiliates of foreign TNCs in the host economy, also by industry and geographical origin.

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        Investment Country Profile : Turkey (English)
        Data by UNCTAD, 2012, 26 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This paper from the Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD presents data collected on the inward and outward Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey. It presents the situation of the FDI flows and stock in the host economy and abroad, by industry, by geographical origin and by type of investment. It also looks at the number of affiliates of foreign TNCs in the host economy by industry and by geographical origin.

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        An Investment Guide to Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, ICC, 2006, 90 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This document is published as part of the UNCTAD–ICC series of investment guides. The publications in this series are intended for the use of foreign investors who are largely unfamiliar with the countries covered. They are thus designed to offer overviews of potential locations for investment, rather than constitute exhaustive works of reference or provide detailed practical instruction. They do, however, offer pointers to sources of further information in the private as well as the public sector. There are two other features of these publications that the reader will find worth noting. One is that they are third-party documents, intended to offer a balanced and objective account of investment conditions. Their principal advantage in drawing the attention of investors to the countries they cover is credibility. The other feature is that both their general structure and some of their specific content are the result of consultations with the private sector.

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        The Investment Guide to the Silk Road (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The Investment Guide to the Silk Road is an integral part of UNCTAD’s work in the Silk Road region, which comprises the States of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the Western Chinese provinces. The first phase of the project was part of the UNDPUNWTO- UNCTAD Silk Road Initiative. This Guide is intended to give readers comprehensive introductory information about the investment climate and opportunities in the Silk Road region, but its primary goal is to encourage potential investors to explore in more detail their own ideas for possible regional investment projects. The publication was jointly prepared with UNDP China in 2006 and was updated by UNCTAD in 2009, and includes an abstract from an UNCTAD report on an investment promotion strategy for the tourism sector of China’s Silk Road Provinces and Autonomous Regions.

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        Investment in Pharmaceutical Production in the Least Developed Countries - A Guide for Policy Makers and Investment Promotion Agencies (English)
        Manual by UNCTAD, 2011, 59 pages
        Categories: Investment, Science and Technology

        An overview of important trends affecting the local pharmaceutical production in developing countries, intended as a guide for policymakers, investment promotion agencies and investment negotiators in their efforts to encourage the expansion of local pharmaceutical production capacity.

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        Investment Policy Developments In G-20 Countries
        Report by UNCTAD, 2009, 9 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The report is in response to UNCTAD´s mandate to monitor investment policy developments and their implications for development. It is also meant to contribute to a joint effort by WTO, UNCTAD, OECD and IMF to respond to the 2 April 2009 G-20 Leaders’ request for quarterly reporting on their adherence to maintain an open trade and investment regime and to avoid a retreat into protectionism. The summit called upon international bodies to monitor and report publicly on G 20 members´ adherence to this pledge.

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        Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2012, 73 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Investment

        This report takes a fresh look at investment policymaking – focusing on direct private investment in productive assets (i.e. excluding other capital flows which should be addressed by the financial system and policies) – by taking a systemic approach that examines the universe of national and international policies through the lens of today’s key investment policy challenges. It also aims explicitly to strengthen the development dimension of investment policies, and presents a comprehensive Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (IPFSD). The IPFSD consists of a set of Core Principles for investment policymaking, guidelines for national investment policies, and guidance for policymakers on how to engage in the international investment policy regime, in the form of options for the design and use of international investment agreements (IIAs).

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2010, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This Monitor is the third of a new series launched by the UNCTAD secretariat in order to provide policymakers and the international community with up-to-date information about the latest developments and salient features in foreign investment policies at the national and international level. It covers measures taken in the period between April and the beginning of October 2010. The policy measures mentioned in the Monitor are identified through a systemic review of government and business intelligence sources. Measures are verified, to the fullest extent possible, by referencing government sources.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2011, 13 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Seventy-five percent of the observed national policy measures were in the direction of investment liberalization and promotion. In particular many countries from Asia and Europe introduced new investment promotion policies such as simplifying investment procedures, enhancing the protection of foreign investors and easing foreign exchange regulations. In addition, some countries in these regions introduced new promotion programmes for outward foreign direct investment (FDI). Although the recent deepening of the financial and economic crisis in parts of the world has yet to impact national investment policies, signs are visible that major economies are becoming more and more concerned about the impact of inward and outward investment on their economies. Recent fears about possible macroeconomic shocks and a reoccurrence of the recession could increase the risk of new protectionist measures vis-á-vis foreign investors. The number of investment restrictions accumulated over the recent years and the tightening of administrative procedures, point in this direction.

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        Investment Policy Monitor (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 8 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Monitor is the first of a new series launched by the UNCTAD Secretariat. Its objective is to provide policy-makers and the international investment community at large with up-to-date information about the latest developments in foreign investment policies at the national and international level. It also seeks to identify the overall trends and salient features of these developments. By doing so, the Monitor aims to assist policy makers and other interested stakeholders in their discussions of foreign investment policy issues, and contribute to preparing the ground for future policymaking in the interest of making foreign investment work for growth and development.

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        Investment Policy Review: Botswana (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2003, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Botswana emerged from least developed country (LDC) status within one generation and is now a middle income country. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was a driving force in this dramatic change. The Government’s handling of the fiscal, social and economic pressures of this transformation could serve as a model for other resource-dependent economies. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in resource rich developing economy.

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        Investment Policy Review: Colombia (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2006, 99 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The review proposes ways to strengthen the government's investment promotion arm, Proexport, as well as enhance policies to attract more technology-driven firms to its growing knowledge-based economy. While praising the government for its market reforms, the review notes that investors are concerned by a number of contradictory fiscal measures and the difficulty of resorting to international arbitration in case of disputes. The review urges the government to extend its network of bilateral investment treaties and double taxation agreements to fully tap market opportunities offered by the bilateral trade agreement with the United States. It also encourages the government to begin negotiations with the European Union.

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        Investment Policy Review, Djibouti - Summary (English)
        Summary by UNCTAD, 2013, 5 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Investment Policy Review (IPR) of Djibouti identifies a number of weaknesses in the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for investment in Djibouti. Taking into account Djibouti's development objectives and the Government's will to improve the investment environment, the IPR proposes remedial actions and puts forward a multidimensional strategy to attract FDI.

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        Investment Policy Review: Dominican Republic (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2009, 134 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Over the last three decades, the Dominican Republic has adopted policies of greater openness to international trade and investment as part of its quest for economic and social progress. As a result, foreign direct investment (FDI) has played a prominent role in its economic development and in decisively shifting the export structure of the country to light manufacturing, thereby reducing commodity dependence. A new and more ambitious development goal has now been set. It focuses on making the country a regional leader in high-value-added manufacturing and services. To this end, the Dominican authorities have embarked on a number of policy initiatives to increase the international competitiveness of the economy. They acknowledge that FDI can again play a key role in promoting this second transition into higher-valueadded activities. In light of this ambitious objective, the Government of the Dominican Republic has requested that UNCTAD carry out a review of the country’s investment policies and of the national investment promotion effort. This investment policy review is the result of research and analysis carried out by UNCTAD in 2007.

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        Investment Policy Review: Egypt (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 1999, 119 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the review, Egypt had the potential to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) of higher quantity and quality, commensurate with the fundamental strengths and opportunities that its economy offered. These strengths included a large domestic market, a wide industrial base, a skilled and competitively priced workforce and a strategic location in the region. The IPR recognized the efforts that the Government of Egypt had made to establish an adequate investment regulatory framework and improve the business environment. However, while current FDI inflows had been meeting the objectives of job creation and output expansion, most industrial projects had so far failed to boost exports. The IPR concluded that overcoming the limited involvement of TNCs in manufacturing sectors with export potential such as food, garments and electronics, would require a policy emphasis on the following: - Infrastructure investments relating to the physical, technological and educational infrastructure. - Specific sectors to promote clusters of related enterprises and self-sustaining development.

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        Investment Policy Review: Kenya (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2005, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        While Kenya was a magnet for foreign direct investment in East Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, the country has underperformed significantly in the past couple of decades. A wide array of TNCs are nevertheless present in the country, and FDI has played a key role in some of the dynamic sectors of the economy. The IPR recommended a more pro-active strategy of FDI attraction and proposes policy measures to enhance the impact of FDI on growth and economic development, focusing on: - The manufacturing of basic consumer goods and industrial inputs for the regional market. - The development of Kenya into a regional services hub. - Agri-business activities. - Diversification of activities in export processing zones. The IPR also warned the government on the possible drawbacks of the then recently adopted Investment Promotion Act, which introduced minimum capital requirements for FDI entry. Subsequently, the Government proposed amendments to Parliament to lift these requirements.

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        Investment policy review: Mauritius (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2001, 92 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        What: Mauritius is an economic success story. The economy has sustained high 6 per cent annual growth for two decades – first driven by sugar, then textiles and clothing, and tourism, and most recently by financial services. Economic growth and structural change were achieved while maintaining national stability and social cohesion. A generation of Mauritians has enjoyed a rise in living standards that few countries can match, reaching an income per capita of $4,000 today. What was once, only another commodity producer, today is the leading manufactures exporter in sub-Saharan Africa. Who: Useful for teachers and students focusing on a case study in investment. How: Can be used as a background reading and/or research work in investment policy and FDI in a

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        Investment Policy Review: Nigeria (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2009, 154 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The Review focussed on the objective of increasing non-oil foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to Nigeria. Reforms carried out under Nigeria´s home-grown development strategy, NEEDs, are more advanced than generally appreciated outside Nigeria. These include measures addressing both macroeconomic and investment climate issues. Despite these accomplishments, Nigeria continues to attract low quality FDI in manufacturing. In this regard, there is little evidence of the participation of foreign affiliates in the country to the process of integration into the regional and global production networks of the transnational corporations that characterize more advanced strategic corporate response to globalization. Few and very basic linkages exist between foreign companies and local suppliers. Against this background, the UNCTAD investment policy review of Nigeria considers what needs to be done to enable FDI to make its full contribution to the orientation set by the Government.

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        Investment Policy Review of Cabo Verde (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2018, 107 pages
        Categories: Investment

        The IPR of Cabo Verde was initiated at the request of the Government. It analyses the legal and regulatory framework for investment, and contains a strategic analysis on how to better utilize FDI in the tourism sector as a leverage for sustainable development. It is based on two fact-finding missions undertaken in July and December 2017 and information current at that time, as well as additional information made available to UNCTAD until May 2018. The mission received the full cooperation of the relevant ministries, departments and agencies, in particular Cabo Verde tradeInvest. The mission also benedited from the views of the private sector, both foreign and and domestic, as well as bilateral donors and development agencies. The Government and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Cabo Verde provided substantive contributions as well as logistical support to the IPR process.

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        Investment Policy Review of Mozambique
        Review by UNCTAD, 2012, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        This Review provides a comprehensive assessment of the regulatory framework for investment and identifies a number of key weaknesses, including in particular: (1) the general approach to investment rulemaking; (2) corporate taxation and the structure of tax incentives; (3) the employment of foreigners and access to skills; (4) access to land; (5) PPPs and the management of mega-projects; and (6) licensing and inspections. It concludes by proposing a strategy to attract the type of FDI that could best support Mozambique achieve its development goals and address its main challenges, including job creation.

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        Investment Policy Review: Peru (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        At the time of the IPR, Peru had been extremely successful in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI), although this was to some extent linked to its privatization programme. The challenge Peru faced was to build on its success to attract investments in new areas. The IPR recommended the following measures: - Fine-tuning the investment framework. - Strengthening investment promotion. - Strengthening Peru´s competitiveness and broadenening FDI. - Encouraging regional cooperation.

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        Investment Policy Review: Republic of Belarus (English)
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2009, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The UNCTAD Investment Policy Reviews (IPRs) are intended to help countries improve their investment policies and to familiarize governments and the international private sector with an individual country's investment environment.The Investment Policy Review of Belarus, initiated at the request of the Belarusian Governement, assesses the suitablitly and effectiveness of the regulatory regime of the country against several related criteria: (a) whether the regulation adequately promotes and protects the public interest; (b) whether the regulation adequately promotes investment and sustainable socio-economic development; and (c) whether the policies employed are effective and well administered, given the public interest and development objectives and the legitimate concerns of investors that rules and procedures do not unduly burden their competitiveness.\\nIn addition, the report elaborates on a strategy to maximize the positive impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the development of a local small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector.

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        Investment Policy Review: Rwanda (English)
        Report by UNCTAD, 2006, 145 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Rwanda is among the world´s poorest nations, and it faces particular challenges in leveraging FDI for development. Foreign investment flows have been negligible since independence, and Rwanda missed out on the global surge in FDI flows to developing countries in the 1990s. Rwanda has nevertheless achieved remarkable political and social progress since 1994. It has become one of Africa's countries with the highest degree of personal safety and lowest incidence of corruption. It has also started to rebuild its economy, and the Government is fully committed to building a peaceful, stable and prosperous nation through sustainable private sector led development. Much progress in reforming the investment climate has been achieved so far, even though much remains to be done. The Investment Policy Review suggests three policy avenues to promote FDI and ensure that it contributes to achieving the national development goals: • Turn Rwanda into a centre of excellence in soft infrastructure and governance. • Develop a skills attraction and dissemination programme. • Put in place focused strategic initiatives. Since the IPR was published, UNCTAD has, with funding from the Government of Germany (unless otherwise indicated), assisted the government in the following ways: • It sensitized Members of Parliament and the Senate on the findings of the IPR of Rwanda. • It produced an Investment Guide to Rwanda. • It prepared a strategy for the promotion of the industrial mining sector. • It drafted a model mining convention. • It is preparing a client charter for the investment promotion agency. • It is helping the government to set up a skills attraction and dissemination programme, as recommended in the IPR.

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        Investment Policy Review - Sierra Leone (English)
        Report by Investment Policy Review team/ UNCTAD, 2010, 126 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The paper presents an overview of the economic structure and the impact of FDI in Sierra Leone; it examines its investment framework and proposes a number of recommendations to deepen the reforms and to position Sierra Leone’s investment framework on more competitive grounds; finally, it proposes an overall strategy to enhance the role of FDI in achieving national development goals.

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        Investment Policy Review: Tanzania (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2002, 109 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The United Republic of Tanzania was fast becoming a foreign direct investment (FDI) front-runner in Africa. As market reforms reached critical mass, Tanzania received a billion dollars of investment inflows in 1995-2000 compared with only $90 million during the preceding six years. The challenge at the time of review was to achieve higher levels of inflows and increase the scale and scope of their benefits. The IPR recommended that, as a short-term strategy, the Government should continue to focus on immediate FDI potential in mining, utilities and tourism. The long-term challenge would be to make Tanzania an attractive location for FDI in East and Southern Africa. To achieve this, the IPR suggests the following: - Completing the privatization programme. - Expanding and consolidating international market assess. - Enhancing competitiveness of human resources. - Building a dynamic private enterprise.

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        Investment Policy Review The Sudan
        Policy brief by UNCTAD, 2014, 67 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Through its national development plans and legislative reforms, the Sudan has made efforts to diversify the economy and attract FDI into new industries. However, more is needed to build a transparent and predictable business environment. The analysis of the Investment Policy Review (IPR) completed by UNCTAD shows that the Sudan has put in place a relatively open investment legislative framework and several laws are modern and in line with good practices. However, their implementation is often impeded by the absence of secondary legislation, insufficient institutional capacity and lack of coordination among different levels of the Government. The IPR proposes a number of concrete recommendations to address these shortcomings and to build a favourable business environment.

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        Investment Policy Review: Uganda (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2000, 71 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        The IPR revealed that Uganda had the essential conditions to attract FDI, including an exemplary investment policy framework, a diversified natural resource base and a growing regional market. But tapping these opportunities would require continued public efforts to improve the microeconomic environment, hampered by inadequate transport, electricity and telecommunications facilities. The central message of this report is that Uganda needs to continue the momentum of recovery to achieve sustainable development. The IPR makes the following recommendations: - To modernize the Investment Code and re-orient the Uganda Investment Agency firmly towards FDI promotion. - To promote FDI into core infrastructure and services. - To promote investment into natural-resource-based industries for the domestic, regional and international markets. - To adopt a "big push" strategy to ensure speedy implementation of projects on the ground and to implement innovative ways of overcoming institutional and structural obstacles.

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        Investment Policy Review: Viet Nam (English)
        Review by UNCTAD, 2008, 177 pages
        Categories: Investment, Policy Reviews and Briefs

        Viet Nam opened its economy to foreign investors in the late 1980s under the Doi Moi policy of renovation and economic reforms. Viet Nam managed to quickly attract significant inflows of FDI and their impact has been very strong. As a result, foreign investors have been a major force in the economic transformation of Viet Nam during the past two decades and in its integration into the world economy. To fully exploit the potential of the country in attracting and benefiting from FDI, the Investment Policy Review (IPR) highlights a number of areas where Viet Nam could focus its attention for further reforms. This includes a policy to ensure that the economy has the skills it needs as it evolves and develops, using foreign workers where necessary. Measures to clearly separate the State´s ownership and regulatory functions are also proposed, together with a rationalization and simplification of fiscal incentives on corporate taxes. It is also suggested to selectively lift certain FDI entry restrictions and to shift the regulatory stance from "steer and control" to "regulate, monitor and enforce". Furthermore, the IPR, on the basis of an analysis of the electricity sector, proposes a number of measures to enable Viet Nam to attract FDI in power generation.

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        Investment Promotion Handbook For Diplomats
        Manual by Wessendorp, Paul, Whiteway, Paul, Wigren, Andreas, 2011, 78 pages
        Categories: Investment

        This handbook is aimed at diplomats who may be new to investment promotion. It deals with the role of diplomats posted abroad, seen from the perspective of the host country (i.e. the country receiving FDI). The handbook explains what FDI is, provides an insight into the process through which companies go when they are making investment decisions, and describes the parallel activity which governments undertake in order to persuade firms to locate in their economy. The intention is both to equip diplomats with the tools needed in the promotion of FDI and to give them confidence that many of their existing skills are directly relevant to the process.

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        Investment Promotion Provisions in International Investment Agreements (English)
        Study by UNCTAD, 2008, 119 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law, Investment

        International investment agreements (IIAs) are an element of investment promotion strategies as contracting parties seek to encourage foreign investment through the granting of investment protection. The emphasis of IIAs is clearly on investment protection with investment promotion primarily perceived as a side effect. However, this effect - an increase in investment flows - remains often behind the expectations of the contracting parties. A recent UNCTAD survey of IIAs shows that only a minority of IIAs includes explicit investment promotion provisions. Their content varies considerably among treaties. What option contracting parties finally choose depends on various factors. Countries that basically pursue a laisser faire policy with regard to foreign investment might favour promotion strategies aimed at improving the general policy and institutional framework, while governments applying strategic investment policies might have a preference for sector-specific or activity-specific promotion measures, or those aimed at fostering linkages between foreign investors and domestic companies. Financial considerations may also play a role, since many developing countries may not have the means to agree upon expensive promotion programmes, such as investment incentives, in IIAs. Recent developments in the evolution of the IIA universe might be an indication that more countries are ready to explore new approaches in investment rulemaking. From a development perspective, it is worthwhile considering how to strengthen the investment promotion component in IIAs.

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        Investor-state Disputes: Prevention and Alternatives to Arbitration (English)
        Working paper by UNCTAD, 2010, 157 pages
        Categories: International Economic Law

        This paper is part of a new Series on International Investment Policies for Development. It builds on, and expands, UNCTAD’s Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements. Like the previous one, this new series is addressed to Government officials, corporate executives,representatives of non-governmental organizations, officials of international agencies and researchers.

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        Is South–south Trade a Testing Ground for Structural Transformation?
        Report by Klinger, Bailey/UNCTAD, 2009, 37 pages
        Categories: Globalization and Development Strategies, Trade Facilitation

        The purpose of this paper is to analyse the composition of South–South as opposed to South– North trade in recent years, applying emerging methodologies and highly disaggregated trade data to consider whether the South as a market provides developing countries with greater opportunities to transform their productive structures and move to more sophisticated export sectors than the Northern market does. The results show that for a group of developing countries, primarily in Africa, Latin America and Central Asia, exports within the South are more sophisticated and better connected in the product space than exports to the North, whereas the opposite is true for the faster-growing economies of Asia and Eastern Europe (excluding the Commonwealth of Independent States). It is shown that the primary source of cross-country variation in export sophistication and connectedness is between Northbound rather than Southbound export baskets. And yet it is clear that for a large group of developing countries, current export flows to the North are not particularly growth-enhancing, nor do they offer learning opportunities to fuel structural transformation, and for these countries South–South trade flows may indeed be a testing ground for structural transformation. This paper focuses on clearly establishing the facts about export composition by market, and identifying promising avenues for further investigation.

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        Is South–South Trade a Testing Ground for Structural Transformation? (English)
        Discussion paper by Klinger, Bailey/UNCTAD, 2009, 37 pages
        Categories: Emerging Economies and South South Cooperation, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        The purpose of this paper is to analyse the composition of South–South as opposed to South– North trade in recent years, applying emerging methodologies and highly disaggregated trade data to consider whether the South as a market provides developing countries with greater opportunities to transform their productive structures and move to more sophisticated export sectors than the Northern market does. The results show that for a group of developing countries, primarily in Africa, Latin America and Central Asia, exports within the South are more sophisticated and better connected in the product space than exports to the North, whereas the opposite is true for the faster-growing economies of Asia and Eastern Europe (excluding the Commonwealth of Independent States). It is shown that the primary source of cross-country variation in export sophistication and connectedness is between Northbound rather than Southbound export baskets. And yet it is clear that for a large group of developing countries, current export flows to the North are not particularly growth-enhancing, nor do they offer learning opportunities to fuel structural transformation, and for these countries South–South trade flows may indeed be a testing ground for structural transformation. This paper focuses on clearly establishing the facts about export composition by market, and identifying promising avenues for further investigation.

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        It's Not All About Trade: Preferential Trading Agreements Induce Economic Reforms in Developing Countries (English)
        Article by Leonardo Baccini, Johannes Urpelainen, 2012, 5 pages
        Categories: Policy Reviews and Briefs, Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements

        In this brief, the authors present results of their empirical analysis on two stages of cooperation between the EU and the US and devloping countries. In their remarkable conclusion they prompt that the deepest and broadest preferential North-South trading agreements signed by most developing countries are ultimately about economic reform.

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