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Aid for Trade: Resource Materials for Trade Development

Report by UNECE, 2013

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This publication provides information about the resources available, free of charge, from the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) that can be used to support Aid-for-Trade projects. The resources include international conventions, publications, standards and training materials, and are available to all interested stakeholders in Aid for Trade: countries, bilateral donors, development banks, international organizations and non-governmental organizations. They are developed by country-nominated experts and the UNECE secretariat under the supervision of a wide range of intergovernmental bodies.

ECE/TRADE/415


United Nations Economic Commission for Europe










Aid for Trade




Resource Materials for Trade Development
















United Nations


New York and Geneva, 2013










Note




The designation employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not


imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United


Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities,


or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers of boundaries.






























ECE/TRADE/415





Introduction page 1
Trade Facilitation Resources ......................................................................................... page 2


 UNECE Trade Facilitation Implementation Guide
 Recommendation N°1: United Nations Layout Key for Trade Documents
 UNNExT Guide for Document Alignment
 Code Lists for Trade
 Recommendation N° 33: Recommendation and Guidelines Establishing a Single Window
 Recommendation N° 35: Establishing a Legal Framework for International Trade Single Window
 UNNExT Single Window Project Implementation Guide
 UNNExT Business Process Analysis Guide to Simplify Trade Procedures
 Recommendation N° 34: Data Simplification and Standardization for International Trade
 UNNExT Data Harmonisation and Modelling Guide
 United Nations Trade Data Element Directory (UNTDED, ISO 7372)
 Recommendation N° 25; Use of the UN Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport


(UN/EDIFACT)


 UN/EDIFACT Directory 2012 B
 Core Component Library (UN/CCL)
 Assessing Regulatory and Procedural Measures in Trade: An Evaluation Methodology


Best Practices in Trade Regulation and Standardization Policy .............................. page 10


 Recommendations on Regulatory Cooperation and Standardization Policies


 Risk Management in Regulatory Frameworks


 Aid for Trade in Trade-related Standards


 Market Surveillance Glossary




Key Transport and Border Crossing Facilitation Resources ................................. page 12


 International Convention on the Harmonization of Frontier Controls of Goods, 1982


 Customs Convention on the International Transport of Goods under Cover of TIR Carnets,1975


 Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR), 1956


 European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), 1957


 Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuff and on the Special Equipment to be used for such Carriage


(ATP), 1970


 European Agreement concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles engaged in International Road Transport (AETR), 1970


 Other UNECE Transport Agreement and Conventions


 Handbook for the Customs Convention on the International Transport of Goods under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention)


 Handbook of Best Practices at Border Crossings - A Trade and Transport Facilitation Perspective


 Euro-Asian Transport Linkages: Paving the Way for a More Efficient Euro-Asian Transport


 Hinterland Connections of Seaports


 Inventory of Main Standards and Parameters of the E [European] Waterway Network (the Blue Book)


 Other UNECE Transport Resources


Public-Private Partnerships and Innovation .............................................................. page 23


 Guidebook on Promoting Good Governance in Public-Private Partnerships


 Recommendation No.4: National Trade Facilitation Organs: Arrangements at the National Level to Coordinate Work on


Facilitation of Trade Procedures


 Fostering Innovative Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Policy Options


 Intellectual Property Commercialization: Policy Options and Practical Instruments


 Innovation in the Services Sector: Review of Experiences and Policies


 Enhancing the Innovative Performance of Firms


 Policy Options and Instruments for Financing Innovation


Presenting Trade Data .................................................................................................. page 26


 Making Data Meaningful. Part 1: A guide to writing stories about numbers


 Making Data Meaningful. Part 2: A guide to presenting statistics


 Making Data Meaningful. Part 3: A guide to communicating with the media


 Making Data Meaningful. Part 4: A guide to statistical literacy


 The Impact Of Globalization on National Accounts


 Measuring Sustainable Development


Dedication ...................................................................................................................... page 29


iii















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1


Introduction


This brochure provides information about the resources available, free of charge, from the United


Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) that can be used to support Aid-for-Trade


projects. The resources include international conventions, publications, standards and training


materials, and are available to all interested stakeholders in Aid for Trade: countries, bilateral donors,


development banks, international organizations and non-governmental organizations. They are


developed by country-nominated experts and the UNECE secretariat under the supervision of a wide


range of intergovernmental bodies. More detailed information about the work of UNECE can be


found at www.unece.org


The work of UNECE contributes to three of the four main areas
1
covered by World Trade


Organization (WTO) Aid for Trade Initiative:
2
Trade policy and regulation, Economic infrastructure,


and Productive capacity-building.


Aid-for-Trade Area Related UNECE
Work/Resources


1 Trade policy and regulation: Building capacity to
formulate trade policy, participate in negotiations and


implement agreements


Trade facilitation, electronic


business standards,


regulatory cooperation and


standardization policies,


agricultural quality standards,


transport facilitation, vehicle


construction standards, the


presentation of trade data


2 Economic infrastructure: Investing in the infrastructure
– roads, ports, telecommunications, energy networks –
needed to link products to global markets


Road, Railway and Inland


Waterway infrastructure and


planning


3 Productive capacity-building: Strengthening economic
sectors – from improved testing laboratories to better
supply chains – to increase competitiveness in export
markets


Innovation and innovation


policy, public-private


partnerships




If you have any questions about the resources described in this brochure or need further information


about UNECE activities or resources, please contact us at ctrade@unece.org





1
The fourth area, which is not covered by the UNECE, is “adjustment assistance”


2
The WTO AfT Initiative is voluntary and is implemented primarily by bilateral donors, either through their


national development agencies or through development banks and international organizations. It is coordinated


by WTO and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Countries report their


AfT activities to OECD, which tracks and analyses them. WTO works with countries, development banks and


international organizations to encourage AfT implementation. In particular, it holds special sessions on Aid for


Trade of the WTO Committee on Trade and Development and, every two years, an Aid for Trade Global


Review meeting. More information on Aid-for-Trade can be found at:


www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/devel_e/a4t_e/aid4trade_e.htm




2


Trade Facilitation Resources






Recommendation N°1: United Nations


Layout Key for Trade Documents


ECE/TRADE/ 137


Date of publication/release: 1973 (first edition)


Website:


www.unece.org/cefact/recommendations/rec_index.html


Recommendation 1 presents the United Nations Layout Key


for trade documents and the rules for the location of codes used


in this context. It also introduces the United Nations System of


Aligned Trade Documents. It should be read together with the


“Guidelines for Application. Informative Annex to
Recommendation No. 1" (2001).


It provides an international basis for the standardization of


documents used in international trade and transport, as well as


for the visual display and representations of such documents. It


is used globally in a wide range of trade documents including,


the European Union’s Single Administrative Document and the
FIATA freight-forwarding invoice 1.






UNECE Trade Facilitation Implementation


Guide


Date of publication/release: 25/10/2012


Languages: English, Russian ,French and Spanish ( Arabic


under development)


Website: http://tfig.unece.org


The Guide is an interactive reference and training tool. It


presents a variety of concepts, standards and


recommendations that can simplify trade throughout the


international supply chain, and sets out implementation


approaches and methodologies. It also discusses the


instruments available for applying the facilitation measures


under discussion at the World Trade Organization. It is


publicly available online.


The Guide targets implementers of trade facilitation reforms


and capacity-building programmes. It helps them examine and


select solutions and evaluate options and paths for a given


policy objective.




3






Guide for the Design of Aligned Trade Forms


for Paperless Trade


ECE/TRADE/372


Joint UNECE/ESCAP publication


Date of publication/release: December 2011


Languages: English, Russian


Website: http://tfig.unece.org/contents/unnext-guide-


document-alignment.htm (English)


www.unescap.org/tid/unnext/tools/atf-design-ru.pdf (Russian)


Following a short introduction into the history of the United


Nations Layout Key, the Guide presents the formatting and


physical design aspects of the Key, and details such functional


design of forms as the use of semantic repositories, codes lists,


and box completion guidelines to develop and to align an


efficient system of trade documents.






Code Lists for Trade


ECE/TRADE/243 Recommendation 15


ECE/TRADE/227 Recommendation 16


TRADE/CEFACT/2001/19 Recommendation 19


CEFACT/ICG/2010/IC013 Recommendation 20


ECE/TRADE/C/CEFACT/2011/6 Recommendation 23


ECE/TRADE/C/CEFACT/2009/26 Recommendation 24


CEFACT/ICG/2010/IC011 Recommendation 28


Languages: Depending upon the Recommendation, may be


available in French, Russian and English


Website:


For all recommendations:


www.unece.org/cefact/recommendations/rec_index.html


For UN/LOCODE and Units of Measure code lists


www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.html


Codes are used in paper and electronic trade documents in


order to reduce data entry and errors.


UNECE, through its Centre for Trade Facilitation and


Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), has developed many trade


code lists. Some of these have become ISO codes and are now


maintained by ISO (e.g. country codes, currency codes). Most


of them have remained in UNECE and are maintained by


UN/CEFACT. The Recommendations for the most important


among these codes are listed below:


 N°15: Simpler Shipping Marks




4


 N°16: UN/LOCODE – Codes for Ports and other locations
(containing codes for more than 60,000 locations across


the world)


 N°19: Code for Mode of Transport


 N°20: Codes for Units of Measure Used in International
Trade (containing codes for over 3500 different units of


measure)


 N°23: Freight Cost Code – FCC


 N°24: Trade and Transport Status Codes


 N°28: Codes for Types of Means of Transport


The use of codes for trade is an essential part of document


alignment as well as the data harmonization process which is


required for the development of electronic messages for


business or government.






Recommendation N° 33: Recommendation


and Guidelines Establishing a Single Window


ECE/TRADE/352


Date of publication/release: 2004 (first version)


Languages: English, French, Russian


Website:


www.unece.org/cefact/recommendations/rec_index.html


The Recommendation and its guidelines provide guidance on


establishing a Single Window for import, export and transit


procedures. This document presents and discusses the different


technological and organizational models of a Single Window,


lists benefits both to traders and to public administration, and


presents possible services of a Single Window.


The Recommendation and guidelines assist governments and


trade in planning and establishing a Single Window facility.


They describe the practical steps to be taken, as well as the


standards and tools that should be adopted. UNECE, through


its Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business


(UN/CEFACT), also maintains a repository of case studies that


provides useful additional information on different countries’
experiences when establishing a Single Window


www.unece.org/cefact/single_window/welcome.html.





5






Recommendation N° 35: Establishing a Legal


Framework for International Trade Single


Window


ECE/TRADE/401


Date of publication/release: 2011


Languages: English, French, Russian


Web site address:


www.unece.org/cefact/recommendations/rec_index.html


Recommendation 35 was developed by the Centre for Trade


Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) as a


complement to Recommendation No. 33 on the Single


Window for International Trade. It draws on various country


experiences in developing a Single Window for trade and


discusses relevant aspects of a legal framework for a national


as well as a regional Single Window. It recommends that a
gap analysis be undertaken to establish the current legal


context, determine gaps and identify appropriate measures to


address them. The Recommendation also urges administrations


to take into account international standards, international legal


instruments, and “soft” legal instruments when amending their
regulatory framework.






Single Window Planning and Implementation


Guide


ECE/TRADE/404


Joint UNECE/ESCAP publication


Date of publication/release: 2012


Website: www.unescap.org/tid/unnext/tools/implement-


guide.pdf


The Guide presents a systematic, aligned and phased ways of


dealing with Single Window implementation challenges. These


can be of an organizational managerial, financial, legal,


technical, or political nature. The Guide includes guidelines


and techniques tailored to the specific context of a Single


Window implementation. It presents guidelines and techniques


as they apply to stakeholder collaboration, business process


analysis, data harmonization and the adaptation of the legal


framework.





6






Business Process Analysis Guide to Simplify


Trade Procedures


ISBN: 978-92-1-120588


Joint UNECE/ESCAP publication


Languages: English and Russian


Date of publication/release: 2009


Websites:


http://tfig.unece.org/contents/unnext-guide-bpa.htm


(English)


www.unescap.org/tid/publication/tipub2558r.asp


(Russian)


This Guide presents a step-by-step approach to business


process analysis and to drawing up recommendations for


improving processes. The practical steps and activities


suggested include: setting the scope of the business


process analysis project, planning its implementation,


collecting relevant data, and presenting it in an easily


understandable manner. It also shows how to analyse the


captured data in order to identify bottlenecks and develop


recommendations for improvement.




Recommendation N° 34: Data Simplification


and Standardization for International Trade


ECE/TRADE/400


Date of publication/release: 2011


Languages: English, French and Russian


Website:


www.unece.org/cefact/recommendations/rec_index.html


This Recommendation outlines a four-stage process to achieve


the objective of a national, simplified and standardized dataset


that facilitates information exchange between trade and


government, as well as the sharing of information between


different government entities.


By following this process, governments should be able to


reduce regulatory and official information requirements


through eliminating duplicate data submissions and removing


redundant elements.





7






Data Harmonization and Modelling Guide


ST/ESCAP/2619


Joint UNECE/ESCAP publication


Date of publication/release: 2012


Website: http://tfig.unece.org/contents/unnext-data-


harmonization-modelling-guide.htm (English)


www.unescap.org/tid/publication/tipub2619r.pdf (Russian)


This Guide presents a step-by step approach to data


harmonization and a basic concept for assembling electronic


messages. It guides the user through the process of data


harmonization, leading first to the creation of data models that


specify the structure and properties of particular documents,


and then to the development of electronic messages. It also


introduces a range of international standards such as the


UNLK, UNTDED, CCL, and data models, in particular the


WCO Data Model. It also provides guidelines on the


composition of a project team to conduct data harmonization.







United Nations Trade Data Elements


Directory (UNTDED, ISO 7372)


ECE/TRADE/362


Jointly maintained with ISO


Date of last publication/release: 2005


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trade/untdid/UNTDED2005.p


df


The Directory was developed by the United Nations Centre for


Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT). A


UN Layout Key (UNLK) trade document (see p. 1) has boxes


that require the entry of specific data. The requirements for


each box are recorded in a dictionary called the Trade Data


Elements Directory (UNTDED, ISO 7372). The Directory


consists of a four-digit number to identify each data element, a


data element name and a description that provides a definition


of the data element. It provides an internationally accepted


standard repository for the semantic definitions of trade data


elements used in international trade. The Directory has also


been integrated into the latest standards for electronic trade


documents, such as the UN/CEFACT Core Component Library


(CCL) and UN/EDIFACT. Therefore, the Layout Key, Core


Components Library and UN/EDIFACT are intrinsically


linked because of the Directory.







8




Recommendation N° 25: Use of the United


Nations Electronic Data Interchange for


Administration, Commerce and Transport


(UN/EDIFACT)


Date of publication/release:


1988 (first release)


Website: www.unece.org/cefact/edifact/welcome.html


UN/EDIFACT is a United Nations recommended standard,


and possibly the most widely used standard in the world


for structured business and government electronic


messages. It provides a set of syntax rules to structure data.


This structure is made up of: data elements, composite data


elements, segments and messages. The standard includes a


directory/library of each of these elements (see next entry).


There are also conventions for placing UN/EDIFACT


messages in an "envelope" that identifies the sender and


receiver and other attributes of a transmission.


Two UNECE Recommendations, adopted in 1995,


recommend the use of UN/EDIFACT in government


messaging. Recommendations:


 N°25: United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange For
Administration, Commerce and Transport


(UN/EDIFACT)


 N° 26: Commercial Use of Interchange Agreements for
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)


UN/EDIFACT has also been adopted as a United Nations


standard by the Economic and Social Commission of the


United Nations.




Recommendations 25 and 26 assist governments in the


adoption of electronic messaging using the UN/EDIFACT





9






UN/EDIFACT Directory 2012 B (12B)


Date of last publication/release: November 2012


Website: http://www.unece.org/tradewelcome/areas-of-work/un-


centre-for-trade-facilitation-and-e-business-


uncefact/outputs/standards/unedifact/directories/download.html


The UN/EDIFACT standard is described in the previous entry


on Recommendation 25. The standard itself is published as a set


of Directories which are updated on a regular basis and


published twice a year. Each Directory is made up of a number


of sub-directories. These sub-directories contain definitions for:


(1) Message types; (2) Segments; (3) Composite Data Elements;


and (4) Data Elements. )








UN/Core Component Library (UN/CCL)


Website:




www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/unccl/ccl_index.html




The UN Core Component Library (CCL) is a library of


business semantics (definitions) in a data model that is


harmonized, audited and published by UN/CEFACT. The


CCL uses Core Component Technical Specifications


(CCTS) to ensure consistency and interoperability. The


data defined in the CCL are used in a wide range of


electronic message standards including those developed by


UN/CEFACT. The CCL comprises contributions from


many organizations including government and business. It


also includes data definitions to support cross-border trade


such as electronic messages for Buy, Ship and Pay


business processes.





10






Assessing Regulatory and Procedural


Measures in Trade: An Evaluation


Methodology


Date of publication/release: 2013


Languages: English and Russian


Website: http://www.unece.org/tradewelcome/studies-on-


procedural-and-regulatory-barriers-to-trade.html


This methodology measures the impact of trade-related


regulations, administrative procedures, documentary


requirements and support services on the transaction costs (i.e.


time and money) incurred by traders. The publication includes


analytical parameters and 15 actor-oriented questionnaires


focusing on: (a) trade facilitation measures; (b) quality control


systems embodied in standardization policies, technical


regulations, quality assurance, accreditation and metrology;


and (c) trade-related infrastructure, including transport and


logistical support.


This publication provides a framework for use in designing


survey-based needs assessments of regulatory and procedural


measures governing export and import transactions. The


resulting needs assessment could be used as the basis for: (a)


decisions by the concerned national governments and their


development partners on targeted interventions, and (b)


discussions among member States over bilateral and regional


trade arrangements.





11




Best Practices in


Trade Regulation and Standardization Policy






Recommendations on Regulatory


Cooperation and Standardization Policies


ECE/TRADE/379


Date of publication/release: January 2012


Website address: www.unece.org/index.php?id=29472


Sixteen UNECE recommendations have been adopted by the


UNECE Working Party on Regulatory Cooperation and


Standardization Policies since 1970 to address standardization


and regulatory issues. They set out good practice regarding


regulatory cooperation, metrology, standards and norms,


conformity assessment and market surveillance.




Risk Management in Regulatory Frameworks


ISBN 13: 9789211170689


Date of publication/release: 2013


Website:


https://unp.un.org/Details.aspx?pid=23517


www.unece.org/index.php?id=31684


This publication guides policymakers in the design of


regulatory systems that result in an efficient, effective and


transparent management of risks. It shows how laws,


administrative measures and technical regulations can be used


to make products safe and business processes stable, without


compromising competitiveness.


Using a model of a regulatory system, with real-life examples


and case studies, this publication aims at making best practice


readily available and useful to policymakers.





12






Aid for Trade in Trade-Related Standards


Date of publication/release: November 2008


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trade/wp6/documents/2008/W


P6_2008_016e.pdf


This paper argues for increasing resources for assistance in


trade-related standardization matters, and for more resources to


be used to envision and implement tailor-made, coherent and


integrated strategies that will enable developing countries and


countries with economies in transition to participate as full


players in standards-development processes. In particular, the


paper identifies three priority areas for action:


(a) Promoting the use of standards as a means of making firms


more competitive, and helping them move up the value chain


(b) Strengthening the participation of developing countries and


countries with economies in transition in standards-making


bodies, WTO and other international and intergovernmental


forums;


(c) Assisting firms and institutions in complying with safety,


quality and technical regulations of increasing complexity.




A Glossary of Market Surveillance


Terms


ECE/TRADE/389


Languages: English, French and Russian


Date of publication/release: 2011


Web site address:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trade/Publications/WP6-


MARS-Glossary-389_EFR.pdf


The “United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection”


adopted by the General Assembly in 1999, encourage


governments to further cooperate internationally in the field of


consumer protection.


Through its Working Party on Regulatory Cooperation and


Standardization Policies, UNECE has developed a body of best


practice in addressing the challenges caused by the proliferation


of dangerous and counterfeit goods on consumer markets.


Counterfeits also undermine local industry, which is frequently


unable to compete against a massive inflow of cheap and


inferior-quality goods. Market surveillance is an important


regulatory response to ensure that products placed on the


market, whether imported or produced locally, conform to


national technical regulations, are safe and are not counterfeit or




13


pirated. The Glossary establishes common ground and facilitates


regional and international cooperation for stronger enforcement


of technical regulations.


Key Transport and Border Crossing Facilitation


Resources


International Transport Conventions facilitating International Freight and


Passenger Mobility




International Convention on the


Harmonization of Frontier Controls of Goods,


of 1982


Languages: English, French, Russian, Spanish


Date of Convention : October 1982


Web site address:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-


55r2e.pdf (English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-


55r2f.pdf (French)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-


55r2r.pdf (Russian)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/ECE-TRANS-


55r2s.pdf (Spanish)


The International Convention on the Harmonization of Frontier


Controls of Goods, of 1982, is a framework Convention that


aims at facilitating border crossing in international transport of


goods through harmonization and reduction of the requirements


for completing formalities and the number and duration of


border controls. The Convention establishes the recommended


procedures for carrying out efficiently all types of controls that


may be necessary at borders, including Customs controls,


medico-sanitary, veterinary, and phytosanitary inspections,


controls of compliance with technical standards and quality


controls. Procedures largely call for national cooperation and


coordination of the various services among them, as well as for


international cooperation between the respective border services


of the adjacent countries. The Convention foresees measures


that include joint controls of goods and documents through the


provision of shared facilities, same opening hours and same


types of services at the same border. These procedures apply to


all goods being imported, exported or in transit and to all modes


of transport. It establishes, through its Annex 8 dedicated to


road transport, the International Vehicle Weigh Certificate


(IVWC) and the International Technical Inspection Certificate


(ITIC) which contribute to facilitating border procedures by


relying on mutual recognition of those certificates to avoid


repetitive border controls. The Convention provides for a




14


reduction in the number and duration of all types of controls and


best practices for efficient controls of goods at border crossings.


It aims at promoting the one-stop-shop principle for border


controls. As a result, the Convention reduces border delays,


which through lowering transport costs reduces trade costs.




Customs Convention on the International


Transport of Goods under Cover of TIR


Carnets (TIR Convention), of 1975


Languages: English, French, Russian


Date of Convention: November 1975


Website:


A consolidated version of the TIR Convention is included in the


TIR handbook :


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/tir/handbook/english/newtirhan


d/TIR-6Rev9_En.pdf (English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/tir/handbook/french/newtirhand


/TIR-6Rev9_Fr.pdf (French)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/tir/handbook/russian/newtirhan


d/TIR-6Rev9_Ru.pdf (Russian)


The Customs Convention on the International Transport of


Goods under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention), of 1975,


sets up the international Customs Transit procedure that permits


the international carriage of goods by road vehicles or containers


from a Customs office of departure to a Customs office of


destination, through as many Contracting Parties as necessary,


without intermediate check of the goods carried and without the


deposit of a financial guarantee at each border. The procedure


includes the use of secure vehicles or containers that have to be


approved by authorities according to standards prescribed in the


Convention in order for them to be used for TIR operations. It


also includes an international guarantee chain, set up under the


Convention, to cover duties and taxes at risk throughout the


journey and whereby in each Party a duly authorized association


provides a guarantee towards national competent authorities. In


addition, each vehicle must carry an international Customs


document, the TIR Carnet, which certifies the contents of the


cargo as checked at the Customs Office of departure and which


equally serves as a guarantee document. The Customs


authorities at intermediate borders recognize the role of the TIR


Carnets and, as a general rule, trust the information contained


therein and do not undertake checks unless deemed necessary for


any reason. The procedure foresees a controlled access to the


TIR system and the exclusion from the system of operators who


misuse it for illegal purposes.


The advantages of TIR to trade and to transport are


obvious. Goods may travel across frontiers with a minimum


of interference by Customs administrations. By easing


traditional impediments to the international movements of


goods, the TIR system encourages the development of


international trade.




15


The TIR Convention is one of the most successful international


transport conventions and is so far the only universal Customs


transit system in existence. To date, it has 68 Contracting Parties


and around 3 million TIR transports are carried out per year.




Convention on the Contract for the


International Carriage of Goods by Road


(CMR), of 19 May 1956, its Protocol of 1978,


and its additional Protocol Concerning the


Electronic Consignment Note (e-CMR) of 2008


Date of Convention : May 1956


Languages: English, French and Russian


Website:


Convention :


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/cmr_e.pdf


(English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/cmr_f.pdf


(French)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/cmr_r.pdf


(Russian)


The Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of


Goods by Road (CMR) (1956), facilitates international road


transport by providing common conditions applicable to


international road transport contract, including a common


consignment note and harmonized liability limits. The CMR


fixes the conditions governing the contract for the international


carriage of goods by road between the carrier and the shipper


and sets the conditions of liability of the carrier in case of total


or partial loss of goods or delays. The CMR has no direct


implications for governments as it regulates through private law.


However, in order for transport operators to take advantage of


the Convention, it must be included in national legislation. An


additional Protocol to the CMR has entered into force to


facilitate the use of an electronic consignment note (eCMR),


with, at present, 7 Contracting Parties. The CMR Convention


helps to maintain fair competition between carriers and


limits the costs of international road transport, including


insurance costs.


The Protocol to the Convention on the Contract for the


International Carriage of Goods by Road, of 1978, modifies


Article 23 of the CMR Convention to introduce the Special


Drawing Rights (SDR) as currency reference for the calculation


of compensation due in case damage to the goods.









16










European Agreement concerning the


International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by


Road (ADR), of 1957 and its Protocol of 1993


Date of Convention: September 1957


Languages: English, French and Russian


Website:


Agreement :


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/danger/publi/adr/ADRagr


ee_e.pdf (English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/danger/publi/adr/ADRagr


ee_f.pdf (French)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/danger/publi/adr/ADRagr


ee_r.pdf (Russian)


The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage


of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), of 1957, aims at ensuring


the highest possible level of safety in the transport of dangerous


goods at an economically acceptable cost. It identifies the


substances that are considered as dangerous goods and that can


be admitted in international transport as well as those that


cannot be admitted. For the former, the ADR establishes the


conditions under which they can be carried. These include the


classification of substances according to their specific type of


danger (explosives, flammable liquids, flammable gases,


corrosive substances, etc.), packing conditions, labelling,


marking, placarding, documentation and special requirements


for tanks. The ADR also contains requirements on transport


operations, driver training as well as vehicle construction and


approval. Security provisions have recently been included.


While obliging Contracting Parties to accept vehicles coming


from other Parties if they comply with the ADR, the Agreement


preserves the right of Contracting Parties to prohibit, for reasons


other than safety during carriage, the entry of dangerous goods


into their territory. Contracting Parties also retain the right to


arrange less stringent conditions of international transport on


their territories, by special bilateral or multilateral agreements.


The ADR is open for accession to all United Nations member


States. Accession to the ADR has no financial implications for


countries. However, for exporting countries, it imposes


administrative structures for testing and approval of packagings,


tanks and vehicles, for driver and dangerous goods safety


adviser training and for issuing the corresponding certificates.


The ADR provides for a high level of safety and security during


the international carriage of dangerous goods. It also facilitates


transport and trade of such goods resulting from mutual


recognition of packaging, tank, vehicle and driver training




17


certificates. Being harmonized with the United Nations Model


Regulations that serve as a basis for all modes of transport and


most national regulations at worldwide level, the ADR also


facilitates compliance, enforcement and control.




Agreement on the International Carriage of


Perishable Foodstuff and on the Special


Equipment to be used for such Carriage (ATP),


of 1970


Date of Convention: September 1970


Languages: English, French and Russian


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp11/wp11doc/AT


P-2013_e.pdf (English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp11/wp11doc/AT


P-2013_f.pdf (French)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp11/wp11doc/AT


P-2013_r.pdf (Russian)


The Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable


Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for such


Carriage (ATP), of 1970, establishes uniform prescriptions for


the preservation of the quality of perishable foodstuffs during


their international transport. It defines uniform norms and


standards for the special transport equipment required, and sets


up uniform distinguishing marks to be affixed to the special


equipment. Also temperature conditions for frozen and chilled


foodstuffs are specified. The conformity of the equipment is


confirmed through an international certificate and an ATP plate


affixed to the vehicle / equipment, allowing easy identification


of ATP transport and mutual recognition, thereby avoiding


repetitive controls.


The objectives of the ATP are to facilitate international


transport of perishable foodstuffs and to ensure a high level


of preservation of the quality of perishable foodstuffs during


their carriage. The improvement of those conditions


promotes the expansion of trade in perishable foodstuffs.




18






European Agreement concerning the Work of


Crews of Vehicles engaged in International


Road Transport (AETR), of 1970


Date of Convention: May 1956


Languages: English, French and Russian


Website:


Convention :


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2010/sc1/ECE-


TRANS-SC1-2010-AETR-en.pdf (English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2010/sc1/ECE-


TRANS-SC1-2010-AETR-fr.pdf (French)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2010/sc1/ECE-


TRANS-SC1-2010-AETR-ru.pdf (Russian)




The European Agreement concerning the Work of Crews of


Vehicles engaged in International Road Transport (AETR), of


1970, aims at preventing drivers and crews of commercial


vehicles of more than 3.5 tonnes, or transporting more than 9


people, engaged in international road transport, from driving


excessive hours. Driver fatigue is known to increase the risk of


serious road accidents. Non-standardized working hours may


create disparities in the working conditions of professional


drivers and may impact a company’s competitive. To this end,
the AETR regulates the driving times and rest periods of


professional drivers. The Agreement also defines control


devices that are used to control those periods, and sets up


technical requirements for the construction, testing, installation


and inspection of these devices. Additionally, the AETR also


sets up requirements for the checking of driving hours by


competent authorities. By regulating the driving times and


rest periods of drivers of commercial vehicles engaged in


international transport, the AETR creates a level playing


field in the road haulage industry and helps prevent road


accidents.




Other UNECE transport agreements and


conventions


Website:


www.unece.org/trans/conventn/legalinst.html


Through its Transport Division, UNECE works to facilitate the


international movement of persons and goods by inland


transport modes and improve competitiveness, safety, energy


efficiency and security in the transport sector taking into


account environmental protection to levels that reduce adverse


environmental impact of transport activities and contribute


effectively to sustainable development. The listing of all the


international agreements and conventions is available at the




19


above address.


Many of its Conventions have an impact on international trade.




20






Other transport and border-crossing facilitation resources




Handbook for the Customs Convention on the


International Transport of Goods under Cover


of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention), of 14


November 1975


ECE/TRANS/TIR/6/Rev.9


Date of publication/release: regular updates (last version 2010 a


new version is planned to be published end 2013)


Languages: English, French, Russian, German, Finnish, Italian,


Czech, Estonian and Romanian


Website:


www.unece.org/tir/tir-hb.html




The objective of the TIR system is to minimize the time and


cost for goods in transit. The Handbook contains three major


sections. The first describes the TIR Customs transit system, its


coverage, objective and functioning and analyses possible future


developments. The second contains the complete consolidated


text of the TIR Convention, 1975. The layout of this section


basically follows the structure of the TIR Convention, 1975.


However, Explanatory Notes contained in Annex 6 and Annex


7, Part III of the Convention have been placed with the


provisions in the Convention to which they relate (with the


exception of the sketches contained in Annex 6). The third


section provides information on the application of the TIR


Convention, 1975, the text of adopted resolutions and


recommendations related to the Convention and gives examples


of best practices.





21






Handbook of Best Practices at Border


Crossings - A Trade and Transport Facilitation


Perspective


ISBN 978-3-9502218-8-6


Date of publication/release: February 2012


Languages: English and Russian


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/bcf/publications/OSCE-


UNECE_Handbook.pdf (English)


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/bcf/publications/OSCE-


UNECE_Handbook_russian.pdf (Russian)


Prepared jointly with the OSCE, the Handbook of Best


Practices at Border Crossings – A Trade and Transport
Facilitation Perspective offers a unique opportunity for countries


both in and beyond the OSCE/UNECE region to develop border


and customs policies that increase security and more efficiently


facilitate international trade and transport.


Growing cross-border trade and transportation in the globalized


world economy are compelling governments to develop more


efficient border management procedures. Cumbersome


procedures at borders increase the cost of transport operations,


hampering international trade and foreign investment. With this


in mind, the Handbook provides tools that can be used to


harmonize and simplify existing procedures and regulations and


to improve inter-agency co-operation. It also draws attention to


the need to apply best practices and internationally accepted


norms and standards.


The Handbook is a reference document containing key


information for the following groups:


■High and mid-level officials from transport, trade and finance
ministries, customs agencies as well as senior staff of border


crossing points.


■Transport, freight and logistics communities as well as
business associations seeking an improved operating


environment.


■Civil society, academia and researchers.


The Handbook aims to raise awareness of the range of


instruments available for developing and implementing better


trade, transport, border and customs policies. Drawing upon


operational evidence and case studies, it offers best practices


from both the public and private perspectives. It focuses on road


border-crossing points, but also refers to rail and sea crossings.







22








Euro-Asian Transport Linkages: Paving the


Way for a More Efficient Euro-Asian


Transport


ECE/TRANS/230


Date of publication/release: January 2013


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/eatl/docs/EATL_Re


port_Phase_II.pdf


The United Nations has a long history of support for developing


transport connections between Europe and Asia. The Euro-


Asian Transport Linkages (EATL) project in Phase I (2003-


2007) identified the principal international EATL transport


linkages in order to connect the European and Asian transport


networks. The present EATL Phase II (2008-2012) study


involves 27 countries and covers 9 EATL road routes, 9 EATL


rail routes, 17 water transport links, 52 inland river ports and 70


maritime ports. Some 311 transport infrastructure projects


totalling US$ 215 billion were included in the study, out of


which 188 were identified as high priority, with a total cost of


US$78 billion. In addition to the multi-country transport


investment needs assessment, the paper includes the


comparative analysis of the maritime and land transport between


Europe and Asia. In the past four years participating


governments have reviewed the non-physical obstacles to


international transport along the EATL routes and identified the


needed actions in order to reduce the economic distance among


themselves, as well as from their major markets. Finally, the


EATL project developed its Geographic Information System


(GIS) database and thus improved EATL maps are available.





23























Hinterland Connections of Seaports


ECE/TRANS/210


Date of publication/release: January 2010


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2010/wp5/ECE-


TRANS-210e.pdf


This study examines transport issues through the prism of


hinterland connections to seaports. Such an approach is


warranted by the fact that more than 90 per cent of global trade


goes through at least one maritime port and, with


containerization rapidly expanding, bottlenecks in the


hinterlands become bottlenecks to global trade. Consequently,


landlocked countries must struggle all the more for integration in


the global economy. They depend on the development of ports,


but they are not considered major stakeholders –unless a new
form of cooperation among “hinterland countries” evolves.


Hinterland Connections of Seaports investigates the ways in


which seaports and their hinterland connections can help


improve supply chain performance, by removing bottlenecks and


improving the efficiency and sustainability of port hinterland


links in UNECE countries. The study objectives were :


(a) To determine the key issues in the existing literature relating


to the performance of seaports and their hinterland connections;


(b) To assess the key trends in the container and ferry markets in


the UNECE region, including port hinterland flows;


(c) To identify good practice in achieving efficient and


sustainable hinterland goods movements;


(d) To consider ways in which the landlocked emerging


economies can overcome the specific problems;


(e) To recommend ways in which the connectivity of seaports


and their hinterlands can be improved.







24






Inventory of Main Standards and Parameters


of the E [European] Waterway Network (The


Blue Book)


ECE/TRANS/SC.3/144/Rev.2


ISBN 978-92-1-117062-7


Date of publication/release: 2012


Languages: English (French and Russian under development)


Website: www.unece.org/index.php?id=26056


The objective of the Blue Book is: (a) to establish an inventory


of existing and envisaged standards and parameters of E


waterways and ports in Europe; and (b) to show, on an


internationally comparable basis, the current inland navigation


infrastructure parameters in Europe as compared to the minimum


standards and parameters prescribed in the European Agreement


on Main Inland Waterways of International Importance (AGN).


This publication enables member governments and


intergovernmental organizations concerned to monitor the


progress made in implementing the Agreement.




Other UNECE transport resources


Website:


www.unece.org/transport/resources/publications.html


Through its Transport Division, UNECE facilitates the


international movement of persons and goods by inland


transport modes and improve competitiveness, safety, energy


efficiency and security in the transport sector taking into


account environmental protection to levels that reduce adverse


environmental impact of transport activities and contribute


effectively to sustainable development.


Many of its publications are also relevant for trade.





















25




Public-Private Partnership and Innovation






Guidebook on Promoting Good Governance


in Public-Private Partnerships




ISBN: 978-92-1-116979-9


Date of publication/release: January 2008


Languages: English, Russian


Website:


www.unece.org/index.php?id=2147 (English)


www.unece.org/index.php?id=2147&L=2 (Russian)


In the delivery of public services, public-private partnerships


(PPPs) have become a worldwide phenomenon and are


generating great interest. They combine the best of both


worlds, and also present a strong organizational and


institutional challenge for the public sector. Policymakers,


government officials and the private sector will find in this


publication essential guidance on the good governance


principles for PPPs and their implementation.


A key resource for establishing good governance in public-


private partnerships for the delivery of public services.




Recommendation No. 4: National Trade


Facilitation Organs: Arrangements at the


National Level to Coordinate Work on


Facilitation of Trade Procedures,


and Guidelines to Recommendation 4


ECE/TRADE/242 and ECE/TRADE/256


Date of publication/release: 1974 (first version), Last revision


2001


Languages for both publications: English, French, Russian


Website:


www.unece.org/cefact/recommendations/rec_index.html


Recommendation №4, and the Guidelines for its
implementation, encourage the establishment of public-private


partnerships at a national level for applying recommendations


on the facilitation of international trade procedures









26




Fostering Innovative Entrepreneurship:


Challenges and Policy Options


ISBN: 978-92-1-117056-6


Date of publication/release: March 2012


Website: www.unece.org/index.php?id=29167


This publication presents good practices for fostering


innovative enterprises and highlights some policy action that


may be required for this in the emerging market economies of


the region. It also summarizes the recommendations


developed by the 2010 UNECE International Conference


"From Applied Research to Entrepreneurship: Promoting


Innovation-driven Start-ups and Academic Spin-offs."




Intellectual Property Commercialization:


Policy Options and Practical Instruments




ISBN: 978-92-1-117053-5


Date of publication/release: September 2011


Website:www.unece.org/index.php?id=26564


This publication focuses on the practical problems of using


intellectual property rights in the innovation process, i.e. on


the commercialization of intellectual property, and on the


question of what economic policy can do to support the


various stakeholders. Specifically, it discusses the role of


intellectual property in the transfer of technology from


public research organizations to the business sector, the


management of intellectual property in small and medium-


sized enterprises, and the auditing, valuation of and


accounting for intellectual property.


This is a valuable resource guide for governments looking


to improve the policy environment for innovation and to


encourage the transfer of technology from public research


organizations into the business sector and the economy. It


can also be used as a resource by SMEs and people


working with them to encourage the full economic use of


their intellectual property.




27






Promting Innovation in the Services Sector:


Review of Experiences and Policies


ISBN 978-92-1-117039-9


Date of publication/release: March 2011


Website: www.unece.org/index.php?id=16163


This publication addresses a wide range of issues related to the


promotion of innovation in the services sectors, as well as


policy lessons learned in this area, drawing on the experiences


of different countries.




Enhancing the Innovative Performance of


Firms


ISBN: 978-92-1-116999-7


Date of publication/release: January 2009


Website: www.unece.org/index.php?id=2123


This publication identifies policy options and instruments


available to enhance the innovative capabilities of firms. It is


illustrated with examples of practical know-how, hands-on


experiences and case studies..






Policy Options and Instruments for Financing


Innovation


ISBN: 978-92-1-116998-0


Date of publication/release: January 2009


Website: www.unece.org/index.php?id=2134


This Guide offers practical advice on the different sources of


financing available to innovative companies in the early stages


of their development. It also presents the various policy options


and instruments that can be deployed by the public sector to


increase the supply of potentially successful innovative


companies and to mobilize private financing to support the


development of these companies. It discusses different good


practices and institutions that can increase the effectiveness of


various agents, both private and public, involved in the


financing of innovative enterprises.





28




Presenting trade data






Making Data Meaningful. Part 1: A guide to


writing stories about numbers


Date of publication/release: 2007


Languages: English with unofficial translations into Croatian,


Japanese and Spanish


Website: www.unece.org/stats/documents/writing/


The guide is intended as a practical tool to help managers,


statisticians and media relations officers to use text, tables,


graphics and other information to bring statistics to life using


effective writing techniques.


Organizations use this publication to communicate statistics on


different topics including trade to wider audiences using


simple and easy-to-understand language and tools.




Making Data Meaningful. Part 2: A guide to


presenting statistics


Date of publication/release: 2009


Languages: English with unofficial translations into Croatian,


Japanese and Spanish


Website: www.unece.org/stats/documents/writing/


This publication aims to help readers find the best way to get


their message across to non-specialists, using the most suitable


set of tools and skills now available from an array of


communication methods.


Organizations use this publication to communicate statistics on


different topics, including trade, to wider audiences using


simple and easy-to-understand language and tools.




29






Making Data Meaningful. Part 3: A guide to


communicating with the media


Date of publication/release: 2010


Languages: English with unofficial translations into Croatian,


Japanese and Spanish


Website:


www.unece.org/stats/documents/writing/


The publication is intended as a practical tool for managers,


statisticians, and communication and media relations officers


in statistical organizations, particularly in those organizations


that are in the process of developing their communication


strategies. This guide aims to help producers of statistics to


find the best way to get their message across and to


communicate effectively with the media.


Organizations use this publication to communicate statistics


on different topics, including trade to wider audiences using


simple and easy-to-understand language and tools.




Making Data Meaningful. Part 4: A guide to


statistical literacy


Date of publication/release: 2013


Website:


www.unece.org/stats/documents/writing/


The Guide covers techniques, current initiatives and best


practices to promote statistical literacy among different user


groups, such as opinion leaders, decision makers, the


education community, businesspersons and the general public.


Organizations use this publication to communicate statistics on


different topics, including trade, to wider audiences using


simple and easy-to-understand language and tools.







30






The impact of globalization on national


accounts


Date of publication/release: 2012


Website:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/publications/Guide_on_


Impact_of_globalization_on_national_accounts__web_.pdf


Globalization is a growing phenomenon that affects the


compilation of familiar national accounts indicators and


related source statistics. This Guide provides comprehensive


guidance for both producers of economic statistics and those


who use the data for policy analysis and research. It reviews


the many ways in which globalization affects measures of


economic activity, highlights areas that increasingly need


attention and resources to maintain the quality of national


accounts and related statistics, examines the behaviour of


multinational enterprises and how this may affect the


compilation of national statistics and includes many examples


showing how countries have responded to statistical


challenges brought by globalization.


This publication reviews the process of production of statistics


with globalization in mind. It provides techniques and best


examples in the field.




Measuring sustainable development


Date of publication/release: 2009


Web site address:


www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/publications/Measuring


_sustainable_development.pdf


This publication thoroughly explores the capital approach to


measuring sustainable development and compares the


indicators that result from this approach with those in already


existing indicator sets. In this way, it draws the best from the


conceptual work of researchers and the practical work of


policy makers and statisticians. It is hoped that this work will


provide an impetus for further work on statistics for


sustainable development in national statistical offices.







31










Dedicated with sincere gratitude to the


thousands of country-nominated experts, the


many donors, and the staff of UNECE,


who have made this work possible




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