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International Trade Statistics 2013

Report by WTO, 2013

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International trade statistics provides the facts that firms and policy makers need to take decisions. Equally, it provides the information that analysts and academics need to provide advice to decision makers. This year's edition includes a new chapter on trade in global value chains, offering new perspectives on world trade and economic growth. The new data highlight, for example, that trade in intermediate goods is just as concentrated among large players as overall trade. The new data in this publication reveal the leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, an important indicator of increased fragmentation in production chains. The new chapter also highlights the sectoral contributions of the value added to exports, demonstrating the interdependency of domestic and foreign sectors. Finally, the new chapter provides information outlining the level of exchanges within their multinational parent company carried out by US-owned affiliates.

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Introduction
1. Acknowledgements 2
2. A message from the Director-General 3
3. Understanding international trade statistics 4
4. WTO members and observers 6


Composition of geographical regions 7
5. Economies by size of merchandise trade 2012 8


Economies by size of trade in commercial services 2012 9
6. Abbreviations & symbols 10


I. World trade developments
Key developments in 2012: a snapshot 12
Highlights


List of tables 18
1. Overview 19
2. Trade by region 20
3. Leading traders 24
4. Bilateral trade of leading traders 28
5. Regional trade agreements 35
6. Least-developed countries 39
7. Foreign affiliates trade in services 43


II. Merchandise trade
Key developments in 2012: a snapshot 48
Highlights


List of tables 57
1. Overview 59
2. Agricultural products 64
3. Fuels and mining products 75
4. Manufactures 80


III. Trade in commercial services
Key developments in 2012: a snapshot 134
Highlights


List of tables 141
1. Overview 143
2. Transportation services 144
3. Travel 149
4. Other commercial services 154


IV. Trade in global value chains
Key developments in 2012: a snapshot 182
Highlights


List of tables 188
1. Overview 189


Composition, definitions & methodology
1. Composition of geographical and economic groupings 194
2. Definitions and methodology 198
3. Specific notes for selected economies 205
4. Statistical sources 207


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This publication has been prepared under the direction of Hubert Escaith,
Chief Statistician and Andreas Maurer, Chief, International Trade Statistics
Section. The coordination and supervision of table, chart and map production
of the report was done by Ninez Piezas-Jerbi, with the assistance of Emma
Vestesson and Caterina Calzolari. Statistical research, data compilation and
the preparation of estimates were conducted by Barbara d’Andrea-Adrian,
Christophe Degain, Florian Eberth, Antonella Liberatore, Joscelyn Magdeleine,
Yann Marcus, Ninez Piezas-Jerbi, Bekele Tamenu, and Ying Yan.


Acknowledgements are due to the multilateral, national and private institutions for
providing their statistics. The detailed statistical sources used in this report are
presented in Chapter V. Metadata (Compositions, definitions and methodology).


The International Trade Statistics Section also wishes to thank colleagues from
the Information and External Relations Division (IERD) and the Languages
Documentation and Information Management Division (LDIMD) whose collaboration
is vital in the production of this report. In particular, recognition is due to Anthony
Martin, Serge Marin-Pache, Steve Cooper, and to the French and Spanish
translators for rendering the report in the WTO’s other official languages.


Finally, we wish to thank the community of “International Trade Statistics”
users for their suggestions and comments on previous editions. Their regular
feed-back allows us to better provide them with relevant statistical data.


This publication is also available online at www.wto.org/its2013


For more information on the contents of this report, comments
or suggestions for improvement may be sent by email to the
International Trade Statistics Section (statistics@wto.org).


Acknowledgements




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Policy makers depend on reliable
statistics so that they can base
their analysis on facts. This is just
as true for trade policy as it is for
other areas of policy-making.


As part of the WTO’s commitment to increasing the usefulness of trade statistics,
we have added to this year’s International Trade Statistics a new chapter on
trade in global value chains. This new data allows the exact contribution of
each country to international trade to be measured more precisely. The new
chapter draws on the collaborative work of the WTO and the Organization
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and in particular on
the new OECD-WTO database on trade in value-added terms, which was
launched earlier this year. The new data provides new perspectives on the role
of trade in intermediate goods and services and recalculates bilateral trade
balances according to the domestic content of each country’s exports.


This progress in providing more accurate and analytical information results from
coordinated efforts with a number of other international organizations, national
agencies, business and academia. We are convinced that measuring trade in value-
added terms contributes significantly to the quality of trade-related information and
we will make every effort to continue to expand this data. Our aim is to provide
the most relevant statistical information to allow policy makers to address the
economic challenges facing the international community both now and in the future.


Another recent expansion in the WTO’s publication of trade data was the
launch earlier this year of the Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP).
This new portal – available through the WTO website – provides up-to-date
data on both tariff and non-tariff measures undertaken by WTO members.
Containing information on over 25,000 trade-related policy measures, I-TIP
covers measures affecting trade in goods and services as well as commitments
in regional trade agreements and the accession commitments of WTO
members. Its aim is to serve the needs of those seeking detailed information
on trade policy measures as well as those looking for summary information.


Finally, I am pleased to announce a further extension to our statistical
publications. This year, we are publishing for the first time a new publication on
the services trade of WTO members. Complementing our three other annual
reports on trade statistics - International Trade Statistics, World Tariff Profiles
and Trade Profiles - Services Profiles will provide data on transportation,
telecommunications, finance and insurance sectors. The information on each
sector will include data on investment, market size, production and trade.
We hope that you will find this a useful addition to our statistical output.


Roberto Azevêdo, Director-General


A message from the
Director-General
Roberto Azevêdo


“Our aim is to
provide the most
relevant statistical
information to allow
policy makers to
address the economic
challenges facing
the international
community both now
and in the future.”




4 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Understanding international
trade statistics
Hubert Escaith, WTO Chief Statistician


International trade statistics and
trade policy information provide the
facts that firms and policy makers
need to take decisions. Equally,
they provide the information that
analysts and academics need to
provide advice to decision makers.
Consequently, the accuracy and
timeliness of these statistics are
extremely important. At a time when
globalization is leading to rapid
changes in the economic and social
environment, the quality of these
statistics is more important than ever.


“Do we have the right numbers?” was the title of an event - the Global Forum
on Trade Statistics - organized by the WTO back in February 2011, in
collaboration with the UN Statistics Division and Eurostat. This question
was posed against the backdrop of the ever-increasing international
fragmentation of production chains in which the specialization in tasks
(or business functions) often spans several countries. The event highlighted
that comparative advantage nowadays lies in specialized tasks which create
new opportunities for small and medium-sized economies in particular. However,
this new way of trading makes it more complex to attribute the value added by
countries participating in global supply chains. This is further complicated by
ownership considerations, trade within firms and intellectual property issues.


Expanding data availability


In response to this new way of trading, the WTO formally launched the
Made in the World Initiative (MIWI) in 2012. The objective was to create
a means of exchanging information on projects, experiences and practical
approaches in measuring and analysing trade in value-added terms.


Building on co-operation with many other international bodies, the OECD
and the WTO worked together in combining trade statistics in goods and
services with input-output analysis to produce a joint database on
trade in value-added terms. The first results of this joint initiative were
released in January 2013 and refined in an update of the database
in May 2013. These statistics will be further refined as and when
greater detail in national official statistics becomes available.


“World trade needs
multifaceted tools
for measurement
and analysis.”




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Where to find more:
Composition, Definitions
and Methodology


As a result of the increase in data availability in value-added trade, this
year’s International Trade Statistics includes a new chapter on trade in
global value chains, offering new perspectives on world trade and economic
growth. The new data highlight, for example, that trade in intermediate
goods is just as concentrated among large players as overall trade. The ten
largest merchandise traders constitute nearly 60 per cent of world trade and
about half of world trade in intermediate goods. Many of these global value
or production chains are organized by a multinational enterprise. For US
multinationals, one-third of their exchanges take place within the multinational.


The new insights provided by data in value-added terms change the way we look at
international trade. On average, about 25 per cent of the value of national exports
includes foreign content in the form of imported inputs used to produce these
exports. Remarkably, the share of services in world trade in value-added terms is
more than double the share calculated in traditional balance-of-payments terms.


The new data in this publication reveal the leading exporters and importers
of intermediate goods, an important indicator of increased fragmentation in
production chains. Also provided, for the first time, are data on gross trade
flows broken down into their value-added components. This sheds light on
how countries add value as goods are transferred across borders in production
chains. The new chapter also highlights the sectoral contributions of the value
added to exports, demonstrating the interdependency of domestic and foreign
sectors. Finally, the new chapter provides information outlining the level of
exchanges within their multinational parent company carried out by US-owned
affiliates. Details on the methodology used for this new chapter can be found
in the chapter entitled “Compositions, Definitions and Methodology”.




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WTO members and observers


Albania
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bolivia, Plurinational
State of
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada


Cape Verde


Central African Republic


Chad


Chile


China


Colombia


Congo


Costa Rica


Côte d’Ivoire


Croatia


Cuba


Cyprus


Czech Republic


Democratic Republic
of the Congo


Denmark


Djibouti


Dominica


Dominican Republic


Ecuador


Egypt


El Salvador


Estonia


European Union (formerly
European Communities)
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
The Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hong Kong, China
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland


Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kenya
Korea, Republic of
Kuwait, the State of
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao People’s
Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lesotho
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macao, China
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Mauritania


Mauritius


Mexico


Moldova, Republic of


Mongolia


Montenegro


Morocco


Mozambique


Myanmar


Namibia


Nepal


Netherlands


New Zealand


Nicaragua


Niger


Nigeria


Norway


Oman


Pakistan


Panama


Papua New Guinea


Paraguay


Peru


Philippines


WTO members (as of 15 August 2013)*


* The cut-off date for data compilation for this publication was 15 August 2013.




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Composition of geographical regions


Poland


Portugal


Qatar


Romania


Russian Federation


Rwanda


Saint Kitts and Nevis


Saint Lucia


Saint Vincent & the Grenadines


Samoa


Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of


Senegal


Sierra Leone


Singapore


Slovak Republic


Slovenia


Solomon Islands


South Africa


Spain


Sri Lanka


Suriname


Swaziland


Sweden


Switzerland
Chinese Taipei
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia (FYROM)
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States of America
Uruguay
Vanuatu
Venezuela, Bolivarian
Republic of
Viet Nam
Zambia
Zimbabwe


Afghanistan
Algeria
Andorra
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Belarus
Bhutan
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Comoros
Equatorial Guinea
Ethiopia
Holy See (Vatican)
Iran
Iraq
Kazakhstan
Lebanese Republic
Liberia, Republic of
Libya
Sao Tomé and Principe


Serbia
Seychelles
Sudan
Syrian Arab Republic
Uzbekistan
Yemen


WTO observers
(as of 15 August 2013)*




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Economies by size of
merchandise trade 2012


51%
The top ten


merchandise
traders accounted
for just over half of
world merchandise


trade in 2012


42%
Developing economies
accounted for 42% of
world merchandise


trade in 2012


US$ 17.3 tn
Merchandise


exports of WTO
members totalled


US$ 17.3 trillion in 2012


Where to find more:
www.wto.org/its2013:
Tables A6 and Table A7




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Economies by size of trade in
commercial services 2012


US$ 4.25 tn
Exports of commercial


services by WTO
members totalled


US$ 4.25 trillion in 2012


49%
The top ten traders in
commercial services
accounted for almost


half of world trade
in commercial


services in 2012


35%
Developing economies


accounted for 35%
of world trade
in commercial


services in 2012


Where to find more:
www.wto.org/its2013:
Tables A8 and Table A9




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ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area
BOP Balance of Payments
BPM5 Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition
CACM Central American Common Market
CARICOM Caribbean Common Market
CEMAC Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
ECCAS Economic Community of Central African States
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EU European Union
EUROSTAT Statistical Office of the European Communities
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FATS Foreign Affiliates Statistics
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
GCC Gulf Co-operation Council
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GNP Gross National Product
GTIS Global Trade Information Services Inc.
HS Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
IEA International Energy Agency
IMF International Monetary Fund
ISIC International Standard Industrial Classification
LDCs Least-developed countries
MERCOSUR Southern Common Market
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation
SADC South African Development Community
SAPTA South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement
SITC Standard International Trade Classification
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNECLAC United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNSD United Nations Statistics Division
WAEMU West African Economic and Monetary Union


c.i.f. cost, insurance and freight
f.o.b. free on board
n.e.s. not elsewhere specified
n.i.e. not included elsewhere


The following symbols are used in this publication:
... not available or growth rates exceeding 500%
0 figure is zero or became zero due to rounding
- not applicable
$ United States dollars
Q1, Q2 1st quarter, 2nd quarter
I break in comparability of data series. Data after the symbol do


not form a consistent series with those from earlier years.
Billion means one thousand million.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
Unless otherwise indicated, (i) all value figures are expressed in U.S. dollars; (ii) trade figures include the
intra-trade of free trade areas, customs unions, geographical and other groups; (iii) merchandise trade
figures are on a customs basis and (iv) merchandise exports are f.o.b. and merchandise imports are c.i.f.
Data for the latest year are provisional.


Closing date 15 August 2013


Abbreviations and symbols




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World merchandise exports
stagnated in value terms in 2012
while exports of commercial
services increased by 2 per cent.


I. World trade developments


Key developments in 2012: a snapshot


Trade data
List of tables 18


1. Overview 19


2. Trade by region 20


3. Leading traders 24


4. Bilateral trade of leading traders 28


5. Regional trade agreements 35


6. Least-developed countries 39


7. Foreign affiliates statistics 44


12


18


Where to find more online:
you can access and download the Excel files
for the tables via www.wto.org/statistics




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Top five merchandise exporters (percentage share in world trade and main export partners)


Merchandise exports by regional trade agreement (RTA) 2012
(value of exports and percentage share in world trade)


Top five merchandise exporters represent 36% of
world exports, almost same share as the largest RTAs


Where to find more:
Table I.21
www.wto.org/its2013: Tables A3 and A4




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t EU merchandise exports
stagnated in 2012, reflecting
uncertainty in the euro area.


t Developed economies export
more than half of world merchandise
exports but saw a decline of
3 per cent in their exports in
2012. In contrast, exports
of developing countries
went up by 4 per cent.


t In South and Central America,
growth of merchandise exports
from both MERCOSUR and the
Andean Community declined
by nearly 30 percentage points
in 2012, from 26 per cent
and 35 per cent growth
in 2011 to -5 per cent and
5 per cent growth in
2012, respectively.


t Merchandise exports of least-
developed countries plunged to
1 per cent growth in 2012, from
25 per cent in 2011. Their share
of world merchandise exports
remains at 1 per cent.


t Growth of merchandise exports
was greater in the BRIC (Brazil,
Russia, India, China), rising by
4.5 per cent in 2012, than in
NAFTA (North American Free Trade
Agreement) or the European Union.


Note: EU – European Union; MERCOSUR – Southern Common Market; NAFTA - North American Free
Trade Agreement; SADC – Southern African Development Community. Percentages represent shares in
world merchandise trade excluding Hong Kong re-exports.


Share in world merchandise
exports 2012




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Merchandise exports recovered
slightly in volume terms in 2012
t World merchandise exports and gross domestic product (GDP) both grew by


2.5 per cent in 2012.


t Africa and North America experienced the highest growth in merchandise
exports in volume terms, recording 6.0 per cent and 4.5 per cent respectively.
The highest growth in imports was recorded by Africa and the Middle East, with
11.5 per cent and 8.0 per cent respectively.


t World merchandise exports and GDP have recorded positive growth since the
2009 economic crisis, but their rates have declined steadily. Merchandise exports
declined from 14.0 per cent to 2.0 per cent between 2010 and 2012 while GDP
fell from 4.0 per cent to 2.0 per cent over the same period.


Where to find more:
Tables I.2


8.6


2%
World merchandise


import volumes grew
by 2% in 2012


2.5%
Asia’s merchandise


export volumes grew
by 2.5% in 2012


14.0


Volume of world merchandise exports
and gross domestic product, 2005–2012




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Exports


US$ 1,546 bn


Imports


US$ 2,336 bn


Russia and Vanuatu,
the two latest members
of the WTO, had export
growth rates of 1 per
cent and -19 per cent
respectively in 2012.


The United States
was the world’s


biggest merchandise
trader in 2012


China in close pursuit of US as
leading merchandise trader
t The United States is still the world’s biggest trader in merchandise, with imports


and exports totalling US$ 3,881 billion in 2012. Its trade deficit amounts to
US$ 790 billion, 4.9 per cent of its GDP.


t China follows closely behind the United States, with merchandise trade
totalling US$ 3,867 billion in 2012. China’s trade surplus was US$ 230 billion
(2.8 per cent of its GDP). Germany is in third place, with a trade surplus of
US$ 240 billion in 2012, 7.0 per cent of its GDP.


t Most EU countries saw declines in their merchandise exports in 2012 due to
structural problems in the euro area.


Where to find more:
www.wto.org/its2013: Tables A6
and A7


Leading merchandise traders, 2012




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2%
Growth in exports


of world commercial
services in 2012


Exports of commercial services
slow as European trade declines
t World exports of commercial services rose by 2 per cent, to US$ 4,350 billion, in


2012 largely due to a decline in European trade.


t Europe’s exports of commercial services declined by 2 per cent in 2012, following
a recovery in 2011, due to the region’s financial instability and depressed
economy. European economies accounted for 47 per cent of global exports of
commercial services in 2012. Exports of commercial services also slowed in
other regions. In Asia and North America, exports expanded by 6 per cent and 5
per cent respectively in 2012, roughly half of the growth recorded in 2011.


t The Middle East was the most dynamic region, with exports of commercial
services increasing by 13 per cent in 2012, followed by the Commonwealth of
Independent States with 9 per cent. Africa’s exports rose by 6 per cent in 2012
following stagnation in 2011.


Where to find more:
Table I.3


Growth in exports of commercial
services by region, 2011–2012


-2%
Decline of Europe’s


commercial services
exports in 2012




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Germany


-6%
France


-3%
United Kingdom


Leading European exporters see
decline in commercial services
t Exports of commercial services by leading European traders declined significantly


in 2012 due to the region’s depressed economy. The United Kingdom, the world’s
second-largest services exporter, saw exports decline by 3 per cent while Germany’s
exports contracted by 1 per cent. France saw a more pronounced decline, with
exports down by 6 per cent. Europe’s decline in exports was largely due to a 2 per
cent decrease in exports of “other commercial services”, in particular “other business
services” and financial services.


t Exports of commercial services by other major traders continued to grow in 2012,
although at a slower pace than in the previous year. In the United States, the
world’s leading exporter of commercial services, exports rose by 6 per cent.


t In Asia, China’s exports of commercial services rose by 8 per cent in 2012, India’s
by 3 per cent and in Hong Kong, China, exports rose by 5 per cent. Japan was
the only large exporter of services in the region to record stagnant growth.


Where to find more:
Table I.9


Growth in exports of commercial
services by country, 2011–2012


Change in exports
of commercial


services in 2012




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List of tables
I. World trade developments
1. Overview


Table I.1 Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, 2005-2012 19


Table I.2 Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade by selected region and economy, 2005-2012 19


2. Trade by region


Table I.3 World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services by region and selected economy, 2005-2012 20


Table I.4 Intra- and inter-regional merchandise trade, 2012 21


Table I.5 World merchandise exports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983,
1993, 2003 and 2012 22


Table I.6 World merchandise imports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983,
1993, 2003 and 2012 23


3. Leading traders


Table I.7 Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade, 2012 24


Table I.8 Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade (excluding intra-EU (27) trade), 2012 25


Table I.9 Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services, 2012 26


Table I.10 Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services (excluding intra-EU (27) trade), 2012 27


4. Bilateral trade of leading traders


Table I.11 Merchandise trade of Canada by origin and destination, 2012 28


Table I.12 Merchandise trade of the United States by origin and destination, 2012 29


Table I.13 Merchandise trade of the European Union (27) by origin and destination, 2012 30


Table I.14 Merchandise trade of Japan by origin and destination, 2012 31


Table I.15 Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011 32


5. Regional trade agreements


Table I.16 Merchandise trade of NAFTA countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012 35


Table I.17 Merchandise trade of MERCOSUR countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012 36


Table I.18 Merchandise trade of Andean Community countries by major product group and
by origin/destination, 2012 37


Table I.19 Merchandise trade of ASEAN countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012 38


6. Least-developed countries


Table I.20 Ratio of exports of goods and commercial services to GDP of the least-developed countries, 2012 39


Table I.21 Merchandise exports and imports of least-developed countries, 2012 40


Table I.22 Imports of agricultural products, fuels and manufactures of the European Union (27),
Asia and North America from the least-developed countries, 2012 41


Table I.23 Exports of commercial services of the least-developed countries by category, 2012 42


7. Foreign affiliates statistics


Table I.24 Sales by affiliates of foreign companies - resident affiliates primarily engaged in services
activities (inward FATS), 2005-2010 43


Table I.25 Sales by foreign affiliates of resident companies - affiliates located abroad primarily engaged
in services activities (outward FATS), 2007-2010 44


Table I.26 Services supplied by United States affiliates established abroad (outward FATS) and by foreign
affiliates in the United States (inward FATS) by economy of affiliate, 2010 45




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1. Overview


Table I.1


(Annual percentage change)


2005-12 2010 2011 2012


World merchandise exports 3.5 14.0 5.5 2.5
Agricultural products 4.0 7.5 6.0 2.0
Fuels and mining products 2.0 5.5 2.5 2.5
Manufactures 4.0 18.0 7.0 2.5


World merchandise production 2.0 6.5 2.5 2.0
Agriculture 2.0 0.0 2.0 1.5
Mining 1.0 2.0 1.5 3.0
Manufacturing 2.5 9.0 3.0 2.0


World GDP 2.0 4.0 2.5 2.0


Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, 2005-2012


Note : See the Metadata for the estimation of world aggregates of merchandise exports, production and GDP.


Table I.2


(Annual percentage change)


2005-12 2011 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


3.5 5.5 2.5 World 3.5 5.0 2.0


3.5 6.5 4.5 North America 1.5 4.5 3.0
-0.5 6.5 3.0 Canada 2.0 6.0 1.5
4.5 4.5 8.5 Mexico 4.5 6.5 7.5
4.5 7.0 4.0 United States 0.5 4.0 3.0


1.5 7.0 0.5 South and Central America 8.5 13.0 2.5


2.0 5.5 1.0 Europe 1.0 3.0 -2.0
2.0 5.5 0.5 European Union (27) 0.5 2.5 -2.0


-1.0 -3.5 1.0 Norway 3.0 4.5 -0.5
2.5 8.0 0.5 Switzerland 2.0 2.5 -1.5


3.0 2.0 1.5 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 8.5 17.0 6.5


7.0 6.5 2.5 Asia 6.0 6.5 3.5
3.0 0.5 2.5 Australia 5.5 7.0 5.0


11.0 9.0 6.0 China 10.0 9.0 3.5
-1.0 7.0 29.0 Hong Kong, China 5.0 7.0 3.0
10.5 15.0 -0.5 India 13.5 9.5 7.0
2.5 -0.5 -1.0 Japan 1.0 4.0 3.5
4.5 7.5 1.0 Six East Asian traders a 3.0 4.0 2.0


Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade by selected region and economy, 2005-2012


a Hong Kong, China; Malaysia; Republic of Korea; Singapore; Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) and Thailand.


Imports Exports




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Exports Imports


2005-12 2011 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Merchandise
8 20 0 World 8 19 0
7 16 4 North America 5 15 3
8 16 4 United States 4 15 3
3 17 1 Canada 6 15 2


11 28 -1 South and Central America 14 26 3
11 27 -5 Brazil 17 24 -2
10 23 -4 Argentina 13 31 -7
5 18 -4 Europe 5 17 -6
5 18 -4 European Union (27) 5 17 -6
8 20 -4 Switzerland 7 18 -5


13 34 2 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 15 30 5
12 30 1 Russian Federation 15 30 4
10 33 0 Ukraine 13 36 2
11 17 5 Africa 13 19 8
8 21 -11 South Africa 10 29 2


13 36 1 Nigeria a 14 27 -9
14 40 6 Middle East 12 17 9
12 45 6 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 15 23 18
17 41 16 United Arab Emirates a 15 23 13
11 18 2 Asia 12 23 4
15 20 8 China 16 25 4
4 7 -3 Japan 8 23 4


Commercial services
8 11 2 World 8 12 3
7 9 5 North America 6 8 3
8 9 6 United States 6 7 4
5 9 -1 Canada 7 10 1


10 19 4 South and Central America 15 23 7
14 20 5 Brazil 19 22 7
13 14 -2 Argentina 14 21 5
7 12 -2 Europe 6 10 -2
6 12 -2 European Union (27) 6 10 -3
9 15 -4 Switzerland 11 24 4


14 20 9 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 14 18 18
13 22 7 Russian Federation 16 22 19
11 14 3 Ukraine 10 5 7
7 0 6 Africa 12 12 1
6 -19 12 Egypt 7 1 18
4 6 2 South Africa 5 7 -11


… 11 13 Middle East … 14 6
19 9 18 United Arab Emirates 19 35 13
… 7 -5 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of … 8 -9
… 12 6 Asia … 14 8
14 9 8 China 19 23 18
4 3 0 Japan 4 6 5


a Secretariat estimates.


World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services by region and selected economy, 2005-2012


Table I.3


(Annual percentage change)


2. Trade by region




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Table I.4


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Origin
North


America


South and
Central
America Europe CIS Africa Middle East Asia World


Value
World 3035 787 6564 550 580 714 5333 17930
North America 1151 217 380 18 38 75 488 2371
South and Central America 187 202 128 8 21 17 172 750
Europe 492 124 4383 245 211 208 643 6385
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 37 7 430 149 14 20 127 805
Africa 74 30 240 2 81 17 160 630
Middle East 118 11 148 7 39 116 732 1349
Asia 975 196 855 121 177 260 3012 5640
Share of regional trade flows in each region's total merchandise exports
World 16.9 4.4 36.6 3.1 3.2 4.0 29.7 100.0
North America 48.6 9.1 16.0 0.8 1.6 3.2 20.6 100.0
South and Central America 24.9 26.9 17.0 1.1 2.8 2.3 23.0 100.0
Europe 7.7 1.9 68.6 3.8 3.3 3.3 10.1 100.0
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 4.6 0.9 53.4 18.5 1.7 2.5 15.7 100.0
Africa 11.7 4.8 38.2 0.3 12.8 2.7 25.3 100.0
Middle East 8.7 0.8 11.0 0.5 2.9 8.6 54.2 100.0
Asia 17.3 3.5 15.2 2.1 3.1 4.6 53.4 100.0
Share of each region's exports in world merchandise exports to the region
World 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
North America 37.9 27.6 5.8 3.3 6.5 10.5 9.2 13.2
South and Central America 6.2 25.6 1.9 1.5 3.6 2.4 3.2 4.2
Europe 16.2 15.7 66.8 44.6 36.3 29.2 12.0 35.6
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1.2 0.9 6.6 27.0 2.4 2.8 2.4 4.5
Africa 2.4 3.9 3.7 0.3 13.9 2.4 3.0 3.5
Middle East 3.9 1.4 2.3 1.3 6.8 16.2 13.7 7.5
Asia 32.1 24.9 13.0 21.9 30.4 36.5 56.5 31.5
Share of regional trade flows in world merchandise exports
World 16.9 4.4 36.6 3.1 3.2 4.0 29.7 100.0
North America 6.4 1.2 2.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 2.7 13.2
South and Central America 1.0 1.1 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 4.2
Europe 2.7 0.7 24.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 3.6 35.6
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0.2 0.0 2.4 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.7 4.5
Africa 0.4 0.2 1.3 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.9 3.5
Middle East 0.7 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.6 4.1 7.5
Asia 5.4 1.1 4.8 0.7 1.0 1.5 16.8 31.5


Intra- and inter-regional merchandise trade, 2012


Destination




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Table I.5


1948 1953 1963 1973 1983 1993 2003 2012


Value


World 59 84 157 579 1838 3677 7380 17930
Share


World 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
North America 28.1 24.8 19.9 17.3 16.8 18.0 15.8 13.2


United States 21.7 18.8 14.9 12.3 11.2 12.6 9.8 8.6
Canada 5.5 5.2 4.3 4.6 4.2 3.9 3.7 2.5
Mexico 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.4 1.4 1.4 2.2 2.1


South and Central America 11.3 9.7 6.4 4.3 4.4 3.0 3.0 4.2
Brazil 2.0 1.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.4
Argentina 2.8 1.3 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5


Europe 35.1 39.4 47.8 50.9 43.5 45.3 45.9 35.6
Germany a 1.4 5.3 9.3 11.7 9.2 10.3 10.2 7.8
France 3.4 4.8 5.2 6.3 5.2 6.0 5.3 3.2
Italy 1.8 1.8 3.2 3.8 4.0 4.6 4.1 2.8
United Kingdom 11.3 9.0 7.8 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.1 2.6


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) b - - - - - 1.5 2.6 4.5
Africa 7.3 6.5 5.7 4.8 4.5 2.5 2.4 3.5


South Africa c 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.5
Middle East 2.0 2.7 3.2 4.1 6.8 3.5 4.1 7.5
Asia 14.0 13.4 12.5 14.9 19.1 26.1 26.1 31.5


China 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.2 2.5 5.9 11.4
Japan 0.4 1.5 3.5 6.4 8.0 9.9 6.4 4.5
India 2.2 1.3 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.6
Australia and New Zealand 3.7 3.2 2.4 2.1 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.6
Six East Asian Traders 3.4 3.0 2.5 3.6 5.8 9.7 9.6 9.7


Memorandum item:
EU d - - 24.5 37.0 31.3 37.4 42.3 32.4
USSR, Former 2.2 3.5 4.6 3.7 5.0 - - -
GATT/WTO Members e 63.4 69.6 75.0 84.1 78.4 89.3 94.3 96.6


Note: Between 1973 and 1983 and between 1993 and 2003 export shares were significantly influenced by oil price developments.


World merchandise exports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2012


b Figures are significantly affected by including the mutual trade flows of the Baltic States and the CIS between 1993 and 2003.
c Beginning with 1998, figures refer to South Africa only and no longer to the Southern African Customs Union.


e Membership as of the year stated.


a Figures refer to the Fed. Rep. of Germany from 1948 through 1983.


(Billion dollars and percentage)


d Figures refer to the EEC(6) in 1963, EC(9) in 1973, EC(10) in 1983, EU(12) in 1993, EU(25) in 2003 and EU(27) in 2012.




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Table I.6


1948 1953 1963 1973 1983 1993 2003 2012


Value


World 62 85 164 594 1882 3787 7696 18188
Share


World 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
North America 18.5 20.5 16.1 17.2 18.5 21.4 22.4 17.6


United States 13.0 13.9 11.4 12.3 14.3 15.9 16.9 12.8
Canada 4.4 5.5 3.9 4.2 3.4 3.7 3.2 2.6
Mexico 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.7 1.8 2.3 2.1


South and Central America 10.4 8.3 6.0 4.4 3.8 3.3 2.5 4.1
Brazil 1.8 1.6 0.9 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.3
Argentina 2.5 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.4


Europe 45.3 43.7 52.0 53.3 44.2 44.6 45.0 35.9
Germany a 2.2 4.5 8.0 9.2 8.1 9.0 7.9 6.4
France 5.5 4.9 5.3 6.4 5.6 5.7 5.2 3.7
Italy 2.5 2.8 4.6 4.7 4.2 3.9 3.9 2.7
United Kingdom 13.4 11.0 8.5 6.5 5.3 5.5 5.2 3.8


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) b - - - - - 1.2 1.7 3.1
Africa 8.1 7.0 5.2 3.9 4.6 2.6 2.2 3.4


South Africa c 2.5 1.5 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7
Middle East 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.7 6.2 3.3 2.8 4.1
Asia 13.9 15.1 14.1 14.9 18.5 23.6 23.5 31.8


China 0.6 1.6 0.9 0.9 1.1 2.7 5.4 10.0
Japan 1.1 2.8 4.1 6.5 6.7 6.4 5.0 4.9
India 2.3 1.4 1.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.9 2.7
Australia and New Zealand 2.9 2.3 2.2 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.6
Six East Asian Traders 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.9 6.1 10.3 8.6 9.6


Memorandum item:
EU d - - - - - - 41.8 32.6
USSR, Former 1.9 3.3 4.3 3.6 4.3 - - -
GATT/WTO Members e 58.6 66.9 75.3 85.5 81.3 88.7 94.8 97.6


Note: Between 1973 and 1983 and between 1993 and 2003 export shares were significantly influenced by oil price developments.


World merchandise imports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2012


b Figures are significantly affected by including the mutual trade flows of the Baltic States and the CIS between 1993 and 2003.
c Beginning with 1998, figures refer to South Africa only and no longer to the Southern African Customs Union.


e Membership as of the year stated.


a Figures refer to the Fed. Rep. of Germany from 1948 through 1983.


(Billion dollars and percentage)


d Figures refer to the EEC(6) in 1963, EC(9) in 1973, EC(10) in 1983, EU(12) in 1993, EU(25) in 2003 and EU(27) in 2012.




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3. Leading traders


Rank Exporters Value Share


Annual
percentage


change Rank Importers Value Share


Annual
percentage


change


1 China 2049 11.1 8 1 United States 2336 12.6 3
2 United States 1546 8.4 4 2 China 1818 9.8 4
3 Germany 1407 7.6 -5 3 Germany 1167 6.3 -7
4 Japan 799 4.3 -3 4 Japan 886 4.8 4
5 Netherlands 656 3.6 -2 5 United Kingdom 690 3.7 2
6 France 569 3.1 -5 6 France 674 3.6 -6
7 Korea, Republic of 548 3.0 -1 7 Netherlands 591 3.2 -1
8 Russian Federation 529 2.9 1 8 Hong Kong, China 553 3.0 8
9 Italy 501 2.7 -4 retained imports 140 0.8 6
10 Hong Kong, China 493 2.7 8


domestic exports 22 0.1 33 9 Korea, Republic of 520 2.8 -1
re-exports 471 2.6 7 10 India 490 2.6 5


11 United Kingdom 474 2.6 -6 11 Italy 487 2.6 -13
12 Canada 455 2.5 1 12 Canada a 475 2.6 2
13 Belgium 447 2.4 -6 13 Belgium 437 2.4 -6
14 Singapore 408 2.2 0 14 Mexico 380 2.0 5


domestic exports 228 1.2 2 15 Singapore 380 2.0 4
re-exports 180 1.0 -3 retained imports 199 1.1 11


15 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 388 2.1 6
16 Mexico 371 2.0 6 16 Russian Federation a 335 1.8 4
17 United Arab Emirates b 350 1.9 16 17 Spain 335 1.8 -11
18 Chinese Taipei 301 1.6 -2 18 Chinese Taipei 270 1.5 -4
19 India 294 1.6 -3 19 Australia 261 1.4 7
20 Spain 294 1.6 -4 20 Thailand 248 1.3 8
21 Australia 257 1.4 -5 21 Turkey 237 1.3 -2
22 Brazil 243 1.3 -5 22 Brazil 233 1.3 -2
23 Thailand 230 1.2 3 23 United Arab Emirates b 230 1.2 13
24 Malaysia 227 1.2 0 24 Switzerland 198 1.1 -5
25 Switzerland 226 1.2 -4 25 Malaysia 197 1.1 5
26 Indonesia 188 1.0 -6 26 Poland 196 1.1 -7
27 Poland 183 1.0 -3 27 Indonesia 190 1.0 8
28 Sweden 172 0.9 -8 28 Austria 178 1.0 -7
29 Austria 166 0.9 -6 29 Sweden 163 0.9 -8
30 Norway 161 0.9 0 30 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 156 0.8 18
31 Czech Republic 157 0.9 -4 31 Czech Republic 141 0.8 -7
32 Turkey 152 0.8 13 32 South Africa 124 0.7 2
33 Qatar 133 0.7 16 33 Viet Nam 114 0.6 7
34 Kuwait 119 0.6 16 34 Hungary 95 0.5 -7
35 Ireland 117 0.6 -7 35 Denmark 92 0.5 -4
36 Nigeria b 116 0.6 1 36 Norway 87 0.5 -4
37 Viet Nam 115 0.6 18 37 Ukraine 85 0.5 2
38 Denmark 106 0.6 -6 38 Chile 79 0.4 6
39 Iran b 104 0.6 -21 39 Slovak Republic 78 0.4 -2
40 Hungary 104 0.6 -7 40 Finland 76 0.4 -10
41 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 97 0.5 5 41 Israel 75 0.4 -1
42 Iraq b 94 0.5 13 42 Portugal 72 0.4 -12
43 Kazakhstan 92 0.5 5 43 Romania 70 0.4 -8
44 South Africa 87 0.5 -11 44 Egypt 69 0.4 11
45 Slovak Republic 81 0.4 2 45 Argentina 69 0.4 -7
46 Argentina 81 0.4 -4 46 Philippines 65 0.4 3
47 Chile 78 0.4 -4 47 Greece 63 0.3 -6
48 Angola b 74 0.4 10 48 Ireland 63 0.3 -6
49 Finland 73 0.4 -8 49 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of b 60 0.3 27
50 Algeria 72 0.4 -2 50 Colombia 59 0.3 8


Total of above c 16985 92.3 - Total of above c 16948 91.1 -
World c 18401 100.0 0 World c 18601 100.0 1


a Imports are valued f.o.b.
b Secretariat estimates.
c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.
Note : For annual data 2002-2012, see Appendix A6 and A7


Table I.7


Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)




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Annual
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change


1 Extra-EU (27) exports 2167 14.7 0 1 United States 2336 15.6 3
2 China 2049 13.9 8 2 Extra-EU (27) 2301 15.4 -4
3 United States 1546 10.5 4 3 China 1818 12.2 4
4 Japan 799 5.4 -3 4 Japan 886 5.9 4
5 Korea, Republic of 548 3.7 -1 5 Hong Kong, China 553 3.7 8
6 Russian Federation 529 3.6 1 retained imports 140 0.9 6
7 Hong Kong, China 493 3.3 8


domestic exports 22 0.2 33 6 Korea, Republic of 520 3.5 -1
re-exports 471 3.2 7 7 India 490 3.3 5


8 Canada 455 3.1 1 8 Canada a 475 3.2 2
9 Singapore 408 2.8 0 9 Mexico 380 2.5 5


domestic exports 228 1.5 2 10 Singapore 380 2.5 4
re-exports 180 1.2 -3 retained imports 199 1.3 11


10 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 388 2.6 6
11 Mexico 371 2.5 6 11 Russian Federation a 335 2.2 4
12 United Arab Emirates b 350 2.4 16 12 Chinese Taipei 270 1.8 -4
13 Chinese Taipei 301 2.0 -2 13 Australia 261 1.7 7
14 India 294 2.0 -3 14 Thailand 248 1.7 8
15 Australia 257 1.7 -5 15 Turkey 237 1.6 30
16 Brazil 243 1.6 -5 16 Brazil 233 1.6 -2
17 Thailand 230 1.6 3 17 United Arab Emirates b 230 1.5 13
18 Malaysia 227 1.5 0 18 Switzerland 198 1.3 18
19 Switzerland 226 1.5 -4 19 Malaysia 197 1.3 5
20 Indonesia 188 1.3 -6 20 Indonesia 190 1.3 8
21 Norway 161 1.1 0 21 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 156 1.0 18
22 Turkey 152 1.0 13 22 South Africa 124 0.8 2
23 Qatar 133 0.9 16 23 Viet Nam 114 0.8 7
24 Kuwait 119 0.8 16 24 Norway 87 0.6 17
25 Nigeria b 116 0.8 1 25 Ukraine 85 0.6 2
26 Viet Nam 115 0.8 18 26 Chile 79 0.5 6
27 Iran b 104 0.7 -21 27 Israel 75 0.5 -1
28 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 97 0.7 5 28 Egypt 69 0.5 11
29 Iraq b 94 0.6 13 29 Argentina 69 0.5 -7
30 Kazakhstan 92 0.6 5 30 Philippines 65 0.4 3
31 South Africa 87 0.6 -11 31 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 60 0.4 27
32 Argentina 81 0.5 -4 32 Colombia 59 0.4 8
33 Chile 78 0.5 -4 33 Iran 57 0.4 -8
34 Angola b 74 0.5 10 34 Iraq b 57 0.4 16
35 Algeria 72 0.5 -2 35 Nigeria b 51 0.3 -9
36 Ukraine 69 0.5 0 36 Algeria 47 0.3 1
37 Israel 63 0.4 -7 37 Belarus 46 0.3 1
38 Libya 62 0.4 228 38 Morocco 45 0.3 1
39 Colombia 60 0.4 5 39 Kazakhstan 45 0.3 20
40 Oman 52 0.4 11 40 Pakistan 44 0.3 0
41 Philippines 52 0.4 8 41 Peru 43 0.3 13
42 Belarus 46 0.3 11 42 New Zealand 38 0.3 3
43 Peru 46 0.3 -1 43 Qatar b 34 0.2 14
44 New Zealand 37 0.3 -1 44 Bangladesh 34 0.2 -6
45 Azerbaijan 33 0.2 -5 45 Oman b 29 0.2 19
46 Egypt 29 0.2 -7 46 Kuwait 26 0.2 2
47 Bangladesh 25 0.2 3 47 Ecuador 25 0.2 4
48 Pakistan 25 0.2 -3 48 Tunisia 24 0.2 2
49 Ecuador 24 0.2 7 49 Angola a b 24 0.2 19
50 Morocco 21 0.1 -1 50 Panama b 23 0.2 7


Total of above c 14288 96.8 - Total of above c 13714 95.4 -


World (excl. intra-EU (27)) c 14764 100.0 2 World (excl. intra-EU (27)) c 14965 100.0 3


a Imports are valued f.o.b.
b Secretariat estimates.
c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.
Note : For annual data 2002-2012, see Appendix A6 and A7


Table I.8


Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade (excluding intra-EU (27) trade), 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)




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Rank Exporters Value Share


Annual
percentage


change Rank Importers Value Share


Annual
percentage


change


1 United States 621 14.3 6 1 United States 411 9.9 4
2 United Kingdom 280 6.4 -3 2 Germany 293 7.1 -1
3 Germany 257 5.9 -1 3 China 280 6.7 18
4 France 211 4.8 -6 4 Japan 175 4.2 5
5 China 190 4.4 8 5 United Kingdom 174 4.2 0
6 Japan 142 3.3 0 6 France 172 4.1 -9
7 India 141 3.2 3 7 India 127 3.1 3
8 Spain 136 3.1 -4 8 Netherlands 119 2.9 -1
9 Netherlands 131 3.0 -3 9 Singapore 118 2.8 3
10 Hong Kong, China 123 2.8 5 10 Ireland 112 2.7 -3
11 Ireland 116 2.7 2 11 Korea, Republic of 107 2.6 7
12 Singapore a 112 2.6 3 12 Canada 105 2.5 1
13 Korea, Republic of 110 2.5 17 13 Italy 105 2.5 -8
14 Italy 103 2.4 -2 14 Russian Federation 104 2.5 19
15 Belgium 95 2.2 1 15 Belgium 92 2.2 1
16 Switzerland 90 2.1 -4 16 Spain 89 2.1 -5
17 Canada 78 1.8 -1 17 Brazil 78 1.9 7
18 Sweden 76 1.7 2 18 Australia 63 1.5 6
19 Luxembourg 70 1.6 -1 19 United Arab Emirates 63 1.5 13
20 Denmark 65 1.5 -2 20 Denmark 57 1.4 -1
21 Austria 61 1.4 1 21 Hong Kong, China 57 1.4 2
22 Russian Federation 58 1.3 7 22 Sweden 55 1.3 0
23 Australia 52 1.2 2 23 Thailand 53 1.3 1
24 Thailand 49 1.1 19 24 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 50 1.2 -9
25 Chinese Taipei 49 1.1 7 25 Norway 49 1.2 6
26 Macao, China 45 1.0 14 26 Switzerland 47 1.1 4
27 Norway 44 1.0 3 27 Austria 42 1.0 1
28 Turkey 42 1.0 9 28 Chinese Taipei 42 1.0 2
29 Brazil 38 0.9 5 29 Malaysia 42 1.0 11
30 Poland 38 0.9 1 30 Luxembourg 40 1.0 -2
31 Malaysia 38 0.9 5 31 Indonesia 33 0.8 8
32 Greece 34 0.8 -15 32 Poland 32 0.8 -1
33 Israel 30 0.7 11 33 Finland 30 0.7 2
34 Finland 30 0.7 -1 34 Mexico 25 0.6 1
35 Lebanon b 25 0.6 ... 35 Angola b 24 0.6 ...
36 Portugal 24 0.6 -8 36 Qatar 22 0.5 42
37 Indonesia 23 0.5 12 37 Nigeria 21 0.5 -7
38 Czech Republic 22 0.5 -5 38 Israel 20 0.5 6
39 Egypt 21 0.5 12 39 Iran b 20 0.5 ...
40 Hungary 20 0.5 -7 40 Turkey 19 0.5 -3


Total of above 3885 89.4 - Total of above 3570 85.9 -
World 4350 100.0 2 World 4150 100.0 3


Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services, 2012


Note: Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. Annual percentage changes and rankings are affected by continuity breaks in the series for a large number of
economies, and by limitations in cross-country comparability. See the Metadata. For annual data 2002-2012, see Appendix Tables A8 and A9.


b Secretariat estimate.


Table I.9


(Billion dollars and percentage)


a Does not include merchanting.




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Annual
percentage


change


1 Extra-EU (27) exports 831 24.8 0 1 Extra-EU (27) imports 651 20.1 -2
2 United States 621 18.6 6 2 United States 411 12.7 4
3 China 190 5.7 8 3 China 280 8.7 18
4 Japan 142 4.3 0 4 Japan 175 5.4 5
5 India 141 4.2 3 5 India 127 3.9 3
6 Hong Kong, China 123 3.7 5 6 Singapore 118 3.6 3
7 Singapore a 112 3.3 3 7 Korea, Republic of 107 3.3 7
8 Korea, Republic of 110 3.3 17 8 Canada 105 3.3 1
9 Switzerland 90 2.7 -4 9 Russian Federation 104 3.2 19
10 Canada 78 2.3 -1 10 Brazil 78 2.4 7
11 Russian Federation 58 1.7 7 11 Australia 63 1.9 6
12 Australia 52 1.6 2 12 United Arab Emirates 63 1.9 13
13 Thailand 49 1.5 19 13 Hong Kong, China 57 1.8 2
14 Chinese Taipei 49 1.5 7 14 Thailand 53 1.6 1
15 Macao, China 45 1.4 14 15 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 50 1.5 -9
16 Norway 44 1.3 3 16 Norway 49 1.5 6
17 Turkey 42 1.3 9 17 Switzerland 47 1.4 4
18 Brazil 38 1.1 5 18 Chinese Taipei 42 1.3 2
19 Malaysia 38 1.1 5 19 Malaysia 42 1.3 11
20 Israel 30 0.9 11 20 Indonesia 33 1.0 8
21 Lebanon b 25 0.7 ... 21 Mexico 25 0.8 1
22 Indonesia 23 0.7 12 22 Angola b 24 0.7 ...
23 Egypt 21 0.6 12 23 Qatar 22 0.7 42
24 Ukraine 19 0.6 3 24 Nigeria 21 0.6 -7
25 Philippines 18 0.6 4 25 Israel 20 0.6 6
26 Mexico 16 0.5 5 26 Iran b 20 0.6 ...
27 Argentina 15 0.4 -2 27 Turkey 19 0.6 -3
28 South Africa 15 0.4 2 28 Argentina 18 0.6 5
29 United Arab Emirates 14 0.4 18 29 Kuwait 18 0.6 11
30 Morocco 13 0.4 -3 30 South Africa 17 0.5 -11
31 Chile 13 0.4 -4 31 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 17 0.5 14
32 Croatia 12 0.4 -5 32 Egypt 15 0.5 18
33 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 11 0.3 -5 33 Chile 15 0.5 -4
34 Cuba 10 0.3 -7 34 Philippines 14 0.4 17
35 New Zealand 10 0.3 -1 35 Ukraine 14 0.4 7
36 Kuwait 10 0.3 2 36 Kazakhstan 13 0.4 17
37 Viet Nam 9 0.3 11 37 Viet Nam 12 0.4 6
38 Qatar 9 0.3 59 38 Lebanon b 12 0.4 ...
39 Panama 9 0.3 23 39 Iraq b 11 0.3 ...
40 Iran b 9 0.3 ... 40 Algeria 11 0.3 -8


Total of above 3165 94.4 - Total of above 2995 92.6 -
World (excl. intra-EU (27)) 3350 100.0 4 World (excl. intra-EU (27)) 3235 100.0 5


Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services (excluding intra-EU (27) trade), 2012


Note: Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. Annual percentage changes and rankings are affected by continuity breaks in the series for a large number of
economies, and by limitations in cross-country comparability. See the Metadata. For annual data 2002-2012, see Appendix Tables A8 and A9.


a Does not include merchanting.


Table I.10


(Billion dollars and percentage)


b Secretariat estimate.




28 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table I.11


(Million dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Origin Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Region Region
World 454794 100.0 100.0 17 1 World 474920 100.0 100.0 15 2
North America 343278 84.6 75.5 15 2 North America 270065 61.3 56.9 13 4
Asia 48491 6.5 10.7 29 -2 Asia 97740 17.3 20.6 12 4
Europe 42714 6.5 9.4 19 -7 Europe 61135 14.0 12.9 16 -3
South and Central America 8561 1.1 1.9 19 -1 South and Central America 17259 3.1 3.6 21 -10
Middle East 4404 0.5 1.0 10 20 Africa 8828 1.0 1.9 50 11
Africa 3839 0.5 0.8 7 9 Middle East 13838 1.8 2.9 51 -7
CIS 2063 0.0 0.5 25 8 CIS 6055 0.1 1.3 7 18


Economy Economy
United States 337830 83.9 74.3 15 2 United States 234032 55.1 49.3 13 5
European Union (27) 38495 5.7 8.5 21 -5 China 50757 7.6 10.7 13 4
China 19364 1.7 4.3 32 14 European Union (27) 50568 11.8 10.6 13 -4
Japan 10361 2.1 2.3 21 -4 Mexico 25523 3.7 5.4 16 3
Mexico 5393 0.8 1.2 14 -2 Japan 15042 3.8 3.2 1 14


Above 5 411443 94.2 90.5 - - Above 5 375922 81.9 79.2 - -
Korea, Republic of 3720 0.6 0.8 43 -28 Korea, Republic of 6380 1.4 1.3 12 -4
Brazil 2580 0.3 0.6 15 -10 Algeria 5987 1.1 1.3 59 8
Hong Kong, China 2460 0.3 0.5 64 -18 Chinese Taipei 4589 1.0 1.0 29 -8
India 2358 0.2 0.5 33 -11 Brazil 4025 0.8 0.8 23 3
Norway 2323 0.4 0.5 15 -18 Iraq 4007 0.3 0.8 34 61
Australia 2040 0.4 0.4 13 6 Norway 3751 1.6 0.8 59 -15
Indonesia 1682 0.2 0.4 61 1 Peru 3687 0.3 0.8 26 -17
Russian Federation 1653 0.1 0.4 31 9 Switzerland 3577 0.5 0.8 12 12
Chinese Taipei 1466 0.3 0.3 41 -17 Canada b 3365 0.9 0.7 4 -15
United Arab Emirates 1451 0.1 0.3 24 6 Kazakhstan 3076 0.0 0.6 30 7
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 1369 0.1 0.3 -9 58 India 2859 0.5 0.6 24 12
Singapore 896 0.1 0.2 0 10 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 2852 0.4 0.6 41 3
Switzerland 867 0.2 0.2 -23 -25 Thailand 2635 0.5 0.6 16 -2
Turkey 850 0.1 0.2 57 -34 Malaysia 2228 0.7 0.5 -3 3
Colombia 829 0.1 0.2 23 8 Argentina 2223 0.1 0.5 58 -7
Chile 790 0.1 0.2 45 -4 Australia 2080 0.4 0.4 14 17
Malaysia 784 0.1 0.2 1 2 Nigeria 2008 0.0 0.4 55 -20
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 741 0.2 0.2 13 21 Angola 1931 0.1 0.4 57 -22
Thailand 717 0.1 0.2 34 -15 Chile 1679 0.4 0.4 6 -13
South Africa 635 0.1 0.1 52 -8 Viet Nam 1619 0.1 0.3 18 20
Peru 537 0.1 0.1 13 3 Turkey 1480 0.2 0.3 64 31
Bangladesh 525 0.0 0.1 -4 -6 Singapore 1426 0.2 0.3 42 -9
Philippines 523 0.1 0.1 -16 -4 Indonesia 1314 0.2 0.3 18 -9
Bahamas 504 0.0 0.1 -13 281 Azerbaijan 1233 0.0 0.3 -17 180
Egypt 448 0.1 0.1 18 -38 Israel 1146 0.2 0.2 2 15
Cuba 422 0.1 0.1 23 -10 Bangladesh 1129 0.1 0.2 32 5
Algeria 420 0.1 0.1 -14 68 Russian Federation 1109 0.4 0.2 -19 -15
Iraq 395 0.0 0.1 -18 111 Philippines 992 0.2 0.2 7 7
New Zealand 385 0.1 0.1 23 0 South Africa 691 0.2 0.1 34 -26
Viet Nam 370 0.0 0.1 32 9 Colombia 665 0.1 0.1 16 -18
Morocco 369 0.0 0.1 67 22 Cambodia 599 0.0 0.1 52 13
Trinidad and Tobago 330 0.0 0.1 19 -4 Cuba 540 0.1 0.1 12 -24
Nigeria 327 0.0 0.1 6 43 New Zealand 535 0.1 0.1 28 -4
Sri Lanka 322 0.0 0.1 -10 5 Egypt 516 0.0 0.1 57 13
Argentina 300 0.0 0.1 81 -40 Costa Rica 514 0.1 0.1 14 7


Above 40 447831 99.1 98.5 - - Above 40 454368 95.6 95.7 - -


b In 2012, Canada reported imports from Canada accounting for nearly 1 percent of its total merchandise imports.
a Imports are valued f.o.b.


Merchandise trade of Canada by origin and destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change


Annual
percentage


change Share Share


Exports Imports a


4. Bilateral trade of leading traders




29World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table I.12


(Million dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Origin Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Region Region
World 1545709 100.0 100.0 16 4 World 2335537 100.0 100.0 15 3
North America 509044 36.9 32.9 16 6 Asia 896416 36.8 38.4 10 6
Asia 422283 26.6 27.3 13 2 North America 608137 26.8 26.0 14 4
Europe 313803 22.6 20.3 14 -1 Europe 430332 20.0 18.4 16 3
South and Central America 180046 7.9 11.6 21 8 South and Central America 177606 7.5 7.6 31 -1
Middle East 69602 3.5 4.5 20 19 Africa 119609 3.8 5.1 38 13
Africa 33144 1.7 2.1 16 0 Middle East 68484 3.9 2.9 8 -28
CIS 15333 0.7 1.0 40 19 CIS 34953 0.1 1.5 30 -17


Economy Economy
Canada 291675 23.5 18.9 13 4 China 444407 15.0 19.0 9 6
European Union (27) 265743 20.8 17.2 12 -1 European Union (27) 389061 18.4 16.7 15 4
Mexico 216331 13.3 14.0 21 10 Canada 327482 16.8 14.0 14 3
China 110590 4.6 7.2 13 6 Mexico 280017 10.0 12.0 14 6
Japan 70043 6.1 4.5 9 6 Japan 150401 8.2 6.4 7 14


Above 5 954381 68.4 61.7 - - Above 5 1591369 68.4 68.1 - -
Brazil 43717 1.7 2.8 21 2 Korea, Republic of 60979 2.6 2.6 16 4
Korea, Republic of 42318 3.1 2.7 12 -3 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 57327 1.7 2.5 49 18
Hong Kong, China 37446 1.8 2.4 37 3 India 41910 1.1 1.8 22 12
Australia 31192 1.8 2.0 26 13 Chinese Taipei 40215 2.1 1.7 15 -6
Singapore 30537 2.3 2.0 8 -3 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 39343 2.0 1.7 31 -10
Switzerland 26121 1.2 1.7 18 7 Brazil 33227 1.5 1.4 30 2
Chinese Taipei 24369 2.4 1.6 -1 -6 Russian Federation 30137 0.9 1.3 34 -15
United Arab Emirates 22563 0.9 1.5 37 42 Thailand 27052 1.2 1.2 9 5
India 22336 0.9 1.4 13 3 Malaysia 26652 2.0 1.1 -1 1
Chile 18886 0.6 1.2 46 19 Switzerland 26234 0.8 1.1 28 5
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 18118 0.8 1.2 19 31 Colombia 25225 0.5 1.1 46 6
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 17631 0.7 1.1 16 43 Israel 22344 1.0 1.0 10 -4
Colombia 16395 0.6 1.1 19 15 Viet Nam 21370 0.4 0.9 16 16
Israel 14270 1.1 0.9 24 2 Singapore 20455 0.9 0.9 9 6
Malaysia 12851 1.2 0.8 2 -10 Iraq 19638 0.6 0.8 38 13
Turkey 12527 0.5 0.8 39 -14 Nigeria 19523 1.4 0.8 10 -43
Thailand 10953 0.8 0.7 22 0 Indonesia 18840 0.7 0.8 15 -6
Russian Federation 10668 0.4 0.7 39 29 Kuwait 13346 0.3 0.6 43 67
Argentina 10336 0.5 0.7 33 5 Costa Rica 12303 0.2 0.5 16 19
Panama 9918 0.2 0.6 36 20 Algeria 10201 0.6 0.4 0 -32
Peru 9357 0.3 0.6 23 12 Chile 10097 0.4 0.4 27 4
Philippines 8060 0.8 0.5 4 5 Angola 10030 0.5 0.4 13 -27
Indonesia 8014 0.3 0.5 7 8 Philippines 9910 0.6 0.4 14 5
South Africa 7553 0.4 0.5 30 4 Ecuador 9896 0.4 0.4 28 -1
Costa Rica 7198 0.4 0.5 18 18 Australia 9642 0.4 0.4 18 -7
Dominican Republic 7097 0.5 0.5 12 -3 South Africa 8815 0.3 0.4 16 -9
Ecuador 6564 0.2 0.4 11 9 Trinidad and Tobago 8586 0.5 0.4 21 1
Guatemala 5913 0.3 0.4 39 -5 Norway 6754 0.4 0.3 19 -21
Honduras 5733 0.4 0.4 33 -7 Peru 6680 0.3 0.3 22 2
Egypt 5485 0.4 0.4 -10 -11 Turkey 6605 0.3 0.3 24 21
Gibraltar 5278 0.0 0.3 81 58 Hong Kong, China 5555 0.5 0.2 -1 26
Nigeria 5114 0.2 0.3 19 6 Bangladesh 5107 0.2 0.2 12 1
Viet Nam 4623 0.1 0.3 17 7 Honduras 4855 0.2 0.2 14 3
Bahamas 3597 0.2 0.2 6 5 Guatemala 4844 0.2 0.2 28 10
Qatar 3577 0.1 0.2 -12 28 Argentina 4578 0.3 0.2 18 -3


Above 40 1480697 96.3 95.8 - - Above 40 2269643 96.7 97.2 - -


Annual
percentage


change


Merchandise trade of the United States by origin and destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change Share Share


Exports Imports




30 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics


Table I.13


(Million dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Origin Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Region Region
World 5803285 100.0 100.0 18 -4 World 5937635 100.0 100.0 17 -6
Europe 4019799 73.5 69.3 17 -7 Europe 3957716 70.3 66.7 16 -7
Asia 578903 7.5 10.0 21 0 Asia 765402 12.3 12.9 10 -9
North America 445691 8.9 7.7 15 3 CIS 350954 5.6 5.9 35 -2
CIS 220446 2.5 3.8 30 5 North America 324154 4.2 5.5 20 -2
Africa 191568 2.6 3.3 15 3 Africa 237717 3.1 4.0 16 14
Middle East 158566 2.7 2.7 16 -1 South and Central America 121756 1.8 2.1 23 -9
South and Central America 113333 1.3 2.0 21 3 Middle East 119435 2.0 2.0 47 -15


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 3636531 67.7 62.7 16 -7 European Union (27) a 3636531 65.2 61.2 16 -7
United States 375033 7.7 6.5 14 2 China 372505 4.7 6.3 9 -9
China 184835 1.6 3.2 26 -3 Russian Federation 273889 3.3 4.6 31 -2
Switzerland 171317 2.5 3.0 33 -12 United States 263642 4.8 4.4 16 -1
Russian Federation 158311 1.7 2.7 32 5 Norway 129042 2.0 2.2 25 -1


Above 5 4526027 81.3 78.0 - - Above 5 4675608 80.1 78.7 - -
Turkey 96616 1.4 1.7 25 -5 Switzerland 134297 2.0 2.3 15 4
Japan 71294 1.3 1.2 17 4 Japan 81987 2.2 1.4 8 -15
Norway 64022 1.0 1.1 17 -1 Turkey 61431 1.1 1.0 19 -8
Brazil 50888 0.5 0.9 20 2 India 47918 0.6 0.8 25 -13
India 49426 0.7 0.9 22 -12 Brazil 47656 0.7 0.8 23 -12
Korea, Republic of 48518 0.6 0.8 22 7 Korea, Republic of 48644 1.0 0.8 -4 -3
United Arab Emirates 47696 0.8 0.8 25 3 Canada 38829 0.5 0.7 29 -8
Australia 43482 0.6 0.7 21 0 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 44447 0.7 0.7 83 12
Hong Kong, China 43241 0.6 0.7 19 1 Algeria 41880 0.6 0.7 39 8
Canada 40204 0.7 0.7 17 -3 Nigeria 42318 0.2 0.7 77 25
Singapore 38983 0.5 0.7 17 3 Chinese Taipei 28934 0.7 0.5 5 -14
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 38584 0.5 0.7 20 5 Kazakhstan 31366 0.3 0.5 51 -2
Mexico 35873 0.5 0.6 18 8 Malaysia 26136 0.5 0.4 8 -12
South Africa 34203 0.6 0.6 28 -8 South Africa 26373 0.5 0.4 6 -8
Ukraine 30577 0.4 0.5 29 3 Singapore 27645 0.5 0.5 7 4
Algeria 27023 0.3 0.5 17 12 Thailand 21743 0.4 0.4 7 -12
Israel 21876 0.4 0.4 23 -7 Iran, Islamic Rep. of 7258 0.3 0.1 25 -70
Morocco 21763 0.4 0.4 18 2 Mexico 24879 0.3 0.4 28 6
Chinese Taipei 20296 0.4 0.3 15 -10 Indonesia 19780 0.3 0.3 23 -12
Egypt 19806 0.3 0.3 -1 1 Ukraine 18742 0.3 0.3 38 -11
Thailand 19015 0.2 0.3 23 11 Australia 18604 0.3 0.3 26 -11
Malaysia 18668 0.3 0.3 11 12 Azerbaijan 17797 0.1 0.3 61 -14
Nigeria 14705 0.2 0.3 27 -18 Qatar 13042 0.0 0.2 80 -31
Croatia 14382 0.3 0.2 17 -10 Viet Nam 23787 0.2 0.4 42 32
Tunisia 14272 0.2 0.2 4 -7 Israel 16246 0.3 0.3 20 -8
Indonesia 12398 0.1 0.2 21 21 Chile 12383 0.2 0.2 23 -20
Gibraltar 11928 0.1 0.2 73 7 Hong Kong, China 13550 0.3 0.2 -19 -11
Serbia 11717 0.1 0.2 22 -2 Argentina 12756 0.2 0.2 21 -14
Argentina 10995 0.1 0.2 18 -5 Libya 42104 0.6 0.7 -62 190
Chile 10906 0.1 0.2 33 2 Tunisia 12225 0.2 0.2 9 -11
Belarus 10073 0.1 0.2 14 0 Iraq 16392 0.1 0.3 43 21
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 9452 0.4 0.2 -3 -35 Egypt 10871 0.2 0.2 39 -19
Kazakhstan 8880 0.1 0.2 20 7 United Arab Emirates 10656 0.3 0.2 61 -15
Lebanon 8566 0.1 0.1 18 16 Morocco 11738 0.3 0.2 20 -5
Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela 8394 0.1 0.1 24 23 Bangladesh 11836 0.1 0.2 36 -2


Above 40 5554749 96.4 95.7 - - Above 40 5741859 97.0 96.7 - -


a The figures are affected by the "INTRASTAT" system of recording trade between EU member States. Intra-EU (27) imports are under-recorded. To compensate for this under-recording, intra-EU (27) exports
have been used to obtain total (World) imports.


Exports Imports


Merchandise trade of the European Union (27) by origin and destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change


Annual
percentage


change Share Share




31World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table I.14


(Million dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Origin Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Region Region
World 798568 100.0 100.0 7 -3 World 885843 100.0 100.0 23 4
Asia 459592 51.0 57.6 7 -5 Asia 453564 49.9 51.2 22 2
North America 162789 25.5 20.4 5 11 Middle East 169740 16.9 19.2 36 5
Europe 89673 15.7 11.2 11 -18 North America 95274 14.9 10.8 12 2
Middle East 28331 2.8 3.5 -3 15 Europe 94823 12.7 10.7 21 3
South and Central America 17122 1.6 2.1 0 -4 South and Central America 28846 2.4 3.3 27 0
CIS 14585 0.9 1.8 50 6 CIS 22057 1.3 2.5 17 10
Africa 10612 1.2 1.3 -2 7 Africa 21266 1.9 2.4 47 24


Economy Economy
China 144208 13.5 18.1 8 -11 China 188435 21.0 21.3 20 2
United States 142040 22.9 17.8 6 11 European Union (27) 83233 11.4 9.4 21 3
European Union (27) 81471 14.8 10.2 10 -15 United States 78213 12.7 8.8 10 3
Korea, Republic of 61538 7.8 7.7 6 -7 Australia 56375 4.7 6.4 27 -1
Chinese Taipei 46019 7.3 5.8 -3 -10 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 54845 5.6 6.2 41 8


Above 5 475276 66.2331 59.516 - - Above 5 461101 55.3437 52.0522 - -
Thailand a 43729 3.8 5.5 10 17 United Arab Emirates 43992 4.9 5.0 46 3
Hong Kong, China 41055 6.0 5.1 2 -4 Korea, Republic of 40593 4.7 4.6 39 2
Singapore 23306 3.1 2.9 8 -14 Qatar 35891 2.1 4.1 38 19
Indonesia 20285 1.5 2.5 11 14 Malaysia 32826 2.8 3.7 34 8
Australia 18422 2.1 2.3 12 3 Indonesia 32274 4.0 3.6 21 -5
Malaysia 17701 2.1 2.2 7 -6 Chinese Taipei 24052 3.5 2.7 1 3
Panama 14198 1.2 1.8 -4 -5 Thailand 23613 3.0 2.7 17 -4
Russian Federation 12589 0.8 1.6 48 7 Russian Federation 20800 1.2 2.3 18 9
Philippines 11850 1.5 1.5 1 6 Kuwait 15267 1.5 1.7 27 16
Viet Nam 10741 0.6 1.3 17 12 Viet Nam 15079 0.9 1.7 41 31
India 10586 0.6 1.3 23 -4 Canada 12659 1.7 1.4 19 -2
Mexico 10483 1.2 1.3 8 2 Brazil 12017 0.9 1.4 29 -5
Canada 10263 1.5 1.3 -4 15 Chile 9353 1.0 1.1 30 -5
United Arab Emirates 8965 0.8 1.1 1 21 Philippines 9324 1.5 1.1 13 4
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 8228 0.7 1.0 0 27 Singapore 8768 1.3 1.0 6 1
Brazil 5926 0.5 0.7 0 -5 Switzerland 8212 1.0 0.9 15 5
Switzerland 4376 0.4 0.5 19 -53 Iran 7966 2.0 0.9 15 -38
South Africa 4061 0.6 0.5 13 -6 India 6998 0.6 0.8 20 3
Oman 3582 0.2 0.4 -11 28 Oman 6863 0.5 0.8 14 33
Turkey 2414 0.4 0.3 20 -21 South Africa 6417 1.1 0.7 18 -24
Liberia 2298 0.2 0.3 69 -30 Brunei Darussalam 5953 0.4 0.7 44 4
Chile 1992 0.2 0.2 -14 -15 Nigeria 4776 0.2 0.5 206 188
New Zealand 1961 0.4 0.2 1 2 Mexico 4403 0.5 0.5 14 11
Kuwait 1882 0.2 0.2 -5 40 New Zealand 3026 0.5 0.3 15 -3
Egypt 1753 0.1 0.2 -8 30 Equatorial Guinea 2901 0.0 0.3 268 119
Marshall Islands 1697 0.0 0.2 -6 -9 Peru 2819 0.1 0.3 10 20
Pakistan 1691 0.3 0.2 29 0 Iraq 2804 0.1 0.3 9 -25
Qatar 1504 0.2 0.2 -11 48 Gabon 2741 0.0 0.3 … 316
Colombia 1503 0.1 0.2 20 0 Norway 2299 0.2 0.3 21 -2
Israel 1431 0.2 0.2 23 -34 Hong Kong, China 1523 0.3 0.2 1 -1
Myanmar 1258 0.0 0.2 92 150 Papua New Guinea 1298 0.1 0.1 -4 40
Norway 1230 0.2 0.2 27 -12 Argentina 1243 0.1 0.1 8 15
Argentina 1135 0.1 0.1 14 16 Egypt 1219 0.0 0.1 90 39
Peru 1038 0.0 0.1 -8 14 Ecuador 1204 0.0 0.1 92 115
Bangladesh 985 0.1 0.1 5 -8 Israel 1177 0.2 0.1 30 9


Above 40 781391 98.0 97.8 - - Above 40 873450 98.3 98.6 - -


a Includes significant shipments recorded as exports to Hong Kong, China with China as final destination.


Merchandise trade of Japan by origin and destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change


Annual
percentage


change Share Share


Exports Imports




32 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table I.15


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-2011 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-2011 2010 2011


European Union (27)
World 1873866 100.0 8 4 12 World 1613986 100.0 7 2 10
European Union (27) 1044273 55.7 7 2 12 European Union (27) 951223 58.9 7 2 10
United States 200081 10.7 5 3 10 United States 192385 11.9 5 0 9
Switzerland 111107 5.9 10 3 14 Switzerland 75742 4.7 9 2 9
China 36256 1.9 15 20 15 China 25336 1.6 13 17 12
Russian Federation 33230 1.8 14 22 5 Japan 22034 1.4 6 9 10


Above 5 1424946 76.0 - - - Above 5 1266719 78.5 - - -
Japan 30253 1.6 3 1 16 Turkey 20386 1.3 6 15 11
Norway 29112 1.6 8 1 17 Russian Federation 19693 1.2 9 14 8
Singapore 22368 1.2 13 13 22 Singapore 16030 1.0 14 17 25
Australia 22031 1.2 13 12 11 Norway 15888 1.0 5 -3 14
Canada 21996 1.2 12 10 16 India 14983 0.9 16 16 25
Brazil 15855 0.8 18 -3 22 Canada 13934 0.9 7 12 10
India 15641 0.8 16 13 9 Hong Kong, China 11444 0.7 9 7 14
Hong Kong, China 13632 0.7 4 16 12 Australia 10148 0.6 6 11 13
Turkey 12987 0.7 14 17 19 Brazil 9849 0.6 12 -1 17
Korea, Republic of 12513 0.7 9 22 14 Croatia 8526 0.5 8 5 15


Above 15 1621334 86.5 - - - Above 15 1407598 87.2 - - -
United States


World 588621 100.0 8 9 9 World 394847 100.0 6 5 7
European Union (27) 188801 32.1 ... 0 8 European Union (27) 136807 34.6 ... 2 9
Canada 56076 9.5 9 19 10 Bermuda 29418 7.5 15 -5 -8
Japan 44394 7.5 2 12 -1 Canada 28027 7.1 4 15 7
China 26703 4.5 21 35 24 Japan 24773 6.3 3 12 6
Mexico 25207 4.3 2 5 5 Switzerland 19316 4.9 8 4 0


Above 5 341181 58.0 - - - Above 5 238341 60.4 - - -
Switzerland 23456 4.0 13 10 13 India 16876 4.3 23 14 19
Brazil 21703 3.7 25 28 29 Mexico 13745 3.5 -1 0 1
Korea, Republic of 16562 2.8 10 18 10 China 11329 2.9 11 21 14
Australia 16088 2.7 13 10 20 Korea, Republic of 8377 2.1 6 19 9
India 11019 1.9 14 4 7 Brazil 6929 1.8 23 9 25
Bermuda 10858 1.8 14 3 -3 Hong Kong, China 6886 1.7 5 12 5
Singapore 10451 1.8 11 42 5 Chinese Taipei 6761 1.7 1 19 13
Chinese Taipei 10445 1.8 10 45 12 Australia 6315 1.6 5 5 11
Hong Kong, China 6087 1.0 8 -4 7 Israel 4941 1.3 13 7 17
Argentina 5754 1.0 22 26 23 Singapore 4442 1.1 4 5 22


Above 15 473604 80.5 - - - Above 15 324942 82.3 - - -
China a


World 175670 100.0 16 25 9 World 237003 100.0 19 22 23
Hong Kong, China 73340 41.7 ... ... 48 Hong Kong, China 38867 16.4 ... 28 15
United States 27081 15.4 ... ... 172 European Union (27) 36002 15.2 ... 40 26
European Union (27) 20466 11.7 ... ... 11 Japan 20331 8.6 ... 20 12
Japan 13440 7.7 ... ... 17 Korea, Republic of 15625 6.6 ... 11 39
Chinese Taipei 7897 4.5 ... ... 4 United States 11570 4.9 ... 35 -45


Above 5 142224 81.0 - - - Above 5 122395 51.6 - - -
Singapore 7860 4.5 ... ... 27 Australia 11546 4.9 ... 36 41
Korea, Republic of 7696 4.4 ... ... 12 Singapore 9265 3.9 ... 20 93
Macao, China 3109 1.8 ... ... 6 Chinese Taipei 5911 2.5 ... 112 16
Australia 2138 1.2 ... ... 31 Macao, China 5696 2.4 ... -26 7


Above 9 163028 92.8 - - - Above 9 154813 65.3 - - -


Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage change Annual percentage change


Exports Imports




33World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table I.15 (continued)


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-2011 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-2011 2010 2011


Japan
World 142551 100.0 ... 10 3 World 165727 100.0 ... 6 6
European Union (27) 33437 23.5 ... 0 0 United States 50168 30.3 ... 7 13
United States 33103 23.2 ... 6 -9 European Union (27) 33097 20.0 ... 2 2
Singapore 14698 10.3 ... 23 14 China 9744 5.9 ... 2 9
Chinese Taipei 13510 9.5 ... 37 46 Singapore 9036 5.5 ... 17 12
China 12599 8.8 ... 29 24 Korea, Republic of 7987 4.8 ... 13 20


Above 5 107347 75.3 - - - Above 5 110032 66.4 - - -
Hong Kong, China 3536 2.5 ... … 72 Hong Kong, China 5599 3.4 ... 14 2
Indonesia 3321 2.3 ... 91 -4 Chinese Taipei 4805 2.9 ... 24 4
Korea, Republic of 3137 2.2 ... -10 -8 Thailand 3368 2.0 ... 6 10
Thailand 3002 2.1 ... 15 2 Switzerland 3079 1.9 ... 5 11
Australia 2775 1.9 ... -5 6 Australia 2913 1.8 ... 6 -19
Switzerland 2386 1.7 ... 22 6 Cayman Islands 2222 1.3 ... … 76
India 2132 1.5 ... 59 3 Indonesia 1775 1.1 ... 7 -2
Malaysia 1939 1.4 ... 122 82 Canada 1743 1.1 ... 20 3
Canada 1825 1.3 ... 3 -14 Russian Federation 1653 1.0 ... 56 14
Brazil 1159 0.8 ... 23 2 Philippines 1459 0.9 ... 14 -14


Above 15 132558 93.0 - - - Above 15 138649 83.7 - - -
Singapore b, c


World 108362 100.0 ... 25 15 World 114525 100.0 ... 18 17
European Union (27) 14686 13.6 ... 17 15 European Union (27) 17119 14.9 ... 17 14
United States 10824 10.0 ... 27 6 United States 15578 13.6 ... 5 -4
Australia 7836 7.2 ... 37 25 Japan 5353 4.7 ... 14 35
Japan 5595 5.2 ... 34 18 China 4884 4.3 ... 22 28
China 4934 4.6 ... 93 -9 Hong Kong, China 3105 2.7 ... 26 1


Above 5 43875 40.5 - - - Above 5 46038 40.2 - - -
Hong Kong, China 3835 3.5 ... 36 11 Australia 3027 2.6 ... 34 42
Malaysia 3169 2.9 ... -3 16 Switzerland 2233 2.0 ... 20 18
India 3048 2.8 ... 15 4 India 2182 1.9 ... 21 12
Indonesia 2853 2.6 ... -2 11 Malaysia 1931 1.7 ... 14 24
Thailand 2142 2.0 ... 46 12 Chinese Taipei 1767 1.5 ... 25 8
Switzerland 1977 1.8 ... 13 10 Korea, Republic of 1551 1.4 ... 21 17
Korea, Republic of 1855 1.7 ... 20 3 Indonesia 1398 1.2 ... 20 4
Chinese Taipei 1563 1.4 ... 33 -17 Thailand 1130 1.0 ... 19 12
United Arab Emirates 1258 1.2 ... 14 -2 United Arab Emirates 997 0.9 ... 11 23
Norway 1246 1.1 ... -2 -4 Norway 796 0.7 ... 7 9


Above 15 66819 61.7 - - - Above 15 63051 55.1 - - -
Korea, Republic of


World 94063 100.0 12 19 9 World 99970 100.0 9 19 5
United States 14825 15.8 5 15 14 United States 26345 26.4 8 19 3
China 14086 15.0 15 41 3 European Union (27) 17713 17.7 9 12 -1
European Union (27) 10426 11.1 8 28 7 China 11992 12.0 11 23 13
Japan 9936 10.6 7 27 -8 Japan 8864 8.9 3 20 -1
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 4859 5.2 39 -11 124 Hong Kong, China 4444 4.4 10 28 -4


Above 5 54132 57.5 - - - Above 5 69358 69.4 - - -
Hong Kong, China 3866 4.1 5 33 -7 Singapore 3853 3.9 7 29 5
Singapore 3690 3.9 18 16 7 Viet Nam 2649 2.6 23 33 26
Philippines 2698 2.9 39 -4 232 United Arab Emirates 2360 2.4 30 34 35
Viet Nam 2180 2.3 34 13 42 Australia 2267 2.3 8 44 -5
Brazil 1981 2.1 48 61 201 Indonesia 1816 1.8 18 28 19
Russian Federation 1793 1.9 25 73 34 Chinese Taipei 1740 1.7 14 36 29
Indonesia 1773 1.9 25 38 90 Thailand 1559 1.6 8 34 31
Chinese Taipei 1633 1.7 2 55 -16 Canada 1546 1.5 3 21 -1
India 1579 1.7 21 26 -4 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 1256 1.3 25 6 77
Canada 1355 1.4 21 32 76 Philippines 1226 1.2 6 108 -5


Above 15 76680 81.5 - - - Above 15 89630 89.7 - - -


Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage change Annual percentage change


Exports Imports




34 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics


Table I.15 (continued)


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-2011 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-2011 2010 2011


Canada
World 78217 100.0 6 13 9 World 104359 100.0 8 18 10
United States 42320 54.1 5 12 7 United States 60753 58.2 8 17 10
European Union (27) 14267 18.2 ... 9 14 European Union (27) 16590 15.9 ... 11 6


Above 2 56588 72.3 - - - Above 2 77343 74.1 - - -
Hong Kong, China d


World 118050 100.0 11 23 14 World 56274 100.0 9 17 10
China 29258 24.8 ... 33 23 China 14347 25.5 ... 16 6
United States 14578 12.3 ... 21 0 United States 8249 14.7 ... 15 8
Japan 4795 4.1 ... 16 -2 Japan 4154 7.4 ... 21 0
Chinese Taipei 4524 3.8 ... 22 12 Chinese Taipei 2543 4.5 ... 22 15


Above 4 53156 45.0 - - - Above 4 29293 52.1 - - -
Russian Federation e


World 54532 100.0 14 6 22 World 87307 100.0 15 19 22
European Union (27) 20654 37.9 13 5 23 European Union (27) 40189 46.0 16 16 29
United States 4318 7.9 12 2 13 Turkey 5540 6.3 8 13 14
Ukraine 2617 4.8 15 1 24 United States 4789 5.5 17 4 23
Switzerland 2374 4.4 14 16 30 Ukraine 3409 3.9 9 29 2
Turkey 2053 3.8 14 2 22 Switzerland 2589 3.0 18 16 18


Above 5 32015 58.7 - - - Above 5 56515 64.7 - - -
Kazakhstan 1711 3.1 16 9 15 China 1958 2.2 13 38 42
China 1392 2.6 14 20 31 Thailand 1890 2.2 ... 105 89
Uzbekistan 1290 2.4 34 -9 35 Egypt 1535 1.8 8 47 -49
British Virgin Islands 1088 2.0 14 13 -10 United Arab Emirates 1293 1.5 20 31 50
Tajikistan 762 1.4 29 2 19 Panama 1197 1.4 ... 3 12
Belarus 671 1.2 15 19 10 Belarus 1176 1.3 19 34 15
Azerbaijan 562 1.0 18 22 11 Kazakhstan 844 1.0 8 -1 10
Panama 529 1.0 25 6 13 Israel 774 0.9 12 7 22
United Arab Emirates 499 0.9 34 -30 75 British Virgin Islands 670 0.8 27 70 4
Japan 491 0.9 -1 4 14 Korea, Republic of 666 0.8 17 10 0


Above 15 41011 75.2 - - - Above 15 68518 78.5 - - -
Australia


World 50912 100.0 9 15 10 World 59370 100.0 12 22 18
European Union (27) 8439 16.6 6 14 10 European Union (27) 13460 22.7 11 28 17
China 5800 11.4 17 28 12 United States 10756 18.1 14 16 25
United States 5167 10.1 6 10 17 Singapore 4050 6.8 7 19 27
New Zealand 3431 6.7 7 19 15 New Zealand 2991 5.0 11 11 22
Singapore 3212 6.3 9 4 37 Thailand 2320 3.9 22 3 30


Above 5 26048 51.2 - - - Above 5 33577 56.6 - - -
India 2211 4.3 15 0 -19 Indonesia 2255 3.8 23 49 37
Japan 1975 3.9 -3 20 5 Japan 2148 3.6 5 23 8
Korea, Republic of 1799 3.5 10 25 5 Hong Kong, China 2027 3.4 9 24 15
Hong Kong, China 1764 3.5 6 18 16 China 1822 3.1 12 34 21
Malaysia 1685 3.3 10 19 14 Malaysia 1342 2.3 ... 37 30
Indonesia 1258 2.5 13 23 18 Fiji 1253 2.1 14 42 19
Thailand 982 1.9 13 11 11 Switzerland 1203 2.0 6 49 -18
Viet Nam 926 1.8 31 31 12 Canada 819 1.4 9 14 14
Canada 841 1.7 13 17 23 Viet Nam 790 1.3 18 36 23
Switzerland 792 1.6 15 24 6 India 754 1.3 21 16 26


Above 15 40282 79.1 - - - Above 15 47989 80.8 - - -


a ASEAN countries accounted for 8 per cent of total commercial services exports and 10 per cent of imports.
b Does not include merchanting. The following transactions are not allocated geographically: travel exports and imports; financial services exports related to foreign exchange trading; imports of freight transportation
services and, insurance on goods imports. Overall, they represent 19 per cent of commercial services exports, and 25 per cent of imports.
c In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 9 per cent of total commercial services exports and 5 per cent of imports.
d Financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) are not allocated geographically. In 2011, they represented 1 per cent of exports, and 1 per cent of imports.
e In 2011 trade in commercial services not allocated geographically accounted for 11 per cent of exports and 15 per cent of imports.
Note: For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage change Annual percentage change


Exports Imports




35World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics


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Table I.16


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Value Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Exports
Canada


Agricultural products 63 11.4 13.8 15 4 32 8.9 9.4 12 5 31 25.5 27.4 19 4
Fuels and mining products 149 25.7 32.7 27 -4 123 27.0 35.9 24 -2 26 18.6 23.0 41 -10
Manufactures 211 57.2 46.3 10 3 172 58.6 50.0 10 5 39 49.6 34.9 9 -2
Total exports 455 100.0 100.0 17 1 343 100.0 100.0 15 2 112 100.0 100.0 23 -3


Mexico
Agricultural products 23 5.9 6.2 22 0 17 5.5 5.8 20 -3 5 8.1 7.6 31 8
Fuels and mining products 66 16.7 17.8 39 -5 47 15.2 15.8 35 -12 19 27.4 26.1 55 20
Manufactures 269 77.0 72.7 11 9 224 78.8 75.1 9 9 45 64.2 62.7 24 9
Total exports 371 100.0 100.0 17 6 299 100.0 100.0 14 5 72 100.0 100.0 31 12


United States
Agricultural products 172 9.2 11.1 18 2 48 7.8 9.4 17 4 124 10.0 12.0 18 1
Fuels and mining products 187 5.6 12.1 44 1 58 6.7 11.4 47 -1 129 5.0 12.4 43 2
Manufactures 1102 81.0 71.3 11 5 386 82.8 76.0 12 7 716 80.0 69.0 10 4
Total exports 1546 100.0 100.0 16 4 508 100.0 100.0 16 6 1037 100.0 100.0 16 4


NAFTA
Agricultural products 258 9.3 10.9 18 2 98 7.7 8.5 16 3 160 11.3 13.1 19 2
Fuels and mining products 402 12.1 17.0 36 -2 229 16.2 19.9 32 -4 173 7.1 14.2 44 1
Manufactures 1582 74.6 66.7 11 6 783 73.0 68.0 11 7 800 76.8 65.5 11 4
Total exports 2371 100.0 100.0 16 4 1151 100.0 100.0 15 4 1221 100.0 100.0 17 3


Imports
Canada


Agricultural products 39 6.8 8.2 14 4 25 7.0 9.1 12 7 14 6.6 7.0 18 -2
Fuels and mining products 67 12.0 14.0 34 -6 27 7.3 10.1 38 -2 39 19.4 19.1 31 -8
Manufactures 350 78.9 73.6 11 5 209 83.5 77.3 11 5 141 71.5 68.7 12 4
Total imports 475 100.0 100.0 15 2 270 100.0 100.0 13 4 205 100.0 100.0 18 0


Mexico
Agricultural products 28 7.4 7.3 24 -8 22 10.2 10.9 24 -8 6 3.8 3.2 27 -7
Fuels and mining products 44 8.0 11.6 42 -6 34 9.6 17.2 53 -3 10 5.8 5.4 17 -15
Manufactures 297 83.5 78.2 12 8 139 79.9 69.2 12 8 159 88.2 88.2 12 7
Total imports 380 100.0 100.0 16 5 201 100.0 100.0 20 6 180 100.0 100.0 13 5


United States
Agricultural products 142 5.5 6.1 18 3 49 7.7 8.0 13 4 93 4.7 5.4 20 3
Fuels and mining products 486 19.4 20.8 28 -7 169 23.3 27.9 27 -3 317 18.0 18.3 29 -9
Manufactures 1618 71.5 69.3 11 6 362 63.9 59.5 9 8 1256 74.3 72.7 12 6
Total imports 2336 100.0 100.0 15 3 608 100.0 100.0 14 4 1727 100.0 100.0 15 3


NAFTA
Agricultural products 209 5.9 6.5 18 2 95 7.9 8.8 15 2 113 4.8 5.4 20 2
Fuels and mining products 597 17.2 18.7 30 -7 231 17.0 21.4 32 -3 366 17.3 17.3 29 -9
Manufactures 2265 73.8 71.0 11 6 709 71.4 65.8 10 7 1555 75.0 73.6 12 6
Total imports 3191 100.0 100.0 15 3 1079 100.0 100.0 15 4 2112 100.0 100.0 15 3


NAFTA Other origin/destination


Annual
percentage


change


Merchandise trade of NAFTA countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change Share Share Share


Annual
percentage


change


World




36 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics


Table I.17


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Value Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Exports
Argentina


Agricultural products 43 47.5 53.3 31 -5 5 23.4 23.5 34 -5 38 53.2 63.0 30 -5
Fuels and mining products 8 19.5 10.2 -1 0 2 18.1 10.9 23 -11 6 19.8 9.9 -4 0
Manufactures 25 30.4 31.2 20 -4 13 58.5 65.6 16 -3 12 23.8 20.0 25 -6
Total exports 81 100.0 100.0 23 -4 20 100.0 100.0 21 -4 61 100.0 100.0 24 -3


Brazil
Agricultural products 86 29.6 35.6 26 0 1 5.7 6.2 19 -6 85 32.2 38.7 26 0
Fuels and mining products 66 16.0 27.0 38 -16 3 7.7 12.1 59 -30 63 16.9 28.6 17 0
Manufactures 82 52.1 33.8 19 -3 19 86.5 81.6 19 -17 63 48.3 28.8 19 3
Total exports 243 100.0 100.0 27 -5 23 100.0 100.0 24 -18 220 100.0 100.0 27 -4


Paraguay
Agricultural products 4 84.6 58.5 20 -12 1 84.1 25.8 11 62 3 85.2 89.7 22 -21
Fuels and mining products 2 1.4 32.1 17 -1 2 2.1 63.6 16 -2 0 0.5 1.9 306 0
Manufactures 1 13.8 8.8 22 8 0 13.8 10.4 29 -5 0 13.8 7.2 10 34
Total exports 7 100.0 100.0 19 -6 4 100.0 100.0 16 9 4 100.0 100.0 22 -17


Uruguay
Agricultural products 6 63.4 73.8 18 13 1 34.8 43.5 6 4 5 71.9 84.8 21 15
Fuels and mining products 0 5.3 1.4 -62 45 0 4.1 3.6 -66 26 0 5.6 0.6 33 0
Manufactures 2 29.6 22.9 27 -2 1 61.2 52.9 32 -9 1 20.2 11.9 19 14
Total exports 9 100.0 100.0 18 11 2 100.0 100.0 12 -3 6 100.0 100.0 20 16


MERCOSUR
Agricultural products 140 35.3 41.3 27 -1 8 16.6 16.5 25 1 132 38.0 45.5 27 -1
Fuels and mining products 76 16.5 22.5 32 -14 7 11.1 14.9 32 -17 69 17.3 23.7 15 0
Manufactures 110 45.9 32.3 20 -3 33 72.3 68.4 19 -11 77 42.0 26.3 20 1
Total exports 340 100.0 100.0 26 -5 49 100.0 100.0 22 -11 291 100.0 100.0 26 -3


Imports
Argentina


Agricultural products 2 4.3 3.6 21 -4 1 5.5 4.6 17 -10 2 3.6 3.2 23 0
Fuels and mining products 11 8.4 15.8 89 -10 2 10.1 9.3 38 -39 9 7.3 18.3 113 0
Manufactures 55 86.3 79.6 23 -8 16 84.4 86.1 21 -16 38 87.7 77.1 25 -4
Total imports 69 100.0 100.0 31 -7 19 100.0 100.0 23 -19 50 100.0 100.0 35 -2


Brazil
Agricultural products 14 5.9 5.9 25 -4 6 28.4 29.3 22 -2 8 3.5 3.7 26 -5
Fuels and mining products 49 22.2 20.9 36 -6 2 16.2 8.9 18 -13 47 22.8 22.1 29 0
Manufactures 171 71.9 73.1 20 0 12 55.3 61.6 10 -5 158 73.7 74.2 21 0
Total imports 233 100.0 100.0 24 -2 20 100.0 100.0 14 -4 213 100.0 100.0 25 -1


Paraguay
Agricultural products 1 9.4 8.6 24 0 1 15.5 15.1 18 2 0 4.4 4.0 40 -6
Fuels and mining products 2 15.5 16.6 37 11 1 20.7 23.8 27 2 1 11.1 11.6 105 0
Manufactures 9 75.1 74.4 21 -11 3 63.7 60.8 26 -14 6 84.5 84.1 18 -9
Total imports 12 100.0 100.0 23 -7 5 100.0 100.0 25 -8 7 100.0 100.0 22 -5


Uruguay
Agricultural products 1 11.2 11.3 37 -7 1 18.0 22.7 45 -7 0 6.3 5.5 23 -9
Fuels and mining products 3 25.9 27.6 29 39 1 10.5 17.4 230 -1 3 37.0 32.9 60 0
Manufactures 7 62.9 61.0 21 1 2 71.6 59.9 13 -7 5 56.7 61.5 26 6
Total imports 12 100.0 100.0 24 8 4 100.0 100.0 34 -6 8 100.0 100.0 19 17


MERCOSUR
Agricultural products 18 5.8 5.7 25 -4 8 14.8 17.5 23 -3 10 3.6 3.6 26 -4
Fuels and mining products 65 18.6 20.0 43 -5 5 13.0 11.2 37 -20 59 20.0 21.5 39 0
Manufactures 241 75.4 74.1 21 -2 34 72.2 71.1 17 -11 207 76.1 74.6 22 -1
Total imports 325 100.0 100.0 25 -3 48 100.0 100.0 20 -11 277 100.0 100.0 26 -1


MERCOSUR Other origin/destination


Annual
percentage


change


Merchandise trade of MERCOSUR countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change Share Share Share


Annual
percentage


change


World




37World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics


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Table I.18


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Destination Value Value Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Exports
Bolivia, Plurinational State of


Agricultural products 2 22.0 13.6 6 37 1 79.9 73.4 2 102 1 14.8 6.4 9 -5
Fuels and mining products 8 64.2 72.5 37 20 0 10.4 23.6 48 6 8 70.9 78.3 37 21
Manufactures 1 10.9 4.9 -21 67 0 9.4 3.1 -7 21 1 11.1 5.1 -22 72
Total exports 11 100.0 100.0 30 33 1 100.0 100.0 15 64 10 100.0 100.0 32 30


Colombia
Agricultural products 7 21.7 11.0 22 -5 0 9.3 10.2 23 10 6 23.1 11.1 22 -6
Fuels and mining products 40 40.6 66.7 61 9 1 25.4 14.6 -9 11 40 42.2 70.1 63 9
Manufactures 10 34.7 17.0 13 4 3 65.3 73.0 16 5 8 31.4 13.3 11 3
Total exports 60 100.0 100.0 44 5 4 100.0 100.0 12 9 57 100.0 100.0 47 5


Ecuador
Agricultural products 8 31.8 31.9 26 2 0 14.3 15.6 48 4 7 34.5 34.4 25 2
Fuels and mining products 14 58.6 58.5 33 7 2 56.7 56.0 33 17 12 58.8 58.9 34 6
Manufactures 2 7.1 7.9 1 12 1 29.0 28.3 16 4 1 3.8 4.9 -11 21
Total exports 24 100.0 100.0 28 7 3 100.0 100.0 29 11 21 100.0 100.0 27 6


Peru
Agricultural products 8 18.2 16.8 33 -3 1 16.5 21.5 39 11 7 18.3 16.5 32 -4
Fuels and mining products 23 48.6 50.6 29 -2 1 37.2 21.2 -1 -21 23 49.1 52.3 30 -1
Manufactures 5 14.1 11.5 28 6 1 46.4 56.1 22 9 4 12.5 9.0 30 5
Total exports 46 100.0 100.0 30 -1 2 100.0 100.0 18 2 43 100.0 100.0 31 -2


Andean Community
Agricultural products 23 22.5 16.6 26 0 2 16.8 21.6 26 32 21 23.1 16.2 26 -3
Fuels and mining products 85 48.1 60.6 44 7 3 35.8 29.4 16 6 82 49.3 63.0 45 7
Manufactures 18 21.0 12.7 14 7 5 47.4 47.9 17 6 13 18.5 9.9 13 7
Total exports 141 100.0 100.0 35 5 10 100.0 100.0 18 12 130 100.0 100.0 37 4


Imports
Bolivia, Plurinational State of


Agricultural products 0 11.6 8.1 46 -3 0 15.8 13.5 100 -21 1 11.2 7.5 38 2
Fuels and mining products 1 11.1 16.4 54 20 0 4.5 6.2 4 34 1 11.8 17.4 56 20
Manufactures 6 76.2 74.9 33 6 1 79.3 79.6 25 13 6 75.9 74.4 34 5
Total imports 8 100.0 100.0 37 8 1 100.0 100.0 32 9 8 100.0 100.0 38 8


Colombia
Agricultural products 6 10.4 10.8 27 12 1 29.8 24.9 13 16 6 9.0 9.9 30 11
Fuels and mining products 7 5.2 11.2 66 37 0 12.9 7.7 26 -28 6 4.7 11.4 70 43
Manufactures 45 83.2 76.1 33 3 2 57.2 67.4 30 -3 43 85.1 76.6 33 4
Total imports 59 100.0 100.0 34 8 4 100.0 100.0 25 -1 56 100.0 100.0 35 9


Ecuador
Agricultural products 2 8.7 8.7 23 -7 1 9.6 18.1 26 5 2 8.6 7.3 22 -11
Fuels and mining products 6 12.3 23.6 38 4 0 24.8 8.7 -21 -38 6 9.8 25.8 48 7
Manufactures 17 72.3 67.4 15 5 2 65.5 73.2 15 5 15 73.7 66.5 16 5
Total imports 25 100.0 100.0 18 4 3 100.0 100.0 10 -1 22 100.0 100.0 19 4


Peru
Agricultural products 5 13.2 11.3 24 8 1 12.9 19.0 9 59 4 13.3 10.5 27 1
Fuels and mining products 7 20.7 15.3 37 3 2 57.9 51.0 27 8 4 14.5 11.5 43 0
Manufactures 31 66.0 72.3 23 14 1 29.1 28.3 9 2 30 72.2 77.1 24 15
Total imports 43 100.0 100.0 26 13 4 100.0 100.0 18 15 38 100.0 100.0 27 13


Andean Community
Agricultural products 14 10.8 10.4 26 6 2 16.6 20.1 19 21 12 10.1 9.5 28 4
Fuels and mining products 20 11.3 15.1 45 13 3 32.1 23.1 15 -4 18 8.7 14.4 53 17
Manufactures 99 75.8 73.2 27 7 7 51.3 56.1 20 2 92 78.9 74.8 27 7
Total imports 135 100.0 100.0 28 9 12 100.0 100.0 18 5 123 100.0 100.0 29 9


Andean Community Other origin/destination


Annual
percentage


change


Merchandise trade of Andean Community countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change Share Share Share


Annual
percentage


change


World




38 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics


Table I.19


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Destination Value
a


Value Value


2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2011 2012


Exports
Indonesia


Agricultural products 45 16.7 23.7 32 -6 7 12.6 17.8 23 -4 37 17.6 25.4 34 -6
Fuels and mining products 75 36.1 39.6 34 -11 17 24.5 41.2 39 -1 58 38.8 39.2 33 -13
Manufactures 67 46.9 35.6 15 -1 17 62.1 40.1 9 5 50 43.5 34.3 17 -2
Total exports 188 100.0 100.0 27 -6 41 100.0 100.0 24 0 147 100.0 100.0 28 -8


Malaysia
Agricultural products 34 9.5 14.9 36 -13 7 6.9 11.5 34 2 27 10.4 16.2 36 -16
Fuels and mining products 52 14.6 22.7 30 12 15 19.5 25.2 18 26 36 12.9 21.7 36 7
Manufactures 140 74.9 61.6 6 -1 38 72.1 62.5 7 3 102 75.9 61.2 6 -3
Total exports 227 100.0 100.0 15 0 61 100.0 100.0 12 8 166 100.0 100.0 16 -3


Philippines
Agricultural products 5 6.6 9.7 31 -6 1 5.5 7.9 39 2 4 6.8 10.2 30 -8
Fuels and mining products 4 4.1 7.5 28 -5 1 6.5 7.8 41 -40 3 3.6 7.4 22 11
Manufactures 43 89.0 81.7 -12 10 8 87.9 84.3 -35 25 34 89.3 81.1 -5 7
Total exports 52 100.0 100.0 -6 8 10 100.0 100.0 -25 14 42 100.0 100.0 -1 6


Singapore
Agricultural products 10 1.9 2.4 30 -3 4 2.5 3.3 36 0 6 1.7 2.0 25 -5
Fuels and mining products 80 13.0 19.5 42 -8 41 17.5 31.8 51 -1 38 10.9 13.7 35 -14
Manufactures 283 80.5 69.3 11 0 81 78.3 62.6 11 1 202 81.5 72.4 11 -1
Total exports 408 100.0 100.0 16 0 130 100.0 100.0 21 1 278 100.0 100.0 14 -1


Thailand
Agricultural products 42 16.0 18.3 35 -11 9 12.6 15.1 30 -4 33 17.0 19.4 36 -12
Fuels and mining products 18 5.5 7.8 33 12 10 13.3 18.3 38 10 8 3.4 4.4 27 15
Manufactures 163 76.0 70.8 10 6 37 72.4 65.9 18 5 125 77.0 72.4 7 6
Total exports 230 100.0 100.0 15 3 57 100.0 100.0 23 5 173 100.0 100.0 13 3


ASEAN
Agricultural products 166 9.5 13.2 33 -6 33 6.9 10.3 29 0 132 10.4 14.3 34 -7
Fuels and mining products 259 16.1 20.7 36 -2 96 20.0 29.5 37 4 163 14.8 17.6 35 -6
Manufactures 780 72.1 62.2 11 3 191 71.7 58.9 10 4 588 72.2 63.4 11 3
Total exports 1253 100.0 100.0 18 1 325 100.0 100.0 18 4 928 100.0 100.0 18 0


Imports
Indonesia


Agricultural products 21 8.8 10.9 43 -7 4 4.5 7.1 82 -14 17 10.8 12.4 35 -5
Fuels and mining products 49 25.7 25.5 45 4 23 38.8 42.7 40 3 26 19.5 18.8 50 4
Manufactures 119 65.4 62.3 23 13 27 56.6 50.2 18 10 92 69.7 67.1 25 14
Total imports 190 100.0 100.0 30 8 53 100.0 100.0 31 5 137 100.0 100.0 30 9


Malaysia
Agricultural products 21 6.3 10.9 32 1 9 8.6 16.0 33 -2 13 5.5 8.9 31 4
Fuels and mining products 38 11.7 19.2 31 15 16 20.4 30.0 37 12 21 8.7 15.0 27 18
Manufactures 133 78.8 67.9 8 3 29 68.8 52.2 4 4 105 82.2 74.0 9 2
Total imports 197 100.0 100.0 14 5 55 100.0 100.0 16 6 142 100.0 100.0 13 5


Philippines
Agricultural products 7 7.8 11.1 3 3 2 12.5 12.8 -28 -3 5 6.7 10.6 24 6
Fuels and mining products 16 15.6 24.8 22 9 3 21.5 21.4 -24 3 13 14.2 25.8 46 11
Manufactures 42 76.4 63.6 7 -1 10 65.4 65.1 4 -2 32 78.9 63.2 8 0
Total imports 65 100.0 100.0 9 3 15 100.0 100.0 -8 -1 50 100.0 100.0 16 4


Singapore
Agricultural products 14 3.2 3.7 26 2 6 4.9 7.1 26 4 8 2.6 2.8 27 0
Fuels and mining products 130 19.2 34.2 47 3 27 16.0 33.5 59 2 103 20.4 34.3 44 3
Manufactures 227 76.1 59.7 9 3 46 78.1 57.5 -5 1 181 75.4 60.3 13 4
Total imports 380 100.0 100.0 18 4 80 100.0 100.0 5 2 300 100.0 100.0 22 4


Thailand
Agricultural products 17 6.0 6.8 27 11 3 6.4 7.4 30 19 14 5.9 6.7 26 9
Fuels and mining products 57 21.6 23.0 34 6 13 28.4 29.8 31 9 44 20.0 21.5 35 5
Manufactures 163 69.5 65.8 17 14 26 61.2 62.1 15 7 136 71.5 66.5 17 16
Total imports 248 100.0 100.0 25 8 43 100.0 100.0 20 9 205 100.0 100.0 26 8


ASEAN
Agricultural products 97 6.0 7.9 30 2 28 7.1 10.2 27 -2 69 5.6 7.3 31 4
Fuels and mining products 312 18.6 25.5 41 6 90 23.9 32.9 38 4 222 16.8 23.4 42 6
Manufactures 781 73.6 64.1 14 7 152 67.5 55.9 7 3 629 75.6 66.4 16 8
Total imports 1220 100.0 100.0 21 6 273 100.0 100.0 15 3 947 100.0 100.0 23 7


ASEAN Other origin/destination


Annual
percentage


change


Merchandise trade of ASEAN countries by major product group and by origin/destination, 2012


Annual
percentage


change Share Share Share


Annual
percentage


change


World




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6. Least-developed countries


Table I.20


(Million dollars and percentage)


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005 2012


LDCs 683100 32 34 28 30 3 4
Afghanistan 18034 ... ... ... ... ... ...
Angola 104116 86 65 85 65 1 1
Bangladesh 111906 16 23 15 22 1 1
Benin 7295 17 24 13 19 4 5
Bhutan 1834 31 41 26 36 5 4
Burkina Faso 10396 10 25 9 21 1 3
Burundi 2356 6 6 5 5 1 1
Cambodia 12830 63 57 46 41 17 17
Central African Republic 2166 11 10 9 9 1 1
Chad 10581 59 ... 58 44 1 ...
Comoros 610 14 15 4 4 10 10
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 15654 35 63 33 61 1 2
Djibouti 1239 19 20 6 7 13 12
Equatorial Guinea 16807 86 92 86 91 0 0
Eritrea 2608 ... ... ... 72 ... ...
Ethiopia 31709 14 18 7 9 6 8
Gambia 898 30 35 17 18 13 17
Guinea 5096 30 30 29 28 1 1
Guinea-Bissau 968 16 25 16 23 1 2
Haiti 7346 13 13 11 10 2 3
Kiribati 167 14 ... 5 4 9 ...
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 8227 27 29 20 23 7 6
Lesotho 2525 49 48 46 46 2 2
Liberia 1545 39 65 24 42 15 24
Madagascar 9912 25 27 17 16 8 11
Malawi 5621 22 29 20 27 2 1
Mali 10656 26 26 21 22 5 4
Mauritania 4273 31 66 29 63 3 4
Mozambique 12568 31 30 27 25 5 5
Myanmar 51444 33 17 31 16 2 1
Nepal 18977 14 9 11 5 3 4
Niger 6017 17 23 14 21 2 2
Rwanda 6354 8 13 5 7 3 6
Samoa 634 30 29 3 2 27 27
Sao Tome and Principe 248 14 12 6 4 8 7
Senegal 14448 26 24 18 17 8 7
Sierra Leone 2939 16 19 11 13 5 5
Solomon Islands 867 34 63 25 48 9 15
Somalia ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Sudan 64053 19 15 18 15 0 0
Tanzania 23874 21 31 12 21 9 10
Timor-Leste 1091 ... 6 ... 3 ... 3
Togo 3686 37 40 30 30 7 10
Tuvalu 36 ... 10 ... 1 8 9
Uganda 16822 17 25 11 15 5 10
Vanuatu 786 44 44 10 9 34 36
Yemen 31725 40 31 38 27 2 3
Zambia 19204 34 47 31 45 3 2


Memorandum item:
World 69981900 29 32 23 26 5 6


Note: Trade in goods is derived from balance of payments statistics and does not correspond to the merchandise trade statistics given elsewhere in this report. See the Metadata.


Ratio of exports of goods and commercial services to GDP of the least-developed countries, 2012


Commercial services


Value Ratio to GDP


Goods and commercial servicesGDP Goods




40 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Value Value


2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


LDCs 205937 14 27 25 1 224344 14 10 23 8
Oil Exporters a
Angola 74000 17 24 33 10 24000 16 -26 21 19
Equatorial Guinea 15500 12 10 35 15 7500 28 0 25 15
Yemen 8600 6 34 29 -20 12000 12 1 8 20
Sudan 3368 -5 38 -15 -65 9475 5 4 -8 3
Myanmar 8900 13 30 7 -4 9201 25 9 89 2
Chad 4400 5 25 31 -4 2800 17 20 13 4
Bhutan 610 13 29 5 -10 1090 16 61 23 4
Exporters of manufactures
Bangladesh 25113 15 27 27 3 34131 14 27 30 -6
Cambodia 8200 15 23 36 17 11000 16 16 37 18
Madagascar 1500 8 2 48 -6 3050 9 -21 15 5
Lesotho 1100 8 20 34 -6 2600 9 24 9 4
Nepal 911 1 4 7 -1 6063 15 17 12 5
Haiti 815 8 0 32 6 3170 12 48 -4 5
Samoa 76 -2 53 -6 15 346 5 34 12 0
Exporters of agriculture
Ethiopia 3000 19 44 23 4 12656 17 12 3 42
Uganda 2357 16 3 33 9 6044 17 10 21 7
Burkina Faso 2183 25 76 48 -7 3150 14 10 17 31
Benin 1400 13 5 10 -1 2200 12 -1 7 0
Malawi 1184 13 -10 34 -17 2724 13 7 12 12
Togo 1000 6 0 22 -9 1850 8 6 13 3
Rwanda 591 25 27 56 27 2408 26 9 24 36
Somalia 540 12 7 16 4 1100 8 12 31 0
Solomon Islands 493 25 36 86 19 495 15 51 15 6
Liberia 459 20 49 65 25 1066 19 29 47 2
Afghanistan 370 -1 -4 -3 -2 5500 12 54 24 -14
Guinea-Bissau 130 5 4 82 -43 250 13 -3 32 -4
Central African Republic 210 7 17 36 11 320 9 11 3 3
Burundi 134 13 50 22 8 751 16 26 48 0
Gambia 100 43 -47 171 6 380 6 -6 21 11
Vanuatu 55 5 -14 38 -19 297 10 -3 7 -3
Comoros 19 7 38 22 -25 273 16 11 19 -1
Kiribati 6 4 -38 121 -32 109 6 9 26 18
Sao Tome and Principe 11 7 34 0 1 131 15 9 17 0
Exporters of non-fuel minerals
Zambia 8600 25 67 25 -4 8200 18 39 35 14
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 6300 15 51 25 -5 6100 12 15 22 11
Tanzania 5500 18 36 17 16 11346 19 23 37 5
Mozambique 4100 13 40 20 14 6800 16 22 37 8
Mauritania 2641 23 52 34 -5 3170 12 29 27 28
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 2269 22 66 27 2 2467 16 41 16 3
Mali 2164 10 13 20 -10 2941 10 38 -1 -13
Guinea 1300 6 40 -3 -9 2300 16 33 50 9
Niger 1500 17 15 9 20 2900 17 13 9 7
Eritrea 480 71 9 … 20 1000 11 17 29 12
Sierra Leone 1109 32 48 2 217 1572 24 48 123 -8
Others
Senegal 2532 7 7 18 0 6434 9 1 24 9
Djibouti 95 13 10 9 2 580 11 -17 37 14
Tuvalu 0 25 0 0 0 25 10 14 56 0
Timor-Leste 12 6 96 -28 0 380 20 1 14 12
Memorandum item:
World b 18401000 8 22 20 0 18601000 8 21 19 1


b Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.


Table I.21


Note : Data for 2012 are largely estimated.


Annual percentage change Annual percentage change


Merchandise exports and imports of least-developed countries, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Exports Imports


a Bhutan is included for its exports of electric current.




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Table I.22


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Value Value


2012 2011 2012 2012 2011 2012 2012 2011 2012


A. Agricultural products
Total LDCs 4845 32 -16 Total LDCs 10041 31 6 Total LDCs 773 10 -8


Ethiopia 689 42 -15 Myanmar 2634 7 5 Liberia 180 22 -8
Uganda 510 23 -15 Tanzania 730 14 19 Ethiopia 122 16 -14
Tanzania 431 26 -12 Lao People's Dem. Rep. 522 74 15 Bangladesh 89 -22 -16
Bangladesh 398 19 -11 Bangladesh 498 50 -15 Malawi 65 -17 16
Madagascar 334 4 5 Benin 487 91 17 Madagascar 61 -9 58
Malawi 325 3 2 Solomon Islands 468 29 3 Tanzania 55 56 15
Senegal 317 45 -31 Mali 443 91 65 Uganda 36 1 -15
Mozambique 307 55 -2 Ethiopia 423 -3 25 Haiti 32 43 -1
Mauritania 191 61 8 Mozambique 359 19 0 Rwanda 31 56 -3
Zambia 145 49 -14 Burkina Faso 355 47 -7 Mozambique 17 -61 21
Togo 119 44 -70 Cambodia 353 44 29 Congo, Dem. Rep. of 10 43 23
Others (37) 931 40 -25 Others (37) 2695 51 -5 Others (37) 67 62 -46


B. Fuels and mining products
Total LDCs 18796 65 -5 Total LDCs 79879 25 7 Total LDCs 17343 16 -24


Angola 8531 80 -5 Angola 47695 19 30 Angola 11853 18 -27
Equatorial Guinea 6298 85 16 Yemen 6503 5 2 Chad 2820 54 -13
Mozambique 1283 -9 -14 Equatorial Guinea 5545 152 51 Equatorial Guinea 2068 -38 20
Mauritania 569 45 -37 Myanmar 3828 18 10 Guinea 207 10 24
Guinea 508 -3 6 Congo, Dem. Rep. of 3532 22 14 Yemen 96 209 -84
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 504 57 -4 Zambia 3079 5 0 Niger 77 … -73
Zambia 248 395 -29 Lao People's Dem. Rep. 1635 47 3 Madagascar 75 56 37
Liberia 140 -55 101 Mauritania 1471 53 -3 Togo 47 -100 …
Others (40) 706 98 -55 Others (40) 3862 35 -74 Others (40) 100 -2 -85


C. Manufactures
Total LDCs 17332 36 5 Total LDCs 5858 68 10 Total LDCs 11258 18 0


Bangladesh 11418 36 -1 Bangladesh 2155 59 29 Bangladesh 6057 16 0
Cambodia 2189 47 28 Myanmar 1072 165 -25 Cambodia 3386 22 2
Angola 567 152 111 Cambodia 956 36 66 Haiti 785 33 5
Niger 549 52 40 Senegal 336 109 2 Lesotho 330 24 -19
Equatorial Guinea 435 … 102 Nepal 240 0 -41 Malawi 113 72 -18
Madagascar 405 31 -5 Angola 214 … 84 Equatorial Guinea 112 -13 -13
Lesotho 283 84 -16 Lao People's Dem. Rep. 161 28 43 Nepal 97 22 3
Central African Republic 219 19 10 Bhutan 148 8 -11 Angola 95 26 -44
Dem. Rep. of the Congo 219 42 8 Ethiopia 76 113 10 Madagascar 63 -29 5
Myanmar 157 4 -19 Tanzania 71 58 17 Tanzania 49 4 208
Liberia 135 -53 4 Liberia 60 56 263 Lao People's Dem. Rep. 32 -13 -45
Ethiopia 131 105 -11 Madagascar 44 82 -9 Zambia 31 33 185
Sierra Leone 121 5 18 Yemen 42 65 -23 Congo, Dem. Rep. of 25 -16 103
Others (35) 470 4 -27 Others (35) 251 44 -9 Others (35) 82 4 -1


a Australia, China, Hong Kong, China; India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Republic of; Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Chinese Taipei and Thailand.


Annual
percentage
change


Annual
percentage
change


Annual
percentage
change


Imports of agricultural products, fuels and manufactures of the European Union (27), Asia and North America from the least-
developed countries, 2012


European Union (27) Asia a North America




42 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table I.23


(Million dollars and percentage)


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005 2012


Least developed countries 25500 22.9 21.3 52.6 44.7 24.5 34.0
Afghanistan … … … … … … …
Angola 732 10.2 3.6 49.9 88.3 39.9 8.1
Bangladesh 1388 23.8 19.7 14.8 6.2 61.4 74.1
Benin 332 18.3 … 57.7 … 24.0 …
Bhutan 80 … 37.0 … 59.0 … 3.9
Burkina Faso 351 2.1 … 71.2 … 26.7 …
Burundi 20 25.6 12.2 22.2 12.7 52.2 75.1
Cambodia 2140 11.9 12.9 78.9 75.5 9.1 11.6
Central African Republic 32 … … … … … …
Chad … … … … … … …
Comoros 64 12.1 5.5 61.0 65.6 27.0 29.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 326 12.0 35.1 3.3 3.5 84.7 61.4
Djibouti 152 79.1 76.6 7.5 12.6 13.4 10.8
Equatorial Guinea 32 … … … … … …
Eritrea … … … … … … …
Ethiopia 2598 59.0 60.9 21.3 29.2 19.7 10.0
Gambia 153 19.4 28.8 70.8 62.6 9.9 8.6
Guinea 71 34.4 6.5 … 3.0 65.6 90.5
Guinea-Bissau 17 10.6 … 34.9 … 54.5 …
Haiti 193 … … 89.6 84.0 10.4 16.0
Kiribati … 41.1 … 31.8 … 27.1 …
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 526 17.7 8.8 75.4 77.3 6.9 13.9
Lesotho 43 2.5 1.7 84.8 59.6 12.7 38.7
Liberia 365 13.6 36.1 82.9 63.6 3.5 0.3
Madagascar 1090 28.2 39.8 43.7 38.1 28.2 22.1
Malawi 75 46.0 35.9 45.0 44.9 8.9 19.3
Mali 378 13.8 … 58.5 … 27.6 …
Mauritania 151 … … … … … …
Mozambique 633 28.3 34.3 41.1 36.5 30.6 29.2
Myanmar 580 50.4 29.9 28.5 48.3 21.1 21.7
Nepal 775 12.0 5.2 48.4 49.4 39.6 45.4
Niger 137 10.1 … 51.2 … 38.7 …
Rwanda 352 36.1 13.9 58.6 71.5 5.3 14.5
Samoa 171 4.2 4.4 69.7 78.5 26.1 17.0
Sao Tome and Principe 18 1.6 1.1 81.2 88.5 17.2 10.4
Senegal 1013 18.4 … 35.1 … 46.5 …
Sierra Leone 160 14.9 18.6 81.9 27.7 3.2 53.7
Solomon Islands 129 21.8 20.8 4.2 55.2 73.9 24.0
Somalia … … … … … … …
Sudan 306 3.4 6.5 88.7 60.5 7.9 33.0
Tanzania 2319 18.3 21.9 67.8 62.8 13.9 15.3
Timor-Leste 28 … 2.6 … 74.0 … 23.4
Togo 367 55.0 … 14.0 … 31.0 …
Tuvalu 3 12.5 … 57.2 … 30.3 …
Uganda 1614 2.3 10.0 77.8 58.9 20.0 31.2
Vanuatu 282 19.0 11.7 63.4 80.1 17.6 8.2
Yemen 1091 16.1 18.4 63.3 71.7 20.6 9.9
Zambia 375 41.4 45.5 47.5 39.0 11.1 15.5


Memorandum item:
World 4258300 23 21 28 25 50 54


Note: The improvement of the quality of data in recent years may have resulted in changes relating to the breakdown of exports of commercial services by category of services. See the Metadata.


Exports of commercial services of the least-developed countries by category, 2012


Other commercial services


Value Share in commercial services


Commercial
services Transportation services Travel




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(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Annual percentage change


2007 2008 2009 2010 2005-2010 2008 2009 2010


AT Austria a 57.3 74.6 61.7 ... … 30 -17 …
BG Bulgaria b ... 6.2 | 6.6 | 5.3 … … … …
CN China a ... 134.0 ... ... … … … …
HR Croatia c ... 4.7 ... 4.7 … … … …
CY Cyprus 0.5 0.7 ... ... … 41 … …
CZ Czech Republic d 42.9 55.3 47.9 | 42.0 8 29 -13 …
DK Denmark c 35.9 41.5 36.3 ... … 15 -12 …
EE Estonia e 2.5 3.5 3.1 | 2.5 … 40 -12 …
FI Finland 19.8 21.5 18.8 17.8 … 9 -13 -5
FR France ... 250.0 238.9 223.3 … … -4 -7
DE Germany ... 331.7 248.3 251.6 … … -25 1
HK Hong Kong, China a, f 142.0 139.2 141.9 143.9 9 -2 2 1
HU Hungary 26.5 32.9 29.3 26.7 … 24 -11 -9
IN India a, g, h 5.4 6.0 8.7 ... … 10 45 …
IE Ireland c ... 56.1 60.9 61.1 … … 9 0
IL Israel g 8.5 11.2 10.9 ... … 31 -3 …
IT Italy c, i 114.2 128.3 114.8 116.6 8 12 -11 2
JP Japan h, j ... 19.0 16.8 | 86.2 … … -12 …
LV Latvia 3.1 3.7 3.1 3.3 21 18 -15 6
LT Lithuania ... 4.8 3.7 3.6 … … -24 -3
LU Luxembourg c, k ... ... 8.3 10.9 … … … 31
MT Malta c ... 1.0 ... ... … … … …
NL Netherlands ... 107.3 95.0 101.7 … … -11 7
NO Norway c 32.6 40.0 31.3 35.9 8 23 -22 14
PL Poland a, c ... 37.9 29.8 36.0 … … -21 21
PT Portugal l 18.8 18.2 20.0 19.2 … -3 10 -4
RO Romania ... 21.9 20.3 19.5 … … -7 -4
SK Slovak Republic d 8.8 12.0 11.0 | 9.0 … 36 -8 …
SI Slovenia 2.1 2.6 2.6 2.8 18 23 1 6
ES Spain ... 117.7 113.8 111.7 … … -3 -2
SE Sweden c, m 65.6 63.9 52.8 59.2 5 -3 -17 12
TH Thailand a ... ... ... 21.4 … … … …
GB United Kingdom n ... 376.9 | 368.5 | 315.7 … … … …
US United States a 897.2 874.6 751.6 728.2 … -3 -14 -3


Memorandum item:
E27 European Union (27) c, o ... ... 1305.9 ... … … … …
GX Extra-EU (27) c, k, p, q ... ... 475.4 ... … … … …


a Financial service activities are included.
b Financial intermediation activities are included in 2009.
c Insurance activities and activities auxiliary to financial and insurance activities are not covered.
d Financial intermediation activities are included up to 2009.
e Insurance activities and activities auxiliary to financial and insurance activities are not covered in 2010.
f Includes other income.
g Output instead of sales.
h Fiscal year as reference period.
i Community, social and personal services activities are included.


k Excludes real estate and administrative activities.
l Excludes information and communication services in 2008.
m Community, social and personal activities included in 2007.
n Insurance activities included in 2009.
o Excludes real estate activities.
p Refers to the sales by foreign affiliates which are established in the EU (27) and controlled by non-EU (27) entities.


Note : Given the recent development of this statistical framework, comparability and coverage of data may not always be complete. See the Metadata.


Table I.24


Sales by affiliates of foreign companies - resident affiliates primarily engaged in services activities (inward FATS), 2005-2010


Excluding wholesale and retail trade as well as repair activities. Unless otherwise specified:
- all or a large part of financial service activities are excluded;
- all or a large part of community, social and personal services activities are excluded;
- insurance activities and/or activities auxiliary to financial and insurance activities are included.
Some growth rates for 2008 may be affected by the change of reporting of data in ISIC Revision 4, as compared to ISIC Revision 3.1 previously.


j No estimation for non-response. Real estate activities are not covered. Financial service activities are covered starting 2010. Also includes affiliates foreign controlled by more than 30 per cent.


q Administrative and support service activities are not included. As a comparison, for the European Union (27) aggregate as a whole the value of sales excluding administrative and support activities was 1070 billion
dollars in 2009.


7. Foreign affiliates statistics




44 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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§


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Annual percentage change


2007 2008 2009 2010 2005-2010 2008 2009 2010


Australia a ... ... 23.3 ... … … … …
Austria b 30.9 36.6 33.8 37.2 … 19 -8 10
Belgium b ... ... 26.5 23.3 … … … -12
Canada c, d 117.1 121.6 121.0 129.3 10 4 0 7
Cyprus 3.9 4.8 2.8 3.1 … 21 -41 9
Czech Republic e 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.4 … 121 -31 -12
Finland 24.2 20.8 22.8 30.1 … -14 10 32
France 362.2 ... 401.1 431.0 … … … 7
Germany 482.7 523.2 488.7 505.2 … 8 -7 3
Greece f 3.9 4.7 4.1 3.0 -3 21 -11 -27
Hungary g 1.3 3.1 3.4 2.3 … 135 7 -31
Israel b, c, g 2.7 4.0 3.6 ... … 48 -8 …
Italy 159.1 161.2 189.0 179.4 … 1 17 -5
Japan h ... 53.3 49.2 41.2 … … -8 -16
Korea, Republic of c, g ... ... 20.9 ... … … … …
Latvia f 0.2 ... 0.5 0.4 … … … -22
Lithuania ... 0.1 0.2 0.2 … … 12 38
Luxembourg i ... ... 2.4 3.6 … … … 51
Malta j 0.3 0.4 0.2 ... … 22 -50 …
Norway g ... 35.4 30.7 29.8 … … -13 -3
Poland k ... ... 5.7 2.4 … … … -58
Portugal g ... 66.3 22.8 17.9 … … -66 -21
Slovak Republic c, g ... ... ... 0.3 … … … …
Slovenia ... 1.7 0.9 ... … … -46 …
Spain k ... ... 154.8 164.7 … … … 6
Sweden f ... 121.5 92.8 91.7 … … -24 -1
United Kingdom ... ... 562.7 800.1 … … … 42
United States l 895.3 865.9 | 1072.5 1082.7 … -3 … 1


Memorandum item:
Extra - EU (27) m ... ... 1567.1 1312.9 … … … -16


a Refers to fiscal year 2009. Financial and insurance affiliates only.
b Classified under services according to activity of parent company.
c Financial service activities are excluded.
d Branches are excluded.
e Only the first level of indirect ownership is covered.
f Only includes affiliates directly owned.
g Part or all community, social and personal services are not covered.
h Fiscal year as reference period. No estimation for non-response. Excludes affiliates of mother companies active in finance, insurance and real estate. Also includes controlled affiliates by more than 10 per cent.
i Only transport, communication, insurance and other business activities are covered.
j Includes wholesale and retail trade and repair activities.
k Excludes financial service activities in 2009.
l Up to 2008, data only cover non-bank foreign affiliates. Secretariat estimate for 2010.
m Refers to the sales of affiliates which are established outside the EU (27) and controlled by EU (27) entities.


Table I.25


Sales by foreign affiliates of resident companies - affiliates located abroad primarily engaged in services activities (outward FATS),
2005-2010


Note : Given the recent development of this statistical framework, comparability and coverage of data may not always be complete. See the Metadata.


Excluding wholesale and retail trade and repair activities.




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Table I.26


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2010 2010 2005-201 2009 2010 2010 2010 2005-20 2009 2010



World 1130505 100.0 7 -4 5 World 685720 100.0 4 -4 4
European Union (27) 499049 44.1 5 -9 0 European Union (27) 382183 55.7 3 -4 3
Canada 117253 10.4 8 -3 9 Japan 95969 14.0 2 -9 9
Japan 69771 6.2 5 9 3 Canada 68887 10.0 4 -2 2
Switzerland 59162 5.2 8 -13 8 Switzerland 50009 7.3 9 19 10
Australia 45150 4.0 12 -2 20 Bermuda 19328 2.8 … -27 -10


Above 5 790385 69.9 - - - Above 5 616376 89.8 - - -
Singapore 40069 3.5 17 -2 20 Australia 12435 1.8 19 10 -5
Mexico 34391 3.0 5 -6 14 Korea, Republic of 10018 1.4 31 -2 44
Hong Kong, China 30740 2.7 8 2 7 India 7314 1.1 24 8 3
Brazil 29887 2.6 9 13 21 Mexico 4776 0.7 7 5 44
China 28532 2.5 28 25 24 Singapore 4568 0.7 16 … 5
Bermuda 14424 1.3 14 … -3 Hong Kong, China 3333 0.5 5 … 6
India 14238 1.3 23 34 9 Taipei, Chinese 2043 0.3 -11 -6 6
Korea, Republic of 10679 0.9 7 -8 7 Israel 1919 0.3 6 -4 5
Taipei, Chinese 9470 0.8 2 -23 10 Norway 1299 0.2 4 -25 -6
Chile 8381 0.7 … -2 28 Brazil 1269 0.2 10 … 27


Above 15 1011196 89.2 - - - Above 15 665350 97.0 - - -


Note: This information refers to supply of services products to foreigners by United States owned affiliates and supply of services products to United States persons by affiliates foreign owned. This differs from the
FATS data presented for the United States in the tables I.24 and I.25 which refer to sales of foreign affiliates operating in the services sector. For instance the latter include sales of goods of foreign affiliates whose
primary activity is classified as a service industry but not the supply of services of those whose primary activity is classified as a manufacturing industry.


Services supplied by United States affiliates established abroad (outward FATS) and by foreign affiliates in the United States
(inward FATS) by economy of affiliate, 2010


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Supply of services abroad Supply of services in the United States






World merchandise trade grew by
2 per cent in volume terms in 2012
against a backdrop of weak global
demand and declining prices. This
is significantly less than the 5 per
cent increase recorded in 2011.


II. Merchandise trade


Key developments in 2012: a snapshot


Trade data
List of tables 57


1. Overview 59


2. Agricultural products 64


3. Fuels and mining products 75


4. Manufactures 80


48


57


Where to find more online:
you can access and download the Excel files
for the tables via www.wto.org/statistics


47World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013


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Asia’s exports of manufactured goods
rose to US$ 4.4 trillion in 2012


Merchandise exports by region
and product, 2012 (US$ billion)


Where to find more:
www.wto.org/its2013: Table A10


decline in Europe’s exports of
manufactured goods in 20125%


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t The value of Asia’s exports of
manufactured goods expanded by 3
per cent in 2012 whereas Europe’s
exports declined by 2 per cent.
As a result, Asia’s share in world
exports of manufactured goods
rose to 38 per cent, compared
with 41 per cent for Europe -
down from 43 per cent in 2011.


t With the exception of the
Commonwealth of Independent
States (+15 per cent) and North
America (+3 per cent), all regions
registered declines in exports of
agricultural products in 2012.


t Africa and the Middle East increased
their exports of fuels and mining
products in 2012, by 9 per cent
and 6 per cent respectively.


share of South and
Central America in world
exports of agricultural
products in 2012


12%


Manufactured goods
Fuels and mining products
Agricultural products


All figures are in US$ billion


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Volume of merchandise exports
expanded moderately in 2012
t Growth in the volume of merchandise exports in 2012 was the lowest for the last


two decades, excluding the recession-led contractions in 2001 and 2009. All
major product groups recorded roughly the same growth rates.


Where to find more:
www.wto.org/its2013: Table A1


2%
Increase in


export volume
of manufactured


goods in 2012


3%
Increase in export


volume of fuels and
mining products in 2012


Volume of world merchandise exports
by product group, 2000–2012


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World exports of
ores and other


minerals in 2012


US$ 396 bn


Ores and other minerals record
sharpest decline in value
t The strongest growth in the value of merchandise exports was recorded by


personal and household goods (+10 per cent). Fuels had the next highest growth
(+5 per cent). Exports of other product groups remained relatively stable or even
went down. Sharp declines in export value were registered for ores and other
minerals (–10 per cent), agricultural raw materials (–9 per cent) and iron and
steel (–8 per cent).


t Fuels increased its share in world merchandise exports from 9 per cent in 2000
to almost 19 per cent in 2012. The share of machinery and transport equipment in
world exports shrank from 42 per cent in 2000 to 32 per cent in 2012. This was
mostly due to the steady decline in the prices of office and telecom equipment.


Where to find more:
Table II.1


9
Percentage points


increase in the share
of fuels in world exports
between 2000 and 2012


World merchandise exports
by product group, 2012


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EU exports of
food in 2012


US$ 522 bn


13%
Decrease in Malaysia’s
exports of agricultural


products in 2012


World exports of agricultural
products stagnate
t World exports of agricultural products stagnated at US$ 1,657 billion in 2012,


mainly as a result of depressed prices. Prices of food dropped by 0.4 per cent
while those of agricultural raw materials increased modestly by 1.6 per cent.


t Half of the top ten exporters of agricultural products registered growth in 2012.
Canada, with a 4.5 per cent increase, achieved the highest growth. Malaysia
and Thailand, however, experienced declines of 12.7 per cent and 11.7 per cent
respectively.


t World food exports, which accounted for 83 per cent of agricultural exports in
2012, expanded by 1.1 per cent, to US$ 1,375 billion. The value of non-food
agricultural products fell to US$ 281 billion from US$ 300 billion in 2011
(–6.3 per cent).


Where to find more:
Tables II.15 and II.20


Major exporters of agricultural
products, 2012


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13%
Share of the United
States in world fuel


imports in 2012


China’s imports of
fuels and mining
products in 2012


US$ 533 bn


China becomes second-
largest importer of fuels
and mining products
t EU imports of fuels and mining products amounted to US$ 1,034 billion in 2012,


approximately the same value as the previous year. China expanded its imports
of fuels and mining products by 3.4 per cent to US$ 533 billion, overtaking
the United States as the second-largest importer. US imports of fuel fell by
7.1 per cent due to a sharp increase in domestic production of crude oil.


t Among the top importers of fuels, India increased its imports by the most
(+18 per cent) in 2012, followed by China (+14 per cent).


t China’s imports of non-fuel mining products fell by 8 per cent in 2012 and the
European Union’s imports dropped by 17 per cent. As a result, the value of China’s
imports (US$ 221 billion) is very close to the European Union’s (US$ 228 billion).
In 2011, the difference was much greater (US$ 241 billion vs. US$ 274 billion).


Where to find more:
Table II.27


Major importers of fuels and mining
products, 2012


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47%
Share of EU exports
in world exports of


automotive products


EU share in exports of automotive
products falls below 50%
t In 2012, the share of the European Union in world exports of automotive


products fell below 50 per cent (down from 51 per cent in 2011) for the first time
since 2001.


t Among the top ten exporters of automotive products, the greatest declines in 2012
were recorded by Brazil (–9.5 per cent), the European Union (–7 per cent) and Turkey
(–5.4 per cent). The other members of the top ten posted remarkable growth.
Recovering from the 2011 flooding, Thailand recorded the highest growth (32.8
per cent). Mexico overtook the Republic of Korea as the fourth-largest exporter,
returning to the position it had occupied in 2010.


Where to find more:
Table II.59


11%
Increase in US


exports of automotive
products in 2012


Major exporters of automotive
products, 2012


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8.7%
Increase in China’s


exports of office
and telecom


equipment in 2012


41%
Share of China in world


exports of EDP and
office equipment


Exports of office and
telecom equipment decline
for most countries
t The share of office and telecom equipment in world merchandise exports


remained at 9 per cent in 2012. Seven of the ten top exporters of office and
telecom equipment experienced negative growth, ranging from –0.6 per cent for
the United States to –8.5 per cent for the European Union. However, notable
increases in exports were registered by China (8.7 per cent), Hong Kong, China
(8.2 per cent) and Mexico (6.1 per cent).


t China’s share in world exports of electronic data processing (EDP) and office
equipment increased to 41 per cent in 2012 from 39 per cent in 2011.


t The European Union’s share in world exports of integrated circuits and electronic
components fell to 11 per cent in 2012 from 14 per cent in 2011.


Where to find more:
Table II.42


Major exporters of office and telecom
equipment, 2012


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US$ 708 bn
World exports
of textiles and


clothing in 2012


8%
Decrease in EU


exports of textiles and
clothing in 2012


Exports of textiles and clothing
fall below 2011 value
t World exports of textiles and clothing stagnated in 2012. Half of the top ten


exporters achieved export growth (between 0.2 and 7.5 per cent) but the other
half recorded declines varying between –2.3 and –8.0 per cent. The highest
growth in exports (7.5 per cent) was achieved by Viet Nam.


t China continues to be the leading exporter of textiles and clothing. Its share in
world exports increased to 33 per cent for textiles (up from 32 per cent in 2011)
and to 38 per cent for clothing (up from 37 per cent).


t The European Union and the United States remain the major markets for
clothing, accounting for 38 per cent and 20 per cent respectively of world
imports in 2012.


Where to find more:
Tables II.64 and II.69


Major exporters of textiles & clothing, 2012


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List of tables


II. Merchandise trade by product
1. Overview
Table II.1 World merchandise exports by major product group, 2012 59


Table II.2 World merchandise exports by major product group and region, 2012 60


Table II.3 Share of agricultural products in trade in total merchandise and in primary products by region, 2012 61


Table II.4 Share of fuels and mining products in trade in total merchandise and in primary products by region, 2012 61


Table II.5 Share of fuels in trade in total merchandise and in primary products by region, 2012 61


Table II.6 Share of manufactures in total merchandise trade by region, 2012 61


Table II.7 Share of iron and steel in trade in total merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012 62


Table II.8 Share of chemicals in trade in total merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012 62


Table II.9 Share of office and telecom equipment in trade in total merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012 62


Table II.10 Share of automotive products in trade in total merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012 62


Table II.11 Share of textiles in trade in total merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012 63


Table II.12 Share of clothing in trade in total merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012 63


2. Agricultural products
Table II.13 Exports of agricultural products of regions by destination, 2012 64


Table II.14 Imports of agricultural products of selected economies by origin, 2012 65


Table II.15 Leading exporters and importers of agricultural products, 2012 67


Table II.16 Exports of agricultural products of selected economies, 1990-2012 68


Table II.17 Imports of agricultural products of selected economies, 1990-2012 69


2.1 Food
Table II.18 Exports of food of regions by destination, 2012 70


Table II.19 Imports of food of selected economies by origin, 2012 71


Table II.20 Leading exporters and importers of food, 2012 72


Table II.21 Exports of food of selected economies, 1990-2012 73


Table II.22 Imports of food of selected economies, 1990-2012 74


3. Fuels and mining products
Table II.23 Exports of fuels and mining products of regions by destination, 2012 75


3.1 Fuels
Table II.24 Imports of fuels of selected economies by origin, 2012 76


Table II.25 Imports of fuels of selected regions and economies from the Middle East, 2005 and 2012 77


Table II.26 Exports of fuels of selected economies, 1990-2012 78


Table II.27 Imports of fuels of selected economies, 1990-2012 79


4. Manufactures
Table II.28 Exports of manufactures of regions by destination, 2012 80


Table II.29 Trade in manufactures of the United States, the European Union (27)
and China by origin and destination, 2012 81


Table II.30 Imports of manufactures of selected economies by origin, 2012 82


Table II.31 Leading exporters and importers of manufactures, 2012 84


Table II.32 Exports of manufactures of selected economies, 1990-2012 85


Table II.33 Imports of manufactures of selected economies, 1990-2012 86


4.1 Iron and steel
Table II.34 Exports of iron and steel of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012 87


Table II.35 Imports of iron and steel of the European Union (27) and the United States by origin, 2012 88


Table II.36 Leading exporters and importers of iron and steel, 2012 89


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4.2 Chemicals
Table II.37 Exports of chemicals of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012 90


Table II.38 Leading exporters and importers of chemicals, 2012 91


Table II.39 Leading exporters and importers of pharmaceuticals, 2012 92


4.3 Office and telecom equipment
Table II.40 Exports of office and telecom equipment of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012 93


Table II.41 Imports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012 94


Table II.42 Leading exporters and importers of office and telecom equipment, 2012 96


Table II.43 Exports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012 97


Table II.44 Imports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012 98


4.3.1 EDP equipment
Table II.45 Imports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012 99


Table II.46 Leading exporters and importers of EDP and office equipment, 2012 101


Table II.47 Exports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012 102


Table II.48 Imports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012 103


4.3.2 Telecommunications equipment
Table II.49 Imports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012 104


Table II.50 Leading exporters and importers of telecommunications equipment, 2012 106


Table II.51 Exports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012 107


Table II.52 Imports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies , 1990-2012 108


4.3.3 Integrated circuits and electronic components
Table II.53 Imports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies by origin, 2012 109


Table II.54 Leading exporters and importers of integrated circuits and electronic components, 2012 111


Table II.55 Exports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies, 1990-2012 112


Table II.56 Imports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies, 1990-2012 113


4.4 Automotive products
Table II.57 Exports of automotive products of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012 114


Table II.58 Imports of automotive products of selected economies by origin, 2012 115


Table II.59 Leading exporters and importers of automotive products, 2012 117


Table II.60 Exports of automotive products of selected economies, 1990-2012 118


Table II.61 Imports of automotive products of selected economies, 1990-2012 119


4.5 Textiles
Table II.62 Textile exports of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012 120


Table II.63 Textile imports of selected economies by origin, 2012 121


Table II.64 Leading exporters and importers of textiles, 2012 124


Table II.65 Textile exports of selected economies, 1990-2012 125


Table II.66 Textile imports of selected economies, 1990-2012 126


4.6 Clothing
Table II.67 Clothing exports of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012 127


Table II.68 Clothing imports of selected economies by origin, 2012 128


Table II.69 Leading exporters and importers of clothing, 2012 130


Table II.70 Clothing exports of selected economies, 1990-2012 131


Table II.71 Clothing imports of selected economies, 1990-2012 132


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1. Overview


Table II.1


World merchandise exports by major product group, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value


1980-85 1985-90 1990-95 1995-00 2000-05 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Agricultural products 1657 9.2 -2 9 7 -1 9 10 15 22 0
Fuels and mining products 4139 23.1 -5 3 2 10 16 13 33 35 2


Fuels 3375 18.8 -5 0 1 12 17 13 30 37 5
Manufactures 11490 64.1 2 15 9 5 9 7 19 15 0


Iron and steel 486 2.7 -2 9 8 -2 17 6 30 25 -8
Chemicals 1957 10.9 1 14 10 4 14 9 17 17 -2
Office and telecom equipment 1674 9.3 9 18 15 10 6 4 22 4 -1
Automotive products 1295 7.2 5 14 8 5 10 5 29 18 1
Textiles 286 1.6 -1 15 8 0 6 5 19 17 -3
Clothing 423 2.4 4 18 8 5 7 6 12 18 1


Agricultural products (AoA) a 1385 7.7 - - - - 10 11 16 22 1
Non-agricultural goods (NAMA) 16546 92.3 - - - - 10 8 22 20 0


a. See metadata (Chapter V, Section 2.1.2) for the definition of Agricultural products (AoA).


Annual percentage changeShare


in world
merchandise trade


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Table II.2


World merchandise exports by major product group and region, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Agricultural
products


Total Fuels Total


Iron
and
steel Chemicals


Office and
telecom


equipment
Automotive


products Textiles Clothing


World 1657 4139 3375 11490 486 1957 1674 1295 286 423
Share in total exports 9.2 23.1 18.8 64.1 2.7 10.9 9.3 7.2 1.6 2.4
Annual percentage change
2005-12 10 13 13 7 6 9 4 5 5 6
2011 22 35 37 15 25 17 4 18 17 18
2012 0 2 5 0 -8 -2 -1 1 -3 1
North America 258 402 305 1582 33 259 214 270 18 11
Share in total exports 10.9 17.0 12.9 66.7 1.4 10.9 9.0 11.4 0.7 0.5
Annual percentage change
2005-12 9 12 13 5 7 8 3 5 1 -3
2011 18 36 41 11 16 11 3 17 12 9
2012 2 -2 1 6 0 -1 1 12 -1 2
South and Central America 205 320 199 199 19 50 6 25 4 16
Share in total exports 27.4 42.6 26.5 26.6 2.6 6.7 0.8 3.4 0.6 2.1
Annual percentage change
2005-12 12 12 11 7 3 12 -3 6 4 1
2011 26 33 39 23 43 29 4 19 11 16
2012 -1 -3 4 0 -7 2 -2 -6 -3 2
Europe 657 840 624 4734 197 1040 357 634 82 127
Share in total exports 10.3 13.2 9.8 74.1 3.1 16.3 5.6 9.9 1.3 2.0
Annual percentage change
2005-12 7 11 11 4 4 7 -1 3 0 3
2011 18 33 36 16 26 14 3 21 14 16
2012 -2 2 8 -5 -13 -4 -8 -7 -9 -6
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 66 530 479 187 53 51 4 5 4 3
Share in total exports 8.2 65.8 59.5 23.2 6.6 6.3 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.4
Annual percentage change
2005-12 14 13 14 11 6 15 25 3 10 8
2011 30 39 39 29 23 34 37 60 30 34
2012 15 0 2 1 -4 7 25 -38 -8 7
Africa 57 438 384 103 9 21 3 9 3 10
Share in total exports 9.1 69.5 60.9 16.4 1.4 3.4 0.5 1.5 0.5 1.6
Annual percentage change
2005-12 11 11 11 7 1 12 8 8 7 1
2011 17 19 18 13 3 15 19 8 11 13
2012 -1 9 11 -2 -18 0 0 3 -7 -7
Middle East 30 915 893 265 7 87 15 13 7 10
Share in total exports 2.2 67.8 66.1 19.7 0.5 6.4 1.1 1.0 0.5 0.8
Annual percentage change
2005-12 9 13 13 14 14 16 9 16 8 15
2011 15 46 46 28 36 33 7 21 16 19
2012 -4 6 6 2 4 -8 12 8 5 165
Asia 384 694 492 4419 167 449 1074 339 168 246
Share in total exports 6.8 12.3 8.7 78.3 3.0 8.0 19.0 6.0 3.0 4.4
Annual percentage change
2005-12 14 15 16 10 10 12 6 8 8 9
2011 32 33 37 15 25 23 5 11 19 20
2012 0 -3 0 3 -5 -1 2 11 -1 3


Fuels and mining
products Manufactures


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Table II.4


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise
World 23.1 23.1
North America 17.0 19.0
South and Central America 42.6 22.4
Europe 13.2 21.3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 65.8 11.0
Africa 69.5 18.6
Middle East 67.8 11.6
Asia 12.3 30.2


Share in primary products
World 71.4 71.4
North America 61.0 74.1
South and Central America 60.9 72.3
Europe 56.1 67.8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 88.9 47.5
Africa 88.4 53.5
Middle East 96.8 47.9
Asia 64.4 77.7


Share of fuels and mining products in trade in total
merchandise and in primary products by region, 2012


(Percentage)


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.5


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise
World 18.8 18.8
North America 12.9 16.4
South and Central America 26.5 20.5
Europe 9.8 17.1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 59.5 9.0
Africa 60.9 16.2
Middle East 66.1 9.2
Asia 8.7 23.8


Share in primary products
World 58.2 58.2
North America 46.3 63.8
South and Central America 37.8 66.1
Europe 41.7 54.5
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 80.4 38.8
Africa 77.5 46.6
Middle East 94.5 37.9
Asia 45.7 61.1


Share of fuels in trade in total merchandise and in primary
products by region, 2012


(Percentage)


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.6


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise
World 64.1 64.1
North America 66.7 72.2
South and Central America 26.6 66.3
Europe 74.1 65.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 23.2 76.0
Africa 16.4 61.6
Middle East 19.7 71.0
Asia 78.3 58.4


Share of manufactures in total merchandise trade by region,
2012


(Percentage)


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.3


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise
World 9.2 9.2
North America 10.9 6.6
South and Central America 27.4 8.6
Europe 10.3 10.1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 8.2 12.2
Africa 9.1 16.2
Middle East 2.2 12.6
Asia 6.8 8.7


Share in primary products
World 28.6 28.6
North America 39.0 25.9
South and Central America 39.1 27.7
Europe 43.9 32.2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 11.1 52.5
Africa 11.6 46.5
Middle East 3.2 52.1
Asia 35.6 22.3


Share of agricultural products in trade in total merchandise
and in primary products by region, 2012


(Percentage)


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


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Table II.7


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise
World 2.7 2.7
North America 1.4 2.2
South and Central America 2.6 2.7
Europe 3.1 2.8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 6.6 4.3
Africa 1.4 3.6
Middle East 0.5 5.0
Asia 3.0 2.5


Share in manufactures
World 4.2 4.2
North America 2.1 3.1
South and Central America 9.7 4.1
Europe 4.2 4.3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 28.6 5.7
Africa 8.3 5.9
Middle East 2.7 7.0
Asia 3.8 4.2


Share of iron and steel in trade in total merchandise and in
manufactures by region, 2012


(Percentage)


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.8


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise
World 10.9 10.9
North America 10.9 9.3
South and Central America 6.7 13.7
Europe 16.3 13.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 6.3 11.7
Africa 3.4 9.7
Middle East 6.4 7.8
Asia 8.0 9.4


Share in manufactures
World 17.0 17.0
North America 16.4 12.8
South and Central America 25.1 20.7
Europe 22.0 20.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 27.3 15.4
Africa 20.4 15.7
Middle East 32.8 11.0
Asia 10.2 16.1


Share of chemicals in trade in total merchandise and in
manufactures by region, 2012


(Percentage)


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.9


(Percentage)


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise


World 9.3 9.3
North America 9.0 11.9
South and Central America 0.8 6.1
Europe 5.6 7.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0.5 5.2
Africa 0.5 3.7
Middle East 1.1 6.0
Asia 19.0 12.8


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 7.8 9.8
Other Asia 21.9 13.3


Share in manufactures


World 14.6 14.6
North America 13.5 16.5
South and Central America 2.9 9.2
Europe 7.5 11.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 2.2 6.9
Africa 3.3 6.0
Middle East 5.8 8.4
Asia 24.3 21.9


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 11.4 17.8
Other Asia 27.5 22.2


Share of office and telecom equipment in trade in total
merchandise and in manufactures by region, 2012


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.10


(Percentage)


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise


World 7.2 7.2
North America 11.4 11.7
South and Central America 3.4 8.7
Europe 9.9 7.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0.7 11.2
Africa 1.5 8.5
Middle East 1.0 9.8
Asia 6.0 3.8


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 15.5 5.1
Other Asia 3.7 3.5


Share in manufactures


World 11.3 11.3
North America 17.1 16.2
South and Central America 12.8 13.2
Europe 13.4 11.3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 2.9 14.8
Africa 8.9 13.8
Middle East 4.9 13.8
Asia 7.7 6.5


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 22.6 9.1
Other Asia 4.6 5.9


Share of automotive products in trade in total merchandise
and in manufactures by region, 2012


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


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Table II.11


(Percentage)


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise


World 1.6 1.6
North America 0.7 1.3
South and Central America 0.6 2.3
Europe 1.3 1.4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0.5 2.4
Africa 0.5 3.4
Middle East 0.5 2.2
Asia 3.0 1.6


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 0.8 1.2
Other Asia 3.5 1.7


Share in manufactures


World 2.5 2.5
North America 1.1 1.8
South and Central America 2.1 3.5
Europe 1.7 2.1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 2.0 3.1
Africa 3.0 5.5
Middle East 2.5 3.2
Asia 3.8 2.8


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 1.1 2.2
Other Asia 4.4 2.9


Share of textiles in trade in total merchandise and in
manufactures by region, 2012


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


Table II.12


(Percentage)


Exports Imports


Share in total merchandise


World 2.4 2.4
North America 0.5 3.2
South and Central America 2.1 2.1
Europe 2.0 2.8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0.4 3.8
Africa 1.6 1.7
Middle East 0.8 2.4
Asia 4.4 1.3


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 0.1 3.5
Other Asia 5.4 0.7


Share in manufactures


World 3.7 3.7
North America 0.7 4.4
South and Central America 7.8 3.2
Europe 2.7 4.3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1.5 5.0
Africa 9.6 2.8
Middle East 3.9 3.4
Asia 5.6 2.2


Australia, Japan and New Zealand 0.1 6.2
Other Asia 6.7 1.2


Share of clothing in trade in total merchandise and in
manufactures by region, 2012


1RWH Import shares are derived from the Secretariat's network of world merchandise trade by product
and region.


63World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.13


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 1657 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 10 22 0
Europe


World 657 100.0 100.0 46.8 39.7 7 18 -2
Europe 501 80.9 76.3 37.9 30.3 6 16 -4
Asia 48 5.3 7.3 2.5 2.9 12 31 2
North America 28 5.1 4.2 2.4 1.7 5 15 4
Africa 26 2.7 3.9 1.3 1.6 13 23 2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 25 2.7 3.8 1.2 1.5 13 19 4
Middle East 22 2.2 3.3 1.0 1.3 14 25 10
South and Central America 7 0.8 1.1 0.4 0.4 11 20 5


Asia
World 384 100.0 100.0 18.3 23.2 14 32 0
Asia 228 58.0 59.6 10.6 13.8 14 32 0
Europe 48 15.4 12.6 2.8 2.9 10 30 -8
North America 45 14.2 11.6 2.6 2.7 10 27 4
Middle East 24 4.9 6.3 0.9 1.4 18 33 1
Africa 23 4.0 5.9 0.7 1.4 20 43 2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 8 1.9 2.2 0.4 0.5 16 24 -2
South and Central America 6 1.2 1.5 0.2 0.3 18 23 -8


North America
World 258 100.0 100.0 16.0 15.5 9 18 2
Asia 102 29.9 39.5 4.8 6.1 14 20 6
North America 98 46.4 37.9 7.4 5.9 6 16 3
Europe 23 12.1 9.0 1.9 1.4 5 13 -3
South and Central America 18 5.8 6.8 0.9 1.1 12 18 1
Africa 8 2.7 3.2 0.4 0.5 12 23 -12
Middle East 6 1.9 2.3 0.3 0.4 12 27 -17
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 1.1 1.3 0.2 0.2 13 22 27


South and Central America
World 205 100.0 100.0 10.6 12.4 12 26 -1
Asia 58 20.2 28.1 2.1 3.5 18 31 5
Europe 48 31.7 23.5 3.4 2.9 8 23 -10
South and Central America 36 13.8 17.3 1.5 2.1 16 27 7
North America 27 18.7 13.3 2.0 1.6 7 24 -2
Africa 15 5.5 7.2 0.6 0.9 17 55 -4
Middle East 13 4.7 6.1 0.5 0.8 17 14 -3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 5.0 3.6 0.5 0.4 7 9 -8


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
World 66 100.0 100.0 3.0 4.0 14 30 15
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 21 32.4 31.2 1.0 1.2 14 19 0
Europe 20 25.6 30.4 0.8 1.2 17 36 45
Asia 9 26.9 13.5 0.8 0.5 4 39 -24
Middle East 7 5.7 10.1 0.2 0.4 24 39 59
Africa 7 5.0 10.0 0.2 0.4 26 35 59
North America 1 2.4 0.9 0.1 0.0 0 -5 15
South and Central America 0 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 33 65 -18


Africa
World 57 100.0 100.0 3.3 3.5 11 17 -1
Europe 20 50.4 35.4 1.7 1.2 5 10 -9
Africa 13 19.1 23.5 0.6 0.8 14 26 -1
Asia 12 16.7 21.7 0.6 0.8 15 23 17
Middle East 5 4.9 8.1 0.2 0.3 19 9 -9
North America 3 5.8 5.4 0.2 0.2 9 42 -9
South and Central America 2 0.4 2.7 0.0 0.1 46 42 0
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 1.7 1.8 0.1 0.1 12 40 -15


Middle East
World 30 100.0 100.0 1.9 1.8 9 15 -4
Middle East 15 32.9 50.0 0.6 0.9 16 9 7
Asia 6 9.8 19.6 0.2 0.4 20 23 0
Europe 3 13.0 8.6 0.2 0.2 3 2 -2
Africa 2 4.7 7.4 0.1 0.1 16 30 8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 2.6 4.4 0.0 0.1 18 12 11
North America 1 2.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 8 18 8
South and Central America 0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 9 -16 -3


Exports of agricultural products of regions by destination, 2012


Annual percentage change


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


2. Agricultural products


64 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.14


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 37909 100.0 8 14 4 World 141852 100.0 6 18 3
North America 23892 63.0 9 12 7 North America 48583 34.2 4 13 4
Asia 4786 12.6 8 21 -2 Asia 39151 27.6 9 25 5
Europe 4586 12.1 8 13 3 South and Central America 26072 18.4 6 22 0
South and Central America 3801 10.0 9 20 -5 Europe 24240 17.1 4 13 4
Africa 631 1.7 9 17 -11 Africa 2801 2.0 6 18 -9
Middle East 109 0.3 9 5 14 CIS 564 0.4 0 -5 3
CIS 100 0.3 0 27 11 Middle East 431 0.3 3 7 7


Economy Economy
United States 22385 59.0 8 12 8 Canada 29934 21.1 2 12 5
European Union (27) 4099 10.8 7 12 3 European Union (27) 21868 15.4 3 14 4
Mexico 1352 3.6 14 8 3 Mexico 18647 13.1 9 16 4
China 1297 3.4 9 12 2 China 8047 5.7 10 15 7
Brazil 995 2.6 9 30 -14 India 6033 4.3 24 73 81


Above 5 30128 79.5 - - - Above 5 84529 59.6 - - -
Thailand 809 2.1 12 25 -3 Brazil 5191 3.7 5 27 -10
Chile 696 1.8 9 7 -1 Indonesia 4884 3.4 9 38 -15
Indonesia 426 1.1 11 54 -21 Thailand 4763 3.4 7 19 -13
Australia 426 1.1 1 6 3 Chile 4349 3.1 3 10 8
India 395 1.0 16 26 25 Australia 2657 1.9 0 4 15
Guatemala 368 1.0 15 29 0 Viet Nam 2626 1.9 12 26 6
Colombia 346 0.9 5 15 -14 Colombia 2484 1.8 6 23 -10
New Zealand 346 0.9 2 28 -6 Guatemala 2296 1.6 11 36 7
Argentina 292 0.8 12 12 7 Malaysia 2273 1.6 14 39 -20
Peru 261 0.7 14 31 4 New Zealand 2268 1.6 2 11 10
Viet Nam 252 0.7 10 26 2 Ecuador 2021 1.4 6 20 -3
Costa Rica 223 0.6 5 11 -11 Argentina 1856 1.3 9 39 7
Malaysia 209 0.6 10 35 -18 Costa Rica 1832 1.3 7 10 7
Côte d'Ivoire 191 0.5 13 6 -1 Peru 1658 1.2 13 34 -4
Switzerland 187 0.5 14 22 -1 Philippines 1622 1.1 8 45 -10
Ecuador 183 0.5 12 -1 -2 Japan 1248 0.9 7 7 7
Turkey 172 0.5 18 12 22 Honduras 1101 0.8 9 34 12
South Africa 163 0.4 4 1 5 Korea, Republic of 1064 0.8 7 21 8
Canada 151 0.4 18 23 9 Dominican Republic 965 0.7 9 6 14
Korea, Republic of 147 0.4 8 32 -4 Switzerland 903 0.6 21 18 12
Philippines 128 0.3 9 24 9 Côte d'Ivoire 895 0.6 4 18 -16
Chinese Taipei 118 0.3 10 4 5 Nicaragua 779 0.5 14 16 8
Honduras 114 0.3 17 45 19 Turkey 714 0.5 6 19 10
Japan 97 0.3 6 6 6 Chinese Taipei 617 0.4 3 14 -3
Norway 87 0.2 12 37 5 Russian Federation 479 0.3 -1 -7 -3
Morocco 80 0.2 5 -7 -5 El Salvador 419 0.3 12 58 4
Russian Federation 75 0.2 -2 26 -3 Norway 395 0.3 9 -29 -14
Nicaragua 64 0.2 16 105 9 South Africa 340 0.2 2 -2 17
Uruguay 56 0.1 -3 -16 56 Israel 319 0.2 5 12 10
Israel 51 0.1 14 31 23 Uruguay 249 0.2 -11 38 17
El Salvador 51 0.1 14 95 -48 Ghana 231 0.2 20 48 -29
Pakistan 35 0.1 14 3 37 Fiji 213 0.1 5 -15 39
Nigeria 35 0.1 37 52 -47 Panama 184 0.1 -1 8 7
Liberia 34 0.1 18 16 0 Pakistan 169 0.1 15 29 42
Jamaica 34 0.1 7 12 0 Morocco 163 0.1 8 11 -23


Above 40 37432 98.7 - - - Above 40 138753 97.8 - - -


Imports of agricultural products of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


United States Canada a


65World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.14 (continued)


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 623242 100.0 6 17 -5 World 93725 100.0 5 24 -2
Europe 469041 75.3 6 16 -4 Asia 39497 42.1 5 24 -3
South and Central America 49873 8.0 6 18 -8 North America 27331 29.2 3 21 -4
Asia 43583 7.0 8 29 -8 Europe 13929 14.9 8 28 -1
Africa 22206 3.6 4 16 -13 South and Central America 8809 9.4 9 29 -1
North America 19626 3.1 3 18 -10 CIS 2422 2.6 3 21 16
CIS 12481 2.0 12 47 19 Africa 1543 1.6 0 10 -2
Middle East 2304 0.4 -1 13 -18 Middle East 185 0.2 4 14 10


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 450057 72.2 6 16 -4 United States 19689 21.0 3 21 -6
Brazil 20748 3.3 6 21 -7 European Union (27) 11500 12.3 7 26 -2
United States 14564 2.3 3 17 -8 China 11472 12.2 4 18 7
Argentina 8426 1.4 5 10 -12 Canada 6654 7.1 5 20 1
China 8416 1.4 9 20 -11 Thailand 5927 6.3 9 37 -13


Above 5 502210 80.6 - - - Above 5 55243 58.9 - - -
Indonesia 6572 1.1 11 37 -15 Australia 5756 6.1 1 12 -4
Norway 6447 1.0 8 8 -5 Brazil 3703 4.0 10 40 -1
Ukraine 5681 0.9 25 65 39 Chile 2988 3.2 7 30 1
Switzerland 5615 0.9 12 17 -1 Indonesia 2947 3.1 10 43 -18
Russian Federation 5394 0.9 6 37 8 Korea, Republic of 2630 2.8 8 29 2
Turkey 5104 0.8 3 11 -4 Russian Federation 2093 2.2 1 26 1
Thailand 4496 0.7 10 28 -16 Malaysia 1821 1.9 9 43 -8
India 4344 0.7 12 31 -2 New Zealand 1814 1.9 4 15 3
Chile 4034 0.6 5 17 -10 Viet Nam 1667 1.8 7 23 7
Malaysia 3830 0.6 6 24 -2 Philippines 1517 1.6 7 19 -1
Viet Nam 3803 0.6 18 31 2 Chinese Taipei 1205 1.3 -1 11 -2
Canada 3716 0.6 1 19 -19 India 1105 1.2 9 41 -20
Côte d'Ivoire 3387 0.5 6 9 -11 Norway 997 1.1 10 19 4
Australia 3093 0.5 5 59 9 Mexico 988 1.1 9 25 8
South Africa 3037 0.5 2 0 -7 Switzerland 850 0.9 48 60 -4
Ecuador 3021 0.5 7 22 -3 Argentina 748 0.8 24 2 20
New Zealand 2896 0.5 1 21 -12 Singapore 701 0.7 13 31 2
Peru 2760 0.4 13 27 -2 South Africa 483 0.5 -6 10 -18
Morocco 2654 0.4 3 9 -9 Colombia 373 0.4 3 16 -29
Colombia 2092 0.3 2 26 -14 Ukraine 327 0.3 48 -97 …
Ghana 1974 0.3 10 29 -15 Peru 313 0.3 9 -7 16
Costa Rica 1669 0.3 4 8 -8 Guatemala 219 0.2 10 50 -19
Kenya 1395 0.2 4 15 -11 Mauritania 214 0.2 8 28 43
Mexico 1343 0.2 10 17 -6 Turkey 208 0.2 7 65 1
Uruguay 1328 0.2 12 2 -18 Hong Kong, China 199 0.2 30 -6 29
Israel 1323 0.2 0 6 -10 Ecuador 181 0.2 4 2 1
Iceland 1287 0.2 -1 12 -10 Sri Lanka 150 0.2 7 32 1
Honduras 1204 0.2 18 57 7 Morocco 140 0.1 3 -11 10
Serbia 1177 0.2 18 46 -16 Iceland 137 0.1 1 11 -5
Paraguay 1129 0.2 20 26 -30 Myanmar 136 0.1 5 18 3
Cameroon 1100 0.2 0 7 -24 Ghana 133 0.1 9 27 -23
Philippines 1016 0.2 7 22 -20 Tanzania 117 0.1 13 14 1
Papua New Guinea 1012 0.2 15 62 -3 Greenland 106 0.1 6 16 18
Croatia 1002 0.2 5 17 -4 Fiji 105 0.1 10 19 13
Egypt 917 0.1 6 21 -7 Israel 97 0.1 6 58 20


Above 40 603065 96.8 - - - Above 40 92410 98.6 - - -


a Imports are valued f.o.b.


Imports of agricultural products of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) Japan


66 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.15


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 613 - - 41.8 37.0 7 7 18 -2


extra-EU (27) exports 163 - - 10.2 9.8 10 17 23 3
United States 172 17.0 14.3 13.0 10.4 11 19 18 2
Brazil 86 3.4 2.4 2.8 5.2 14 19 26 0
China 66 1.5 2.4 3.0 4.0 13 26 25 2
Canada 63 5.0 5.4 6.3 3.8 6 19 15 4
Indonesia 45 1.6 1.0 1.4 2.7 18 42 34 -6
Argentina 43 1.9 1.8 2.2 2.6 12 23 31 -5
India 42 1.0 0.8 1.1 2.6 22 41 49 23
Thailand 42 1.2 1.9 2.2 2.5 13 25 35 -12
Australia 38 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.3 9 15 38 3
Malaysia 34 2.0 1.8 1.5 2.0 14 38 35 -13
Russian Federation 32 - - 1.4 1.9 12 3 38 8
Viet Nam a 25 ... ... 0.7 1.5 19 26 32 13
New Zealand 24 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 9 27 23 0
Mexico 23 0.8 0.8 1.7 1.4 9 13 22 0


Above 15 1349 - - 83.3 81.4 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 623 - - 42.6 35.7 6 6 17 -5
extra-EU (27) imports 173 - - 13.3 9.9 6 9 21 -7


China 157 2.1 1.8 3.3 9.0 19 41 34 8
United States 142 8.7 9.0 11.6 8.1 6 16 18 3
Japan 94 9.6 11.5 10.4 5.4 5 14 24 -2
Russian Federation a, b 42 - - 1.3 2.4 14 25 19 -3
Canada b 38 1.8 2.0 2.6 2.2 8 12 14 4
Korea, Republic of 33 1.5 2.2 2.2 1.9 10 26 30 -5
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 29 1.5 0.8 0.9 1.7 18 60 18 40
Mexico b 27 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.6 7 16 24 -7


India 26 0.5 0.4 0.7 1.5 19 26 26 14
Hong Kong, China 25 - - - - 12 20 17 3
retained imports 17 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 13 22 19 4
Malaysia 21 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.2 17 30 32 1
Indonesia 21 0.6 0.5 1.0 1.2 16 38 43 -7
Egypt a 18 0.6 1.1 0.7 1.0 20 28 41 6
Thailand 17 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.0 13 28 27 11


Above 15 1304 - - 81.6 74.8 - - - -


a Includes Secretariat estimates.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of agricultural products, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Annual percentage change Value


67World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.16


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 414723 | 551074 1361458 1660517 1656711 8.3 9.2
Argentina 7482 11954 34650 45262 43151 47.5 53.3
Australia 11875 16446 27048 37399 38405 20.0 15.0
Brazil 9779 15464 68585 86443 86435 29.6 35.6
Cameroon b 695 438 1521 1538 1765 25.7 39.2
Canada 22339 34789 52128 60144 62834 11.4 13.8
Chile 2779 6399 15770 19066 18907 26.0 24.2
China 10060 16384 51607 64613 66175 3.8 3.2
Colombia 2514 3106 5757 7059 6629 21.7 11.0
Costa Rica 927 1812 3371 3845 4083 33.3 35.6
Côte d'Ivoire b 2374 2308 5976 6716 5880 43.8 47.6
Croatia ... 595 1771 2062 2071 13.9 16.8
Dominican Republic b ... | 542 1358 1557 1641 12.2 18.1
Ecuador 1236 1948 5965 7486 7437 31.8 31.2
Egypt b 669 610 | 5122 5312 4738 9.1 16.1
Ethiopia b 260 406 1893 2203 2528 91.0 84.3
European Union (27) - 230390 532320 626412 612939 9.2 10.6
extra-EU (27) exports - 56008 128699 158400 162882 6.4 7.5
intra-EU (27) exports - 174382 403621 468013 450057 10.6 12.4
Ghana b ... 621 1267 3549 5863 46.2 45.1
Guatemala 849 1618 | 3917 4651 4910 37.1 49.2
Honduras 680 782 1590 2333 3012 17.0 38.0
Hong Kong, China 4556 5693 8028 9216 9346 1.5 1.9
domestic exports 821 453 849 1005 1043 2.7 4.7
re-exports 3735 5240 7178 8212 8303 1.4 1.8
Iceland 1274 1257 1930 2314 2298 59.3 45.4
India 3506 | 5951 23106 34491 42395 10.3 14.4
Indonesia 4154 7764 35957 48143 45023 16.2 23.9
Iran 601 932 4992 4574 5973 4.1 5.7
Israel 1327 1182 2306 2458 2433 4.0 3.9
Japan 3298 4349 10143 10925 10859 1.0 1.4
Kenya 559 1062 2861 3129 3227 47.6 52.7
Korea, Republic of 2985 4298 9346 12705 12628 1.9 2.3
Malawi b 382 342 849 1151 956 82.1 80.8
Malaysia 7500 8015 28869 38902 33948 9.5 14.9
Mexico 3466 9100 18789 22944 22838 5.9 6.2
Morocco 1228 1746 3652 3990 3928 23.0 18.3
Myanmar b ... ... 2306 3195 3034 ... 34.1
New Zealand 5966 7665 19565 24068 23979 59.9 64.3
Nicaragua 295 547 1454 1748 2053 83.4 76.7
Pakistan 1081 1234 3940 5550 4979 13.4 20.3
Panama b 263 580 | 810 830 925 85.8 5.7
Paraguay 863 699 3996 4807 4255 44.6 58.5
Peru 789 1911 5935 7874 7664 18.2 16.8
Philippines 1683 2026 4129 5417 5075 6.6 9.8
Russian Federation - 7583 21251 29241 31597 5.9 6.0
Singapore 4095 3723 | 7889 10074 9860 2.0 2.4
domestic exports 1183 1202 | 3239 3868 3917 1.5 1.7
re-exports 2912 2521 | 4236 5754 5457 2.5 3.0
South Africa 1691 3270 7866 8868 8302 10.2 9.5
Sri Lanka b 758 1093 2561 2980 2732 23.6 29.1
Switzerland 2244 2521 | 7972 9347 9004 3.1 4.0
Syrian Arab Republic b 767 621 | 2577 2270 908 12.4 22.7
Chinese Taipei 3732 3509 5522 6769 6938 2.3 2.3
Tanzania b ... 432 1175 1141 1329 46.0 24.2
Thailand 7786 12220 35136 47601 42030 16.1 18.3
Tunisia b 418 548 1352 1885 1931 11.0 11.4
Turkey 3300 3828 12370 14949 15671 11.0 10.3
Uganda ... 292 975 1324 1236 68.8 52.4
Ukraine - 1585 10475 13487 18526 13.8 27.0
United Arab Emirates b, c 501 1185 4923 5646 6544 2.1 1.9
United States 59404 71408 142574 168275 171909 9.2 11.1
Uruguay 1025 1278 4828 5703 6455 63.4 73.8
Viet Nam b ... 3954 16835 22229 25045 23.4 21.9


a Or nearest year.
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of agricultural products of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


68 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.17


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 2766 2815 7350 11489 10755 21.0 22.6
Argentina 326 1644 2133 2579 2478 4.3 3.6
Australia b 2735 4234 11085 13530 14109 5.5 5.6
Bangladesh c, d 835 1716 5992 8176 9768 19.3 28.6
Belarus - 1226 3286 3809 4192 11.0 9.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina ... ... 1814 2112 1989 18.6 19.8
Brazil e 2690 4762 10759 13582 13109 5.9 5.9
Canada b 9009 15272 31969 36447 37909 6.8 8.2
Chile 461 1421 4595 5992 6387 6.8 8.0
China 7855 19544 108260 144724 156823 6.8 8.6
Colombia 593 1736 4486 5718 6395 10.4 10.8
Côte d'Ivoire ... 453 1578 1746 1997 15.1 20.4
Croatia ... 777 2307 2743 2643 9.6 12.7
Cuba ... 826 ... ... ... 20.7 ...
Dominican Republic d, f 413 964 2216 | 2771 2822 11.3 15.3
Ecuador 206 423 1931 2374 2203 8.7 8.7
Egypt d 4793 4195 | 11850 16659 17660 21.3 25.5
El Salvador 158 692 1488 1795 1868 15.4 18.2
European Union (27) g - 253823 557488 654553 623242 9.6 10.5
extra-EU (27) imports - 79049 153867 186540 173185 7.8 7.5
Guatemala 196 673 | 2023 2432 2500 12.1 14.7
Hong Kong, China 8325 11728 20622 24231 25003 3.7 4.5
retained imports 4591 6488 13444 16019 16700 24.1 20.1
India 1721 | 3993 17864 22551 25668 5.3 5.2
Indonesia 2126 5727 15644 22411 20906 9.7 11.0
Iran d 3830 2943 9414 11288 13989 9.5 24.5
Israel 1565 2288 5056 6129 5916 6.2 7.8
Japan 50762 62150 77449 95981 93724 12.8 10.6
Jordan d 709 942 2682 3187 3603 14.7 17.4
Kazakhstan d - 506 3049 4188 4442 8.1 10.0
Korea, Republic of 9531 12837 26614 34681 33076 6.4 6.4
Kuwait d 589 1312 3070 3968 3849 14.4 14.9
Lebanon ... 1210 2996 3331 3436 15.6 15.7
Malaysia 2404 4610 16053 21144 21435 6.3 10.9
Mexico b 5374 10989 23531 29235 27076 7.4 7.3
Morocco 1096 1941 4825 6531 6421 13.3 14.3
New Zealand 756 1204 3376 4132 4287 8.4 11.2
Nigeria d 658 1212 4882 6180 5628 14.3 11.0
Norway 2090 2956 7242 8796 9009 8.7 10.3
Oman 506 1158 2519 2736 3066 12.3 10.7
Pakistan 1568 1882 6737 7353 6524 14.4 14.8
Peru 668 998 3600 4494 4801 13.2 11.3
Philippines 1665 3104 6823 7026 7240 7.8 11.1
Russian Federation b, d - 7561 36473 43256 41983 17.1 13.3
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 3487 5663 17680 20870 29291 15.4 18.8
Senegal d 372 394 1144 1451 1652 29.8 25.7
Singapore 4702 4890 | 10871 13756 13953 3.2 3.7
retained imports 1789 2369 | 6635 8003 8496 3.9 4.3
South Africa 1219 1650 5423 7054 7389 5.5 7.3
Sri Lanka d 549 934 2063 2848 2278 12.8 11.9
Sudan d ... 376 2409 2193 2495 14.2 26.3
Switzerland 5920 5693 12017 13836 12894 6.5 6.5
Syrian Arab Republic d 791 850 | 4106 3928 1707 15.8 23.4
Chinese Taipei 6203 7899 13180 15343 14990 5.2 5.5
Thailand 3230 4484 11985 15195 16844 6.0 6.8
Tunisia d 819 968 2553 3193 3428 11.1 14.0
Turkey 2806 4133 12878 17574 16370 5.5 6.9
Ukraine - 1092 6245 6930 8036 8.5 9.5
United Arab Emirates d 1726 3230 11806 14378 16290 6.9 7.1
United States 39966 69115 116448 137157 141849 5.5 6.1
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 986 1970 5388 5856 8536 10.0 14.1
Viet Nam d 236 1269 10272 13187 13697 9.9 12.0
Yemen d ... ... 2920 3235 4261 29.2 35.5


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Figures refer to fiscal year.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
g See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value


Imports of agricultural products of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


69World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.18


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 1375 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 10 21 1
Europe


World 564 100.0 100.0 48.9 41.0 8 17 -1
Europe 433 81.2 76.8 39.7 31.5 7 16 -3
Asia 34 4.6 6.1 2.2 2.5 12 31 3
North America 25 5.2 4.5 2.5 1.8 5 14 5
Africa 22 2.7 3.9 1.3 1.6 13 27 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 22 2.9 4.0 1.4 1.6 13 18 4
Middle East 20 2.3 3.5 1.1 1.4 14 27 12
South and Central America 6 0.9 1.1 0.4 0.4 11 21 6


Asia
World 296 100.0 100.0 17.7 21.6 14 29 2
Asia 169 55.7 57.1 9.8 12.3 14 30 3
Europe 37 15.1 12.5 2.7 2.7 11 25 -2
North America 33 14.9 11.2 2.6 2.4 9 20 2
Middle East 22 5.9 7.6 1.0 1.6 18 34 2
Africa 21 4.7 7.2 0.8 1.6 21 44 3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 8 2.3 2.6 0.4 0.5 15 21 -2
South and Central America 4 1.0 1.4 0.2 0.3 19 19 0


North America
World 206 100.0 100.0 14.2 15.0 11 18 5
North America 84 47.1 40.6 6.7 6.1 9 18 4
Asia 74 28.2 36.1 4.0 5.4 15 17 10
Europe 17 10.7 8.1 1.5 1.2 7 12 1
South and Central America 15 6.6 7.3 0.9 1.1 13 15 5
Africa 7 3.5 3.6 0.5 0.5 12 24 -14
Middle East 5 2.3 2.6 0.3 0.4 13 29 -18
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 1.4 1.5 0.2 0.2 13 24 28


South and Central America
World 186 100.0 100.0 11.6 13.5 13 27 -1
Asia 50 19.5 26.9 2.3 3.6 18 31 6
Europe 44 32.2 23.4 3.7 3.2 8 24 -10
South and Central America 34 14.5 18.2 1.7 2.5 17 28 8
North America 23 16.7 12.5 1.9 1.7 8 27 -2
Africa 15 6.1 7.9 0.7 1.1 17 56 -4
Middle East 12 5.2 6.6 0.6 0.9 17 14 -3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 5.6 3.7 0.6 0.5 7 8 -9


Africa
World 46 100.0 100.0 3.2 3.3 11 16 -1
Europe 17 52.4 36.7 1.7 1.2 6 9 -8
Africa 12 20.8 26.2 0.7 0.9 15 26 -1
Asia 7 11.1 16.0 0.4 0.5 17 23 28
Middle East 4 5.9 9.3 0.2 0.3 19 8 -9
North America 3 6.3 5.7 0.2 0.2 9 41 -9
South and Central America 1 0.3 2.3 0.0 0.1 47 65 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 2.1 2.1 0.1 0.1 11 37 -17


Annual percentage change


Exports of food of regions by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


2.1 Food


70 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.19


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 33357 100.0 10 14 5 World 117141 100.0 7 17 3
North America 21144 63.4 10 12 8 North America 40859 34.9 8 16 5
Europe 4239 12.7 8 13 3 Asia 28610 24.4 8 18 1
Asia 3756 11.3 8 17 2 South and Central America 22495 19.2 7 25 0
South and Central America 3517 10.5 10 22 -6 Europe 22145 18.9 5 12 5
Africa 534 1.6 8 14 -14 Africa 2273 1.9 6 13 -8
Middle East 99 0.3 9 3 13 CIS 387 0.3 -2 -10 -9
CIS 64 0.2 -1 18 24 Middle East 368 0.3 3 3 10


Economy Economy
United States 19693 59.0 10 12 8 Canada 22848 19.5 7 16 6
European Union (27) 3763 11.3 7 12 3 European Union (27) 19908 17.0 4 13 5
Mexico 1320 4.0 14 8 3 Mexico 18010 15.4 10 16 4
China 1034 3.1 9 16 3 China 6498 5.5 11 13 6
Brazil 896 2.7 11 33 -14 Thailand 3926 3.4 7 10 -8


Above 5 26706 80.1 - - - Above 5 71189 60.8 - - -
Thailand 681 2.0 12 18 2 Chile 3918 3.3 5 10 9
Chile 670 2.0 9 8 0 Brazil 3567 3.0 8 39 -13
Australia 419 1.3 1 5 4 Indonesia 2596 2.2 8 16 0
Guatemala 361 1.1 15 29 1 Australia 2588 2.2 0 3 15
New Zealand 333 1.0 1 27 -7 Viet Nam 2524 2.2 12 26 7
India 295 0.9 13 19 6 India 2241 1.9 11 42 9
Argentina 285 0.9 13 9 11 Guatemala 2168 1.9 11 34 8
Colombia 265 0.8 5 19 -20 New Zealand 2046 1.7 3 13 11
Peru 254 0.8 14 31 4 Malaysia 2040 1.7 16 40 -20
Viet Nam 242 0.7 10 27 3 Argentina 1802 1.5 10 41 7
Costa Rica 214 0.6 5 11 -12 Ecuador 1771 1.5 7 22 -5
Malaysia 186 0.6 17 35 -8 Costa Rica 1753 1.5 8 10 7
Switzerland 184 0.6 14 21 -1 Colombia 1669 1.4 6 32 -17
Côte d'Ivoire 176 0.5 12 4 -4 Peru 1592 1.4 14 34 -4
Turkey 167 0.5 19 12 22 Philippines 1540 1.3 8 48 -11
South Africa 157 0.5 4 1 3 Honduras 1060 0.9 9 34 11
Ecuador 146 0.4 13 -3 -5 Dominican Republic 943 0.8 9 6 14
Canada 127 0.4 24 33 8 Switzerland 878 0.7 22 18 12
Philippines 124 0.4 10 26 9 Japan 785 0.7 5 5 3
Indonesia 115 0.3 6 22 4 Côte d'Ivoire 777 0.7 2 12 -14
Honduras 113 0.3 17 45 19 Nicaragua 776 0.7 15 17 8
Norway 86 0.3 12 38 4 Turkey 617 0.5 5 17 15
Morocco 77 0.2 5 -9 -5 Korea, Republic of 544 0.5 7 12 7
Japan 76 0.2 8 3 11 Chinese Taipei 408 0.3 5 17 5
Chinese Taipei 71 0.2 8 5 2 El Salvador 402 0.3 12 58 3
Korea, Republic of 69 0.2 11 16 10 Norway 392 0.3 9 -29 -14
Nicaragua 64 0.2 17 105 8 Russian Federation 313 0.3 -4 -13 -18
Uruguay 54 0.2 -4 -18 57 South Africa 282 0.2 4 -9 22
El Salvador 49 0.1 13 96 -49 Israel 270 0.2 7 11 13
Israel 43 0.1 14 33 23 Uruguay 238 0.2 -11 41 19
Russian Federation 42 0.1 -6 12 0 Fiji 202 0.2 5 -15 38
Jamaica 34 0.1 7 12 0 Ghana 199 0.2 26 46 -32
Bolivia, Plurinational State of 27 0.1 40 52 39 Panama 183 0.2 0 8 6
Hong Kong, China 27 0.1 0 8 -5 Iceland 161 0.1 0 1 33
Iran 25 0.1 2 -10 2 Morocco 147 0.1 9 11 -25


Above 40 32965 98.8 - - - Above 40 114579 97.8 - - -


a Imports are valued f.o.b.


Imports of food of selected economies by origin, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Canada a United States


71World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.20


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 522 - - 43.9 38.0 8 5 17 -1


extra-EU (27) exports 134 - - 10.8 9.7 10 15 23 3
United States 138 17.6 13.4 12.6 10.0 12 15 17 5
Brazil 77 4.2 2.8 3.0 5.6 14 17 27 0
China 56 1.4 2.5 3.1 4.1 13 25 23 4
Canada 46 3.5 3.5 4.1 3.4 10 12 17 6
Argentina 42 2.3 2.2 2.7 3.1 12 23 31 -4
Indonesia 34 0.7 0.9 1.3 2.4 19 28 28 3
Thailand 31 1.3 2.1 2.3 2.2 13 13 26 -2
Australia 31 3.3 2.5 2.9 2.2 9 10 34 5
India 31 1.1 0.9 1.3 2.2 19 29 48 13
Malaysia 28 0.9 1.1 1.3 2.1 16 34 34 -10
Russian Federation 22 - - 0.9 1.6 17 -6 44 24
Mexico 21 0.9 1.0 1.9 1.6 9 12 22 -1
Viet Nam a 21 ... ... 0.9 1.5 18 18 29 18
New Zealand 20 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.5 9 25 23 0


Above 15 1121 - - 83.4 81.5 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 531 - - 43.4 36.4 7 3 17 -3
extra-EU (27) imports 142 - - 12.4 9.7 7 4 20 -5


United States 117 8.8 8.9 11.1 8.0 7 12 17 3
China 91 1.4 1.4 2.0 6.2 23 32 27 20
Japan 79 7.2 10.1 10.5 5.4 6 11 23 0
Russian Federation a, b 39 - - 1.5 2.7 14 25 18 -3
Canada b 33 1.8 2.1 2.6 2.3 10 11 14 5
Korea, Republic of 25 0.9 1.2 1.7 1.7 12 20 32 -2
Mexico b 23 1.4 1.3 1.8 1.6 8 13 26 -7
Hong Kong, China 22 - - - - 14 18 18 4


retained imports 16 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.1 13 20 19 5
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of a 19 1.8 1.0 1.2 1.3 11 55 18 -6
India 18 0.5 0.2 0.5 1.2 21 20 24 16
Malaysia 17 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 16 29 29 0
Indonesia 16 0.6 0.3 0.7 1.1 18 33 46 -5
Egypt 16 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.1 22 31 46 6
United Arab Emirates a 16 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.1 16 11 23 13


Above 15 1053 - - 80.4 72.2 - - - -


a Includes Secretariat estimates.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of food, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Annual percentage change Value


72 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.21


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 315559 | 431261 1122197 1360115 1375255 6.7 7.7
Argentina 6949 11491 33838 44225 42407 46.2 52.4
Australia 7937 12583 21887 29301 30704 16.1 12.0
Belarus - 495 3189 3787 4455 8.3 9.7
Brazil 8697 12808 60777 77373 77212 25.7 31.8
Canada 10898 17630 37163 43631 46329 6.7 10.2
Chile 1965 4424 11811 14342 14481 19.6 18.5
China 7868 13559 44153 54168 56318 3.2 2.7
Colombia 2222 2502 4447 5722 5250 17.2 8.7
Costa Rica 848 1648 3131 3584 3814 30.2 33.3
Côte d'Ivoire ... 1806 5001 5307 4727 36.0 38.3
Ecuador 1198 1758 5228 6663 6614 27.6 27.7
Egypt 251 375 | 4356 4487 4038 7.2 13.7
Ethiopia b 186 321 1703 1988 2281 75.4 76.0
European Union (27) - 189387 451064 529591 522396 7.7 9.0
extra-EU (27) exports - 46530 104755 129237 133548 5.2 6.2
intra-EU (27) exports - 142857 346309 400354 388848 8.9 10.7
Ghana b ... 513 1132 2887 5601 40.5 43.1
Guatemala 778 1518 | 3557 4119 4464 33.8 44.7
Honduras 649 730 1554 2295 2963 16.3 37.4
Hong Kong, China 3385 3664 6125 7094 7243 0.9 1.5
domestic exports 742 362 605 698 787 2.1 3.5
re-exports 2644 3302 5521 6396 6457 0.8 1.4
Iceland 1266 1240 1904 2278 2257 58.5 44.6
India 2782 5418 18199 27009 30534 9.0 10.4
Indonesia 2853 5526 25630 32865 33692 11.3 17.9
Iran ... 818 4738 4318 5600 3.7 5.4
Israel 1022 824 1832 2031 2050 3.1 3.2
Japan 1706 2124 4730 4615 4557 0.5 0.6
Kenya 502 927 2320 2502 2599 37.6 42.4
Korea, Republic of 2162 2665 4990 6165 6398 1.1 1.2
Malawi b 374 331 814 1078 896 78.4 75.7
Malaysia 3434 5440 23609 31716 28486 7.0 12.5
Mexico 3057 8179 17728 21641 21427 5.4 5.8
Morocco 1105 1596 3347 3751 3692 21.2 17.2
Myanmar b ... ... 1497 1735 1558 ... 17.5
New Zealand 4272 5819 16386 20118 20021 49.6 53.7
Nicaragua 251 534 1434 1717 2023 81.3 75.6
Norway 2365 3827 9415 10145 9668 5.2 6.0
Pakistan 516 964 3531 4901 4187 12.0 17.0
Panama b 258 569 | 792 795 886 85.0 5.5
Paraguay 502 564 3862 4678 4099 39.9 56.4
Peru 703 1736 5561 7456 7242 16.8 15.9
Philippines 1532 1815 3767 4915 4638 6.1 8.9
Russian Federation - 3936 12135 17476 21682 3.0 4.1
Serbia ... ... 2189 2407 2651 19.8 23.4
Singapore 2747 3091 | 6876 8777 8807 1.7 2.2
domestic exports 1077 1092 | 3178 3819 3868 1.4 1.7
re-exports 1671 1999 | 3659 4926 4804 2.0 2.7
South Africa ... 2232 6239 6859 6607 7.7 7.6
Sri Lanka 649 ... 2233 2577 2426 21.6 25.9
Switzerland 1756 2007 | 7312 8623 8414 2.6 3.7
Syrian Arab Republic b 577 408 | 2386 2102 841 9.9 21.0
Chinese Taipei 2703 1819 2736 3373 3761 1.1 1.2
Tanzania b ... 359 955 972 1147 36.4 20.9
Thailand 6611 9924 24999 31465 30704 11.6 13.4
Tunisia b 384 510 1269 1801 1851 10.4 10.9
Turkey 2906 3521 11878 14209 15033 10.5 9.9
Uganda ... 241 887 1163 1092 58.2 46.3
Ukraine - 1339 9885 12757 17848 12.4 26.0
United Arab Emirates b, c 73 1128 4701 5358 6209 2.0 1.8
United States 42422 54341 112356 131345 138034 6.9 8.9
Uruguay 670 1064 4121 4876 5718 54.3 65.4
Viet Nam b ... 3666 13907 18007 21281 20.2 18.6


a Or nearest year.
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of food of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


73World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.22


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 2306 2578 6683 10762 9998 19.3 21.1
Argentina 164 1267 1499 1787 1726 2.8 2.5
Australia b 1943 3245 9825 12038 12643 4.6 5.0
Bangladesh c, d 650 1254 4859 6684 7243 12.6 21.2
Belarus - 1027 2767 3100 3509 9.3 7.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina ... ... 1669 1943 1826 17.3 18.2
Brazil e 2112 3665 8373 10244 10626 4.4 4.8
Canada b 7143 12027 27957 31851 33357 5.6 7.2
Chile 308 1228 4198 5519 5912 5.8 7.4
China 4619 9043 59556 75455 90651 3.3 5.0
Colombia 395 1405 3933 5068 5872 8.7 9.9
Côte d'Ivoire ... 427 1511 1689 1930 14.6 19.7
Croatia ... 653 2083 2486 2443 8.3 11.8
Cuba ... 765 ... ... ... 20.0 ...
Dominican Republic d, f ... ... 2051 | 2592 2640 9.8 14.3
Ecuador 156 310 1719 2091 1959 7.5 7.8
Egypt 2903 3519 | 10145 14794 15666 17.7 22.6
El Salvador 128 613 1322 1572 1663 14.0 16.2
European Union (27) g - 200465 470523 549914 530903 7.9 8.9
extra-EU (27) imports - 57253 124214 149560 142055 6.1 6.2
Guatemala 169 592 | 1841 2194 2255 10.9 13.3
Hong Kong, China 6551 9165 18013 21299 22087 2.9 4.0
retained imports 3908 5863 12492 14903 15631 22.0 18.8
India 771 | 2283 12317 15296 17672 3.3 3.6
Indonesia 1104 3336 11470 16730 15828 6.4 8.3
Iran ... 2585 8156 9654 12442 7.6 21.8
Israel 1197 1923 4342 5326 5196 5.2 6.9
Japan 34154 48543 64026 79056 78870 10.4 8.9
Jordan d 672 851 2476 2948 3333 13.6 16.1
Kazakhstan d - 459 2827 3938 4165 7.3 9.4
Kenya 199 403 1407 1902 1961 9.5 12.0
Korea, Republic of 3912 7722 19176 25370 24879 4.4 4.8
Kuwait d 561 1249 2949 3780 3676 13.9 14.2
Lebanon ... 1107 2799 3113 3229 14.4 14.7
Malaysia 2021 3526 12786 16524 16523 5.1 8.4
Mexico b 4326 8485 19512 24533 22859 6.0 6.2
Morocco 677 1585 4057 5593 5581 10.6 12.5
New Zealand 643 1074 3187 3902 4041 7.7 10.6
Nigeria d ... 1159 4535 5741 5228 13.8 10.3
Norway 1584 2221 6122 7553 7888 6.8 9.0
Oman 486 1122 2394 2617 2913 11.8 10.2
Pakistan 1276 1524 4893 5203 4846 10.3 11.0
Peru 621 864 3099 3840 4222 11.4 9.9
Philippines 1348 2598 6450 6564 6819 6.9 10.4
Russian Federation b, d - 6853 34054 40150 39001 16.1 12.3
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of d 3319 5375 16690 19770 18600 14.7 12.0
Senegal d 350 362 1072 1356 1554 28.1 24.1
Singapore 3685 4354 | 9799 12329 12558 2.8 3.3
retained imports 2014 2354 | 6140 7403 7754 3.7 3.9
South Africa 846 1254 4688 6091 6528 4.5 6.4
Sri Lanka 502 ... 1884 2539 2038 11.7 10.6
Sudan d ... 360 2353 2136 2430 13.4 25.6
Switzerland 4371 4519 10216 11917 11194 5.4 5.7
Syrian Arab Republic d 745 726 | 3695 3534 1536 12.9 21.0
Chinese Taipei 3495 5013 9536 11025 11247 3.6 4.2
Thailand 1672 2677 8596 10842 12638 4.0 5.1
Tunisia d 582 706 2077 2712 2986 8.5 12.2
Turkey 1856 2128 7411 10653 10420 2.8 4.4
Ukraine - 882 5586 6111 7225 7.2 8.5
United Arab Emirates d 1627 3026 11198 13744 15572 6.3 6.8
United States 30055 51226 97345 114023 117138 4.2 5.0
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 739 1704 5005 5343 8000 9.0 13.2
Viet Nam d ... 814 7286 9046 9632 6.3 8.5
Yemen d ... ... 2845 3163 4114 28.3 34.3


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Figures refer to fiscal year.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
g See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value


Imports of food of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


74 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.23


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 4139 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 13 35 2
Middle East


World 915 100.0 100.0 21.6 22.1 13 46 6
Asia 613 59.0 67.0 12.8 14.8 15 42 11
Europe 93 14.6 10.2 3.2 2.2 7 50 -12
North America 93 11.5 10.1 2.5 2.2 11 54 14
Middle East 33 3.2 3.6 0.7 0.8 15 21 12
Africa 20 2.5 2.2 0.6 0.5 11 35 5
South and Central America 6 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.1 16 80 -3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14 68 4


Europe
World 840 100.0 100.0 22.9 20.3 11 33 2
Europe 656 81.0 78.1 18.5 15.8 10 31 1
North America 46 9.3 5.5 2.1 1.1 3 33 -14
Asia 45 3.2 5.4 0.7 1.1 19 43 10
Africa 37 1.9 4.4 0.4 0.9 25 39 20
Middle East 14 1.5 1.6 0.3 0.3 12 50 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 8 0.6 1.0 0.1 0.2 19 54 7
South and Central America 8 0.6 1.0 0.1 0.2 20 30 36


Asia
World 694 100.0 100.0 14.3 16.8 15 33 -3
Asia 575 83.1 82.9 11.8 13.9 15 34 -3
Europe 38 6.8 5.4 1.0 0.9 11 32 -13
North America 23 5.4 3.3 0.8 0.6 7 17 -1
Middle East 22 1.7 3.1 0.2 0.5 26 23 27
South and Central America 14 1.3 2.0 0.2 0.3 23 32 -6
Africa 14 0.7 2.0 0.1 0.3 33 26 18
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 12 -6 -8


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
World 530 100.0 100.0 12.1 12.8 13 39 0
Europe 338 71.0 63.8 8.6 8.2 12 35 1
Asia 92 7.9 17.4 1.0 2.2 27 42 13
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 49 9.9 9.3 1.2 1.2 12 69 -13
North America 28 6.1 5.3 0.7 0.7 11 31 -18
Middle East 6 1.5 1.2 0.2 0.2 10 7 3
South and Central America 2 1.9 0.3 0.2 0.0 -11 44 -39
Africa 3 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.1 29 132 6


North America
World 402 100.0 100.0 9.9 9.7 12 36 -2
North America 229 74.4 56.9 7.4 5.5 8 32 -4
Europe 60 9.4 14.9 0.9 1.4 20 45 -1
Asia 56 10.2 14.0 1.0 1.4 17 37 -6
South and Central America 49 5.1 12.2 0.5 1.2 27 50 20
Africa 4 0.4 1.0 0.0 0.1 29 41 -14
Middle East 2 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.1 18 62 -27
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 24 118 -40


Africa
World 438 100.0 100.0 11.4 10.6 11 19 9
Europe 169 39.8 38.7 4.6 4.1 11 11 26
Asia 131 15.7 29.8 1.8 3.2 22 19 16
North America 61 28.2 14.0 3.2 1.5 1 5 -26
Africa 27 5.1 6.3 0.6 0.7 15 28 1
South and Central America 26 4.5 5.9 0.5 0.6 15 112 2
Middle East 3 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.1 16 4 -10
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 5 -14 4


South and Central America
World 320 100.0 100.0 7.8 7.7 12 33 -3
Asia 98 14.2 30.7 1.1 2.4 25 25 -1
North America 97 46.1 30.3 3.6 2.3 6 37 0
South and Central America 71 23.0 22.3 1.8 1.7 12 37 -3
Europe 45 14.5 14.1 1.1 1.1 12 39 -9
Middle East 3 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.1 20 68 -15
Africa 2 0.8 0.6 0.1 0.0 7 -6 -3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 4 62 -30


Annual percentage change


Exports of fuels and mining products of regions by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


3. Fuels and mining products


75World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.24


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 1034588 100.0 11 35 4 World 433222 100.0 5 28 -7
Europe 410587 39.7 10 35 4 North America 145900 33.7 7 27 -2
CIS 283579 27.4 12 38 -1 Middle East 90032 20.8 11 50 17
Africa 155954 15.1 13 13 32 South and Central America 81472 18.8 5 39 -10
Middle East 86126 8.3 7 58 -18 Africa 52083 12.0 -1 6 -32
North America 34926 3.4 22 74 9 Europe 29486 6.8 0 29 -6
South and Central America 18497 1.8 15 40 12 CIS 24376 5.6 14 32 -19
Asia 16862 1.6 12 27 -16 Asia 9873 2.3 4 8 0


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 334470 32.3 11 35 4 Canada 105596 24.4 7 25 1
Russian Federation 209045 20.2 12 36 7 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 55997 12.9 10 50 18
Norway 71499 6.9 5 33 -1 Mexico 40304 9.3 6 32 -10
Libya 41967 4.1 9 28 -6 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 37928 8.8 2 32 -11
Nigeria 41026 4.0 23 -63 194 European Union (27) 25622 5.9 2 24 -1
Algeria 40938 4.0 12 81 27 Russian Federation 21913 5.1 14 37 -16
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 38543 3.7 7 40 8 Iraq 19631 4.5 11 38 13
Kazakhstan 28981 2.8 15 100 15 Nigeria 19374 4.5 -4 9 -43
United States 25327 2.4 30 54 -1 Colombia 17989 4.2 19 59 5
Azerbaijan 17629 1.7 29 78 7 Kuwait 13032 3.0 17 45 67


Above 10 849423 82.1 - - - Above 10 357385 82.5 - - -


Region Region
World 302404 100.0 26 38 10 World 313019 100.0 25 46 14
Middle East 166786 55.2 10 36 5 Middle East 119418 38.2 25 59 11
Asia 96618 32.0 13 41 10 Asia 58232 18.6 22 31 5
CIS 16123 5.3 34 17 13 Africa 54231 17.3 21 18 10
Africa 12630 4.2 22 132 79 CIS 47784 15.3 31 90 27
North America 5761 1.9 16 37 4 South and Central America 22665 7.2 48 47 24
South and Central America 2316 0.8 73 147 129 North America 5632 1.8 43 45 14
Europe 1595 0.5 39 108 89 Europe 3061 1.0 35 54 23


Economy Economy
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 54139 17.9 10 41 9 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 44926 14.4 25 53 14
United Arab Emirates 43312 14.3 8 46 3 Angola 33431 10.7 26 9 35
Qatar 35757 11.8 19 38 19 Russian Federation 29522 9.4 24 78 29
Australia 34617 11.4 16 26 8 Iran 18425 5.9 17 76 -20
Malaysia 19081 6.3 21 55 24 Oman 15871 5.1 21 52 14
Indonesia 17305 5.7 7 36 -3 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 13686 4.4 57 88 30
Russian Federation 16100 5.3 34 17 13 Iraq 12649 4.0 63 66 21
Kuwait 15262 5.0 10 27 16 Indonesia 12016 3.8 29 43 15
Korea, Republic of 10146 3.4 18 130 16 Australia 11986 3.8 40 15 30
Iran 7885 2.6 -4 16 -38 Korea, Republic of 11540 3.7 19 62 -9


Above 10 253603 83.9 - - - Above 10 204052 65.2 - - -


Japan China


Imports of fuels of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


European Union (27) United States


3.1 Fuels


76 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.25


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Annual percentage change


2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Asia
Japan 86 167 10 28 36 5
Korea, Republic of 45 121 15 30 50 7
China 25 119 25 50 59 11
India 28 110 21 29 51 16
Singapore 18 46 14 28 44 23
Chinese Taipei 17 38 12 35 13 23
Thailand 14 29 11 23 46 9
Pakistan 5 14 17 30 28 7
Indonesia 4 9 12 29 27 22
Malaysia 3 7 12 42 67 15
Philippines 4 6 8 42 35 6
Australia 1 3 16 4 88 -24


Europe
European Union (27) 52 86 7 41 58 -18
Turkey 6 15 14 69 30 9


North America
United States 43 90 11 33 50 17
Canada 2 7 17 53 47 23


Africa
South Africa 6 10 8 7 34 3


Imports of fuels of selected regions and economies from the Middle East, 2005 and 2012


Value


77World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics


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Table II.26


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a
World 362586 | 660658 2345512 3223909 3374854 14.2 18.8
Algeria 10623 21610 56087 72212 70716 98.4 98.4
Angola b 3655 7105 49198 65603 71772 96.7 97.0
Argentina 985 4642 5388 4956 4962 16.3 6.1
Australia 7473 13324 59752 75819 72890 25.6 28.4
Azerbaijan - 1485 25054 32605 30701 86.8 94.1
Bahrain b ... 83 160 216 255 7.2 25.9
Belarus - 1452 7098 14323 16386 34.8 35.6
Bolivia, Plurinational State of 227 160 2972 4149 5910 47.3 53.2
Brazil 682 908 19843 26791 26469 6.0 10.9
Brunei Darussalam b 2137 ... 8580 11984 12448 68.5 95.7
Cameroon b 998 987 1922 2402 2230 42.3 49.5
Canada 12672 36344 92052 115852 115897 20.2 25.5
China 5119 7855 26673 32274 31013 2.3 1.5
Colombia 2496 5636 22564 36482 39546 39.2 65.6
Côte d'Ivoire ... 737 2433 2688 3110 26.1 25.2
Croatia ... 486 1472 1614 1685 13.9 13.7
Ecuador 1409 2442 9672 12912 13802 58.1 57.9
Egypt 762 1967 | 7551 9238 8863 42.3 30.2
European Union (27) - 95995 329769 452608 492746 5.4 8.5
extra-EU (27) exports - 26892 100595 140152 158277 4.4 7.3
intra-EU (27) exports - 69103 229174 312456 334470 5.8 9.2
Gabon b ... 2168 7696 8708 8618 84.1 89.2
India 522 1443 37976 56554 54377 10.5 18.5
Indonesia 11239 | 15066 46765 68912 63371 28.4 33.6
Iran, Islamic Rep. of b 15307 25611 79845 107050 77206 85.8 74.2
Iraq b 9587 19771 51969 82988 94025 99.4 99.6
Japan 1260 1520 13038 16258 13420 0.7 1.7
Kazakhstan b - 4567 41590 63456 64486 70.1 69.9
Korea, Republic of 697 9376 32580 53087 57492 5.5 10.5
Kuwait 6500 18141 61826 96466 112010 94.6 94.5
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya b 10608 ... 46283 16923 60114 96.9 96.6
Malaysia 5397 9448 31501 40266 46225 13.5 20.3
Mexico 9868 16050 41071 55684 52271 14.9 14.1
Mongolia b ... 2 313 540 2152 3.8 49.1
Myanmar b ... ... 2936 3511 3809 ... 42.8
New Zealand 362 380 1465 1948 1728 2.5 4.6
Nigeria b 13191 20876 72969 100939 103387 94.3 89.1
Norway 16288 38274 83931 108044 112421 67.7 69.8
Oman 5057 8952 24778 32026 39304 84.4 75.4
Pakistan 71 131 1199 1311 330 4.2 1.3
Peru 332 404 3345 5019 5205 9.2 11.4
Philippines b 225 505 1080 1403 1263 1.9 2.4
Qatar b 2967 10665 62764 99126 113666 92.7 85.5
Russian Federation - 52246 254147 342146 347124 61.0 65.6
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 40128 70857 215249 317624 324146 89.3 83.5
Singapore 9566 13403 | 56725 80979 75568 12.2 18.5
domestic exports 9479 13290 | 54801 82408 84532 20.2 37.0
re-exports 88 113 | 20900 26092 19272 2.7 10.7
South Africa b 1152 2664 7198 9706 9781 9.4 11.2
Sudan b ... 1088 9716 8466 2925 77.6 86.8
Switzerland 45 287 | 5514 7313 7322 2.1 3.2
Syrian Arab Republic b 1903 3538 | 5664 4989 1995 50.2 49.9
Chinese Taipei 401 1657 14359 17391 21542 4.5 7.2
Thailand 192 2206 9644 12871 14938 4.3 6.5
Trinidad and Tobago b 1285 2790 6684 9095 7901 67.9 60.9
Tunisia b 604 707 2328 2597 2454 12.9 14.4
Turkey 296 294 4405 6413 7478 3.6 4.9
Ukraine - 808 3661 5691 3515 9.8 5.1
United Arab Emirates b 14141 28760 74047 117025 125953 43.9 36.0
United States 12321 13340 81448 130187 137080 3.0 8.9
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of b 14447 29203 62317 88132 93569 85.7 96.1
Viet Nam b ... 3825 7980 11008 11703 25.8 10.2
Yemen ... ... 5668 6129 6108 92.1 71.0


a Or nearest year.
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
Note : Includes economies exporting petroleum products.


Value


Exports of fuels of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


78 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.27


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a
Argentina 333 928 4479 9402 8878 5.0 13.0
Australia b 2188 5898 25924 39512 42332 11.1 16.9
Bahrain c ... 207 687 930 1062 22.7 31.4
Bangladesh c, d 566 554 2095 2887 2412 9.3 7.1
Belarus - 2585 12033 18736 17833 33.0 38.4
Brazil e 6045 8290 29958 41968 40187 18.3 18.0
Cameroon c 21 344 1421 1852 2021 26.3 27.7
Canada b 7313 12481 39476 53134 51366 9.2 11.1
Chile 1099 3014 12814 17988 17990 21.7 22.6
China 1259 20637 188958 275728 313019 9.7 17.2
Costa Rica 219 486 1687 2273 2286 10.1 13.0
Côte d'Ivoire ... 838 1860 1924 2977 28.0 30.5
Croatia ... 1145 3781 4951 4741 15.1 22.8
Cuba ... 1158 ... ... ... 25.6 ...
Dominican Republic f ... 1505 3710 | 4670 4808 25.1 26.0
Ecuador 38 281 4380 5404 5641 11.2 22.4
Egypt 243 1059 | 7129 9274 13058 11.9 18.9
European Union (27) g - 218292 737044 996974 1034588 11.8 17.4
extra-EU (27) imports - 148807 507870 684518 700118 23.1 30.4
FYR Macedonia ... 290 967 1437 1388 19.2 21.3
Guatemala 278 620 | 2501 3310 3338 15.5 19.6
Hong Kong, China 1996 4533 15351 18783 18330 2.7 3.3
retained imports 1561 4102 14951 17536 17465 24.4 21.1
India 6495 | 19341 110831 157347 185677 32.4 37.9
Indonesia 1937 6071 27506 40821 42733 23.0 22.4
Iran ... 311 6834 974 684 9.4 1.2
Israel 1354 3587 10441 13636 16079 14.3 21.3
Jamaica 380 586 1586 2311 2386 29.2 36.2
Japan 56777 77413 198624 274648 302404 25.8 34.1
Jordan c 471 194 3368 5284 5974 23.0 28.9
Kazakhstan c - 564 4394 4878 4809 11.9 10.8
Kenya 424 642 2575 4025 4044 22.9 24.8
Korea, Republic of 11023 38077 122596 173674 186190 25.8 35.8
Lebanon ... 1029 3674 4470 5894 22.3 26.9
Malaysia 1487 3940 16402 22055 27855 8.1 14.2
Mexico b 1125 5232 24045 35011 33333 5.5 9.0
Morocco 1168 2039 8133 11180 12356 21.5 27.6
New Zealand 727 1448 4613 6231 6738 12.1 17.6
Norway 1178 1193 5055 5796 5443 4.2 6.2
Pakistan 1529 3598 11398 14860 15947 20.9 36.1
Peru 327 1156 4257 5936 6113 19.8 14.4
Philippines 1943 4095 9905 12810 14093 13.2 21.6
Russian Federation b, c - 1384 3665 5942 4052 1.6 1.3
Senegal c 194 317 1430 1877 1846 22.9 28.7
Serbia ... ... 2980 3711 3338 19.4 17.6
Singapore 9632 16219 | 81157 119319 123868 17.7 32.6
retained imports 9545 16106 | 60257 93227 104596 34.4 52.4
South Africa 88 3826 15722 21238 22833 14.3 22.5
Sri Lanka c 333 551 3019 3985 3830 12.6 20.0
Switzerland 3155 3747 13083 17666 18852 7.2 9.5
Syrian Arab Republic c 72 143 | 3451 3301 1435 1.4 19.7
Chinese Taipei 5953 13030 51622 63128 70041 15.4 25.9
Tanzania c ... 294 2211 3593 3316 22.0 29.2
Thailand 3084 7549 31665 43496 47858 17.7 19.3
Trinidad and Tobago c 143 1068 2158 3167 3018 34.8 33.3
Tunisia c 493 902 2794 3547 3736 13.6 15.3
Turkey 4622 7515 36047 45449 49242 13.5 20.8
Ukraine - 5997 19603 28605 26193 29.5 30.9
United States 68741 139622 362637 464215 433222 17.2 18.5
Uruguay 238 530 1700 2196 3098 24.3 26.7
Viet Nam c ... 2113 8140 12531 12797 14.5 11.2
Yemen c ... ... 1940 3061 1557 19.4 13.0


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Figures refer to fiscal year.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
g See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value


Imports of fuels of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


79World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics


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Table II.28


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 11490 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 7 15 0
Europe


World 4734 100.0 100.0 47.9 41.2 4 16 -5
Europe 3138 71.9 66.3 34.4 27.3 3 15 -8
Asia 539 8.4 11.4 4.0 4.7 9 20 -1
North America 412 9.5 8.7 4.5 3.6 3 15 4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 210 2.7 4.4 1.3 1.8 12 31 5
Middle East 159 3.0 3.4 1.5 1.4 6 13 0
Africa 146 2.6 3.1 1.3 1.3 7 8 2
South and Central America 106 1.5 2.2 0.7 0.9 11 22 2


Asia
World 4419 100.0 100.0 31.7 38.5 10 15 3
Asia 2128 47.2 48.2 14.9 18.5 10 14 4
North America 899 24.4 20.3 7.7 7.8 7 13 8
Europe 743 19.4 16.8 6.1 6.5 8 14 -7
Middle East 209 3.3 4.7 1.0 1.8 16 20 6
South and Central America 165 1.9 3.7 0.6 1.4 21 26 6
Africa 134 1.9 3.0 0.6 1.2 18 19 14
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 111 1.4 2.5 0.5 1.0 19 30 11


North America
World 1582 100.0 100.0 15.1 13.8 5 11 6
North America 783 54.6 49.5 8.3 6.8 4 11 7
Asia 308 18.1 19.5 2.7 2.7 6 10 3
Europe 248 17.2 15.7 2.6 2.2 4 8 -1
South and Central America 143 5.9 9.0 0.9 1.2 12 16 5
Middle East 62 2.6 3.9 0.4 0.5 12 16 26
Africa 24 1.1 1.5 0.2 0.2 10 9 10
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 14 0.4 0.9 0.1 0.1 16 39 22


Middle East
World 265 100.0 100.0 1.4 2.3 14 28 2
Asia 93 19.8 35.1 0.3 0.8 24 36 -1
Middle East 62 20.6 23.3 0.3 0.5 16 22 11
Europe 42 18.6 15.8 0.3 0.4 12 32 -6
North America 24 17.3 9.1 0.2 0.2 4 9 -5
Africa 16 6.4 6.0 0.1 0.1 13 27 4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 6 2.3 2.1 0.0 0.0 13 27 25
South and Central America 4 0.9 1.7 0.0 0.0 25 20 14


South and Central America
World 199 100.0 100.0 1.8 1.7 7 23 0
South and Central America 94 36.9 47.4 0.6 0.8 10 20 -2
North America 58 39.6 29.2 0.7 0.5 2 25 5
Europe 24 12.5 12.2 0.2 0.2 6 22 -6
Asia 16 7.3 7.9 0.1 0.1 8 28 -3
Africa 4 2.3 2.0 0.0 0.0 5 24 -6
Middle East 1 1.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 1 5 -10
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 14 74 44


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
World 187 100.0 100.0 1.3 1.6 11 29 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 77 32.7 41.4 0.4 0.7 14 36 -3
Europe 58 31.4 31.1 0.4 0.5 10 22 15
Asia 21 17.5 11.3 0.2 0.2 4 20 -11
North America 8 5.8 4.0 0.1 0.1 5 16 4
Middle East 7 5.8 3.7 0.1 0.1 4 21 -30
South and Central America 5 2.2 2.7 0.0 0.0 14 46 -16
Africa 4 3.3 2.1 0.0 0.0 4 18 10


Africa
World 103 100.0 100.0 0.9 0.9 7 13 -2
Europe 42 52.2 40.3 0.5 0.4 3 15 -8
Africa 30 18.7 28.7 0.2 0.3 14 7 6
Asia 12 13.3 11.5 0.1 0.1 5 12 -4
North America 9 9.3 8.5 0.1 0.1 6 19 -8
Middle East 6 4.0 5.7 0.0 0.1 13 21 -4
South and Central America 3 1.3 2.8 0.0 0.0 20 23 6
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 25 58 39


Exports of manufactures of regions by destination, 2012


Annual percentage change


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4. Manufactures


80 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.29


Value Value


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


United States
1102 100.0 100.0 6 11 5 World 1618 100.0 100.0 4 11 6
387 37.6 35.1 5 12 7 North America 362 24.0 22.4 3 9 8
114 7.5 10.4 11 15 5 South and Central America 49 3.4 3.0 2 23 8
34 1.8 3.1 14 17 1 Brazil 15 1.4 0.9 -2 34 12


220 23.5 20.0 4 7 -1 Europe 344 22.3 21.2 3 15 4
201 21.8 18.2 3 7 0 European Union (27) 314 20.9 19.4 3 15 5
12 0.6 1.1 16 44 25 CIS 8 0.4 0.5 5 26 -4
9 0.4 0.8 17 48 29 Russian Federation 6 0.3 0.4 7 26 -3


21 1.5 1.9 10 10 10 Africa 10 0.5 0.6 5 19 -7
59 3.7 5.3 12 16 26 Middle East 26 1.6 1.6 4 13 -1


287 25.6 26.1 6 9 3 Asia 820 47.7 50.7 5 9 7
63 3.9 5.7 12 10 2 China 429 20.2 26.5 8 9 7
48 5.3 4.4 3 6 13 Japan 144 11.0 8.9 1 8 14


115 12.1 10.5 4 6 -1 Six East Asian traders 157 12.0 9.7 1 10 2


European Union (27)
4385 100.0 100.0 4 16 -5 World 3905 100.0 100.0 3 13 -8
376 9.4 8.6 3 14 4 North America 232 6.3 5.9 3 12 -1
98 1.4 2.2 11 21 2 South and Central America 29 0.7 0.7 4 17 -6
43 0.5 1.0 13 19 -2 Brazil 12 0.3 0.3 2 14 -13


2948 72.4 67.2 3 15 -8 Europe 2846 74.6 72.9 3 14 -8
2670 66.5 60.9 3 14 -8 European Union (27) 2670 70.3 68.4 3 14 -8
190 2.7 4.3 12 31 4 CIS 35 0.8 0.9 5 29 -11
138 1.9 3.1 12 34 5 Russian Federation 22 0.5 0.6 5 27 -6
131 2.6 3.0 6 9 1 Africa 39 1.2 1.0 1 18 -11
130 2.9 3.0 5 12 -1 Middle East 27 0.9 0.7 1 22 -6
490 8.2 11.2 9 20 0 Asia 682 15.4 17.5 5 8 -8
157 1.7 3.6 16 25 -3 China 359 6.2 9.2 9 8 -8
60 1.4 1.4 4 19 6 Japan 77 2.9 2.0 -2 7 -14


154 2.9 3.5 7 16 2 Six East Asian traders 147 4.4 3.8 1 1 -7


China a
1925 100.0 100.0 16 20 9 World 1059 100.0 100.0 12 16 3
485 31.0 25.2 12 16 10 North America 92 8.4 8.7 12 13 4
98 2.4 5.1 29 34 12 South and Central America 11 0.7 1.0 17 23 21
32 0.6 1.7 33 30 6 Brazil 4 0.3 0.4 12 37 8


418 25.3 21.7 13 15 -5 Europe 195 14.5 18.5 15 25 -1
395 24.1 20.5 13 15 -5 European Union (27) 183 13.6 17.3 15 25 0
72 2.9 3.7 20 25 13 CIS 7 1.2 0.7 2 4 -3
41 1.8 2.2 19 31 15 Russian Federation 4 0.9 0.4 -2 3 -3
78 2.5 4.1 24 22 21 Africa 4 0.3 0.4 14 25 -2
82 3.0 4.3 22 28 8 Middle East 21 1.0 2.0 23 45 -1


686 33.1 35.6 17 23 15 Asia 729 73.8 68.8 10 13 3
167 12.1 8.7 10 22 6 Japan 141 19.0 13.4 6 15 17
310 14.3 16.1 17 22 25 Six East Asian traders 378 39.4 35.7 10 12 3


a In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for nearly 13 per cent of its manufacture imports. For further information, see the Metadata.


Exports Imports


Trade in manufactures of the United States, the European Union (27) and China by origin and destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change Share Share


81World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics


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Table II.30


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 3905122 100.0 3 13 -8 World 1617787 100.0 4 11 6
Europe 2846271 72.9 3 14 -8 Asia 820329 50.7 5 9 7
Asia 682353 17.5 5 8 -8 North America 361614 22.4 3 9 8
North America 231501 5.9 3 12 -1 Europe 343688 21.2 3 15 4
Africa 39164 1.0 1 18 -11 South and Central America 49087 3.0 2 23 8
CIS 34660 0.9 5 29 -11 Middle East 25880 1.6 4 13 -1
South and Central America 28825 0.7 4 17 -6 Africa 9515 0.6 5 19 -7
Middle East 27483 0.7 1 22 -6 CIS 7669 0.5 5 26 -4


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 2670028 68.4 3 14 -8 China 429182 26.5 8 9 7
China 358639 9.2 9 8 -8 European Union (27) 313617 19.4 3 15 5
United States 202532 5.2 2 11 -1 Mexico 201608 12.5 7 10 10
Switzerland 95706 2.5 4 17 -8 Canada 160005 9.9 -1 9 6
Japan 77435 2.0 -2 7 -14 Japan 143536 8.9 1 8 14


Above 5 3404340 87.2 - - - Above 5 1247947 77.1 - - -
Turkey 51616 1.3 4 19 -9 Korea, Republic of 55020 3.4 4 16 3
Korea, Republic of 44539 1.1 1 -6 -3 Chinese Taipei 37803 2.3 1 16 -5
India 35614 0.9 9 25 -15 India 31700 2.0 9 17 5
Chinese Taipei 27273 0.7 -1 6 -15 Malaysia 23231 1.4 -5 -4 4
Singapore 25023 0.6 2 3 5 Switzerland 21968 1.4 9 26 1
Russian Federation 21988 0.6 5 27 -6 Israel 21050 1.3 4 12 -4
Malaysia 21523 0.6 3 5 -13 Thailand 20883 1.3 2 5 10
Viet Nam 19857 0.5 20 44 41 Viet Nam 18245 1.1 19 15 19
Thailand 16622 0.4 3 1 -11 Singapore 17230 1.1 3 8 3
Canada 14698 0.4 2 10 -9 Brazil 15253 0.9 -2 34 12
Norway 14651 0.4 1 10 -7 Indonesia 13107 0.8 5 10 2
Mexico 14229 0.4 10 22 -4 Costa Rica 9972 0.6 23 17 21
Israel 13072 0.3 4 23 -6 Philippines 7980 0.5 -1 8 9
Hong Kong, China 12375 0.3 -1 1 -6 Russian Federation 5852 0.4 7 26 -3
Brazil 11602 0.3 2 14 -13 South Africa 5447 0.3 9 19 -10
Indonesia 11431 0.3 5 17 -6 Turkey 5444 0.3 3 22 27
Bangladesh 11413 0.3 13 37 -1 Bangladesh 4937 0.3 9 13 -1
Tunisia 9349 0.2 5 11 -14 Trinidad and Tobago 4521 0.3 9 32 -1
South Africa 8448 0.2 -2 -8 -22 Australia 4241 0.3 3 14 -16
Ukraine 8382 0.2 4 36 -22 Pakistan 3603 0.2 1 8 -7
Morocco 7828 0.2 -1 24 -2 Honduras 3428 0.2 1 11 2
Costa Rica 7396 0.2 17 14 13 Hong Kong, China 3185 0.2 -13 -9 8
United Arab Emirates 5566 0.1 -7 30 -3 Dominican Republic 2971 0.2 -4 14 2
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 5473 0.1 4 22 -1 Cambodia 2787 0.2 6 17 0
Philippines 5459 0.1 -4 -5 -6 Sri Lanka 2209 0.1 0 19 8
Pakistan 4632 0.1 4 25 -18 El Salvador 2095 0.1 2 8 6
Croatia 4463 0.1 3 19 -16 Norway 2033 0.1 4 -4 -9
Serbia 3865 0.1 24 18 -6 Nicaragua 1854 0.1 11 31 4
Botswana 3740 0.1 4 292 -8 Egypt 1552 0.1 8 14 -5
Egypt 3550 0.1 5 24 -17 Chile 1459 0.1 5 45 12
Australia 3485 0.1 -1 9 -13 Guatemala 1453 0.1 -5 12 -3
Argentina 3113 0.1 13 49 -16 Colombia 1385 0.1 -3 2 1
Sri Lanka 2799 0.1 7 17 -3 Argentina 1163 0.1 -2 22 -3
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2307 0.1 11 27 -5 Jordan 1143 0.1 -2 8 10
Cambodia 2188 0.1 19 51 25 New Zealand 1125 0.1 1 20 8


Above 40 3863910 98.9 - - - Above 40 1605276 99.2 - - -


Imports of manufactures of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) United States


82 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.30 (continued)


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 1058812 100.0 12 16 3 World 417776 100.0 6 16 4
Asia 728601 68.8 10 13 3 Asia 278755 66.7 7 18 3
Europe 195437 18.5 15 25 -1 Europe 76398 18.3 5 19 4
North America 91621 8.7 12 13 4 North America 55757 13.3 2 5 7
Middle East 20819 2.0 23 45 -1 South and Central America 2343 0.6 10 -5 2
South and Central America 10935 1.0 17 23 21 Middle East 1799 0.4 4 27 0
CIS 7106 0.7 2 4 -3 Africa 1538 0.4 -4 17 -8
Africa 4178 0.4 14 25 -2 CIS 1181 0.3 6 16 -17


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 182802 17.3 15 25 0 China 171112 41.0 9 20 3
Japan 163971 15.5 8 11 -9 European Union (27) 68328 16.4 5 20 4
Korea, Republic of 149034 14.1 11 14 5 United States 51164 12.2 2 5 6
China 141401 13.4 15 15 17 Korea, Republic of 24496 5.9 4 22 0
Chinese Taipei 127240 12.0 9 8 6 Chinese Taipei 19625 4.7 4 0 4


Above 5 764449 72.2 - - - Above 5 334724 80.1 - - -
United States 80991 7.6 12 11 5 Thailand 16184 3.9 6 10 3
Malaysia 45281 4.3 15 20 -2 Malaysia 10135 2.4 3 15 -10
Thailand 28008 2.6 14 12 -4 Viet Nam 9101 2.2 19 23 20
Singapore 22235 2.1 7 13 2 Indonesia 8168 2.0 6 18 6
Philippines 15885 1.5 4 3 12 Switzerland 7096 1.7 7 13 5
Viet Nam 10223 1.0 56 61 87 Philippines 6549 1.6 1 14 12
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 9400 0.9 19 44 0 Singapore 6130 1.5 5 5 7
Switzerland 9333 0.9 16 41 -14 India 2582 0.6 9 23 10
India 6985 0.7 13 34 12 Mexico 2517 0.6 9 6 14
Hong Kong, China 6103 0.6 -8 -6 -17 Canada 2076 0.5 1 1 8
Canada 5752 0.5 7 40 -10 Brazil 1302 0.3 11 8 -6
Indonesia 5436 0.5 6 27 -7 South Africa 1269 0.3 -5 16 -9
Costa Rica 5227 0.5 28 24 37 Israel 1040 0.2 5 29 8
Mexico 4878 0.5 15 19 0 Australia 1036 0.2 5 11 -2
Russian Federation 3769 0.4 -2 3 -3 New Zealand 688 0.2 4 21 11
Brazil 3738 0.4 12 37 8 Bangladesh 687 0.2 28 51 29
Iran 3733 0.4 43 52 -7 Norway 596 0.1 5 15 -23
South Africa 2976 0.3 13 37 -6 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 590 0.1 7 50 -3
Israel 2813 0.3 16 16 -4 Hong Kong, China 581 0.1 -9 1 -19
Australia 2320 0.2 7 26 3 Kazakhstan 548 0.1 8 25 -24
Pakistan 2188 0.2 18 23 50 Myanmar 536 0.1 27 65 19
Kazakhstan 2039 0.2 16 14 -3 Russian Federation 535 0.1 7 8 -10
Norway 1880 0.2 18 15 -17 Cambodia 397 0.1 21 46 31
Kuwait 1524 0.1 29 28 20 Turkey 322 0.1 15 10 18
United Arab Emirates 1419 0.1 36 155 2 Pakistan 257 0.1 13 126 3
Turkey 1176 0.1 22 41 4 Costa Rica 256 0.1 5 -36 28
Oman 764 0.1 199 81 3 Panama 236 0.1 134 -64 133
Qatar 746 0.1 15 50 -25 Chile 173 0.0 0 7 -6
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of 651 0.1 29 84 1 New Caledonia 146 0.0 3 27 -39
Belarus 633 0.1 5 25 11 Sri Lanka 118 0.0 6 25 4
Colombia 487 0.0 15 -6 14 Tunisia 111 0.0 20 35 -5
New Zealand 444 0.0 8 19 7 French Polynesia 95 0.0 0 8 -4
Chile 422 0.0 17 -14 53 Dominican Republic 86 0.0 10 38 -6
Argentina 405 0.0 4 0 -3 Uruguay 81 0.0 10 16 -2
Myanmar 370 0.0 64 392 -55 Argentina 73 0.0 10 28 13


Above 40 1054684 99.6 - - - Above 40 417021 99.8 - - -


b Includes significant imports into processing zones.
a In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for nearly 13 per cent of its manufacture imports. For further information, see the Metadata.


Imports of manufactures of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


China a b Japan


83World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.31


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 4385 - - 42.9 38.2 4 11 16 -5


extra-EU (27) exports 1715 - - 14.2 14.9 7 16 18 0
China a 1925 0.8 1.9 4.7 16.8 16 31 20 9
United States 1102 13.0 12.1 13.8 9.6 6 18 11 5
Japan 710 11.2 11.5 9.6 6.2 4 34 7 -2
Korea, Republic of 463 1.4 2.5 3.3 4.0 9 28 15 -2
Hong Kong, China 423 - - - - 6 22 9 4


domestic exports 5 1.2 1.1 0.5 0.0 -15 16 -14 -11
re-exports 418 - - - - 7 22 10 4


Singapore 283 0.8 1.6 2.5 2.5 6 28 10 1
domestic exports 133 0.4 1.0 1.3 1.2 6 32 11 0
re-exports 152 0.3 0.6 1.2 1.3 7 26 8 1


Mexico a 269 0.4 1.1 3.0 2.3 7 30 11 9
Chinese Taipei 262 1.6 2.6 3.0 2.3 6 36 11 -3
Canada 211 2.7 3.1 3.7 1.8 0 19 10 3
Switzerland 195 2.4 2.5 1.5 1.7 7 12 20 -6
India 180 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.6 14 22 34 -2
Thailand 163 0.1 0.6 1.1 1.4 10 29 13 2
Malaysia a 140 0.2 0.7 1.7 1.2 4 22 6 -1
Turkey 108 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.9 9 13 18 4


Above 15 10399 - - 92.4 90.5 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 3905 - - 40.1 32.6 3 11 13 -8
extra-EU (27) imports 1235 - - 12.6 10.3 4 17 10 -7


United States 1618 11.2 15.4 19.8 13.5 4 22 11 6
China a, b 1059 1.1 1.7 3.5 8.8 12 32 16 3
Hong Kong, China 453 - - - - 7 25 11 5


retained imports 35 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.3 14 94 30 18
Japan 418 2.3 4.1 4.3 3.5 6 22 16 4
Canada c 340 3.7 3.8 4.1 2.8 5 21 11 5
Mexico a, c 290 1.5 1.3 3.1 2.4 7 27 12 8
Korea, Republic of 257 0.9 1.8 2.0 2.2 7 29 12 -4
Russian Federation c, d 253 - - 0.4 2.1 20 50 34 3


Singapore 227 1.2 1.8 2.2 1.9 6 24 9 3
retained imports 75 0.8 1.2 1.1 0.6 4 21 10 7


India 188 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.6 16 24 22 -2
Australia c 178 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.5 9 19 19 10
Brazil c 163 0.9 0.5 0.8 1.4 17 38 22 0
Thailand 163 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.4 10 36 17 14
Chinese Taipei 163 0.9 1.5 2.3 1.4 3 45 8 -8


Above 15 9257 - - 85.7 77.4 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b In 2012, China reported imports of manufactures from China amounting to $141.4 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.


Leading exporters and importers of manufactures, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


84 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.32


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 2391 | 4691 9986 11523 11490 71.2 64.1
Argentina 4 9 22 26 25 30.4 31.2
Australia 7 15 27 31 32 20.4 12.3
Bangladesh b, c 1 6 18 23 23 91.2 93.6
Belarus - 5 13 20 22 51.9 48.7
Botswana ... 2 4 5 5 84.9 87.1
Brazil 16 32 70 84 82 52.1 33.8
Cambodia c ... 1 5 6 7 94.7 90.1
Canada 73 176 186 204 211 57.2 46.3
Chile 1 3 8 11 10 14.9 13.3
China d 44 220 1477 1772 1925 91.9 94.0
Colombia 2 4 9 10 10 34.7 17.3
Costa Rica d 0 4 5 6 7 65.1 60.0
Croatia ... 3 8 9 8 68.2 61.7
Dominican Republic d 2 | 5 4 5 5 80.6 55.3
Egypt c 1 2 | 11 13 13 19.4 43.5
El Salvador d 0 2 3 4 4 78.9 70.3
European Union (27) - 2012 4001 4627 4385 80.7 75.6
extra-EU (27) exports - 668 1448 1711 1715 84.1 79.1
intra-EU (27) exports - 1344 2552 2916 2670 79.1 73.4
Guatemala 0 1 | 4 4 4 56.7 41.1
Hong Kong, China 76 192 373 408 423 95.8 85.9
domestic exports 27 22 7 6 5 80.3 23.3
re-exports 48 170 366 402 418 97.0 88.8
India e 13 33 138 184 180 71.1 61.2
Indonesia d 9 | 37 58 68 68 45.3 35.9
Israel e 10 30 54 63 58 94.5 92.0
Japan 275 450 680 725 710 91.9 88.9
Jordan c 1 1 5 6 6 71.5 70.0
Kazakhstan c - 1 7 10 12 12.0 12.5
Korea, Republic of 61 155 412 473 463 90.8 84.4
Malaysia d 16 79 133 141 140 74.9 61.6
Mexico d 25 139 222 247 269 77.0 72.7
Morocco d 2 5 11 14 14 63.0 63.6
New Zealand 2 4 7 8 8 31.2 22.2
Norway 11 13 24 25 24 18.1 14.9
Pakistan 4 8 16 18 19 81.1 75.3
Philippines c, d 6 35 44 39 43 89.1 81.8
Russian Federation - 26 83 101 104 21.6 19.6
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c 4 6 32 42 57 9.5 14.7
Serbia ... ... 6 7 7 63.3 61.0
Singapore 37 118 | 254 280 283 80.6 69.2
domestic exports 23 63 | 121 133 133 71.8 58.4
re-exports 14 54 | 139 150 152 91.1 84.3
South Africa e 8 14 33 37 35 50.5 40.2
Sri Lanka c 1 4 6 7 7 68.1 69.3
Switzerland 60 72 | 173 207 195 91.9 86.2
Chinese Taipei 62 141 245 271 262 86.5 87.0
Thailand 15 52 142 159 163 76.0 71.0
Tunisia c 2 5 12 13 12 74.9 72.5
Turkey 9 22 88 104 108 81.3 70.8
Ukraine - 10 33 43 41 68.5 59.7
United Arab Emirates c, f 3 7 53 60 69 19.5 19.8
United States 290 646 944 1047 1102 81.0 71.3
Viet Nam c ... 6 46 62 77 49.9 67.1


a Or nearest year.
b Figures refer to fiscal year.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Includes significant exports from processing zones.
e Includes significant exports of diamonds. For the most recent year, the share of diamonds in exports of manufactures was 12.0 per cent for India, 29.0 per cent for Israel and 4.7 per cent for South Africa.
f Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of manufactures of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total merchandise
exports


85World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.33


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria b 7 6 31 34 34 76.5 71.5
Argentina 3 22 48 59 55 86.3 79.6
Australia c 32 59 137 162 178 79.9 71.0
Bangladesh b, d 2 5 18 22 20 66.6 57.3
Belarus - 4 17 19 22 46.3 46.4
Brazil e 13 41 133 163 163 71.9 73.1
Canada c 93 201 293 325 340 78.9 73.6
Chile b 5 12 41 49 54 68.2 67.5
China f 42 170 894 1033 1059 74.7 58.2
Colombia 4 9 33 44 45 83.2 76.1
Costa Rica b, f 1 5 10 12 13 74.8 72.5
Côte d'Ivoire ... 1 4 3 5 46.9 46.5
Croatia ... 6 13 14 13 72.9 61.5
Dominican Republic b, f, g 2 7 9 | 10 10 55.9 55.6
Ecuador 2 3 14 16 17 72.3 67.4
Egypt b 7 8 | 32 33 35 40.8 50.6
European Union (27) h - 1963 3755 4244 3905 73.5 65.8
extra-EU (27) imports - 617 1202 1328 1235 62.7 53.7
Guatemala f 1 3 | 9 11 11 71.2 64.2
Hong Kong, China 71 193 389 432 453 91.6 81.9
retained imports 22 27 23 30 35 45.6 42.3
India i 12 | 22 157 192 188 47.0 38.5
Indonesia b, f 17 30 86 106 119 63.1 62.8
Iran b 15 10 38 42 36 67.0 62.6
Iraq b ... 2 33 33 40 ... 71.0
Israel i 12 29 42 52 50 72.5 65.8
Japan 100 213 347 403 418 53.6 47.2
Jordan b 1 3 9 9 10 57.4 49.5
Kazakhstan b - 4 22 28 34 78.2 76.8
Kenya 1 2 7 8 10 64.3 58.7
Korea, Republic of 44 98 240 268 257 60.5 49.5
Kuwait b 3 6 18 20 21 80.2 81.2
Lebanon ... 3 10 10 10 53.3 46.5
Malaysia f 23 68 121 130 133 78.8 67.8
Mexico c, f 32 150 240 268 290 83.5 78.2
Morocco f 4 7 21 24 24 61.8 53.8
New Zealand 8 11 21 24 26 76.7 67.6
Nigeria b 5 4 38 48 44 80.6 86.5
Norway 21 27 58 67 66 78.8 75.1
Oman b 2 3 14 16 18 75.8 63.3
Pakistan 4 5 18 20 20 58.4 45.0
Peru 2 5 22 27 31 66.0 73.2
Philippines b 9 29 39 42 42 76.4 63.6
Qatar b 1 3 19 25 28 89.2 83.0
Russian Federation b, c - 19 182 245 253 71.9 80.1
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 18 22 81 100 118 78.3 75.6
Serbia ... ... 9 12 12 65.5 61.5
Singapore 44 110 | 202 220 227 76.1 59.7
retained imports 30 55 | 63 70 75 58.5 37.6
South Africa b 13 18 52 63 63 68.9 61.8
Sri Lanka b 2 5 8 12 11 64.8 58.6
Switzerland 58 68 142 166 158 82.1 79.8
Syrian Arab Republic b 1 2 | 9 9 4 51.8 54.1
Chinese Taipei 37 110 164 176 163 71.7 60.2
Thailand 25 47 122 143 163 69.5 65.8
Trinidad and Tobago b 1 2 3 5 5 51.1 49.8
Tunisia b 4 6 16 16 16 72.0 67.4
Turkey 14 38 116 142 132 66.4 55.9
Ukraine - 6 32 44 48 57.0 56.1
United Arab Emirates b 9 23 96 112 127 61.4 55.4
United States 376 968 1369 1523 1618 71.5 69.3
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 5 12 26 30 38 78.7 62.7
Viet Nam b 2 11 61 74 82 69.4 72.4


a Or nearest year.
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.
d Figures refer to fiscal year.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Includes significant imports into processing zones.
g Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
h See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.
i Includes significant imports of diamonds. For the most recent year, the share of diamonds in total imports of manufactures was 9.0 per cent for India and 15.0 per cent for Israel.


Value


Imports of manufactures of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


86 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 486 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6 25 -8
Europe


World 197 100.0 100.0 47.6 40.5 4 26 -13
Europe 142 77.3 71.9 36.8 29.1 3 26 -16
North America 13 6.5 6.9 3.1 2.8 5 31 9
Asia 12 6.6 6.3 3.2 2.5 3 30 -8
Middle East 11 4.2 5.4 2.0 2.2 8 18 4
Africa 10 2.7 5.1 1.3 2.1 14 13 7
South and Central America 4 1.2 2.1 0.6 0.9 13 17 11
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 4 1.2 2.0 0.6 0.8 12 35 -20


Asia
World 167 100.0 100.0 26.4 34.4 10 25 -5
Asia 101 70.7 60.2 18.7 20.7 8 21 -6
North America 20 12.8 12.2 3.4 4.2 10 43 6
Europe 15 7.6 9.2 2.0 3.2 13 44 -22
Middle East 14 5.0 8.3 1.3 2.9 19 21 2
South and Central America 7 1.0 4.4 0.3 1.5 37 13 2
Africa 6 2.0 3.3 0.5 1.2 19 23 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 4 0.8 2.3 0.2 0.8 28 36 8


Japan
World 44 100.0 100.0 8.7 9.0 7 11 -6
Asia 33 80.6 75.2 7.0 6.8 6 8 -10
North America 5 8.5 10.4 0.7 0.9 10 26 9
Middle East 2 4.7 5.6 0.4 0.5 10 17 26
Europe 2 3.5 4.0 0.3 0.4 9 43 -10
South and Central America 1 0.9 2.2 0.1 0.2 22 -10 5
Africa 1 1.3 1.5 0.1 0.1 9 6 2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.4 1.0 0.0 0.1 24 40 -13


Other economies in Asia
World 124 100.0 100.0 17.7 25.4 12 31 -5
Asia 68 65.8 54.9 11.7 14.0 9 28 -5
North America 16 14.9 12.8 2.6 3.3 10 49 5
Europe 14 9.6 11.0 1.7 2.8 14 44 -24
Middle East 11 5.2 9.2 0.9 2.3 22 21 -2
South and Central America 6 1.0 5.2 0.2 1.3 41 18 1
Africa 5 2.4 4.0 0.4 1.0 21 26 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 1.1 2.8 0.2 0.7 28 35 11


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
World 53 100.0 100.0 11.0 11.0 6 23 -4
Europe 18 33.0 34.0 3.6 3.7 7 22 -4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 16 17.9 29.1 2.0 3.2 14 36 4
Asia 8 24.0 15.3 2.6 1.7 0 19 -7
Middle East 6 10.9 10.3 1.2 1.1 5 22 -31
North America 3 5.5 5.7 0.6 0.6 7 27 14
Africa 2 6.3 3.6 0.7 0.4 -2 3 19
South and Central America 1 1.8 0.9 0.2 0.1 -3 -44 18


Table II.34


Annual percentage change


Exports of iron and steel of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4.1 Iron and steel


87World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.35


Value Share Value Share


2012 2011 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2011 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 158468 100.0 3 29 -19 World 44962 100.0 6 32 10
Europe 129437 81.7 3 26 -17 Asia 14500 32.3 9 41 13
Asia 10772 6.8 11 54 -30 Europe 11153 24.8 5 25 22
CIS 10520 6.6 2 30 -26 North America 9022 20.1 2 12 -2
South and Central America 2612 1.6 -2 78 -30 South and Central America 5723 12.7 4 90 6
North America 2069 1.3 2 25 -8 CIS 3371 7.5 7 27 10
Africa 2022 1.3 -5 4 -29 Africa 901 2.0 2 15 -8
Middle East 239 0.2 -7 80 -47 Middle East 291 0.6 27 114 -5


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 123841 78.1 3 26 -16 European Union (27) 9798 21.8 5 24 19
Russian Federation 5636 3.6 1 21 -20 Canada 6311 14.0 4 7 1
China 4526 2.9 14 59 -32 Brazil 3788 8.4 4 129 2
Ukraine 4170 2.6 4 44 -32 Korea, Republic of 3760 8.4 14 53 22
India 2001 1.3 10 67 -23 Japan 3425 7.6 11 36 19


Above 5 140174 88.5 - - - Above 5 27083 60.2 - - -
Korea, Republic of 1811 1.1 17 46 -23 China 3070 6.8 3 45 9
United States 1745 1.1 6 25 -7 Mexico 2711 6.0 -1 25 -9
Turkey 1691 1.1 -1 81 -41 Russian Federation 2430 5.4 9 31 20
South Africa 1628 1.0 -3 4 -22 India 1498 3.3 10 9 8
Brazil 1596 1.0 3 107 -32 Chinese Taipei 1344 3.0 8 27 15
Switzerland 1584 1.0 3 32 -18 Turkey 1053 2.3 6 43 69
Norway 1316 0.8 0 18 -18 South Africa 850 1.9 5 15 -9
Japan 925 0.6 5 10 -20 Trinidad and Tobago 800 1.8 30 31 19
Chinese Taipei 850 0.5 12 62 -35 Ukraine 579 1.3 2 25 -7
Belarus 446 0.3 6 34 -30 Argentina 433 1.0 10 50 20
FYR Macedonia 390 0.2 -2 13 -35 Viet Nam 336 0.7 95 168 100
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 378 0.2 -4 78 -30 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 321 0.7 -10 42 14
Colombia 363 0.2 1 -14 13 Thailand 282 0.6 4 57 87
Canada 231 0.1 4 19 -16 Australia 258 0.6 -2 71 -61
Serbia 226 0.1 3 4 -71 Kazakhstan 183 0.4 3 11 -26
New Caledonia 174 0.1 0 45 -36 Colombia 174 0.4 0 -7 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina 172 0.1 18 67 24 Philippines 149 0.3 27 197 59
Iceland 146 0.1 14 12 -8 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 148 0.3 74 386 12
Zimbabwe 144 0.1 6 62 -24 Switzerland 132 0.3 14 67 37
Indonesia 136 0.1 -4 48 -67 Malaysia 130 0.3 -4 54 30
Egypt 132 0.1 -12 19 -57 Georgia 127 0.3 45 22 1
Kazakhstan 112 0.1 -15 -5 -9 Norway 125 0.3 2 -23 22
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 108 0.1 -14 64 -45 Chile 118 0.3 17 9 20
Thailand 98 0.1 -4 28 -1 Indonesia 82 0.2 23 49 -19
Mexico 94 0.1 -19 35 -7 New Zealand 76 0.2 7 57 -23
Chile 91 0.1 -18 160 -49 Dominican Republic 72 0.2 -9 … -48
Armenia 88 0.1 -13 4 -31 New Caledonia 53 0.1 13 27 -39
UNMIK/Kosovo 85 0.1 150 14 -29 United Arab Emirates 51 0.1 23 100 -26
Trinidad and Tobago 80 0.1 15 39 -65 Belarus 51 0.1 13 13 53
Malaysia 80 0.1 4 81 -9 Israel 46 0.1 8 41 -35


Above 35 157096 99.1 - - - Above 35 44763 99.6 - - -


(Million dollars and percentage)


Imports of iron and steel of the European Union (27) and the United States by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


European Union (27) United States


88 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.36


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 178 - - 46.9 36.7 3 21 26 -13


extra-EU (27) exports 55 - - 11.5 11.2 5 11 26 -5
China a 54 0.3 1.2 3.1 11.1 16 67 40 -3
Japan 44 20.1 11.8 10.4 9.0 7 35 11 -6
Korea, Republic of 30 2.2 3.4 4.7 6.2 11 40 30 -5
Russian Federation 28 - - 5.3 5.8 6 19 13 4
United States 21 4.2 3.3 4.4 4.3 9 30 18 3
Ukraine 17 - - 3.6 3.6 5 38 28 -15
Turkey 13 0.0 1.4 1.3 2.7 12 13 26 2
Chinese Taipei 11 0.4 0.8 3.2 2.4 4 28 17 -11
Brazil 11 1.1 3.4 2.5 2.3 3 20 41 -11
India 11 0.1 0.2 0.9 2.2 11 64 -1 4
Canada 8 2.3 1.9 2.2 1.6 4 47 7 1
South Africa 6 1.6 2.0 1.9 1.3 1 51 -1 -18
Kazakhstan b 6 - - 0.8 1.2 16 33 58 -3
Mexico a 5 0.1 0.7 1.2 1.0 3 52 20 -13


Above 15 444 - - 92.3 91.3 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 158 - - 40.9 31.0 3 28 29 -19
extra-EU (27) imports 35 - - 7.5 6.8 3 38 38 -27


United States 45 10.1 9.5 12.7 8.8 6 43 32 10
China a 23 2.7 2.5 6.4 4.5 -2 -5 8 -16
Korea, Republic of 21 1.2 2.9 3.5 4.2 5 30 13 -17
Thailand 15 0.6 2.4 1.8 2.9 8 55 18 10
Canada c 13 1.6 2.0 3.5 2.6 5 45 19 3
Indonesia 12 1.2 1.1 1.1 2.3 17 40 26 28
Mexico a, c 12 2.2 1.0 2.6 2.3 10 36 15 23
Turkey 11 0.4 1.1 1.6 2.2 7 27 19 -4
India 11 1.0 1.0 0.5 2.1 14 24 15 -3
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 11 2.3 0.7 0.7 2.1 18 233 34 18
Japan 10 1.1 4.1 2.4 2.0 5 63 36 -15
Chinese Taipei 9 1.4 2.5 3.1 1.8 1 63 16 -14
Russian Federation b, c 9 - - 0.9 1.7 13 62 38 -13
United Arab Emirates b 9 0.7 0.4 0.6 1.7 13 0 32 13


Above 15 369 - - 82.3 72.2 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of iron and steel, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Annual percentage change Share in world exports/imports


89World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.37


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 1957 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 9 17 -2
Europe


World 1040 100.0 100.0 60.0 53.2 7 14 -4
Europe 703 72.2 67.6 43.3 35.9 6 14 -5
North America 114 11.5 10.9 6.9 5.8 6 9 0
Asia 99 7.6 9.5 4.5 5.1 10 16 0
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 40 2.4 3.8 1.4 2.0 14 20 2
South and Central America 26 1.6 2.5 0.9 1.3 14 17 7
Africa 26 2.0 2.5 1.2 1.3 10 14 4
Middle East 26 1.9 2.5 1.2 1.3 10 15 -1


Asia
World 449 100.0 100.0 18.6 22.9 12 23 -1
Asia 286 65.2 63.8 12.1 14.6 11 21 -2
Europe 61 15.0 13.7 2.8 3.1 10 30 -5
North America 48 12.2 10.7 2.3 2.4 10 18 5
South and Central America 19 2.1 4.2 0.4 1.0 24 42 8
Africa 14 2.1 3.1 0.4 0.7 18 28 4
Middle East 14 2.2 3.0 0.4 0.7 17 24 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 1.2 1.5 0.2 0.4 16 32 4


China
World 114 100.0 100.0 3.2 5.8 18 31 -1
Asia 51 42.7 44.6 1.4 2.6 19 34 -3
Europe 22 24.1 19.4 0.8 1.1 14 25 -7
North America 19 19.6 16.9 0.6 1.0 15 27 3
South and Central America 8 4.5 7.1 0.1 0.4 26 37 10
Africa 5 3.0 4.5 0.1 0.3 25 39 7
Middle East 5 3.4 4.1 0.1 0.2 22 34 3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 4 2.6 3.4 0.1 0.2 22 31 8


Other economies in Asia
World 335 100.0 100.0 15.3 17.1 10 21 -1
Asia 235 70.0 70.2 10.7 12.0 10 19 -1
Europe 39 13.1 11.7 2.0 2.0 9 33 -3
North America 29 10.6 8.6 1.6 1.5 7 13 7
South and Central America 11 1.5 3.2 0.2 0.6 23 46 7
Africa 9 1.9 2.6 0.3 0.5 16 23 3
Middle East 9 2.0 2.6 0.3 0.4 15 19 -1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 0.9 0.9 0.1 0.2 10 32 -1


North America
World 259 100.0 100.0 14.0 13.2 8 11 -1
North America 92 39.6 35.6 5.5 4.7 6 16 1
Europe 63 27.6 24.4 3.9 3.2 6 2 -2
Asia 61 21.8 23.6 3.1 3.1 9 10 -4
South and Central America 33 8.7 12.8 1.2 1.7 14 21 1
Middle East 4 1.2 1.6 0.2 0.2 13 4 11
Africa 3 0.8 1.2 0.1 0.2 14 17 8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.1 17 15 6


Annual percentage change


Exports of chemicals of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4.2 Chemicals


90 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.38


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 941 - - 53.9 48.1 6 9 14 -4


extra-EU (27) exports 354 - - 18.7 18.1 8 13 15 0
United States 207 14.8 13.3 13.7 10.6 8 18 9 0
China a 114 0.8 1.3 2.1 5.8 18 41 31 -1
Switzerland 84 4.0 4.7 3.7 4.3 9 11 15 -3
Japan 79 4.7 5.3 6.0 4.0 6 28 8 -7
Korea, Republic of 61 0.5 0.8 2.4 3.1 12 31 24 1
Singapore 54 0.5 1.1 1.6 2.8 11 31 30 5


domestic exports 40 0.2 0.7 1.1 2.1 10 26 21 5
re-exports 13 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 14 43 35 4


Chinese Taipei 38 0.4 0.9 1.6 1.9 10 37 14 -7
Canada 37 2.5 2.2 2.5 1.9 5 19 19 -7
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 35 0.1 0.8 0.7 1.8 18 79 40 15
India 35 0.3 0.4 0.7 1.8 17 27 33 10
Russian Federation 33 - - 1.2 1.7 14 30 25 9
Thailand 23 0.0 0.2 0.7 1.2 15 36 35 1
Hong Kong, China 20 - - - - 5 23 8 -2


domestic exports 2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 5 28 1 -8
re-exports 18 - - - - 5 23 9 -2


Israel 17 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.9 12 31 19 -10
Above 15 1758 - - 91.6 89.9 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 795 - - 43.7 39.9 6 9 15 -5
extra-EU (27) imports 208 - - 10.5 10.4 8 16 19 -4


United States 200 6.2 7.7 12.2 10.0 6 15 14 -1
China a 179 2.0 2.2 4.9 9.0 13 33 21 -1
Japan 73 4.1 5.0 4.2 3.7 10 25 24 -3
Korea, Republic of 47 1.3 2.4 2.2 2.4 10 31 17 -2
Canada c 47 2.2 2.5 3.2 2.4 6 14 10 2
India 45 ... 1.0 0.8 2.2 19 27 23 5
Switzerland 44 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.2 7 13 16 -1
Brazil c 42 2.4 1.1 1.6 2.1 16 28 29 1
Mexico a, c 42 1.5 1.2 2.4 2.1 8 23 16 6
Russian Federation b, c 38 - - 0.6 1.9 17 35 22 3
Chinese Taipei 36 1.3 2.3 2.5 1.8 7 44 16 -10
Turkey 29 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.5 9 25 23 -5
Singapore 26 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.3 11 42 22 2


retained imports 12 0.6 1.1 0.7 0.6 8 41 11 0
Australia c 25 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 9 18 22 1


Above 15 1667 - - 84.2 83.7 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of chemicals, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


91World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.39


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 327 70.4 64.5 8 4 9 -1


extra-EU (27) exports 144 26.5 28.4 10 11 16 0
Switzerland 59 9.4 11.6 12 10 17 0
United States 45 9.4 8.8 8 1 -4 5
China a 12 1.4 2.3 18 24 11 1
India 11 1.0 2.1 22 20 33 14
Singapore 9 1.1 1.8 18 6 15 30
domestic exports 8 0.8 1.6 20 4 16 33


re-exports 1 0.2 0.2 7 19 10 5
Israel 7 0.8 1.3 18 42 9 -7


Panama b 6 0.0 1.1 132 -21 71 11
Canada 5 1.3 1.0 6 -11 -1 -8
Australia 4 0.9 0.9 9 12 8 16
Japan 4 1.2 0.8 3 5 4 -11
Mexico a 2 0.5 0.4 6 12 20 7
Hong Kong, China 2 - - 14 6 6 -7


domestic exports 0 0.1 0.1 11 16 9 17
re-exports 1 - - 14 4 5 -13


Brazil 2 0.2 0.3 18 16 16 2
Korea, Republic of 2 0.2 0.3 17 3 8 16


Above 15 494 97.7 97.4 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 258 55.7 49.9 7 2 7 -2
extra-EU (27) imports 74 13.5 14.4 10 6 16 1


United States 69 13.8 13.3 8 9 7 -2
Japan 24 2.9 4.7 17 22 25 12
Switzerland 22 4.6 4.2 8 8 19 -2
China a 14 0.8 2.7 29 20 41 23
Russian Federation b, c 14 1.5 2.6 18 31 19 0
Canada c 13 2.7 2.5 7 2 6 -2
Australia c 11 1.9 2.1 10 16 27 -1
Brazil c 8 0.8 1.5 18 33 6 5
Mexico a, c 5 1.0 1.1 10 10 5 9
Panama b 5 0.1 1.0 62 2 73 7
Korea, Republic of 5 0.7 0.9 13 14 10 7
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 5 0.6 0.9 15 44 12 18
Turkey 4 1.1 0.8 5 8 6 -15
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 4 0.3 0.7 24 20 10 19


Above 15 459 88.6 88.8 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of pharmaceuticals, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


92 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.40


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 1674 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4 4 -1
Asia


World 1074 100.0 100.0 54.7 64.2 6 5 2
Asia 590 51.2 55.0 28.0 35.3 7 5 6
North America 233 24.5 21.7 13.4 13.9 5 6 1
Europe 190 21.2 17.7 11.6 11.4 4 1 -10
South and Central America 20 1.1 1.9 0.6 1.2 16 24 -1
Middle East 19 1.1 1.8 0.6 1.2 15 18 1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 12 0.5 1.1 0.3 0.7 19 27 12
Africa 9 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.5 13 7 -6


China
World 540 100.0 100.0 17.8 32.3 13 11 9
Asia 208 33.0 38.6 5.9 12.4 16 14 23
North America 163 34.0 30.1 6.0 9.7 11 11 9
Europe 130 29.2 24.1 5.2 7.8 10 5 -8
South and Central America 14 1.2 2.7 0.2 0.9 27 30 -1
Middle East 11 1.0 2.0 0.2 0.6 24 16 7
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 8 0.8 1.5 0.1 0.5 24 24 17
Africa 6 0.8 1.0 0.1 0.3 18 3 -6


Other economies in Asia
World 534 100.0 100.0 36.9 31.9 2 1 -5
Asia 382 59.9 71.5 22.1 22.8 4 2 -1
North America 70 19.9 13.2 7.3 4.2 -4 -2 -13
Europe 60 17.4 11.3 6.4 3.6 -4 -5 -13
Middle East 9 1.1 1.7 0.4 0.5 8 20 -5
South and Central America 6 1.0 1.1 0.4 0.4 4 11 -2
Africa 3 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.2 7 15 -7
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.2 12 34 3


Europe
World 357 100.0 100.0 29.9 21.3 -1 3 -8
Europe 271 74.0 76.0 22.2 16.2 -1 1 -8
Asia 33 8.9 9.1 2.7 2.0 -1 7 -6
North America 15 5.4 4.2 1.6 0.9 -4 -1 -5
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 14 3.5 3.9 1.0 0.8 1 18 -2
Middle East 11 4.7 3.2 1.4 0.7 -6 27 -12
Africa 9 2.5 2.5 0.8 0.5 -1 26 -23
South and Central America 3 1.0 0.8 0.3 0.2 -3 21 -15


North America
World 214 100.0 100.0 13.9 12.8 3 3 1
North America 112 45.6 52.1 6.3 6.7 5 4 1
Asia 51 30.3 24.0 4.2 3.1 -1 -1 -1
Europe 22 14.8 10.2 2.1 1.3 -3 3 -4
South and Central America 22 7.2 10.1 1.0 1.3 8 4 5
Middle East 5 1.2 2.5 0.2 0.3 14 35 35
Africa 1 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.1 3 6 31
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 6 22 20


Annual percentage change


Exports of office and telecom equipment of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4.3 Office and telecom equipment


93World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.41


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 477975 100.0 1 0 -8 World 305409 100.0 4 4 3
Europe 251292 52.6 -1 0 -9 Asia 233697 76.5 4 6 2
Asia 196495 41.1 3 -2 -8 North America 50812 16.6 5 -3 3
North America 19466 4.1 -5 2 -12 Europe 11468 3.8 -3 2 -1
South and Central America 7297 1.5 13 15 12 South and Central America 8051 2.6 24 18 22
Middle East 1366 0.3 -21 2 -19 Middle East 1186 0.4 -2 -10 0
Africa 1196 0.3 4 7 -20 Africa 170 0.1 5 18 4
CIS 585 0.1 13 1 14 CIS 26 0.0 5 -2 -11


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 246607 51.6 0 0 -9 China 153371 50.2 10 10 8
China 118752 24.8 10 4 -9 Mexico 46201 15.1 8 -3 4
United States 15062 3.2 -7 2 -12 Malaysia 15078 4.9 -8 -9 3
Japan 13214 2.8 -6 -12 -15 Japan 14637 4.8 -6 -3 -5
Malaysia 12823 2.7 1 -1 -18 Chinese Taipei 14012 4.6 1 19 -21


Above 5 406457 85.0 - - - Above 5 243300 79.7 - - -
Chinese Taipei 10881 2.3 -5 -3 -23 Korea, Republic of 12565 4.1 -2 -2 -23
Viet Nam 10217 2.1 84 232 137 European Union (27) 10967 3.6 -3 3 0
Korea, Republic of 9686 2.0 -8 -35 -12 Thailand 10186 3.3 4 1 16
Costa Rica 7035 1.5 16 15 12 Costa Rica 7852 2.6 43 20 23
Singapore 6163 1.3 -8 -7 -17 Singapore 5822 1.9 -6 -5 -8
Thailand 5071 1.1 2 -17 -6 Canada 4611 1.5 -7 1 -5
Hong Kong, China 3779 0.8 -3 -11 -13 Philippines 3520 1.2 -2 5 14
Mexico 3404 0.7 11 8 -12 Viet Nam 1445 0.5 38 9 49
Philippines 2847 0.6 -8 -8 -18 Indonesia 1441 0.5 -4 -5 -11
Turkey 2212 0.5 -5 -3 13 Israel 1168 0.4 -2 -10 -1
Switzerland 1784 0.4 -10 -7 -17 Hong Kong, China 824 0.3 -4 -27 20
Indonesia 1374 0.3 -3 -24 13 India 577 0.2 16 -2 -13
India 1351 0.3 21 -10 -22 Switzerland 241 0.1 -2 18 -12
Israel 1008 0.2 -1 0 -18 Norway 236 0.1 2 -34 -16
Canada 997 0.2 -9 -11 -12 Australia 148 0.0 5 16 -3


Above 20 474267 99.2 - - - Above 20 304902 99.8 - - -


(Million dollars and percentage)


Imports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


European Union (27) United States


94 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.41FRQWLQXHG


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 346761 100 12 10 14 World 90233 100.0 4 6 4
Asia 316650 91 12 11 14 Asia 79699 88.3 6 7 4
North America 13422 3.9 6 -10 1 North America 7405 8.2 -3 -4 -3
Europe 10652 3.1 5 8 4 Europe 2574 2.9 -2 1 0
South and Central America 5172 1.5 28 24 38 Middle East 312 0.3 9 -11 73
Middle East 649 0.2 16 -44 50 South and Central America 186 0.2 0 -39 12
Africa 193 0.1 -2 8 -13 Africa 53 0.1 30 25 -4
CIS 22 0.0 -9 -15 -34 CIS 4 0.0 -7 -13 18


Economy Economy
China 86064 24.8 17 16 26 China 50625 56.1 11 14 8
Chinese Taipei 60939 17.6 14 11 19 Chinese Taipei 8716 9.7 2 -16 10
Korea, Republic of 59080 17.0 14 10 21 Korea, Republic of 6945 7.7 0 13 -4
Malaysia 35192 10.1 15 19 -4 United States 6504 7.2 -3 -5 -4
Japan 29932 8.6 5 4 -2 Malaysia 4421 4.9 0 8 -19


Above 5 271208 78.2 - - - Above 5 77211 85.6 - - -
Thailand 14351 4.1 13 4 -7 Thailand 3345 3.7 -1 -7 1
Philippines 13186 3.8 2 1 15 European Union (27) 2521 2.8 -2 1 0
United States 10674 3.1 5 -15 5 Singapore 2262 2.5 -3 -12 -1
European Union (27) 10298 3.0 5 7 6 Philippines 1961 2.2 -8 8 11
Singapore 8267 2.4 2 -1 0 Indonesia 828 0.9 0 -9 0
Viet Nam 6462 1.9 98 96 164 Mexico 696 0.8 7 5 14
Costa Rica 5126 1.5 28 24 38 Viet Nam 457 0.5 24 -21 12
Mexico 1728 0.5 10 12 -8 Israel 312 0.3 9 -11 73
Hong Kong, China 1722 0.5 -10 -6 -30 Canada 205 0.2 -9 -6 -18
Indonesia 1143 0.3 -2 14 -13 Costa Rica 172 0.2 0 -42 10
Canada 1020 0.3 8 12 -21 Hong Kong, China 72 0.1 -19 -28 -29
Israel 639 0.2 17 -44 48 Tunisia 44 0.0 222 38 -1
Switzerland 243 0.1 5 14 -8 India 35 0.0 33 22 9
Morocco 185 0.1 -2 6 -12 Switzerland 34 0.0 1 9 20
India 174 0.1 23 -17 -24 Norway 18 0.0 0 -28 -10


Above 20 346426 99.9 - - - Above 20 90174 99.9 - - -


a In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for nearly 25 per cent of its office and telecom equipment imports. For further information, see the Metadata.
b Includes significant imports into processing zones.


Imports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


China a b Japan


95World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.42


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
China a 540 0.1 1.0 4.5 32.3 13 30 11 9
European Union (27) 349 - - 29.3 20.9 -1 11 3 -9


extra-EU (27) exports 103 - - 8.7 6.1 -2 11 11 -8
Hong Kong, China 205 - - - - 9 26 10 8


domestic exports 1 2.0 1.6 0.4 0.0 -20 22 -49 -25
re-exports 205 - - - - 10 26 10 8


United States 140 19.5 17.3 15.9 8.4 2 19 5 -1
Singapore 121 3.2 6.4 7.7 7.2 2 32 -3 -2


domestic exports 36 2.5 4.9 4.3 2.2 -3 34 -2 -1
re-exports 70 0.7 1.5 3.3 4.2 3 29 5 -1


Chinese Taipei 92 3.2 4.7 6.0 5.5 7 41 11 -4
Korea, Republic of 90 2.0 4.8 6.1 5.4 1 25 -1 -6
Japan 82 21.1 22.5 11.2 4.9 -2 17 -6 -5
Mexico a 63 0.1 1.5 3.5 3.8 8 23 -1 6
Malaysia a 63 1.4 2.7 5.4 3.7 1 17 -1 -6
Thailand 36 0.0 1.2 1.9 2.2 6 23 -4 5
Philippines a, b 19 0.1 0.6 2.6 1.1 -3 39 -15 -21
Viet Nam b 18 ... ... 0.1 1.1 45 63 97 64
Canada 10 2.0 1.9 2.1 0.6 -4 -3 4 -6
Indonesia 8 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.5 2 30 0 -2


Above 15 1633 - - 97.5 97.6 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 478 - - 34.2 25.6 1 19 0 -8
extra-EU (27) imports 231 - - 14.7 12.4 2 28 -1 -8


China a, c 347 0.6 1.3 4.4 18.5 12 30 10 14
United States 305 15.9 21.1 21.2 16.3 4 21 4 3
Hong Kong, China 217 - - - - 10 28 9 9


retained imports 12 1.7 1.4 1.3 0.7 11 79 -11 29
Singapore 90 2.6 4.5 5.3 4.8 3 31 0 3


retained imports 20 1.9 2.9 2.1 1.1 1 36 -17 19
Japan 90 2.6 3.7 6.0 4.8 4 33 6 4
Mexico a, d 60 0.9 1.5 2.9 3.2 8 28 5 1
Korea, Republic of 48 1.3 2.6 3.3 2.6 4 19 8 -7
Chinese Taipei 46 1.4 2.5 3.8 2.5 3 33 5 -5
Malaysia a 44 1.6 1.9 3.2 2.4 1 31 -2 -6
Canada d 35 4.1 3.5 3.0 1.8 3 23 10 -6
Thailand 29 0.2 1.1 1.4 1.5 6 25 5 8
India 25 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.3 14 13 22 -3
Russian Federation b, d 24 - - 0.1 1.3 18 59 12 5
Australia d 23 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.2 7 21 15 -3


Above 15 1658 - - 91.4 88.7 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c In 2012, China reported imports of office and telecom equipment from China amounting to $86.1 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.
d Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of office and telecom equipment, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


96 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.43


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 298551 | 964696 1613138 1684862 1673650 12.4 9.3
Australia 741 1781 2045 2397 2340 1.7 0.9
Brazil 692 2317 2016 1827 1375 3.1 0.6
Canada 5622 20631 10686 11111 10415 3.8 2.3
China b 3126 43498 449340 496761 539792 29.7 26.3
Costa Rica b 0 1688 1799 1973 2186 23.9 19.1
Croatia ... 87 256 220 242 2.5 2.0
European Union (27) - 282381 369660 381889 349409 9.2 6.0
extra-EU (27) exports - 84045 100430 111827 102802 8.9 4.7
intra-EU (27) exports - 198336 269229 270063 246607 9.3 6.8
Hong Kong, China 12886 50066 172770 189713 205230 37.5 41.6
domestic exports 4772 3991 1824 923 693 16.8 3.1
re-exports 8114 46075 170946 188789 204536 39.0 43.5
India 182 388 3775 6426 5401 0.9 1.8
Indonesia 124 7280 7975 7942 7804 7.8 4.1
Israel 1226 6939 6891 6116 6972 12.4 11.0
Japan 67032 108178 92557 86875 82485 16.5 10.3
Jordan c 4 36 80 103 102 3.2 1.3
Korea, Republic of 14339 58686 96600 95978 89822 29.2 16.4
Macao, China c 14 19 55 58 148 2.2 14.5
Malaysia b 8207 52382 67242 66284 62525 42.8 27.5
Mexico b 4535 34042 60432 59790 63439 17.8 17.1
Morocco b 110 506 682 725 680 6.0 3.2
New Zealand 95 242 380 442 421 1.7 1.1
Norway 655 1142 1903 1707 1277 1.3 0.8
Pakistan 4 6 43 56 59 0.5 0.2
Philippines b, c 1835 25138 27966 23855 18777 57.7 36.1
Russian Federation - 332 1544 2229 2438 0.2 0.5
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c 14 29 284 402 513 0.1 0.1
Serbia ... ... 193 205 283 0.5 2.5
Singapore 19235 73820 | 127051 123724 120799 44.3 29.6
domestic exports 14685 41523 | 37793 36985 36458 36.6 16.0
re-exports 4549 32297 | 68189 71332 70472 53.4 39.1
South Africa ... 409 738 802 913 1.2 1.0
Switzerland 1520 2909 | 3243 3476 3201 2.4 1.4
Chinese Taipei 14105 57821 86893 96441 92201 28.5 30.6
Thailand 3520 18653 36024 34679 36327 21.6 15.8
Tunisia c 24 49 991 1209 1089 1.6 6.4
Turkey 259 1008 2076 2245 2671 4.4 1.8
Ukraine - 94 618 661 858 0.5 1.3
United Arab Emirates c, d ... 805 4922 5991 6943 4.1 2.0
United States 51658 153399 134580 141039 140166 13.9 9.1
Viet Nam c ... 652 5704 11253 18479 4.2 16.1


a Or nearest year.
b Includes significant exports from processing zones.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


97World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.44


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 253 444 1215 1497 1988 7.5 4.2
Argentina 305 3477 5243 6381 5725 11.6 8.4
Australia b 4343 10771 20591 23702 22980 11.8 9.2
Bangladesh c, d 91 199 1377 1444 1119 5.4 3.3
Belarus - 194 869 792 1146 2.4 2.5
Brazil e 1514 7601 17482 20341 20057 11.9 9.0
Canada b 10475 30418 33263 36669 34573 8.8 7.5
Chile 456 1681 5040 5750 6000 8.2 7.6
China f 4058 44427 278043 305152 346761 24.3 19.1
Colombia 365 1048 4095 4825 5334 13.1 9.0
Costa Rica f 84 977 2102 2760 2701 21.2 15.4
Croatia ... 418 1181 1031 962 6.1 4.6
Dominican Republic d, f, g ... ... 726 | 630 641 2.9 3.5
Ecuador 57 200 1390 1641 1705 10.4 6.8
Egypt 226 591 | 2020 2243 2456 3.9 3.5
El Salvador f ... 325 480 528 533 3.6 5.2
Ethiopia d 29 64 720 353 502 7.0 4.0
European Union (27) h - 347592 524568 522180 477975 10.9 8.0
extra-EU (27) imports - 149172 255339 252118 231368 13.8 10.1
Guatemala f 61 419 | 952 1017 971 6.0 5.7
Hong Kong, China 12326 59370 181730 198368 216859 37.4 39.2
retained imports 4212 13295 10784 9579 12322 19.6 14.9
India 662 | 2630 21142 25814 25120 7.0 5.1
Indonesia 892 705 11253 12857 13254 2.8 7.0
Iran ... 530 2089 3113 3193 5.5 5.6
Israel 939 4894 5527 6451 6504 9.2 8.6
Japan 11273 60861 82386 86937 90233 13.0 10.2
Jordan d 56 201 652 757 856 6.8 4.1
Kazakhstan d - 261 1135 2169 2621 3.9 5.9
Kenya 124 142 843 788 890 4.1 5.5
Korea, Republic of 7741 34012 48053 51829 48323 14.4 9.3
Kuwait d 128 409 922 1223 928 5.7 3.6
Macao, China 64 104 714 1051 1305 9.6 14.5
Malaysia f 5744 32405 47702 46576 43965 36.6 22.4
Mexico b, f 4640 29011 56949 59844 60474 16.3 16.3
Morocco f 306 1212 2080 2118 1573 6.9 3.5
New Zealand 905 1618 2572 3001 2989 9.4 7.8
Nigeria d ... 148 2989 3783 3446 ... 6.8
Norway 1732 3352 5863 6399 6290 8.8 7.2
Pakistan 236 372 1205 1508 1848 8.5 4.2
Panama d 65 244 | 1658 1869 2005 8.9 8.6
Paraguay 320 224 2202 2166 1852 13.0 16.0
Peru 100 656 2354 2868 3377 8.3 7.9
Philippines d 2044 15150 18316 18310 16007 44.4 24.5
Qatar d 52 143 1019 1310 1499 5.0 4.4
Russian Federation b, d - 1232 20531 23039 24107 7.8 7.6
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of d 811 1242 7529 10388 12277 6.5 7.9
Serbia ... ... 748 816 740 5.5 3.9
Singapore 13392 54107 | 88285 88063 90420 37.2 23.8
retained imports 8842 21810 | 20096 16731 19948 19.2 10.0
South Africa ... 3364 8077 8910 8227 11.2 8.1
Sudan d ... 96 366 599 353 4.6 3.7
Switzerland 4797 8045 10601 11815 10910 7.3 5.5
Chinese Taipei 7438 38646 46531 48905 46388 21.1 17.2
Thailand 3421 14055 25366 26670 28726 16.2 11.6
Tunisia d 149 318 1341 1555 1519 4.5 6.2
Turkey 1234 5522 8462 9437 10067 6.0 4.3
Ukraine - 327 1936 2156 3184 3.9 3.8
United Arab Emirates d 698 2055 6667 6602 7480 7.6 3.3
United States 63365 215544 284713 297289 305409 13.5 13.1
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 367 1189 2357 2266 3025 10.7 5.0
Viet Nam d ... 1038 7304 10695 16026 6.3 14.1


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Figures refer to fiscal year.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Includes significant imports into processing zones.
g Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
h See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value


Imports of office and telecom equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


98 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.45


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 190426 100.0 -1 -1 -4 World 124829 100.0 3 2 1
Europe 95644 50.2 -2 -1 -6 Asia 103766 83.1 3 4 1
Asia 79673 41.8 2 -3 -2 North America 17134 13.7 10 6 8
North America 7231 3.8 -10 8 -11 Europe 3406 2.7 -7 2 -5
South and Central America 6995 3.7 23 15 12 Middle East 307 0.2 0 0 -7
Middle East 598 0.3 -1 29 -24 South and Central America 187 0.2 -12 -91 -30
Africa 174 0.1 0 -13 6 Africa 27 0.0 21 63 57
CIS 97 0.1 6 12 -15 CIS 1 0.0 -5 -36 -35


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 94445 49.6 -3 -1 -5 China 77625 62.2 9 11 1
China 54510 28.6 8 2 0 Mexico 16192 13.0 13 7 10
Costa Rica 6947 3.6 25 15 12 Japan 5650 4.5 -7 -3 -11
United States 6314 3.3 -11 9 -10 Thailand 4770 3.8 8 -12 44
Malaysia 5600 2.9 5 -5 -12 Singapore 3606 2.9 -8 -12 -8


Above 5 167815 88.1 - - - Above 5 107844 86.4 - - -
Japan 5562 2.9 -4 -15 -10 European Union (27) 3273 2.6 -7 1 -5
Singapore 2947 1.5 -9 -19 -16 Malaysia 3251 2.6 -18 -38 -11
Thailand 2883 1.5 2 -21 15 Chinese Taipei 3210 2.6 -6 26 -10
Chinese Taipei 2672 1.4 -16 3 -20 Korea, Republic of 2938 2.4 -1 -17 -9
Viet Nam 1830 1.0 49 34 169 Philippines 943 0.8 -4 -11 41
Hong Kong, China 1163 0.6 -9 -11 4 Canada 942 0.8 -10 -4 -21
Korea, Republic of 1149 0.6 -13 -22 -24 Viet Nam 840 0.7 33 8 75
Switzerland 962 0.5 3 -6 -18 Indonesia 529 0.4 2 -11 24
Philippines 835 0.4 -12 -9 16 Israel 301 0.2 0 0 -8
Mexico 635 0.3 -3 4 -10 Hong Kong, China 211 0.2 -1 54 -9
Israel 458 0.2 5 25 -19 Costa Rica 137 0.1 -9 -92 -36
Indonesia 292 0.2 -10 -18 -1 India 131 0.1 19 37 -8
Canada 281 0.1 -11 -10 -25 Switzerland 92 0.1 1 31 -17
India 152 0.1 10 -9 -6 Australia 38 0.0 -2 9 -22
Norway 119 0.1 -4 21 -9 Norway 36 0.0 -1 8 2


Above 20 189754 99.6 - - - Above 20 124715 99.9 - - -


Imports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) United States


4.3.1 EDP equipment


99World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.45FRQWLQXHG


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 63995 100.0 9 2 11 World 27116 100.0 0 7 1
Asia 60386 94.4 10 2 12 Asia 25072 92.5 1 6 2
North America 1955 3.1 -5 -6 -2 North America 1380 5.1 -11 12 -8
Europe 1564 2.4 -1 9 -3 Europe 567 2.1 -12 1 -20
Middle East 79 0.1 17 13 2 South and Central America 51 0.2 8 22 30
South and Central America 10 0.0 20 -41 204 Middle East 46 0.2 -9 -16 1
CIS 1 0.0 8 -91 189 CIS 0 0.0 23 -18 -20
Africa 1 0.0 4 1 -16 Africa 0 0.0 -34 -64 -68


Economy Economy
China 25982 40.6 13 4 23 China 20013 73.8 5 13 4
Thailand 9703 15.2 16 7 1 Thailand 1333 4.9 -1 -15 19
Philippines 5865 9.2 13 13 38 United States 1198 4.4 -11 15 -6
Japan 4955 7.7 2 -7 6 Singapore 813 3.0 -10 -21 3
Korea, Republic of 3999 6.2 6 -16 -4 Malaysia 663 2.4 -5 4 -9


Above 5 50504 78.9 - - - Above 5 24021 88.6 - - -
Malaysia 3870 6.0 15 7 -4 Chinese Taipei 575 2.1 -14 -38 -18
Chinese Taipei 2754 4.3 2 -8 1 Korea, Republic of 559 2.1 -13 27 -27
Singapore 1730 2.7 -5 -4 -19 European Union (27) 555 2.0 -12 1 -20
United States 1638 2.6 -4 -8 1 Philippines 529 2.0 -8 -26 17
European Union (27) 1530 2.4 -1 9 -3 Indonesia 418 1.5 6 22 1
Viet Nam 729 1.1 54 3 32 Mexico 153 0.6 -6 6 -19
Indonesia 665 1.0 -4 39 -1 Viet Nam 131 0.5 23 34 5
Mexico 277 0.4 -5 2 -20 Israel 46 0.2 -9 -16 1
Hong Kong, China 93 0.1 -23 -2 -26 Costa Rica 39 0.1 7 4 19
Israel 78 0.1 17 13 1 Canada 28 0.1 -23 -17 -10
Canada 41 0.1 -16 -7 -4 Hong Kong, China 21 0.1 -26 28 -27
India 31 0.0 18 59 -10 Brazil 11 0.0 12 … 84
Switzerland 20 0.0 0 15 -2 Switzerland 9 0.0 -5 41 -7
Norway 13 0.0 24 8 -46 India 9 0.0 23 -36 -4
Australia 8 0.0 -1 68 -11 Australia 6 0.0 -3 -24 -19


Above 20 63980 100.0 - - - Above 20 27111 100.0 - - -


a In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for nearly 41 per cent of its EDP and office equipment imports. For further information, see the Metadata.
b Includes significant imports into processing zones.


Imports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


China a b Japan


100 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.46


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
China a 228 23.7 41.2 11 31 6 4
European Union (27) 128 31.9 23.1 -2 1 2 -5


extra-EU (27) exports 34 7.6 6.1 -1 2 8 -2
Hong Kong, China 56 - - 6 33 13 13


domestic exports 0 0.4 0.1 -19 -2 105 33
re-exports 55 - - 7 33 13 12


United States 51 10.0 9.2 1 16 10 2
Singapore 26 6.9 4.7 -3 20 -7 -5


domestic exports 12 4.5 2.2 -7 15 -12 -6
re-exports 11 2.4 2.0 0 31 -1 -6


Mexico a 21 2.5 3.8 9 52 17 13
Thailand 19 2.5 3.4 7 18 -10 15
Japan 18 5.2 3.3 -4 13 -4 -7
Malaysia a 17 4.9 3.1 -4 11 -25 -5
Korea, Republic of 11 3.8 1.9 -7 33 -19 -13
Chinese Taipei 10 3.2 1.7 -6 28 0 -13
Philippines a, b 6 1.7 1.0 -5 25 -14 -38
Viet Nam b 4 0.2 0.7 24 24 30 41
Canada 3 0.8 0.5 -4 -1 2 -11
Indonesia 3 0.6 0.5 -1 51 -6 12


Above 15 544 98.2 98.3 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 190 41.6 33.2 -1 12 -1 -4
extra-EU (27) imports 96 18.2 16.7 1 25 -1 -2


United States 125 20.7 21.7 3 24 2 1
China a, c 64 7.4 11.1 9 32 2 11
Hong Kong, China 53 - - 7 30 9 15


retained imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Japan 27 5.7 4.7 0 25 7 1
Singapore 17 4.0 3.0 -2 21 -1 -1


retained imports 6 1.7 1.1 -4 4 0 8
Mexico a, d 17 2.3 2.9 6 34 6 6
Canada d 13 2.5 2.3 1 21 9 -5
Australia d 10 1.4 1.7 6 26 11 -1
Thailand 9 1.2 1.6 7 11 5 19
Korea, Republic of 9 1.5 1.6 4 35 -3 -5
Russian Federation b, d 8 0.4 1.5 25 54 7 5
Malaysia a 8 2.0 1.4 -3 -1 -2 -8
India 8 0.7 1.3 13 22 29 12
Brazil d 6 0.4 1.0 17 36 9 9


Above 15 e 512 91.8 89.2 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.


d Imports are valued f.o.b.
e Excludes retained imports of Hong Kong, China.


Leading exporters and importers of EDP and office equipment, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


c In 2012, China reported imports of EDP and office equipment imports from China amounting to $26.0 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.


101World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.47


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World ... 371219 545666 554453 553676 4.6 3.1
Australia 494 811 1088 1210 1184 0.8 0.5
Brazil 172 490 371 408 370 0.4 0.2
Canada 2708 5516 3018 3080 2738 1.0 0.6
China b 375 18638 205991 218460 227988 14.5 11.1
Costa Rica b ... 1628 815 28 14 9.7 0.1
Croatia ... 11 50 55 41 0.7 0.3
European Union (27) - 113286 132219 134302 128114 3.7 2.2
extra-EU (27) exports - 25928 31763 34405 33669 2.7 1.6
intra-EU (27) exports - 87358 100456 99897 94445 4.1 2.6
Hong Kong, China 3518 16402 43724 49615 55819 12.7 11.3
domestic exports 2086 935 151 309 411 8.8 1.8
re-exports 1432 15467 43573 49305 55408 13.0 11.8
India 112 | 212 619 721 713 0.4 0.2
Indonesia 1 3041 2400 2263 2527 3.2 1.3
Israel 421 902 1043 1050 1040 2.1 1.6
Japan 24832 35210 20726 19921 18464 4.1 2.3
Jordan c 2 13 30 32 32 0.6 0.4
Korea, Republic of 2702 19633 14874 12122 10523 6.2 1.9
Macao, China ... 12 12 15 0 1.5 0.0
Malaysia b 676 20689 23703 17895 17036 16.3 7.5
Mexico b ... 11757 15950 18690 21069 5.4 5.7
Morocco b 0 2 38 43 40 0.1 0.2
New Zealand 53 83 140 152 119 0.6 0.3
Norway 350 460 409 425 403 0.3 0.3
Philippines b, c 180 7208 10297 8866 5531 18.9 10.6
Russian Federation - 84 168 305 346 0.0 0.1
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c ... 8 91 113 174 0.0 0.0
Serbia ... ... 90 85 93 0.4 0.8
Singapore 9205 31118 | 29698 27704 26262 14.0 6.4
domestic exports 8022 22320 | 14679 12873 12092 16.8 5.3
re-exports 1183 8799 | 11906 11822 11158 10.8 6.2
South Africa ... 141 225 228 326 0.3 0.4
Sri Lanka ... ... 0 0 3 0.9 0.0
Switzerland 617 1359 | 945 1116 983 0.6 0.4
Chinese Taipei 6673 29309 11105 11117 9639 7.5 3.2
Thailand 1562 8769 18379 16581 19009 10.4 8.3
Tunisia c 2 2 54 52 47 0.3 0.3
Turkey 20 63 139 145 150 0.1 0.1
Ukraine - 16 58 58 67 0.2 0.1
United Arab Emirates c, d ... 274 1676 2044 2369 0.8 0.7
United States 27766 57595 45802 50163 50951 5.2 3.3
Viet Nam c ... 486 2171 2822 3974 2.8 3.5


a Or nearest year.
b Includes significant exports from processing zones.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


102 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.48


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 94 111 520 585 582 2.0 1.2
Argentina 120 1191 1664 2121 1523 3.6 2.2
Australia b 2697 5043 9023 10033 9898 5.5 4.0
Belarus - 91 302 251 393 0.6 0.8
Brazil c 469 1962 5014 5457 5952 2.8 2.7
Canada b 5171 12042 12579 13675 13049 3.8 2.8
Chile 144 654 1933 2180 2055 3.1 2.6
China d 772 10858 56822 57822 63995 5.4 3.5
Colombia 123 420 1523 1721 1974 3.3 3.3
Costa Rica d 40 175 506 668 378 3.0 2.2
Croatia ... 191 418 426 357 2.5 1.7
Ecuador 20 84 547 607 678 2.6 2.7
Egypt 78 205 | 503 552 648 1.2 0.9
European Union (27) e - 154217 199044 197696 190426 4.8 3.2
extra-EU (27) imports - 66829 98589 97799 95982 6.0 4.2
Guatemala d 25 130 | 244 307 279 1.7 1.6
Hong Kong, China 2278 18341 42509 46380 53341 10.7 9.6
retained imports ... ... ... ... ... -10 ...
India 237 | 1413 5285 6801 7611 2.3 1.6
Indonesia 246 215 3209 3478 3337 0.7 1.8
Iran ... 155 1055 1290 1465 1.3 2.6
Israel 436 1717 1940 2012 1908 3.5 2.5
Japan 5335 27550 25119 26770 27116 5.4 3.1
Kazakhstan f - 68 351 805 1115 1.1 2.5
Korea, Republic of 1813 7711 9791 9528 9051 2.7 1.7
Kuwait f ... 134 300 419 238 1.9 0.9
Malaysia d 686 4450 8943 8724 8065 8.4 4.1
Mexico b, d ... 5651 14940 15762 16771 5.1 4.5
Morocco d 70 195 560 577 489 1.7 1.1
New Zealand 446 734 1280 1414 1425 4.6 3.7
Nigeria f ... 45 772 977 890 ... 1.7
Norway 1046 1710 2594 2937 2911 4.5 3.3
Pakistan 47 204 221 251 292 1.1 0.7
Paraguay 25 114 670 679 588 7.1 5.1
Peru 47 278 912 1083 1218 2.8 2.9
Philippines f 338 2522 4425 4472 3492 8.1 5.3
Qatar f 18 53 500 643 735 1.9 2.2
Russian Federation b, f - 293 7443 7995 8388 1.8 2.7
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of f 225 381 2641 2866 3388 1.8 2.2
Serbia ... ... 307 340 286 2.7 1.5
Singapore 4352 16682 | 17773 17682 17479 9.8 4.6
retained imports 3169 7883 | 5867 5860 6321 8.7 3.2
South Africa ... 1205 3223 3644 3447 4.7 3.4
Switzerland 2823 4568 4676 5222 4701 3.6 2.4
Chinese Taipei 1574 10310 5314 5114 5080 3.0 1.9
Thailand 1114 3821 7513 7896 9417 4.8 3.8
Tunisia f 58 135 567 573 347 1.8 1.4
Turkey 471 1591 3263 3419 3415 2.1 1.4
Ukraine - 104 290 423 456 0.6 0.5
United Arab Emirates f ... 741 1561 1889 2140 1.7 0.9
United States 27499 94193 120411 123147 124829 5.8 5.3
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 191 388 651 614 981 3.2 1.6
Viet Nam f ... 217 1943 2170 2130 2.1 1.9


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
d Includes significant imports into processing zones.
e See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.
f Includes Secretariat estimates.


Imports of EDP and office equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value
Share in economy's total


merchandise imports


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Table II.49


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 217695 100.0 2 2 -4 World 141979 100.0 4 1 5
Europe 119516 54.9 1 1 -6 Asia 104353 73.5 5 5 6
Asia 86406 39.7 5 3 0 North America 31254 22.0 4 -8 0
North America 9364 4.3 4 9 -6 Europe 5500 3.9 1 -4 4
Africa 812 0.4 12 11 -16 Middle East 675 0.5 -2 -10 -9
Middle East 682 0.3 -27 -7 -19 South and Central America 142 0.1 -24 -33 31
CIS 460 0.2 18 5 34 Africa 47 0.0 17 27 22
South and Central America 194 0.1 -13 2 -1 CIS 9 0.0 6 32 -16


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 116571 53.5 2 1 -6 China 70835 49.9 11 5 21
China 51191 23.5 9 7 -4 Mexico 28845 20.3 6 -8 1
Viet Nam 8373 3.8 121 363 131 Chinese Taipei 6976 4.9 7 25 -34
Korea, Republic of 6184 2.8 -9 -38 8 Korea, Republic of 6482 4.6 -4 2 -34
United States 6062 2.8 2 11 -3 Malaysia 6074 4.3 -8 -11 10


Above 5 188381 86.5 - - - Above 5 119212 84.0 - - -
Japan 5073 2.3 -9 -6 -4 Japan 5754 4.1 -7 -6 6
Chinese Taipei 4692 2.2 3 6 -24 European Union (27) 5236 3.7 1 -1 5
Malaysia 3867 1.8 4 7 -12 Thailand 4619 3.3 1 15 0
Mexico 2668 1.2 22 12 -11 Canada 2408 1.7 -7 -7 -8
Hong Kong, China 2360 1.1 3 -13 -13 Indonesia 790 0.6 -6 -2 -24
Turkey 2131 1.0 -5 -5 16 Israel 664 0.5 -2 -10 -10
Thailand 1599 0.7 3 -16 -27 Philippines 580 0.4 9 5 19
India 1103 0.5 35 17 -10 Viet Nam 577 0.4 47 8 21
Indonesia 1002 0.5 0 -28 24 Hong Kong, China 573 0.4 -3 -45 40
Canada 631 0.3 -8 -11 -4 Singapore 566 0.4 -6 -3 -4
Tunisia 611 0.3 42 13 -19 India 394 0.3 18 -15 -7
Israel 506 0.2 -4 -9 -18 Norway 192 0.1 3 -42 -13
Singapore 430 0.2 -16 6 -9 Australia 95 0.1 11 15 13
Switzerland 408 0.2 -23 -18 -14 Brazil 84 0.1 -28 -48 86
Ukraine 365 0.2 24 1 34 Switzerland 54 0.0 2 2 -2


Above 20 215830 99.1 - - - Above 20 141797 99.9 - - -


Imports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) United States


4.3.2 Telecommunications equipment


104 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.49 (continued)


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 62793 100.0 11 27 23 World 40820 100.0 12 16 7
Asia 58217 92.7 12 30 26 Asia 37067 90.8 13 17 7
Europe 2611 4.2 1 15 -8 North America 2489 6.1 7 8 7
North America 1752 2.8 6 -6 -8 Europe 1141 2.8 9 -8 21
Middle East 178 0.3 18 -4 46 Middle East 73 0.2 -1 5 3
South and Central America 24 0.0 -1 59 50 Africa 48 0.1 91 28 -1
Africa 6 0.0 26 202 -13 CIS 1 0.0 -8 76 99
CIS 5 0.0 4 268 -41 South and Central America 1 0.0 -11 -16 4


Economy Economy
China 29155 46.4 16 47 24 China 27338 67.0 17 19 10
Korea, Republic of 11978 19.1 13 40 51 Korea, Republic of 3559 8.7 12 27 11
Japan 5288 8.4 2 -6 -4 Malaysia 2518 6.2 5 8 -24
Chinese Taipei 3555 5.7 12 42 23 United States 1898 4.6 5 7 3
Viet Nam 2585 4.1 122 52 232 Thailand 1414 3.5 1 10 4


Above 5 52560 83.7 - - - Above 5 36727 90.0 - - -
European Union (27) 2444 3.9 1 14 -8 European Union (27) 1113 2.7 9 -7 21
Malaysia 1683 2.7 8 8 -10 Chinese Taipei 1020 2.5 4 27 29
Thailand 1430 2.3 14 5 -2 Philippines 552 1.4 -6 41 2
United States 1239 2.0 4 -6 -7 Mexico 491 1.2 16 7 30
Philippines 987 1.6 14 -20 43 Viet Nam 263 0.6 29 -19 13
Hong Kong, China 776 1.2 -4 7 -4 Indonesia 262 0.6 -3 -32 -3
Singapore 411 0.7 -7 25 18 Canada 100 0.2 5 31 -17
Mexico 387 0.6 24 -7 -10 Singapore 78 0.2 7 -16 -19
Indonesia 224 0.4 3 10 -38 Israel 73 0.2 -1 5 3
Israel 169 0.3 17 -4 40 Tunisia 44 0.1 231 38 -1
Canada 127 0.2 1 1 -3 Hong Kong, China 31 0.1 -10 -55 -26
Switzerland 87 0.1 8 31 -18 Norway 15 0.0 2 -30 -8
India 81 0.1 81 -8 -41 India 14 0.0 53 59 20
Norway 79 0.1 18 32 2 Switzerland 13 0.0 6 -23 48
Australia 56 0.1 24 -18 -12 Australia 9 0.0 10 15 51


Above 20 62739 99.9 - - - Above 20 40806 100.0 - - -


b Includes significant imports into processing zones.
a In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for about 29 per cent of its telecommunications equipment imports. For further information, see the Metadata.


Imports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


China a b Japan


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Table II.50


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
China a 229 20.7 36.1 13 21 16 10
European Union (27) 166 35.1 26.1 0 13 5 -8


extra-EU (27) exports 49 12.3 7.7 -2 18 16 -13
Hong Kong, China 80 - - 10 23 10 12


domestic exports 0 0.0 0.0 -5 34 -75 -81
re-exports 80 - - 10 23 12 13


United States 48 6.5 7.6 7 17 13 3
Mexico a 40 5.3 6.2 7 14 -9 3
Korea, Republic of 32 8.2 5.1 -2 -2 1 -16
Japan 22 7.3 3.5 -6 3 -9 0
Chinese Taipei 16 2.5 2.6 5 58 31 -17
Singapore 13 3.4 2.0 -3 11 15 0


domestic exports 2 1.1 0.3 -12 37 26 37
re-exports 6 2.2 0.9 -8 10 30 -3


Viet Nam b 12 0.0 2.0 79 100 151 63
Malaysia a 12 2.9 2.0 -1 36 2 -6
Thailand 10 1.3 1.5 8 30 7 9
Canada 6 1.6 0.9 -4 2 -1 -3
Indonesia 4 0.7 0.7 5 19 1 -6
India 4 0.1 0.7 46 -45 113 -16


Above 15 615 95.6 96.9 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 218 39.5 30.9 2 12 2 -4
extra-EU (27) imports 101 17.4 14.3 3 13 3 -1


United States 142 22.4 20.1 4 15 1 5
Hong Kong, China 80 - - 11 24 16 19


retained imports 0 -0.8 0.0 - 13 -30 -100
China a, c 63 6.2 8.9 11 18 27 23
Japan 41 3.8 5.8 12 44 16 7
Mexico a, d 29 2.8 4.2 12 22 0 1
Canada d 18 2.4 2.5 7 24 12 -2
Russian Federation b, d 15 1.1 2.1 16 60 15 5
Singapore 14 2.8 2.0 1 18 13 -2


retained imports 8 0.6 1.2 18 24 3 0
India 14 1.2 1.9 13 17 7 -7
Australia d 11 1.4 1.6 8 11 16 0
Brazil d 9 0.7 1.3 15 51 25 -6
Korea, Republic of 9 1.4 1.3 4 22 26 -26
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 9 0.6 1.2 18 65 54 18
Thailand 8 0.8 1.2 12 29 21 21


Above 15 e 600 86.3 85.0 - - - -
a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c In 2012, China reported imports of telecommunications equipment from China amounting to $29.2 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.
d Imports are valued f.o.b.
e Excludes retained imports of Hong Kong, China.


Value Annual percentage change


Leading exporters and importers of telecommunications equipment, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports


106 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.51


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World ... 286541 583102 636002 635151 4.5 3.5
Australia 226 838 815 983 1009 0.6 0.4
Brazil 442 1596 1500 1231 839 2.6 0.3
Canada 1642 11656 5847 5797 5634 2.0 1.2
China b 2623 19508 180426 208735 229468 12.4 11.2
Costa Rica b ... 9 42 45 67 2.6 0.6
Croatia ... 73 46 46 141 1.2 1.1
European Union (27) - 110302 171496 180507 165673 4.0 2.9
extra-EU (27) exports - 35762 48709 56456 49102 4.3 2.3
intra-EU (27) exports - 74540 122787 124051 116571 3.8 3.2
Hong Kong, China 6806 19618 64890 71522 80298 14.3 16.3
domestic exports 2137 537 1353 335 64 0.5 0.3
re-exports 4669 19081 63537 71187 80234 15.4 17.1
India 31 103 2408 5137 4294 0.3 1.5
Indonesia 105 3500 4651 4681 4387 3.5 2.3
Israel 662 4256 3409 3153 2977 7.3 4.7
Japan 28809 30514 24449 22184 22183 5.7 2.8
Korea, Republic of 6273 14364 38419 38617 32443 13.3 5.9
Macao, China ... 4 36 35 141 0.4 13.8
Malaysia b 3209 12965 13065 13316 12454 9.5 5.5
Mexico b ... 19221 42345 38469 39544 11.3 10.7
New Zealand 41 132 158 190 194 0.8 0.5
Norway 295 652 1116 1116 799 0.9 0.5
Philippines b, c 599 1267 1122 1110 942 2.4 1.8
Russian Federation - 146 1147 1675 1872 0.1 0.4
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c ... 20 185 274 326 0.0 0.1
Singapore 6355 8266 | 10961 12556 12599 6.8 3.1
domestic exports 3820 3770 | 1221 1536 2102 4.2 0.9
re-exports 2535 4495 | 4708 6115 5924 9.8 3.3
South Africa ... 243 326 413 548 0.6 0.6
Switzerland 672 873 | 1054 1071 1055 1.2 0.5
Chinese Taipei 4996 6745 14989 19703 16401 5.8 5.4
Thailand 1057 4007 8261 8875 9656 5.2 4.2
Tunisia c 21 28 834 1032 928 0.7 5.5
Turkey 238 934 1895 2054 2476 4.2 1.6
Uganda ... 0 85 131 151 2.0 6.4
Ukraine - 68 510 572 761 0.3 1.1
United Arab Emirates c, d ... 524 3121 3610 4183 3.2 1.2
United States 9901 32980 41320 46835 48028 3.3 3.1
Viet Nam c ... 81 3044 7629 12471 0.7 10.9


a Or nearest year.
b Includes significant exports from processing zones.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


107World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.52


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 131 298 599 776 1262 5.1 2.7
Argentina 123 2092 3246 3871 3751 7.0 5.5
Australia b 1383 4862 9827 11443 11467 5.6 4.6
Bangladesh c, d 73 129 871 881 745 4.3 2.2
Brazil e 555 3071 7825 9791 9165 4.6 4.1
Canada b 2972 10062 16194 18182 17814 3.5 3.9
Chile 303 960 2995 3457 3821 4.7 4.8
China f 2539 12413 40227 51185 62793 4.4 3.5
Colombia 218 597 2461 2961 3275 9.4 5.5
Costa Rica f 35 114 362 710 586 2.3 3.3
Croatia ... 210 616 500 539 3.2 2.6
Ecuador 32 110 819 1008 1007 7.6 4.0
Egypt 132 349 | 1421 1582 1734 2.6 2.5
El Salvador f ... 207 296 308 325 1.9 3.2
European Union (27) g - 117541 221943 226089 217695 4.4 3.7
extra-EU (27) imports - 42949 99156 102038 101124 5.6 4.4
Guatemala f 34 283 | 659 673 632 4.1 3.7
Hong Kong, China 6343 20742 57882 67249 80241 12.7 14.5
retained imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
India 173 | 701 13624 14622 13541 4 2.8
Indonesia 490 403 5885 7006 7427 1.9 3.9
Iran ... 256 812 1677 1622 3.5 2.8
Israel 304 1669 2163 2675 2254 3.3 3.0
Japan 2620 13467 32877 38036 40820 3.5 4.6
Jordan d 39 131 427 505 571 4.9 2.8
Kazakhstan d - 169 753 1298 1427 2.6 3.2
Kenya 105 95 600 511 555 2.3 3.4
Korea, Republic of 1368 5830 9551 12071 8879 2.6 1.7
Macao, China 35 68 510 737 943 6.3 10.5
Malaysia f 1246 3442 6907 7561 6834 3.8 3.5
Mexico b, f ... 9398 29038 29056 29368 6.0 7.9
Morocco f 127 727 893 859 692 3.3 1.5
New Zealand 440 808 1177 1479 1421 4.3 3.7
Nigeria d ... 99 1634 2069 1884 ... 3.7
Norway 576 1425 2992 3171 3175 3.9 3.6
Pakistan 183 158 919 1184 1494 7.1 3.4
Paraguay 293 107 1527 1479 1255 5.8 10.9
Peru 51 367 1365 1686 1947 5.3 4.6
Philippines d 686 1949 1189 1468 1569 2.7 2.4
Russian Federation b, d - 866 12413 14297 14962 5.4 4.7
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of d 578 811 4756 7314 8644 4.6 5.6
Singapore 4551 6870 | 12883 14557 14327 6.5 3.8
retained imports 2016 2374 | 8174 8442 8403 2.8 4.2
South Africa ... 1859 4398 4762 4412 6.0 4.3
Sri Lanka d 30 155 207 440 436 2.5 2.3
Switzerland 1597 2512 4679 5131 4882 3.0 2.5
Chinese Taipei 1744 4597 4804 6562 6805 2.5 2.5
Thailand 994 1868 5797 6996 8493 3.3 3.4
Turkey 403 2993 4431 5115 5789 2.5 2.4
Ukraine - 188 1444 1499 1604 2.9 1.9
United Arab Emirates d ... 1247 4922 4512 5112 5.7 2.2
United States 22727 71769 134132 135411 141979 6.1 6.1
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 162 760 1599 1513 1920 7.3 3.2
Viet Nam d ... 331 3473 4724 6648 2.4 5.8


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Figures refer to fiscal year.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Includes significant imports into processing zones.
g See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value


Imports of telecommunications equipment of selected economies , 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


108 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.53


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 69854 100.0 0 -5 -29 World 38601 100.0 5 28 0
Europe 36132 51.7 -1 0 -23 Asia 25578 66.3 3 19 -7
Asia 30415 43.5 3 -8 -35 South and Central America 7722 20.0 56 146 25
North America 2871 4.1 -9 -19 -28 Europe 2562 6.6 -2 15 -5
Africa 210 0.3 -8 8 -42 North America 2425 6.3 -2 15 11
South and Central America 109 0.2 -26 30 17 Middle East 204 0.5 -4 -32 73
Middle East 87 0.1 -19 -55 24 Africa 96 0.2 0 10 -11
CIS 29 0.0 -5 -31 -47 CIS 15 0.0 6 -12 -5


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 35591 51.0 -1 0 -23 Costa Rica 7701 20.0 57 147 25
China 13051 18.7 24 0 -41 Malaysia 5753 14.9 7 37 4
Chinese Taipei 3517 5.0 3 -15 -23 China 4911 12.7 15 55 -21
Malaysia 3356 4.8 -5 -3 -32 Chinese Taipei 3826 9.9 0 -2 3
Singapore 2786 4.0 -4 8 -19 Japan 3233 8.4 1 1 -12


Above 5 58301 83.5 - - - Above 5 25423 65.9 - - -
United States 2685 3.8 -9 -19 -28 Korea, Republic of 3145 8.1 0 8 -4
Japan 2579 3.7 -6 -16 -37 European Union (27) 2458 6.4 -1 14 -4
Korea, Republic of 2354 3.4 -3 -35 -37 Philippines 1997 5.2 -3 12 3
Philippines 1690 2.4 -7 -7 -30 Singapore 1650 4.3 1 15 -10
Thailand 589 0.8 -1 -3 -15 Canada 1261 3.3 -4 35 18
Switzerland 414 0.6 -2 7 -16 Mexico 1164 3.0 0 0 5
Hong Kong, China 256 0.4 -7 0 -48 Thailand 797 2.1 2 -8 -11
Morocco 104 0.1 -10 35 -21 Israel 203 0.5 -4 -33 74
Mexico 101 0.1 -9 -28 -30 Indonesia 122 0.3 -6 -6 -23
India 96 0.1 -5 -52 -71 Switzerland 94 0.2 -6 15 -10
Tunisia 88 0.1 8 45 -5 Morocco 91 0.2 0 10 -12
Costa Rica 87 0.1 -28 36 21 India 52 0.1 4 31 -45
Canada 85 0.1 -10 -17 -13 Hong Kong, China 41 0.1 -21 8 -8
Indonesia 79 0.1 1 -1 -30 Viet Nam 29 0.1 37 397 88
Croatia 60 0.1 5 -33 -44 Australia 15 0.0 -1 47 -23


Above 20 69568 99.6 - - - Above 20 38542 99.8 - - -


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Imports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies by origin, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) United States


4.3.3 Integrated circuits and electronic components


109World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.53FRQWLQXHG


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 219973 100.0 13 8 12 World 22297 100.0 1 -9 1
Asia 198047 90.0 13 10 12 Asia 17560 78.8 1 -8 2
North America 9715 4.4 9 -11 3 North America 3537 15.9 -2 -15 -6
Europe 6477 2.9 9 4 13 Europe 866 3.9 -1 12 -6
South and Central America 5138 2.3 28 24 38 Middle East 192 0.9 74 -21 201
Middle East 392 0.2 16 -60 67 South and Central America 134 0.6 -1 -47 6
Africa 186 0.1 -2 6 -13 Africa 5 0.0 -1 19 -24
CIS 16 0.0 -11 -27 -34 CIS 2 0.0 -9 -26 -5


Economy Economy
Chinese Taipei 54631 24.8 15 10 19 Chinese Taipei 7122 31.9 4 -16 11
Korea, Republic of 43104 19.6 15 9 18 United States 3408 15.3 -2 -15 -6
China 30927 14.1 23 5 30 China 3274 14.7 9 -7 13
Malaysia 29639 13.5 15 21 -4 Korea, Republic of 2826 12.7 -3 -1 -13
Japan 19690 9.0 6 10 -3 Singapore 1370 6.1 3 -6 -3


Above 5 177990 80.9 - - - Above 5 18000 80.7 - - -
United States 7798 3.5 8 -18 8 Malaysia 1240 5.6 -3 10 -14
Philippines 6334 2.9 -4 -3 -3 Philippines 880 3.9 -8 19 14
European Union (27) 6324 2.9 9 4 15 European Union (27) 853 3.8 -1 12 -6
Singapore 6126 2.8 5 -2 5 Thailand 598 2.7 -4 -16 -28
Costa Rica 5121 2.3 29 24 38 Israel 192 0.9 74 -21 201
Thailand 3217 1.5 6 -4 -27 Indonesia 147 0.7 -5 -19 2
Viet Nam 3149 1.4 132 461 182 Costa Rica 133 0.6 -1 -48 7
Mexico 1065 0.5 14 25 -3 Canada 77 0.3 -8 -28 -21
Hong Kong, China 853 0.4 -11 -12 -44 Viet Nam 63 0.3 14 -63 28
Canada 853 0.4 13 14 -24 Mexico 52 0.2 7 -13 16
Israel 392 0.2 17 -59 68 Hong Kong, China 20 0.1 -20 27 -34
Indonesia 254 0.1 2 -18 -8 Switzerland 12 0.1 3 29 23
Morocco 181 0.1 -3 5 -13 India 12 0.1 28 165 9
Switzerland 137 0.1 5 3 -1 Morocco 5 0.0 -1 18 -22
India 62 0.0 11 -46 10 Bangladesh 5 0.0 7 -16 -17


Above 20 219853 99.9 - - - Above 20 22290 100.0 - - -


b Includes significant imports into processing zones.
a In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for about 14 per cent of its integrated circuits and electronic components imports. For further information, see the Metadata.


Imports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


China a b Japan


110 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.54


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
China a 82 5.9 17.0 22 56 11 18
Singapore 82 15.6 16.9 6 40 -3 -2


domestic exports 22 5.6 4.6 2 51 3 -1
re-exports 53 10.0 11.0 6 31 4 0


Hong Kong, China 69 - - 12 24 7 1
domestic exports 0 0.4 0.0 -24 -2 -13 -22
re-exports 69 - - 13 24 7 1


Chinese Taipei 66 8.7 13.6 12 39 8 1
European Union (27) 56 18.1 11.5 -2 34 2 -17


extra-EU (27) exports 20 7.2 4.1 -3 11 5 -4
Korea, Republic of 47 8.0 9.7 8 60 4 4
Japan 42 11.6 8.6 1 29 -6 -7
United States 41 14.0 8.5 -2 26 -7 -6
Malaysia a 33 6.9 6.8 5 15 15 -6
Philippines a, b 12 4.4 2.5 -3 50 -16 -11
Thailand 8 1.9 1.6 2 27 -2 -17
Israel 3 0.4 0.6 13 -34 -22 55
Mexico a 3 0.6 0.6 3 22 23 7
Costa Rica a 2 0.2 0.4 15 8 102 11
Canada 2 0.8 0.4 -3 -18 23 -9


Above 15 479 97.7 98.8 - - - -
Importers


China a, c 220 23.4 37.3 13 32 8 12
Hong Kong, China 83 - - 10 30 4 -2


retained imports 14 3.2 2.4 2 57 -6 -13
European Union (27) 70 17.3 11.8 0 59 -5 -29


extra-EU (27) imports 34 8.0 5.8 1 70 -9 -34
Singapore 59 10.2 9.9 5 38 -3 5


retained imports 5 1.8 0.9 -5 134 -60 115
United States 39 6.6 6.5 5 38 28 0
Chinese Taipei 35 7.0 5.8 3 36 2 -7
Korea, Republic of 30 5.9 5.2 4 13 5 1
Malaysia a 29 6.9 4.9 1 43 -5 -4
Japan 22 5.2 3.8 1 29 -9 1
Mexico a, d 14 2.8 2.4 3 36 16 -5
Philippines b 11 4.1 1.9 -6 28 -3 -12
Thailand 11 2.3 1.8 2 34 -2 -8
Viet Nam b 7 0.2 1.2 41 66 101 91
Brazil d 5 0.8 0.8 6 34 10 -3
India 4 0.2 0.7 23 -19 97 -10


Above 15 570 96.1 96.6 - - - -
a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.


d Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of integrated circuits and electronic components, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


c In 2012, China reported imports of integrated circuits and electronic components from China amounting to $30.9 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.


111World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.55


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World ... 306936 484370 494407 484823 3.4 2.7
Australia 20 132 142 204 147 0.2 0.1
Brazil 79 231 145 188 166 0.1 0.1
Canada 1271 3459 1822 2234 2044 0.7 0.4
China b 128 5352 62923 69565 82336 2.7 4.0
Costa Rica b ... 51 943 1900 2106 11.6 18.4
Croatia ... 3 159 119 60 0.6 0.5
European Union (27) - 58793 65945 67080 55623 1.5 1.0
extra-EU (27) exports - 22355 19958 20965 20031 1.9 0.9
intra-EU (27) exports - 36438 45986 46115 35591 1.4 1.0
Hong Kong, China 2562 14046 64156 68576 69113 10.5 14.0
domestic exports 550 2519 320 279 218 7.6 1.0
re-exports 2012 11527 63836 68297 68894 10.7 14.6
India 39 72 749 567 394 0.2 0.1
Indonesia 18 739 924 998 890 1.2 0.5
Israel 143 1782 2439 1913 2955 3.0 4.7
Japan 13391 42454 47382 44769 41839 6.7 5.2
Korea, Republic of 5364 24688 43307 45238 46855 9.7 8.6
Malaysia b 4321 18729 30474 35072 33034 16.9 14.5
Mexico b ... 3064 2138 2631 2826 1.0 0.8
Morocco b 110 480 635 671 584 5.6 2.7
New Zealand 1 26 82 101 108 0.3 0.3
Norway 11 30 379 166 75 0.1 0.0
Philippines b, c 1053 16663 16546 13879 12304 36.4 23.7
Russian Federation - 101 229 249 220 0.1 0.0
Singapore 3675 34436 | 86392 83465 81938 23.5 20.1
domestic exports 2844 15433 | 21893 22576 22265 15.6 9.8
re-exports 830 19003 | 51575 53395 53390 32.8 29.6
South Africa ... 25 187 162 39 0.3 0.0
Switzerland 231 677 | 1244 1289 1163 0.6 0.5
Chinese Taipei 2435 21767 60799 65622 66161 15.2 22.0
Thailand 901 5877 9384 9224 7662 5.9 3.3
Ukraine - 10 50 31 30 0.1 0.0
United Arab Emirates c, d ... 8 125 338 391 0.1 0.1
United States 13991 62824 47458 44042 41187 5.4 2.7
Viet Nam c ... 85 489 802 2034 0.7 1.8


a Or nearest year.
b Includes significant exports from processing zones.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


112 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.56


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 27 34 96 136 144 0.4 0.3
Argentina 62 194 333 389 451 1.0 0.7
Australia b 263 867 1740 2226 1614 0.7 0.6
Belarus - 45 71 74 93 0.5 0.2
Brazil c 490 2568 4644 5093 4940 4.6 2.2
Canada b 2333 8314 4489 4812 3710 1.4 0.8
Chile 9 67 112 113 124 0.4 0.2
China d 747 21156 180995 196145 219973 14.4 12.1
Colombia 24 31 111 142 85 0.4 0.1
Costa Rica d 10 688 1234 1382 1737 15.9 9.9
Croatia ... 17 147 105 66 0.4 0.3
Egypt 16 36 | 96 110 73 0.2 0.1
European Union (27) e - 75834 103581 98395 69854 1.7 1.2
extra-EU (27) imports - 39393 57594 52281 34263 2.2 1.5
Hong Kong, China 3705 20286 81339 84739 83276 14.0 15.0
retained imports ... ... ... ... ... 42 ...
India 251 | 517 2233 4390 3968 0.7 0.8
Indonesia 156 87 2160 2373 2490 0.2 1.3
Iran ... 120 222 146 107 0.7 0.2
Israel 198 1508 1425 1764 2342 2.4 3.1
Japan 3319 19844 24390 22131 22297 4.1 2.5
Korea, Republic of 4560 20470 28711 30229 30393 9.1 5.8
Malaysia d 3812 24513 31853 30292 29066 24.4 14.8
Mexico b, d ... 13961 12971 15026 14335 5.2 3.9
Morocco d 109 291 628 681 393 1.9 0.9
New Zealand 20 75 116 108 143 0.5 0.4
Nigeria f ... 4 583 738 672 ... 1.3
Norway 110 216 277 291 204 0.4 0.2
Pakistan 6 9 65 73 62 0.3 0.1
Peru 2 11 77 99 213 0.2 0.5
Philippines f 1021 10678 12702 12369 10946 33.6 16.8
Russian Federation b, f - 73 675 747 757 0.6 0.2
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of f 8 51 131 208 245 0.1 0.2
Singapore 4489 30556 | 57630 55824 58613 20.9 15
retained imports 3659 11553 | 6055 2428 5224 7.6 2.6
South Africa ... 301 455 503 369 0.6 0.4
Switzerland 377 965 1245 1461 1327 0.7 0.7
Chinese Taipei 4119 23740 36413 37229 34503 15.6 12.8
Thailand 1313 8366 12056 11778 10817 8.1 4.4
Tunisia f 27 35 289 352 650 0.6 2.7
Turkey 361 937 768 903 863 1.3 0.4
Ukraine - 36 202 233 1124 0.4 1.3
United Arab Emirates f ... 67 183 200 227 0.2 0.1
United States 13139 49581 30170 38731 38601 1.5 1.7
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 14 41 107 139 124 0.2 0.2
Viet Nam f ... 490 1888 3802 7247 1.8 6.4


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
d Includes significant imports into processing zones.
e See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.
f Includes Secretariat estimates.


Value


Imports of integrated circuits and electronic components of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


113World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.57


2012 2006 2012 2006 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 1295 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5 18 1
Europe


World 634 100.0 100.0 54.9 48.9 3 21 -7
Europe 425 78.4 67.0 43.0 32.8 1 18 -13
Asia 73 4.3 11.5 2.4 5.6 19 36 5
North America 59 10.2 9.2 5.6 4.5 2 16 16
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 32 1.6 5.0 0.9 2.5 21 63 8
Africa 21 2.3 3.3 1.3 1.6 9 11 19
Middle East 13 2.0 2.1 1.1 1.0 4 10 4
South and Central America 11 0.9 1.7 0.5 0.8 13 26 -8


Asia
World 339 100.0 100.0 21.2 26.1 8 11 11
Asia 105 24.3 31.1 5.2 8.1 12 11 8
North America 96 38.1 28.3 8.1 7.4 4 7 19
Europe 38 19.4 11.3 4.1 2.9 0 13 -12
Middle East 37 7.6 10.8 1.6 2.8 14 -3 25
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 23 3.1 6.7 0.7 1.8 21 56 18
South and Central America 22 3.6 6.6 0.8 1.7 18 16 7
Africa 18 3.8 5.2 0.8 1.4 13 6 19


Japan
World 166 100.0 100.0 13.3 12.8 4 1 10
North America 59 44.8 35.8 6.0 4.6 1 -3 20
Asia 51 20.8 30.8 2.8 3.9 10 4 7
Europe 17 18.0 10.4 2.4 1.3 -3 4 -19
Middle East 16 7.0 9.7 0.9 1.2 10 -18 34
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 10 2.9 5.9 0.4 0.8 16 49 13
South and Central America 7 3.4 4.0 0.5 0.5 7 -3 7
Africa 5 3.1 3.3 0.4 0.4 5 -5 10


Other economies in Asia
World 173 100.0 100.0 7.8 13.3 13 22 11
Asia 54 30.3 31.5 2.4 4.2 14 18 10
North America 36 26.8 21.0 2.1 2.8 9 27 16
Europe 21 21.8 12.0 1.7 1.6 4 24 -7
Middle East 20 8.7 11.8 0.7 1.6 18 11 19
South and Central America 16 3.9 9.0 0.3 1.2 28 26 6
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 13 3.4 7.5 0.3 1.0 27 62 23
Africa 12 4.9 7.1 0.4 1.0 19 12 24


North America
World 270 100.0 100.0 20.5 20.8 5 17 12
North America 197 83.4 72.9 17.1 15.2 3 12 12
Asia 21 3.5 7.6 0.7 1.6 17 45 8
Europe 18 6.8 6.7 1.4 1.4 5 36 1
South and Central America 15 2.3 5.4 0.5 1.1 19 36 8
Middle East 14 2.8 5.0 0.6 1.0 14 12 38
Africa 4 0.7 1.7 0.2 0.3 18 23 17
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 2 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.2 17 90 11


Annual percentage change


Exports of automotive products of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4.4 Automotive products


World Trade Organization
International Trade Statistics 2013


Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.58


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 71353 100.0 3 8 11 World 250375 100.0 3 12 18
North America 54770 76.8 2 10 8 North America 117555 47.0 3 11 15
Asia 10421 14.6 6 -4 23 Asia 81364 32.5 3 7 23
Europe 6037 8.5 10 15 16 Europe 48555 19.4 2 19 19
South and Central America 93 0.1 -15 -18 129 Africa 2043 0.8 31 35 -8
Africa 29 0.0 8 164 -68 South and Central America 807 0.3 -12 7 19
Middle East 3 0.0 -6 -25 57 Middle East 48 0.0 0 -45 -5
CIS 1 0.0 -5 -29 -15 CIS 2 0.0 -5 60 -61


Economy Economy
United States 46746 65.5 1 9 9 Canada 59443 23.7 -1 7 15
Mexico 7801 10.9 14 16 5 Mexico 58112 23.2 10 15 16
Japan 6202 8.7 4 -10 22 Japan 53557 21.4 1 -1 26
European Union (27) 5865 8.2 9 14 15 European Union (27) 47612 19.0 1 19 19
Korea, Republic of 2546 3.6 9 1 30 Korea, Republic of 15675 6.3 6 32 22


Above 5 69161 96.9 - - - Above 5 234400 93.6 - - -
China 1273 1.8 12 21 20 China 8087 3.2 17 25 11
Canada 222 0.3 -1 -4 -5 Chinese Taipei 2181 0.9 5 15 10
Chinese Taipei 220 0.3 6 21 11 South Africa 2034 0.8 31 36 -9
Turkey 156 0.2 59 46 70 India 846 0.3 15 24 8
Brazil 80 0.1 -15 -24 179 Turkey 766 0.3 37 66 17
India 64 0.1 15 36 17 Brazil 566 0.2 -13 9 20
Australia 63 0.1 15 8 65 Thailand 284 0.1 7 -4 18
South Africa 27 0.0 8 170 -69 Australia 210 0.1 -9 66 40
Thailand 22 0.0 1 -14 41 Viet Nam 150 0.1 36 11 56
Viet Nam 12 0.0 11 29 -4 Switzerland 143 0.1 0 29 21
Switzerland 10 0.0 -3 20 18 Indonesia 100 0.0 2 -3 24
Indonesia 7 0.0 9 21 15 Philippines 95 0.0 4 18 18
Norway 5 0.0 26 -15 5 Malaysia 94 0.0 8 27 -5
Malaysia 5 0.0 6 85 -32 Honduras 80 0.0 22 4 12
Chile 4 0.0 43 117 16 Singapore 61 0.0 -3 53 73
Argentina 3 0.0 -14 -20 -11 Argentina 56 0.0 -8 18 -14
Hong Kong, China 3 0.0 3 -41 12 Israel 32 0.0 -4 -51 -23
Costa Rica 3 0.0 42 -40 44 Chile 31 0.0 12 -33 …
Dominican Republic 2 0.0 9 -13 9 Norway 28 0.0 0 30 18
Singapore 2 0.0 -6 1 21 Costa Rica 27 0.0 15 18 26
United Arab Emirates 2 0.0 29 176 80 Colombia 19 0.0 20 3 82
Philippines 1 0.0 -10 4 30 Dominican Republic 16 0.0 -11 -29 -25
Israel 1 0.0 -16 -49 31 Hong Kong, China 13 0.0 -20 -19 -50
New Zealand 1 0.0 16 -18 145 Oman 8 0.0 … … …
Egypt 1 0.0 21 -18 165 United Arab Emirates 8 0.0 6 49 -4
Zambia 0 0.0 232 -13 12 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 6 0.0 -38 -43 0
Honduras 0 0.0 -33 196 372 Egypt 6 0.0 24 45 77
Colombia 0 0.0 2 -24 31 New Zealand 6 0.0 -31 -6 38
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0.0 105 393 43 Croatia 4 0.0 117 -36 …
Croatia 0 0.0 74 57 3 Pakistan 4 0.0 11 99 -9


Above 35 71351 100.0 - - - Above 35 250358 100.0 - - -


Imports of automotive products of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


Canada a United States


115World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.58 (continued)


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 39437 100.0 7 18 14 World 438728 100.0 1 18 -13
North America 24511 62.2 6 19 12 Europe 389885 88.9 1 18 -13
Asia 7898 20.0 17 22 19 Asia 30785 7.0 -1 12 -10
Europe 5512 14.0 7 19 18 North America 13799 3.1 6 34 2
South and Central America 1454 3.7 -9 -10 -4 Africa 2966 0.7 11 25 3
Africa 49 0.1 33 83 97 South and Central America 893 0.2 -8 -1 -36
Middle East 10 0.0 14 257 -58 CIS 200 0.0 -3 25 -18
CIS 2 0.0 5 102 -4 Middle East 175 0.0 6 30 -8


Economy Economy
United States 22844 57.9 7 21 13 European Union (27) 376351 85.8 1 18 -13
European Union (27) 5435 13.8 8 19 17 Japan 14226 3.2 -5 -1 -15
Japan 3819 9.7 11 14 4 Turkey 11060 2.5 5 12 -13
Canada 1666 4.2 0 0 7 United States 9685 2.2 3 31 5
Korea, Republic of 1516 3.8 31 34 27 Korea, Republic of 8263 1.9 0 39 7


Above 5 35280 89.5 - - - Above 5 419585 95.6 - - -
China 1309 3.3 30 21 29 China 3834 0.9 21 19 -6
Brazil 1144 2.9 -9 -6 -7 Mexico 3647 0.8 17 39 -6
Thailand 462 1.2 86 76 140 India 2284 0.5 16 26 -29
India 411 1.0 18 65 69 South Africa 1696 0.4 5 16 -22
Chinese Taipei 222 0.6 14 24 17 Switzerland 1169 0.3 1 15 -9
Argentina 148 0.4 -17 -22 -45 Morocco 877 0.2 52 269 196
Colombia 145 0.4 59 -79 … Thailand 851 0.2 -5 1 -18
Indonesia 79 0.2 87 242 61 Chinese Taipei 780 0.2 3 14 -10
Turkey 61 0.2 -3 10 40 Norway 521 0.1 -3 19 -14
South Africa 48 0.1 33 78 108 Canada 466 0.1 1 37 8
Malaysia 38 0.1 4 8 15 Brazil 449 0.1 -15 -41 -22
Viet Nam 15 0.0 62 200 37 Serbia 437 0.1 66 25 …
Switzerland 15 0.0 -5 28 18 Argentina 432 0.1 10 96 -46
Australia 8 0.0 -6 -47 -2 Tunisia 334 0.1 6 30 -4
Israel 8 0.0 10 249 -67 Liechtenstein 282 0.1 9 37 -4
Honduras 8 0.0 16 19 132 Malaysia 166 0.0 12 43 2
Philippines 7 0.0 1 0 -1 Croatia 153 0.0 6 8 -14
Singapore 6 0.0 23 19 -6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 127 0.0 19 42 -5
Chile 5 0.0 -30 -64 1 Russian Federation 117 0.0 -3 19 -18
Hong Kong, China 3 0.0 4 -28 14 Indonesia 93 0.0 -3 27 -21
Costa Rica 2 0.0 2 -60 123 Israel 75 0.0 12 50 0
Russian Federation 2 0.0 6 113 -5 Australia 71 0.0 -8 -17 -7
Oman 2 0.0 … … 277 Philippines 69 0.0 5 20 -17
New Zealand 2 0.0 43 -12 15 Viet Nam 57 0.0 33 43 22
Pakistan 1 0.0 33 237 36 Egypt 45 0.0 14 -38 57
Not elsewhere specified 1 0.0 -23 -57 15 Belarus 43 0.0 -6 49 -18
Tunisia 1 0.0 1 134 -15 Ukraine 37 0.0 6 42 -11
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 1 0.0 -47 35 -46 United Arab Emirates 36 0.0 7 3 -26
Croatia 1 0.0 145 34 45 Hong Kong, China 32 0.0 9 16 4
Norway 0 0.0 - - - Singapore 32 0.0 -2 42 2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0.0 … … 481 FYR Macedonia 29 0.0 35 41 53
United Arab Emirates 0 0.0 70 186 … Oman 26 0.0 37 49 11
Dominican Republic 0 0.0 10 93 19 Gibraltar 17 0.0 -11 -4 0
Peru 0 0.0 -31 31 -22 Iceland 14 0.0 -1 14 -42
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of 0 0.0 1 13 -50 New Zealand 13 0.0 -4 0 9


Above 40 39436 100.0 - - - Above 40 438893 100.0 - - -


b Includes significant imports into processing zones.
a Imports are valued f.o.b.


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Imports of automotive products of selected economies by origin, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Mexico a b European Union (27)


116 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.59


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 615 - - 49.8 47.5 3 18 21 -7


extra-EU (27) exports 239 - - 12.3 18.4 9 45 28 5
Japan 166 19.8 20.8 15.3 12.8 4 45 1 10
United States 132 11.9 10.2 11.7 10.2 6 37 20 11
Mexico a 75 0.3 1.4 5.3 5.8 11 54 22 11
Korea, Republic of 72 0.1 0.7 2.6 5.6 10 47 27 4
Canada 62 6.9 8.9 10.5 4.8 -1 47 8 15
China a 43 0.0 0.1 0.3 3.3 23 41 34 15
Thailand 24 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.9 17 60 -2 33
Turkey 15 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.1 7 15 14 -5
Brazil 13 1.1 0.6 0.8 1.0 1 47 14 -10
India 10 ... 0.1 0.1 0.8 21 65 2 24
Argentina 10 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.7 18 47 24 -4
South Africa 8 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 8 32 9 3
United Arab Emirates b, c 7 ... 0.0 0.1 0.6 14 3 8 16
Chinese Taipei 6 ... 0.3 0.4 0.5 7 33 18 10


Above 15 1259 - - 98.3 97.2 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 439 - - 42.9 33.3 1 9 18 -13
extra-EU (27) imports 62 - - 5.6 4.7 2 11 16 -8


United States 250 20.3 24.7 29.4 19.0 3 42 12 18
China a 74 0.6 0.6 0.7 5.6 27 72 31 6
Canada d 71 8.7 7.7 8.0 5.4 3 37 8 11
Russian Federation b, d 41 - - 0.2 3.1 20 64 67 3
Mexico a, d 39 1.8 0.3 3.5 3.0 7 37 18 14
Australia d 31 1.3 1.2 1.5 2.3 11 52 9 24
Brazil d 22 0.3 0.2 0.7 1.6 24 45 34 -5
Japan 20 0.5 2.3 1.7 1.6 6 41 20 20
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 20 2.7 0.9 0.7 1.5 10 53 7 18
Turkey 16 ... 0.4 1.0 1.2 5 47 26 -16
Switzerland 14 1.8 1.9 1.1 1.1 8 21 29 -6
Thailand 13 0.3 0.8 0.4 1.0 18 73 9 44
United Arab Emirates b 13 0.4 0.3 0.4 1.0 11 24 9 13
Argentina 13 0.6 0.1 0.5 1.0 16 76 28 -8


Above 15 1077 - - 92.5 81.7 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Mainly re-exports.
d Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of automotive products, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Annual percentage change Value


117World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.60


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 318959 | 576434 1091580 1284494 1295298 9.0 7.2
Argentina 200 2108 8078 10043 9635 7.6 11.9
Australia 726 2151 2719 2783 3246 3.3 1.3
Belarus - 739 1597 2686 2942 7.4 6.4
Brazil 2034 4683 12589 14411 13038 10.1 5.4
Canada 28442 60656 50116 53946 62151 18.5 13.7
Chile 18 203 816 938 927 1.0 1.2
China b 258 1581 28037 37494 43110 1.3 2.1
Colombia 6 226 341 393 563 3.1 0.9
Côte d'Ivoire ... 11 24 38 26 2.4 0.2
Croatia ... 45 202 207 194 1.8 1.6
Ecuador 1 60 350 390 492 1.4 2.1
European Union (27) - 287180 546348 661418 615251 12.1 10.6
extra-EU (27) exports - 71022 177187 226590 238901 10.0 11.0
intra-EU (27) exports - 216158 369161 434829 376351 13.2 10.3
Georgia - 1 244 487 637 2.8 26.8
Hong Kong, China 354 764 1552 1439 1340 0.5 0.3
domestic exports 27 23 9 0 0 0.0 0.0
re-exports 328 741 1543 1439 1340 0.6 0.3
India 198 588 7896 8091 10038 2.6 3.4
Indonesia 22 369 2551 2928 4293 1.5 2.3
Iran ... 61 484 336 412 0.3 0.4
Israel 31 31 426 150 167 0.3 0.3
Japan 66195 88043 149424 150424 165888 20.6 20.8
Jordan c 19 62 117 135 133 2.6 1.7
Korea, Republic of 2301 15194 54488 69171 72005 13.3 13.1
Kuwait c 65 49 655 882 1010 0.3 0.9
Malaysia b 121 307 1329 1407 1530 0.5 0.7
Mexico b 4383 30655 55635 67691 75469 16.5 20.4
Morocco b 28 24 244 426 996 0.7 4.6
Norway 305 459 671 812 772 0.7 0.5
Philippines b 23 583 1821 2215 1626 3.7 3.1
Qatar c 32 32 751 541 666 0.5 0.5
Russian Federation - 1133 2325 3790 987 1.0 0.2
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c 229 59 1073 857 1979 0.4 0.5
Singapore 348 678 | 3407 4013 4284 1.0 1.0
domestic exports c 82 90 | 620 679 521 0.2 0.2
re-exports c 266 588 | 2788 3334 3513 1.9 1.9
South Africa 249 1708 6702 7320 7572 8.4 8.7
Switzerland 591 772 | 1704 2152 2111 1.1 0.9
Chinese Taipei 829 2221 4859 5755 6309 1.9 2.1
Thailand 108 2417 18701 18279 24276 7.2 10.6
Tunisia c 30 63 328 355 320 2.7 1.9
Turkey 153 1517 13755 15677 14837 12.8 9.7
Ukraine - 145 512 570 521 0.9 0.8
United Arab Emirates c, d 1 641 5758 6242 7234 2.5 2.1
United States 32547 67195 99746 119476 132246 9.6 8.6
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 73 223 85 11 8 0.6 0.0
Viet Nam c ... 8 493 641 969 0.5 0.8


a Or nearest year.
b Includes significant exports from processing zones.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Mainly re-exports.


Value


Exports of automotive products of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


118 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.61


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Algeria 658 615 3981 4879 7565 11.0 15.9
Argentina 183 2805 10646 13592 12566 15.2 18.3
Australia b 3794 8550 22928 24897 30777 12.8 12.3
Bahrain c ... 180 90 101 115 ... 3.4
Belarus - 297 1000 1715 1845 3.0 4.0
Brazil d 532 4154 17013 22826 21681 6.4 9.7
Canada b 24640 46276 59594 64496 71353 18.3 15.4
Chile 579 1507 7429 8917 9030 11.4 11.4
China e 1796 3798 53043 69642 73973 2.1 4.1
Colombia 416 590 3954 6338 6176 9.0 10.4
Croatia ... 831 939 1075 818 8.7 3.9
Dominican Republic c, e, f ... ... 882 | 614 626 9.2 3.4
Ecuador 157 184 2278 2117 2109 11.2 8.4
Egypt 416 512 | 3686 2957 3438 3.7 5.0
Ethiopia c 114 141 749 800 1138 8.4 9.0
European Union (27) g - 248594 427468 502426 438728 9.9 7.4
extra-EU (27) imports - 32178 58307 67597 62377 3.8 2.7
Ghana ... 331 1011 1795 2214 13.1 12.3
Guatemala e 117 481 | 747 847 924 7.4 5.4
Hong Kong, China 994 2195 3517 3848 3731 0.8 0.7
retained imports 666 1455 1974 2410 2391 2.9 2.9
India 260 | 421 4388 5652 5870 0.8 1.2
Indonesia 1523 1870 5557 7383 9608 4.2 5.0
Iran ... 770 2688 3261 2305 4.0 4.0
Israel 871 2298 4262 4689 4078 5.0 5.4
Japan 7327 9956 14159 17031 20440 2.6 2.3
Jordan c 108 519 1182 1005 1136 8.2 5.5
Kazakhstan c - 435 1048 1808 3140 9.0 7.0
Kenya 255 156 762 803 966 6.5 5.9
Korea, Republic of 929 1773 8017 9746 9794 1.6 1.9
Kuwait c 453 1141 3670 4194 6439 18.4 24.9
Lebanon ... 535 1862 1431 1445 7.8 6.6
Malaysia e 1312 1833 5760 5880 7364 2.9 3.7
Mexico b, e 933 20003 29439 34704 39437 11.3 10.6
Morocco e 317 471 2368 2709 3307 5.7 7.4
New Zealand 1012 1480 2768 2830 3780 13.2 9.9
Norway 1419 2597 6700 8127 8142 9.5 9.3
Oman c 429 1109 4869 4651 4445 23.0 15.5
Pakistan 390 324 1096 1314 1451 5.1 3.3
Panama c 111 332 | 976 1251 1343 10.1 5.7
Peru 176 510 2930 3451 4584 4.9 10.8
Philippines 537 974 2573 2434 3104 2.1 4.7
Qatar c 202 409 2380 3061 3502 13.6 10.2
Russian Federation b, c - 1044 23552 39259 40528 11.2 12.8
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c 2839 3815 15641 16748 19793 16.6 12.7
Singapore 1418 2417 | 3909 4846 4821 1.8 1.3
retained imports c 1152 1829 | 1122 1512 1308 1.7 0.7
South Africa ... 1455 6843 8737 8768 10.0 8.6
Sudan c ... 155 773 541 453 13.2 4.8
Switzerland 6048 6222 11704 15041 14067 6.6 7.1
Syrian Arab Republic c 75 184 | 1240 1186 515 7.2 7.1
Chinese Taipei 2565 2676 4160 5572 5399 2.0 2.0
Thailand 2651 2084 8536 9334 13439 3.7 5.4
Tunisia c 306 595 1620 1424 1595 6.7 6.5
Turkey 1177 5831 15462 19423 16368 10.3 6.9
Ukraine - 446 3113 5056 5472 8.6 6.5
United Arab Emirates c 964 2384 10726 11690 13245 7.7 5.8
United States 79320 170195 189765 211645 250375 11.9 10.7
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 426 1451 961 833 1723 12.7 2.9
Viet Nam c ... 294 2328 2460 1745 3.2 1.5


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
e Includes significant imports into processing zones.
f Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
g See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value


Imports of automotive products of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports


119World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.62


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 286 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5 17 -3
Asia


World 168 100.0 100.0 47.1 58.9 8 19 -1
Asia 78 48.0 46.5 22.6 27.4 8 18 1
Europe 26 17.2 15.5 8.1 9.1 7 19 -10
North America 24 16.6 14.2 7.8 8.3 6 13 3
Africa 13 5.4 7.6 2.5 4.5 14 26 2
Middle East 11 6.8 6.3 3.2 3.7 7 23 -4
South and Central America 10 3.8 5.9 1.8 3.5 16 25 -2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 2.1 3.9 1.0 2.3 19 24 10


China
World 95 100.0 100.0 20.2 33.4 13 23 1
Asia 38 40.3 39.8 8.2 13.3 13 25 2
North America 15 19.6 15.6 4.0 5.2 9 12 3
Europe 15 17.7 15.4 3.6 5.1 11 18 -7
Africa 9 7.4 9.5 1.5 3.2 17 29 4
South and Central America 7 4.2 6.8 0.9 2.3 21 33 -2
Middle East 6 6.7 6.6 1.4 2.2 12 30 2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 6 4.1 6.3 0.8 2.1 20 26 11


Other economies in Asia
World 73 100.0 100.0 26.9 25.5 4 15 -3
Asia 40 53.8 55.1 14.4 14.0 5 13 0
Europe 11 16.9 15.6 4.5 4.0 3 20 -14
North America 9 14.4 12.3 3.9 3.1 2 14 4
Middle East 4 6.9 6.1 1.8 1.5 2 15 -11
Africa 4 3.9 5.1 1.1 1.3 8 21 -2
South and Central America 3 3.4 4.6 0.9 1.2 9 12 -3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.2 10 12 7


Europe
World 82 100.0 100.0 39.2 28.8 0 14 -9
Europe 59 75.8 71.5 29.7 20.6 0 14 -11
Asia 6 6.2 6.7 2.4 1.9 2 16 -5
Africa 5 5.3 6.6 2.1 1.9 4 9 -4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 5 3.5 5.5 1.4 1.6 7 21 5
North America 4 5.8 4.9 2.3 1.4 -2 11 2
Middle East 2 2.0 2.9 0.8 0.8 6 17 2
South and Central America 1 0.7 1.3 0.3 0.4 10 17 9


North America
World 18 100.0 100.0 8.4 6.2 1 12 -1
North America 10 62.3 55.9 5.2 3.5 -1 8 4
South and Central America 4 18.7 22.1 1.6 1.4 3 28 -12
Asia 2 9.5 12.1 0.8 0.8 4 7 0
Europe 1 7.9 8.1 0.7 0.5 1 7 -7
Middle East 0 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.1 2 -8 5
Africa 0 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 3 15 -4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 -7 21 -10


Annual percentage change


Textile exports of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4.5 Textiles


120 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.63


Value Share Value S Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 25956 100.0 2 8 2 Tuvalu 6003 100.0 0 14 2
Asia 18215 70.2 5 11 3 North America 3803 63.3 -2 13 2
Europe 3397 13.1 -2 12 1 Asia 1528 25.5 5 15 10
North America 3177 12.2 -3 5 1 Europe 458 7.6 2 22 -7
Middle East 501 1.9 -2 -19 4 South and Central America 192 3.2 -1 4 -7
South and Central America 424 1.6 -6 -18 1 Middle East 16 0.3 1 13 -13
Africa 204 0.8 -1 0 -4 Africa 3 0.0 -7 -22 32
CIS 37 0.1 -6 -6 -7 CIS 2 0.0 -8 439 -46


Economy Economy
China 10004 38.5 7 10 5 United States 3669 61.1 -2 13 1
India 3202 12.3 7 14 7 China 901 15.0 6 20 9
European Union (27) 2625 10.1 -3 10 -1 European Union (27) 424 7.1 2 22 -8
Mexico 1615 6.2 -1 5 0 Korea, Republic of 143 2.4 1 4 25
Pakistan 1573 6.1 -1 8 -8 Canada 134 2.2 1 9 21


Above 5 19020 73.3 - - - Above 5 5271 87.8 - - -
Canada 1562 6.0 -4 6 1 India 125 2.1 19 27 0
Korea, Republic of 921 3.5 -1 14 6 Chinese Taipei 120 2.0 1 2 12
Turkey 670 2.6 -1 18 8 Pakistan 58 1.0 2 31 -10
Chinese Taipei 651 2.5 -1 9 6 Colombia 45 0.8 2 12 -20
Japan 582 2.2 0 5 8 Brazil 45 0.7 -1 -13 -8
Viet Nam 316 1.2 26 32 -13 Thailand 42 0.7 9 9 -5
Israel 277 1.1 -4 -17 1 Japan 35 0.6 2 -27 29
Indonesia 249 1.0 2 17 -7 Guatemala 35 0.6 2 22 -1
Bangladesh 198 0.8 7 10 -6 Indonesia 30 0.5 -5 5 -28
Thailand 195 0.8 -7 -10 -14 Hong Kong, China 29 0.5 13 10 134
Egypt 177 0.7 0 0 -6 Turkey 26 0.4 15 11 5
Dominican Republic 126 0.5 5 12 10 El Salvador 18 0.3 10 -14 -9
Brazil 94 0.4 -18 -56 -7 Dominican Republic 18 0.3 0 16 -6
Malaysia 86 0.3 5 56 8 Israel 14 0.2 0 16 -17
Bahrain, Kingdom of 82 0.3 10 18 -18 Malaysia 13 0.2 -1 -20 46
Switzerland 76 0.3 -2 7 -4 Peru 12 0.2 11 59 17
United Arab Emirates 66 0.3 17 -1 2 Viet Nam 11 0.2 19 27 47
Colombia 55 0.2 1 15 5 Bangladesh 9 0.2 8 80 41
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 50 0.2 11 12 25 Switzerland 8 0.1 0 16 1
Philippines 43 0.2 -6 10 -14 Costa Rica 5 0.1 1 10 116
Nepal 43 0.2 0 41 7 Honduras 4 0.1 44 -11 14
El Salvador 42 0.2 7 12 -19 Cambodia 4 0.1 -1 … 82
Cambodia 38 0.1 15 43 17 Singapore 4 0.1 25 -46 425
Peru 33 0.1 6 6 7 Chile 4 0.1 -26 29 -19
New Zealand 30 0.1 4 28 3 Philippines 2 0.0 -24 78 -1
Sri Lanka 27 0.1 -6 2 19 Bolivia, Plurinational State of 2 0.0 46 8 31
Jordan 26 0.1 67 174 289 United Arab Emirates 2 0.0 32 106 113
Hong Kong, China 25 0.1 -15 -15 -7 Argentina 1 0.0 -12 -24 1
Norway 23 0.1 21 151 127 Ukraine 1 0.0 -10 … -55
Australia 23 0.1 -8 7 -36 Egypt 1 0.0 5 -39 19
Turkmenistan 18 0.1 -1 15 3 Cuba 1 0.0 29 -78 …
Guatemala 18 0.1 0 13 29 Australia 1 0.0 7 -28 -17
Honduras 18 0.1 12 36 32 Uruguay 1 0.0 -30 17 -61
South Africa 18 0.1 -10 8 5 South Africa 1 0.0 -9 39 44
Chile 10 0.0 0 20 -6 Ecuador 1 0.0 9 51 9


Above 40 25889 99.7 - - - Above 40 5999 99.9 - - -


Textile imports of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


United States Mexico a c


121World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.63FRQWLQXHG


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 74118 100.0 0 14 -12 World 19810 100.0 4 7 5
Europe 52903 71.4 -1 13 -12 Asia 17053 86.1 3 6 5
Asia 17624 23.8 5 18 -14 Europe 1737 8.8 11 17 1
North America 1318 1.8 1 5 -8 North America 760 3.8 10 7 0
Africa 1187 1.6 3 18 -14 CIS 141 0.7 46 -39 151
Middle East 503 0.7 -4 7 -26 Middle East 65 0.3 23 18 -14
CIS 374 0.5 -3 4 -17 Africa 26 0.1 21 -2 71
South and Central America 126 0.2 -7 12 -12 South and Central America 19 0.1 5 51 -7


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 46992 63.4 -1 13 -12 Japan 3346 16.9 1 12 -6
China 9154 12.4 9 15 -9 Chinese Taipei 3099 15.6 0 6 -5
Turkey 4574 6.2 2 21 -12 China 3045 15.4 2 -7 2
India 2723 3.7 1 21 -23 Korea, Republic of 2323 11.7 -1 6 -5
Pakistan 1960 2.6 4 25 -26 Pakistan 1978 10.0 19 23 57


Above 5 65403 88.2 - - - Above 5 13792 69.6 - - -
United States 1193 1.6 1 6 -7 European Union (27) 1554 7.8 10 15 0
Switzerland 982 1.3 -2 8 -14 India 1109 5.6 34 26 72
Korea, Republic of 898 1.2 1 16 1 Viet Nam 800 4.0 59 45 26
Japan 655 0.9 2 23 -7 United States 699 3.5 9 8 -2
Egypt 503 0.7 6 26 -18 Hong Kong, China 366 1.8 -15 -25 -25
Indonesia 452 0.6 -1 12 -18 Indonesia 342 1.7 9 -7 28
Chinese Taipei 413 0.6 -2 13 -14 Thailand 313 1.6 5 3 -13
Bangladesh 391 0.5 9 37 -26 Malaysia 153 0.8 5 14 -5
Tunisia 366 0.5 5 5 -10 Turkey 129 0.6 26 42 9
Thailand 305 0.4 -2 15 -26 Uzbekistan 100 0.5 120 -39 111
Viet Nam 288 0.4 14 28 3 Bangladesh 55 0.3 54 210 -10
Israel 281 0.4 1 4 -17 Switzerland 51 0.3 16 31 12
Morocco 218 0.3 7 27 -12 Philippines 45 0.2 16 3 -7
Malaysia 167 0.2 1 64 -30 Turkmenistan 35 0.2 92 -3 …
Belarus 123 0.2 3 13 -9 Mexico 33 0.2 22 -3 76
Norway 112 0.2 -4 23 -11 Canada 29 0.1 9 -4 -6
Croatia 87 0.1 2 13 -11 Singapore 29 0.1 -6 -3 -17
United Arab Emirates 87 0.1 6 11 -19 Israel 23 0.1 23 82 -8
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 75 0.1 -13 -14 -14 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 21 0.1 33 2 -18
Serbia 73 0.1 28 42 10 Australia 16 0.1 -8 1 8
Hong Kong, China 73 0.1 0 18 -9 United Arab Emirates 16 0.1 32 13 -3
Mexico 71 0.1 1 35 -1 Egypt 13 0.1 29 46 25
Russian Federation 61 0.1 -11 22 -27 Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of 10 0.1 28 113 52
Ukraine 58 0.1 -4 3 -12 Peru 7 0.0 19 85 34
Canada 55 0.1 -3 -18 -30 Brazil 7 0.0 -2 17 -32
South Africa 52 0.1 -11 10 -11 Nepal 6 0.0 24 145 56
Moldova 49 0.1 2 8 -31 New Zealand 6 0.0 6 18 -18
Brazil 44 0.1 -14 3 -9 Ethiopia 5 0.0 67 -66 …
Peru 43 0.1 5 41 -6 Macao, China 4 0.0 -15 -4 23
Uzbekistan 42 0.1 -6 -23 -29 Sri Lanka 4 0.0 24 -9 33
Nepal 42 0.1 -4 20 -14 Zimbabwe 4 0.0 585 -100 …
Sri Lanka 40 0.1 5 19 -4 Iran 3 0.0 40 -19 93
Bosnia and Herzegovina 39 0.1 17 8 -6 Belarus 3 0.0 -1 -51 116
FYR Macedonia 33 0.0 7 6 7 Norway 3 0.0 3 -63 1
Philippines 29 0.0 -5 11 -4 Chile 2 0.0 25 85 344


Above 40 73802 99.6 - - - Above 40 19785 99.9 - - -


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Textile imports of selected economies by origin, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) China b c


122 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.63FRQWLQXHG


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 9013 100.0 -6 28 -2 World 6441 100.0 -5 16 -15
Asia 7928 88.0 -7 29 -2 Asia 4219 65.5 -9 19 -15
Europe 715 7.9 1 19 -1 Europe 1461 22.7 1 16 -8
North America 285 3.2 0 12 4 CIS 261 4.1 -1 -5 -9
Middle East 51 0.6 -9 46 27 Africa 244 3.8 -22 20 -14
South and Central America 16 0.2 5 34 5 Middle East 121 1.9 -3 -13 -50
Africa 13 0.1 -3 20 -3 North America 40 0.6 0 -20 -18
CIS 4 0.0 10 -11 27 South and Central America 5 0.1 15 139 -50


Economy Economy
China 5266 58.4 -8 25 0 China 1527 23.7 14 27 -17
European Union (27) 646 7.2 2 20 0 European Union (27) 1387 21.5 -1 15 -8
Indonesia 573 6.4 -7 50 -9 India 584 9.1 10 13 -14
Chinese Taipei 466 5.2 -6 29 -5 Indonesia 572 8.9 15 21 6
Korea, Republic of 422 4.7 -4 23 -9 Viet Nam 421 6.5 80 35 14


Above 5 7372 81.8 - - - Above 5 4491 69.7 - - -
Viet Nam 362 4.0 -14 42 13 Pakistan 258 4.0 0 24 -50
Thailand 312 3.5 -8 35 -16 Korea, Republic of 235 3.7 -5 9 -27
United States 249 2.8 1 9 5 Egypt 211 3.3 37 18 -14
India 183 2.0 -2 53 -18 Bangladesh 208 3.2 19 6 9
Malaysia 141 1.6 -12 9 5 Turkmenistan 170 2.6 10 9 -3
Pakistan 104 1.2 -4 127 -20 Malaysia 144 2.2 -2 4 -20
Turkey 47 0.5 -10 25 2 Chinese Taipei 102 1.6 11 -1 19
Iran 34 0.4 -5 39 41 Thailand 99 1.5 0 -1 -43
Bangladesh 30 0.3 -11 44 12 Israel 48 0.7 6 -10 2
Philippines 29 0.3 0 -6 17 Switzerland 46 0.7 -2 21 -19
Canada 29 0.3 -14 30 -2 Uzbekistan 46 0.7 -7 -32 -42
Switzerland 21 0.2 3 -9 -23 United States 37 0.6 0 -22 -17
Macao, China 16 0.2 -7 36 11 Japan 28 0.4 -6 -2 -16
Israel 12 0.1 -25 57 14 Bahrain, Kingdom of 24 0.4 74 138 -20
Brazil 11 0.1 2 29 -3 Belarus 18 0.3 -2 89 53
Mexico 7 0.1 -2 52 -5 United Arab Emirates 18 0.3 3 20 -5
Egypt 7 0.1 -6 12 -6 FYR Macedonia 16 0.3 29 65 6
Australia 5 0.1 5 17 -20 Sri Lanka 15 0.2 56 -13 -16
Singapore 4 0.0 -9 105 7 Ethiopia 14 0.2 243 34 -34
South Africa 4 0.0 -3 11 5 Tajikistan 13 0.2 18 69 319
Peru 4 0.0 6 29 23 Iran 12 0.2 -5 -28 -20
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 3 0.0 -41 -20 69 Nepal 10 0.2 16 9 10
United Arab Emirates 3 0.0 -29 100 -33 Russian Federation 9 0.1 -17 -1 -32
Sri Lanka 3 0.0 -4 23 11 Syrian Arab Republic 8 0.1 22 -29 -93
Cambodia 3 0.0 -48 152 … Morocco 7 0.1 44 74 182
Hong Kong, China 2 0.0 30 15 -25 Hong Kong, China 6 0.1 0 -28 35
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 2 0.0 -16 -33 155 Tunisia 6 0.1 12 107 -8
Russian Federation 2 0.0 7 -70 331 Philippines 6 0.1 -13 4 -43
New Zealand 1 0.0 6 24 -31 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 6 0.1 -21 2 -65
Norway 1 0.0 2 33 83 Norway 5 0.1 15 182 -13
Belarus 1 0.0 -13 15 -15 Jordan 4 0.1 23 7 51
Myanmar 1 0.0 -7 19 58 Serbia 4 0.1 … -4 -37
Tanzania 1 0.0 1 89 -16 Mauritius 3 0.1 -13 3 -12
Nepal 1 0.0 -7 42 25 Azerbaijan 3 0.0 28 44 …
Moldova 1 0.0 -35 131 -17 Brazil 3 0.0 -18 51 -28


Above 40 9009 100.0 - - - Above 40 6332 98.3 - - -


a Imports are valued f.o.b.
b In 2012, China reported imports from China accounting for 15.4 per cent of its textile imports. For further information, see the Metadata.


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


c Includes significant imports into processing zones.


Textile imports of selected economies by origin, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Japan Turkey


123World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics


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Table II.64


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
China a 95 4.6 6.9 10.4 33.4 13 28 23 1
European Union (27) 69 - - 36.6 24.3 0 8 13 -10


extra-EU (27) exports 22 - - 10.1 7.8 1 10 14 -6
India 15 2.4 2.1 3.6 5.3 9 41 20 0
United States 13 6.8 4.8 7.1 4.7 1 23 13 -2
Korea, Republic of 12 4.0 5.8 8.2 4.2 2 20 13 -3
Turkey 11 0.6 1.4 2.4 3.9 7 16 20 3
Hong Kong, China 11 - - - - -4 13 0 -7


domestic exports 0 1.7 2.1 0.8 0.1 -15 -10 -19 -8
re-exports 10 - - - - -3 14 0 -6


Chinese Taipei 10 3.2 5.9 7.7 3.6 1 23 13 -7
Pakistan 9 1.6 2.6 2.9 3.0 3 21 16 -4
Japan 8 9.3 5.6 4.5 2.7 2 16 13 -3
Indonesia 5 0.1 1.2 2.3 1.6 4 29 16 -5
Viet Nam b 4 ... ... 0.2 1.4 28 52 23 9
Thailand 4 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.2 4 25 8 -14
Mexico a 2 0.2 0.7 1.7 0.8 1 20 11 4
United Arab Emirates b, c 2 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.8 7 7 6 16


Above 15 260 - - 90.4 91.1 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 74 - - 35.1 24.5 0 11 14 -12
extra-EU (27) imports 27 - - 9.9 9.0 3 18 17 -14


United States 26 4.5 6.2 9.8 8.6 2 22 8 2
China a, d 20 1.9 4.9 7.8 6.6 4 18 7 5
Hong Kong, China 10 - - - - -4 13 -2 -6


retained imports 0 3.7 3.8 0.9 0.0 -52 -22 -115 -111
Viet Nam b 9 ... ... 0.8 3.0 15 29 24 6
Japan 9 3.0 3.8 3.0 3.0 6 7 28 -2
Turkey 6 0.1 0.5 1.3 2.1 5 39 16 -15
Mexico a, e 6 0.2 0.9 3.6 2.0 0 23 14 2
Bangladesh b 6 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.9 13 58 24 5
Indonesia 6 0.4 0.7 0.8 1.8 33 50 34 -1
Korea, Republic of 5 0.7 1.8 2.1 1.6 5 37 17 -14
Russian Federation b, e 5 - - 0.4 1.5 21 52 25 5
Canada e 5 2.3 2.2 2.5 1.5 1 17 8 2
Brazil e 4 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.4 21 46 14 0
India 3 0.1 0.2 0.4 1.1 8 23 22 -2


Above 15 184 - - 69.8 60.8 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Mainly re-exports.
d In 2012, China reported imports of textiles from China amounting to $3.0 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.


Leading exporters and importers of textiles, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


124 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.65


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 104354 | 154848 252221 294953 285668 2.0 1.6
Argentina 158 258 263 300 222 0.5 0.3
Australia 153 347 239 274 257 0.3 0.1
Bangladesh b, c 343 393 1263 1590 1634 7.6 6.5
Belarus - 410 615 745 727 3.0 1.6
Brazil 769 895 1094 1108 996 1.1 0.4
Canada 687 2204 1907 2024 2018 0.7 0.4
Chile 33 114 195 213 193 0.5 0.2
China d 7219 16135 76871 94411 95450 5.4 4.7
Colombia 133 268 414 486 454 1.7 0.8
Croatia ... 87 115 121 110 1.2 0.9
Dominican Republic c, d ... ... 274 331 349 0.5 3.8
Ecuador 3 40 200 165 119 0.5 0.5
Egypt 554 411 | 1292 1523 1365 2.1 4.6
El Salvador d 38 79 240 283 276 3.3 5.2
European Union (27) - 56737 67881 76959 69366 1.7 1.2
extra-EU (27) exports - 15603 20799 23811 22374 1.6 1.0
intra-EU (27) exports - 41134 47082 53148 46992 1.8 1.3
Guatemala 34 53 | 258 278 247 3.3 2.5
Hong Kong, China 8213 13441 11307 11283 10546 4.7 2.1
domestic exports 2171 1174 251 203 186 3.0 0.8
re-exports 6042 12267 11056 11080 10360 4.9 2.2
India 2180 5593 12833 15340 15274 8.4 5.2
Indonesia 1241 3505 4144 4791 4541 3.9 2.4
Iran 510 766 993 939 1097 1.4 1.1
Israel 270 490 848 801 743 1.7 1.2
Japan 5871 6994 7086 8034 7819 1.2 1.0
Jordan c 31 43 71 72 71 1.0 0.9
Kenya 21 26 60 60 70 1.4 1.1
Korea, Republic of 6076 12710 10968 12369 11970 3.7 2.2
Lebanon ... 8 37 43 37 1.1 0.7
Macao, China 136 271 54 50 21 11.1 2.0
Malaysia d 343 1270 1671 2036 1786 1.0 0.8
Mauritius c, d 35 81 74 114 97 3.5 3.6
Mexico d 713 2571 1928 2140 2236 1.0 0.6
Morocco d 203 123 337 413 355 1.7 1.7
Nepal c 82 182 266 292 293 21.6 32.1
New Zealand 135 146 265 297 266 1.2 0.7
Nigeria c ... 10 231 85 78 ... 0.1
Norway 163 173 180 197 208 0.2 0.1
Pakistan 2663 4532 7848 9082 8705 44.2 35.4
Peru 221 128 288 374 488 0.9 1.1
Philippines d 132 297 170 184 170 0.7 0.3
Russian Federation - 475 583 670 657 0.2 0.1
Serbia ... ... 95 125 132 1.2 1.2
Singapore 903 907 | 809 851 801 0.4 0.2
domestic exports 141 293 | 266 263 258 0.2 0.1
re-exports 762 614 | 542 587 553 0.6 0.3
South Africa c 167 237 231 235 228 0.6 0.3
Sri Lanka c 25 244 172 198 226 2.1 2.4
Switzerland 2557 1503 | 1498 1638 1175 1.2 0.5
Syrian Arab Republic c 555 158 | 671 591 236 2.6 5.9
Chinese Taipei 6128 11891 9719 11016 10293 4.9 3.4
Tanzania c ... 11 116 115 133 1.8 2.4
Thailand 928 1958 3761 4072 3521 2.5 1.5
Tunisia c 112 154 446 468 456 3.1 2.7
Turkey 1440 3672 8964 10772 11054 9.6 7.3
Ukraine - 127 192 224 232 0.7 0.3
United Arab Emirates c, e 6 1289 1812 1913 2218 1.2 0.6
United States 5039 10952 12169 13791 13485 1.4 0.9
Viet Nam c ... 299 3061 3770 4117 2.2 3.6


a Or nearest year.
b Figures refer to fiscal year.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Includes significant exports from processing zones.
e Mainly re-exports.


Value


Textile exports of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise exports


125World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics


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Table II.66


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Argentina 53 653 1067 1293 1133 2.5 1.7
Australia b 1445 1632 2182 2550 2587 1.5 1.0
Bangladesh c, d 452 1350 4471 5562 5840 17.5 17.1
Belarus - 256 526 645 639 2.1 1.4
Bosnia and Herzegovina ... ... 299 337 297 2.8 3.0
Brazil e 252 1045 3773 4303 4300 1.6 1.9
Cambodia b ... 432 1808 2150 2487 25.1 22.6
Canada b 2325 4126 4150 4502 4591 1.4 1.0
Chile 203 431 1024 1192 1198 1.8 1.5
China f 5292 12832 17679 18901 19810 2.3 1.1
Colombia 75 558 1094 1530 1522 3.4 2.6
Costa Rica f 83 | 184 287 338 343 2.5 2.0
Croatia ... 249 436 513 416 2.4 2.0
Dominican Republic d, f, g ... 1173 673 | 1010 1029 6.5 5.6
Egypt 211 206 | 2035 2265 2278 1.5 3.3
El Salvador f 111 | 325 878 1032 1024 13.4 10.0
European Union (27) h - 57445 73944 84606 74118 1.7 1.2
extra-EU (27) imports - 16275 26862 31458 27126 1.5 1.2
FYR Macedonia ... 27 409 476 439 9.8 6.7
Guatemala f 38 59 | 944 1068 984 11.1 5.8
Honduras b, d 26 | 501 1578 1654 1566 17.9 14.0
Hong Kong, China 10182 13716 11265 11049 10364 4.6 1.9
retained imports ... ... ... ... ... 1.9 ...
India 240 | 585 2790 3393 3318 1.4 0.7
Indonesia 785 1251 4216 5654 5570 1.0 2.9
Iran, Islamic Rep. of ... 298 603 693 654 1.1 1.1
Israel 474 759 765 788 706 1.6 0.9
Japan 4133 4934 7196 9195 9013 1.1 1.0
Jordan d 107 172 555 635 718 6.5 3.5
Kenya 17 47 277 369 324 4.1 2.0
Korea, Republic of 1947 3359 4833 5658 4882 1.4 0.9
Kuwait d 168 212 374 451 548 2.1 2.1
Lebanon ... 178 274 252 265 2.2 1.2
Macao, China 619 906 102 83 66 15.6 0.7
Madagascar d 20 200 255 329 269 15.5 8.8
Malaysia f 951 1114 1193 1466 1369 0.8 0.7
Mauritius d 336 411 236 285 274 8.0 5.1
Mexico b, f 992 5822 5150 5859 6003 2.7 1.6
Morocco f 361 1364 2025 2443 2413 8.6 5.4
New Zealand 396 369 513 596 603 2.0 1.6
Nigeria d ... 38 1114 1410 1284 ... 2.5
Norway 554 509 816 971 906 1.3 1.0
Pakistan 126 130 950 1245 1077 1.9 2.4
Peru 17 165 725 894 971 2.6 2.3
Philippines 910 1250 648 814 796 2.2 1.2
Russian Federation b, d - 714 3551 4439 4661 1.3 1.5
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of d 1312 986 1464 1723 2036 2.0 1.3
Singapore 1778 1275 | 1044 1151 1081 0.5 0.3
retained imports 1016 661 | 502 564 528 0.4 0.3
South Africa 561 569 1145 1385 1330 1.6 1.3
Sri Lanka d 412 1483 1723 2230 2185 17.5 11.4
Switzerland 1849 1326 1992 2297 2050 1.3 1.0
Syrian Arab Republic d 168 399 | 499 477 207 3.5 2.8
Chinese Taipei 1013 1460 1285 1418 1255 0.6 0.5
Thailand 898 1630 2672 2982 3245 1.7 1.3
Tunisia d 790 1207 1845 2026 1843 12.2 7.5
Turkey 567 2124 6540 7557 6441 3.8 2.7
Ukraine - 450 1089 1224 1280 2.5 1.5
United Arab Emirates d 983 2055 2366 2707 3067 2.6 1.3
United States 6730 15985 23375 25359 25956 1.3 1.1
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 112 286 633 511 725 2.1 1.2
Viet Nam d ... 1379 7042 8702 9195 9.3 8.1


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Figures refer to fiscal year.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Includes significant imports into processing zones.
g Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
h See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Textile imports of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share in economy's total
merchandise imports Value


126 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.67


2012 2005 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


World 423 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6 18 1
Asia


World 246 100.0 100.0 48.3 58.1 9 20 3
Europe 72 27.2 29.4 13.1 17.1 10 23 -9
North America 71 36.4 29.0 17.6 16.9 6 13 3
Asia 60 24.1 24.3 11.6 14.1 9 24 17
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 13 5.4 5.2 2.6 3.0 9 9 4
Middle East 12 3.1 4.9 1.5 2.8 16 25 14
South and Central America 10 1.9 4.1 0.9 2.4 21 42 10
Africa 8 1.8 3.1 0.9 1.8 18 19 31


China
World 160 100.0 100.0 26.7 37.8 12 18 4
Asia 47 33.3 29.7 8.9 11.2 10 21 18
Europe 41 23.7 25.4 6.3 9.6 13 20 -13
North America 35 24.7 22.2 6.6 8.4 10 12 3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 12 9.5 7.6 2.5 2.9 8 8 3
Middle East 9 3.5 5.6 0.9 2.1 19 26 14
South and Central America 9 2.9 5.4 0.8 2.1 22 41 9
Africa 6 2.4 4.1 0.7 1.5 20 19 34


Other economies in Asia
World 86 100.0 100.0 21.6 20.4 5 22 2
North America 36 50.9 41.7 11.0 8.5 2 14 2
Europe 32 31.5 36.6 6.8 7.5 8 27 -3
Asia 12 12.8 14.3 2.8 2.9 7 37 13
Middle East 3 2.6 3.5 0.6 0.7 10 22 12
South and Central America 2 0.7 1.8 0.2 0.4 19 51 12
Africa 1 0.9 1.2 0.2 0.2 10 24 17
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.2 15 33 16


Europe
World 127 100.0 100.0 36.2 30.0 3 16 -6
Europe 103 83.8 81.0 30.3 24.3 3 14 -9
Asia 7 4.0 5.6 1.5 1.7 8 36 8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 3.3 5.3 1.2 1.6 10 25 8
North America 5 4.9 3.6 1.8 1.1 -1 23 8
Middle East 3 1.6 2.6 0.6 0.8 11 25 11
South and Central America 2 1.3 1.3 0.5 0.4 3 7 7
Africa 1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 15 47 17


South and Central America
World 16 100.0 100.0 5.1 3.7 1 16 2
North America 10 83.5 66.5 4.3 2.5 -2 12 -1
South and Central America 5 13.6 30.9 0.7 1.1 14 28 11
Europe 0 2.1 1.6 0.1 0.1 -2 14 -12
Asia 0 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.0 16 32 41
Africa 0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 11 34 15
Middle East 0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 -9 40 -1
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -6 19 28


Annual percentage change


Clothing exports of selected regions and economies by destination, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in region's exports Share in world exports


4.6 Clothing


127World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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www.wto.org/statistics


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Table II.68


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 9365 100.0 7 15 -2 World 87957 100.0 1 8 -1
Asia 7576 80.9 8 16 -3 Asia 67195 76.4 4 7 -1
North America 853 9.1 2 7 5 South and Central America 9773 11.1 -2 12 -2
Europe 537 5.7 2 17 2 North America 4641 5.3 -7 7 -2
South and Central America 276 2.9 6 9 15 Europe 3067 3.5 -4 20 6
Africa 91 1.0 7 2 -1 Africa 2020 2.3 -1 11 -2
Middle East 24 0.3 -1 -5 10 Middle East 1227 1.4 -6 7 7
CIS 9 0.1 -8 13 -1 CIS 34 0.0 -26 25 -13


Economy Economy
China 4430 47.3 7 10 -8 China 34681 39.4 7 4 -1
Bangladesh 1012 10.8 16 32 5 Viet Nam 7445 8.5 14 12 7
Cambodia 538 5.7 26 49 9 Indonesia 5284 6.0 8 13 -2
United States 519 5.5 2 6 6 Bangladesh 4643 5.3 9 13 -1
European Union (27) 403 4.3 2 18 3 Mexico 3970 4.5 -7 8 -3


Above 5 6902 73.7 - - - Above 5 56023 63.7 - - -
Viet Nam 401 4.3 22 27 13 India 3351 3.8 0 6 -8
Mexico 325 3.5 2 7 3 Honduras 2711 3.1 0 9 -2
India 289 3.1 -2 13 -11 Cambodia 2640 3.0 5 16 -2
Indonesia 246 2.6 12 30 0 European Union (27) 2560 2.9 -2 23 8
Malaysia 127 1.4 9 14 9 El Salvador 1883 2.1 2 6 6
Pakistan 120 1.3 8 13 10 Thailand 1816 2.1 -4 -4 -3
Turkey 113 1.2 3 12 5 Malaysia 1693 1.9 4 10 -1
Thailand 112 1.2 0 10 -6 Pakistan 1658 1.9 2 10 -10
Sri Lanka 110 1.2 11 30 15 Sri Lanka 1637 1.9 -1 15 5
Honduras 85 0.9 7 16 7 Nicaragua 1382 1.6 9 33 -1
Philippines 66 0.7 -2 18 14 Guatemala 1310 1.5 -5 14 -6
El Salvador 38 0.4 8 -13 49 Philippines 1209 1.4 -7 16 -3
Chinese Taipei 36 0.4 -6 4 1 Jordan 1008 1.1 -2 10 9
Guatemala 34 0.4 5 40 -8 Egypt 904 1.0 10 7 -3
Peru 30 0.3 7 20 12 Haiti 745 0.8 9 35 4
Korea, Republic of 29 0.3 -10 5 -10 Canada 671 0.8 -11 3 1
Nicaragua 26 0.3 28 7 51 Dominican Republic 669 0.8 -14 5 -1
Haiti 24 0.3 13 -10 35 Peru 628 0.7 -4 7 -14
Egypt 23 0.2 11 10 -3 Chinese Taipei 478 0.5 -13 -6 -6
Tunisia 22 0.2 10 16 -8 Turkey 429 0.5 -12 11 16
Morocco 21 0.2 13 5 8 Lesotho 311 0.4 -4 11 -4
Hong Kong, China 21 0.2 -19 -14 -3 Korea, Republic of 289 0.3 -20 -2 -7
Dominican Republic 20 0.2 -2 10 23 Kenya 265 0.3 -1 28 -3
Jordan 17 0.2 18 4 17 Colombia 221 0.3 -13 -14 -7
Japan 13 0.1 11 3 38 Hong Kong, China 180 0.2 -35 -6 -10
Colombia 9 0.1 -5 13 12 Mauritius 171 0.2 0 28 3
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 9 0.1 7 -16 45 Costa Rica 164 0.2 -15 -1 -5
Switzerland 9 0.1 5 0 -16 Morocco 109 0.1 9 34 22
Lesotho 8 0.1 -5 -27 -28 Tunisia 103 0.1 9 18 14
Canada 8 0.1 8 -3 28 Bahrain, Kingdom of 96 0.1 -4 1 11
Mauritius 8 0.1 14 13 63 Israel 90 0.1 -16 -4 -7
Costa Rica 6 0.1 3 -37 -5 Japan 72 0.1 -8 11 -4
Ukraine 6 0.1 0 16 -2 Swaziland 62 0.1 -13 -18 -22
Singapore 5 0.1 -2 -62 331 Madagascar 45 0.1 -23 -28 7
Nepal 5 0.1 -2 26 -28 Macao, China 45 0.1 -38 -34 -22


Above 40 9323 99.5 - - - Above 40 87626 99.6 - - -


Clothing imports of selected economies by origin, 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Canada a United States


128 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




Table II.68FRQWLQXHG


Value Share Value Share


2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012 2012 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Region Region
World 170058 100.0 4 14 -11 World 33942 100.0 6 23 3
Europe 93711 55.1 3 14 -9 Asia 31838 93.8 7 23 3
Asia 67449 39.7 6 16 -12 Europe 1677 4.9 -1 21 7
Africa 6633 3.9 -1 10 -17 North America 244 0.7 -5 10 14
North America 882 0.5 5 5 10 Africa 96 0.3 12 9 3
CIS 763 0.4 -3 19 -13 South and Central America 67 0.2 9 33 4
South and Central America 353 0.2 0 18 -9 CIS 17 0.1 19 13 -2
Middle East 253 0.1 -7 28 -28 Middle East 4 0.0 -11 33 -20


Economy Economy
European Union (27) 80356 47.3 3 14 -9 China 26205 77.2 5 19 0
China 37613 22.1 7 11 -16 Viet Nam 2163 6.4 20 51 18
Turkey 10749 6.3 1 11 -9 European Union (27) 1539 4.5 -1 22 6
Bangladesh 10613 6.2 13 36 0 Indonesia 657 1.9 27 103 59
India 5739 3.4 4 16 -20 Thailand 531 1.6 10 31 13


Above 5 145070 85.3 - - - Above 5 31096 91.6 - - -
Tunisia 2742 1.6 -2 9 -19 Bangladesh 488 1.4 55 77 39
Morocco 2646 1.6 -1 10 -14 Myanmar 408 1.2 34 91 18
Viet Nam 2342 1.4 15 30 -5 Malaysia 326 1.0 11 23 12
Pakistan 1944 1.1 7 29 -10 India 302 0.9 11 33 8
Sri Lanka 1849 1.1 8 13 -3 Korea, Republic of 239 0.7 -8 4 -6
Indonesia 1646 1.0 1 21 -12 United States 206 0.6 -5 9 12
Cambodia 1569 0.9 15 62 22 Cambodia 191 0.6 56 85 24
Thailand 1128 0.7 -1 0 -16 Philippines 121 0.4 3 61 21
Malaysia 1115 0.7 7 12 -6 Turkey 110 0.3 14 11 34
Switzerland 763 0.4 1 13 -9 Chinese Taipei 79 0.2 3 8 2
Hong Kong, China 704 0.4 -15 0 7 Sri Lanka 47 0.1 12 20 7
United States 681 0.4 5 5 17 Tunisia 42 0.1 9 20 -3
FYR Macedonia 585 0.3 7 18 -11 Morocco 37 0.1 15 -11 16
Egypt 493 0.3 3 17 -23 Peru 24 0.1 17 39 7
Croatia 445 0.3 -2 18 -14 Lao People's Dem. Rep. 24 0.1 51 79 62
Ukraine 396 0.2 -5 18 -15 Pakistan 22 0.1 15 21 32
Mauritius 370 0.2 -6 -4 -14 Mexico 20 0.1 -2 1 24
Serbia 353 0.2 15 15 -7 Hong Kong, China 18 0.1 -15 -7 -9
Madagascar 323 0.2 5 29 -1 Canada 18 0.1 0 40 32
Albania 272 0.2 10 13 -11 Switzerland 13 0.0 -6 5 -29
Philippines 270 0.2 0 25 -1 Honduras 12 0.0 6 70 17
Moldova 221 0.1 9 25 -10 Moldova 11 0.0 43 40 -5
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 187 0.1 3 18 -1 Nepal 9 0.0 14 52 24
Korea, Republic of 175 0.1 -12 13 -17 Brazil 7 0.0 10 -29 14
Myanmar 142 0.1 -7 4 -23 Egypt 7 0.0 36 28 11
Chinese Taipei 141 0.1 -11 -1 -8 Guatemala 6 0.0 18 115 3
Bosnia and Herzegovina 134 0.1 -1 16 -22 Croatia 5 0.0 -4 -22 -28
Japan 132 0.1 0 2 -8 Madagascar 5 0.0 8 74 16
Peru 115 0.1 3 13 -17 FYR Macedonia 4 0.0 23 172 17
Canada 113 0.1 1 11 -3 Ukraine 4 0.0 8 -7 8
United Arab Emirates 108 0.1 -5 12 -7 Mauritius 4 0.0 8 24 -37
Mexico 88 0.1 6 2 -17 Colombia 3 0.0 3 33 -15
Honduras 69 0.0 16 39 -14 El Salvador 3 0.0 -3 127 25
Israel 57 0.0 -11 29 -33 Mongolia 3 0.0 13 23 69
Syrian Arab Republic 53 0.0 -10 57 -51 Costa Rica 3 0.0 20 53 -6


Above 40 169438 99.6 - - - Above 40 33916 99.9 - - -


a Imports are valued f.o.b.


Clothing imports of selected economies by origin, 2012


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


(Million dollars and percentage)


European Union (27) Japan


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Table II.69


2012 1980 1990 2000 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
China a 160 4.0 8.9 18.2 37.8 12 21 18 4
European Union (27) 109 - - 28.4 25.8 3 2 17 -7


extra-EU (27) exports 29 - - 6.6 6.8 6 2 26 2
Hong Kong, China 23 - - - - -3 5 2 -8


domestic exports 0 11.5 8.6 5.0 0.1 -38 -28 -14 -29
re-exports 22 - - - - 2 6 2 -8


Bangladesh b 20 0.0 0.6 2.6 4.7 16 25 29 4
Turkey 14 0.3 3.1 3.3 3.4 3 10 9 2
Viet Nam b 14 ... ... 0.9 3.3 17 22 27 7
India 14 2 2 3.0 3.3 7 -6 31 -6
Indonesia 8 0.2 1.5 2.4 1.8 6 15 18 -6
United States 6 3.1 2.4 4.4 1.3 2 12 11 7
Malaysia a 5 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 9 24 18 0
Mexico a 4 0.0 0.5 4.4 1.1 -7 6 6 -4
Cambodia 4 ... ... 0.5 1.0 10 25 31 8
Thailand 4 0.7 2.6 1.9 1.0 1 15 6 -6
Pakistan 4 0.3 0.9 1.1 1.0 2 17 16 -7
Sri Lanka b 4 0.3 0.6 1.4 0.9 5 7 21 -5


Above 15 370 - - 78.7 87.5 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 170 - - 41.1 38.5 4 3 14 -11
extra-EU (27) imports 90 - - 19.8 20.3 5 4 15 -12


United States 88 16.4 24.0 33.0 19.9 1 14 8 -1
Japan 34 3.6 7.8 9.7 7.7 6 5 23 3
Hong Kong, China 16 - - - - -2 7 4 -5


retained imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Canada c 9 1.7 2.1 1.8 2.1 7 10 15 -2
Russian Federation b, c 9 - - 0.1 2.1 39 85 23 0
Korea, Republic of 6 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.4 12 31 38 3
Australia c 6 0.8 0.6 0.9 1.4 10 19 21 4
Switzerland 6 3.4 3.1 1.6 1.3 4 1 16 -7
China a 5 0.1 0.0 0.6 1.0 16 37 59 13
United Arab Emirates b 4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.8 13 2 21 13
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b 3 1.6 0.7 0.4 0.8 13 278 28 18
Mexico a, c 3 0.3 0.5 1.8 0.7 2 9 20 8
Chile 3 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.6 17 35 36 7
Turkey 3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 19 32 15 -18


Above 15 d 348 - - 92.4 78.9 - - - -


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.
d Excludes retained imports of Hong Kong, China.


Leading exporters and importers of clothing, 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


130 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table II.70


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


World 108129 | 197786 353092 416521 422686 2.7 2.4
Albania ... 97 281 325 292 30.0 14.9
Bangladesh b, c 643 5067 14855 19213 19948 74.1 79.4
Belarus - 262 432 506 567 2.1 1.2
Bosnia and Herzegovina ... ... 168 205 177 3.4 3.4
Botswana ... 30 145 237 57 4.6 1.0
Brazil 247 282 157 193 167 0.3 0.1
Cambodia ... 970 3041 3995 4294 71.5 52.4
Canada 328 2077 1173 1289 1280 0.5 0.3
China d 9669 36071 129820 153774 159614 9.7 7.8
Colombia 460 520 650 650 703 4.3 1.2
Costa Rica d 54 | 660 161 172 193 6.7 1.7
Croatia ... 469 488 578 515 6.5 4.2
Dominican Republic c, d 782 | 2555 550 645 680 30.9 7.5
Egypt 144 313 | 1277 1553 1258 1.4 4.3
El Salvador d 184 1673 1696 1829 1912 49.3 35.8
European Union (27) - 56240 100177 116804 108896 2.1 1.9
extra-EU (27) exports - 13025 22328 28054 28540 1.5 1.3
intra-EU (27) exports - 43215 77849 88750 80356 2.4 2.2
FYR Macedonia ... 318 565 658 598 24.4 14.9
Guatemala 24 49 | 1187 1255 1229 28.0 12.3
Haiti c 63 245 509 677 720 83.6 88.3
Honduras c 64 | 2275 2915 3808 3018 55.3 38.1
Hong Kong, China 15406 24214 24049 24505 22573 9.3 4.6
domestic exports 9266 9933 417 360 256 36.1 1.1
re-exports 6140 14281 23632 24145 22317 7.4 4.7
India 2530 5965 11229 14672 13833 8.8 4.7
Indonesia 1646 4734 6820 8045 7524 5.7 4.0
Israel 482 729 181 177 161 1.1 0.3
Japan 568 534 531 595 557 0.1 0.1
Jordan c 11 115 889 1004 994 24.7 12.6
Kenya 9 9 189 247 241 5.4 3.9
Korea, Republic of 7879 5027 1610 1840 1910 0.9 0.3
Kyrgyz Republic - ... 126 143 157 3.5 8.3
Lesotho c ... 161 506 676 634 68.5 57.7
Macao, China 1111 1844 164 133 111 66.8 10.9
Madagascar c 11 309 348 350 304 40.3 20.3
Malaysia d 1315 2257 3880 4567 4563 1.8 2.0
Mauritius c, d 607 948 658 893 821 34.7 30.7
Mexico d 587 8631 4363 4638 4449 3.4 1.2
Moldova - 76 233 280 254 15.7 11.8
Morocco d 722 2401 3007 3274 3225 25.4 15.1
Myanmar c 12 800 337 943 972 8.7 10.9
New Zealand 67 116 186 206 186 0.9 0.5
Pakistan 1014 2144 3930 4550 4214 22.5 17.2
Peru 120 504 1189 1525 1617 6.1 3.5
Philippines d 1733 2536 1764 1402 1612 5.5 3.1
Russian Federation - 438 134 231 356 0.1 0.1
Serbia ... ... 407 481 505 5.4 4.4
Singapore 1588 1825 | 1069 1190 1335 0.7 0.3
domestic exports 995 504 | 135 146 130 0.2 0.1
re-exports 593 1321 | 932 1043 1204 1.4 0.7
South Africa 85 218 101 119 125 0.3 0.1
Sri Lanka c 638 2812 3491 4211 4005 45.3 42.7
Switzerland 686 607 | 1366 1542 1409 1.2 0.6
Syrian Arab Republic c 330 129 | 384 338 135 1.6 3.4
Chinese Taipei 3987 3015 979 994 971 0.8 0.3
Thailand 2817 3759 4300 4561 4275 3.7 1.9
Tunisia c 1126 2227 3089 3317 2992 29.8 17.6
Turkey 3331 6533 12760 13948 14290 16.1 9.4
Ukraine - 417 569 668 573 2.0 0.8
United Arab Emirates c, e 146 464 1122 1055 1223 0.7 0.3
United States 2565 8629 4694 5233 5614 0.6 0.4
Viet Nam c ... 1821 10390 13149 14068 14.4 12.3


a Or nearest year.
b Figures refer to fiscal year.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.
d Includes significant exports from processing zones.
e Mainly re-exports.


Value
Share in economy's total


merchandise exports


Clothing exports of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


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Table II.71


1990 2000 2010 2011 2012 2005 2012 a


Albania ... 68 173 199 175 5.6 3.6
Algeria 4 38 183 238 289 0.4 0.6
Argentina 6 333 402 563 460 0.5 0.7
Australia b 711 1858 4832 5838 6080 2.6 2.4
Bangladesh c, d 14 174 161 204 276 1.8 0.8
Belarus - 50 136 170 240 0.3 0.5
Bosnia and Herzegovina ... ... 174 193 179 2.4 1.8
Brazil e 59 173 1355 2066 2556 0.4 1.1
Canada b 2388 3690 8314 9532 9365 1.9 2.0
Chile 52 501 1851 2519 2706 2.8 3.4
China f 48 1192 2518 4012 4522 0.2 0.2
Colombia 19 80 393 644 802 0.6 1.4
Costa Rica f 17 | 592 239 291 309 3.4 1.8
Croatia ... 278 580 703 609 2.3 2.9
Dominican Republic d, f, g ... ... 203 | 225 229 4.9 1.2
Ecuador 1 23 139 218 253 1.3 1.0
Egypt 9 11 | 608 415 452 0.1 0.7
El Salvador f 171 | 713 296 322 337 5.3 3.3
European Union (27) h - 83456 166637 190746 170058 3.1 2.9
extra-EU (27) imports - 40170 88787 101996 89702 4.5 3.9
Guatemala f 5 33 | 168 183 181 1.8 1.1
Honduras d 25 | 1304 338 325 400 7 3.6
Hong Kong, China 6913 16008 16645 17248 16338 6.1 3.0
retained imports ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Iceland 75 88 113 126 118 2.9 2.5
India 2 | 22 236 364 403 0.0 0.1
Indonesia 16 39 365 417 481 0.1 0.3
Israel 61 471 1126 1364 1450 1.4 1.9
Japan 8765 19705 26867 32945 33942 4.4 3.8
Jordan d 28 61 283 319 361 1.6 1.7
Korea, Republic of 151 1307 4443 6110 6267 1.1 1.2
Kuwait d 206 317 584 729 851 3.5 3.3
Lebanon ... 171 445 470 510 3.0 2.3
Macao, China 26 540 264 345 391 22.1 4.4
Malaysia f 76 148 408 690 856 0.2 0.4
Mexico b, f 573 3602 2294 2744 2965 1.1 0.8
Morocco f 8 232 299 371 383 1.4 0.9
New Zealand 149 401 962 1125 1147 2.7 3.0
Norway 1231 1287 2504 2894 2668 3.3 3.1
Panama d 71 97 | 1871 2368 2540 2.6 10.9
Peru 1 59 346 487 583 0.9 1.4
Qatar d 29 54 326 419 480 1.4 1.4
Russian Federation b, d - 198 7541 9238 9218 0.9 2.9
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of d 833 813 2240 2866 3388 2.5 2.2
Serbia ... ... 289 324 312 1.5 1.6
Singapore 920 1881 | 1960 2335 2389 1.1 0.6
retained imports 328 560 | 1028 1293 1185 0.7 0.6
South Africa 108 223 1363 1529 1599 1.5 1.6
Switzerland 3437 3160 5288 6139 5721 3.5 2.9
Chinese Taipei 290 978 1188 1530 1638 0.6 0.6
Thailand 29 131 482 613 726 0.2 0.3
Tunisia d 191 438 535 550 467 4.3 1.9
Turkey 16 264 2835 3272 2677 0.7 1.1
Ukraine - 60 738 592 1157 1.1 1.4
United Arab Emirates d 514 832 2598 3150 3569 1.8 1.6
United States 26977 67115 81939 88584 87957 4.6 3.8
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 101 390 606 536 838 2.2 1.4
Viet Nam d ... 450 451 529 603 0.9 0.5


a Or nearest year.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Figures refer to fiscal year.
d Includes Secretariat estimates.
e Beginning 2000, imports are valued f.o.b.
f Includes significant imports into processing zones.
g Until 2010, imports are valued f.o.b.
h See the Metadata for information on intra-EU (27) imports.


Value
Share in economy's total


merchandise imports


Clothing imports of selected economies, 1990-2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


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Exports of commercial services
grew by 2 per cent in 2012.


III. Trade in
commercial services


Key developments in 2012: a snapshot


Trade data
List of tables 141


1. Overview 143


2. Transportation services 144


3. Travel 149


4. Other commercial services 154


134


141


Where to find more online:
you can access and download the Excel files
for the tables via www.wto.org/statistics


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Share of “other commercial services” in regional
commercial services exports, 2012*


Exports of commercial services vary
significantly from region to region


Where to find more:
Tables III.3, III.6 and III.9


Share of royalties and
licence fees in North
America’s exports18%


Share of construction in
exports of Commonwealth
of Independent States6%


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t “Other commercial services”, ranging
from construction to financial services
and from computer and information
services to insurance services,
constitutes over half of commercial
services exports. Its largest sub-
category is “other business services”,
which accounts for more than a
quarter of commercial services
exports in Asia, Europe and Central
and South America.*


t Construction exports accounted
for 6 per cent of the exports of the
Commonwealth of Independent States
in 2012, double the world’s average.
Receipts from royalties and licence
fees represented 18 per cent of North
America’s commercial services exports
in 2012. In Europe, exports of financial
services accounted for 8 per cent of
its services exports. The highest share
of communications services was held
by Africa (4.8 per cent). Computer and
information services accounted for
8.8 per cent of the services exports
of the Middle East, and 7 per cent of
Europe’s services exports.


*“Other commercial services” comprises
communications services (e.g. telecoms),
construction, insurance services, financial
services, computer and information services,
royalties and licence fees, other business
services, and personal cultural and recreational
services (e.g. audio-visual services).


“Other business services” comprises trade-
related services, operational leasing (rentals),
and miscellaneous business, professional and
technical services such as legal, accounting,
management consulting, public relations
services, advertising and market research.


Share of “other business
services” in Europe’s exports 28%


Communications services


Financial services


Construction


Royalties and licence fees


Computer and information services


Other business services


All figures are in US$ billion


Charts of regions sized according to share in world total exports of other commercial services


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-4%
Decrease in world


exports of financial
services in 2012


0%
Growth in world


receipts of royalties and
licence fees in 2012


All services sectors see slowdown
t Virtually all commercial services sectors saw a slowdown in 2012. Transport


exports rose by only 1 per cent as a result of reduced merchandise trade. In
Europe, transport exports fell by 2 per cent. Travel receipts, which represent more
than a quarter of global services exports, grew by only 4 per cent compared with
12 per cent in 2011.


t Exports of financial services experienced the steepest decline, contracting by 4
per cent in 2012, compared with 12 per cent growth in 2011. Europe’s exports of
financial services dropped by 7 per cent while in North America the decline was
2 per cent. Global receipts of royalties and licence fees stagnated for the first
time since 2001, with Europe’s receipts declining by 5 per cent.


t Computer services recorded the highest growth in 2012, with world exports up
by 6 per cent. This was sustained by Asia’s rapidly expanding exports.


Where to find more:
Tables III.3, III.6, III.12, III.16, III.19,
III.22, III.25, III.30, III.33 and III.37


Growth in exports of commercial
services, 2011–2012


136 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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-2%
European Union


9%
United States


EU travel exports slump
t The European Union’s travel receipts declined by 2 per cent in 2012 despite a


modest increase in the number of international tourist arrivals. This was due in
particular to lower travel exports within the European Union, which fell by 4 per
cent. Receipts from travel within the European Union constitute two-thirds of
EU travel receipts. In the United States, the second leading travel exporter,
exports expanded by 9 per cent.


t Among the ten leading travel exporters, the most rapid growth rates were
recorded in Asia in 2012. Thailand’s exports rose by 24 per cent, followed
by Hong Kong, China (+16 per cent). Macao, China’s travel receipts grew
by 14 per cent, significantly lower than in 2011.


t International tourist arrivals will rise between 3 and 4 per cent in 2013, according
to the United Nations World Tourism Organization. Asia and Africa are projected
to record the highest growth rates.


Where to find more:
Tables III.6 and III.7


24%
Thailand


Ten leading travel exporters, 2011–2012 Growth in travel
exports in 2012


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-3%
European Union (27)


10%
Korea, Republic of


Transport exports expand in
Asia but shrink in Europe
t Exports of transportation services expanded in several leading Asian traders in


2012. In the Republic of Korea, exports increased by 10 per cent following a 5
per cent drop in 2011. China’s exports rose by 9 per cent. In Singapore, which
overtook Japan as the third largest exporter of transport services, exports rose
by 7 per cent. However, India’s exports declined by 2 per cent.


t US exports of transportation services grew by 4 per cent in 2012. Among the
leading economies, Russia was the only country to record double-digit growth for
two consecutive years.


t EU exports of transportation services declined by 3 per cent in 2012, reflecting
the decline in merchandise exports. Elsewhere in Europe, Norway’s exports
expanded by only 3 per cent.


Where to find more:
Table III.3


Growth in exports of transportation
services, 2011–2012


Change in exports
of transportation
services in 2012


10%
Russia


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Financial services experience
another difficult year
t Several leading exporters of financial services saw their exports decline in 2012.


The European Union, the world’s largest exporter of financial services, saw its
exports drop by 8 per cent, reflecting instability in the euro area, after recovering
in 2011. Switzerland, the third-largest global supplier of financial services, was
also affected with exports contracting by 6 per cent.


t In North America, US exports of financial services shrunk by 2 per cent in 2012,
while Canada’s rose by only around 1 per cent.


t Asia was not spared by the new crisis in the financial markets. In India, exports
of financial services dropped by 11 per cent in 2012. In the Republic of Korea,
exports fell by 6 per cent while in Hong Kong, China, the decrease was a more
modest 1 per cent. Singapore’s exports stagnated. In contrast, Japan continued
to record positive export growth.


Where to find more:
Tables III.23


Growth in exports of financial
services, 2011–2012


Growth in exports
of financial


services in 2012


-8%
European Union


-6%
Switzerland


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14%
Computer and


information services


Average annual growth
in exports of commercial


services, 2005–2012


11%
Insurance services


11%
Construction


Exports of computer and
information services soar
t Computer and information services was the most dynamic services sector


between 2005 and 2012, with an average annual growth in exports of 14 per
cent. It was also the most resilient sector during the 2009 economic crisis.
Insurance services and construction were the next most dynamic, each recording
an average of 11 per cent growth.


t World exports of communications services (largely telecommunications), other
business services, and royalties and licence fees increased by an annual average
of 9 per cent between 2005 and 2012. Global exports of financial services grew
by an annual average of 8 per cent.


t The slowest growth was recorded by personal, cultural and recreational services,
which includes audio-visual and related services. This sector grew by an annual
average of 7 per cent between 2005 and 2012.


Where to find more:
Table III.12, III.16, III.19, III.22,
III.25, III.30, III.33 and III.37


Growth in exports of commercial
services, 2005–2012


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List of tables


III. Trade in commercial services
1. Overview


Table III.1 World trade in commercial services by category, 2012 143


Table III.2 Growth of commercial services exports by category and by region, 1990-2012 143


2. Transportation services


Table III.3 World trade in transportation services by region, 2012 144


Table III.4 Leading exporters and importers of transportation services, 2012 145


Table III.5 Trade in transportation services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011 146


3. Travel


Table III.6 World trade in travel by region, 2012 149


Table III.7 Leading exporters and importers of travel, 2012 150


Table III.8 Trade in travel of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011 151


4. Other commercial services


Table III.9 World trade in other commercial services by region, 2012 154


Table III.10 Leading exporters and importers of other commercial services, 2012 155


Table III.11 Trade in other commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011 156


4.1 Communications services


Table III.12 World exports of communications services by region, 2011 and 2012 159


Table III.13 Major exporters and importers of communications services, 2011 and 2012 159


4.1.1 Telecommunications services


Table III.14 Major exporters and importers of telecommunications services, 2011 and 2012 160


Table III.15 Exports of telecommunications services of selected economies by destination, 2011 161


4.2 Construction


Table III.16 World exports of construction by region, 2011 and 2012 162


Table III.17 Major exporters and importers of construction, 2011 and 2012 162


Table III.18 Exports of construction of selected economies by destination, 2011 163


4.3 Insurance services


Table III.19 World exports of insurance services by region, 2011 and 2012 164


Table III.20 Major exporters and importers of insurance services, 2011 and 2012 164


Table III.21 Exports of insurance services of selected economies by destination, 2011 165


4.4 Financial services


Table III.22 World exports of financial services by region, 2011 and 2012 166


Table III.23 Major exporters and importers of financial services, 2011 and 2012 166


Table III.24 Exports of financial services of selected economies by destination, 2011 167


4.5 Computer and information services


Table III.25 World exports of computer and information services by region, 2011 and 2012 168


Table III.26 Major exporters and importers of computer and information services, 2011 and 2012 168


Table III.27 Exports of computer and information services of selected economies by destination, 2011 169




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4.5.1 Computer services


Table III.28 Major exporters and importers of computer services, 2011 and 2012 170


Table III.29 Exports of computer services of selected economies by destination, 2011 171


4.6 Royalties and licence fees


Table III.30 World receipts of royalties and licence fees by region, 2011 and 2012 172


Table III.31 Major economies for receipts and payments of royalties and licence fees, 2011 and 2012 172


Table III.32 Receipts of royalties and licence fees of selected economies by origin, 2011 173


4.7 Other business services


Table III.33 World exports of other business services by region, 2011 and 2012 174


Table III.34 Major exporters and importers of other business services, 2011 and 2012 174


Table III.35 Exports of other business services of selected economies by destination, 2011 175


Table III.36 Trade in other business services by category in selected economies, 2011 176




4.8 Personal, cultural and recreational services


Table III.37 World exports of personal, cultural and recreational services by region, 2011 and 2012 177


Table III.38 Major exporters and importers of personal, cultural and recreational services, 2011 and 2012 177


Table III.39 Exports of personal, cultural and recreational services of selected economies by destination, 2011 178


4.8.1 Audiovisual services


Table III.40 Major exporters and importers of audio-visual and related services, 2011 and 2012 179


Table III.41 Exports of audio-visual and related services of selected economies by destination, 2011 180


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Table III.1


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2012 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012


Exports
All commercial services 4350 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Transportation services 890 23.2 22.6 21.1 20.6 20.5
Travel 1110 31.9 27.9 24.9 25.1 25.5
Other commercial services 2345 44.8 49.5 53.7 54.1 53.9


Imports
All commercial services 4150 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Transportation services 1145 28.6 28.6 27.1 27.7 27.5
Travel 995 30.1 27.4 23.8 23.4 24.0
Other commercial services 1965 41.2 44.0 47.6 47.8 47.3


Share


World trade in commercial services by category, 2012


Value


1RWH : Total commercial services do not add up to the sum of components due to unallocated services, accounting for 0.1 per cent of world exports and 0.2 per cent of world imports in 2012. For more information on
asymmetries, see the Metadata.


1. Overview


Table III.2


Growth of commercial services exports by category and by region, 1990-2012


(Annual percentage change)


World North America


South and
Central
America Europe CIS Africa Middle East Asia


Commercial services
1990-95 8 8 9 - - 7 ... 14
1995-00 5 7 6 4 ... 4 ... 4
2000-05 11 5 8 13 18 ... ... ...
2005-10 9 8 10 7 14 9 ... 12


2011 11 9 19 12 20 0 11 12
2012 2 5 4 -2 9 6 13 6


Transportation services
1990-95 6 4 7 - - 6 ... 11
1995-00 3 1 1 3 ... -1 ... 3
2000-05 10 3 11 11 15 14 ... 11
2005-10 7 6 9 6 13 9 9 9


2011 9 11 17 10 16 6 22 4
2012 1 3 -1 -2 5 9 13 4


Travel
1990-95 9 7 10 - - 8 ... 14
1995-00 4 6 7 2 ... 6 ... 3
2000-05 8 2 6 9 18 15 12 11
2005-10 6 4 7 3 9 8 15 13


2011 12 10 8 13 28 -4 2 18
2012 4 8 5 -2 12 6 6 10


Other commercial services
1990-95 9 11 10 - - 5 ... 16
1995-00 7 10 9 6 ... 6 ... 5
2000-05 13 8 11 15 25 ... 13 ...
2005-10 11 10 16 10 19 11 ... 13


2011 12 8 30 12 20 3 14 14
2012 2 4 6 -2 11 4 20 6


143World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exports
World 890 100.0 100.0 7 16 9 1
North America 97 11.1 10.9 6 16 11 3
South and Central America 29 2.9 3.2 8 19 17 -1
Europe 416 50.9 46.7 5 9 10 -2


European Union (27) 373 46.1 41.8 5 10 9 -3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 39 3.1 4.4 12 20 16 5
Africa 27 2.6 3.0 9 20 6 9
Middle East 32 2.7 3.6 11 19 22 13
Asia 253 26.7 28.3 8 29 4 4


Imports
World 1145 100.0 100.0 8 18 14 2
North America 125 14.9 10.9 3 17 10 3
South and Central America 55 3.9 4.8 11 26 18 5
Europe 363 39.5 31.8 4 12 9 -4


European Union (27) 337 36.6 29.5 4 12 10 -5
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 29 1.5 2.5 16 22 19 7
Africa 62 4.6 5.5 10 15 8 4
Middle East 110 5.3 9.6 17 12 34 9
Asia 399 30.3 34.9 10 26 17 5


1RWH : For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Table III.3


World trade in transportation services by region, 2012


Annual percentage changeValue Share


2. Transportation services


144 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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(Billion dollars and percentage)


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 373.3 46.1 41.8 5 10 9 -3
Extra-EU (27) exports 184.7 22.8 20.7 5 14 8 -2
United States 82.8 9.2 9.3 7 16 11 4
Singapore 42.5 3.4 4.8 12 29 7 3
Korea, Republic of 40.7 4.2 4.6 8 36 -5 10
Japan 40.1 6.3 4.5 2 23 -1 5
China 38.9 2.7 4.4 14 45 4 9
Hong Kong, China 31.9 3.6 3.6 7 26 8 0
Russian Federation 19.0 1.6 2.1 11 20 17 10
Norway 18.0 ... 2.0 ... ... 11 3
India 17.1 1.0 1.9 17 18 32 -2
Turkey 13.2 0.9 1.5 15 16 12 24
Canada 13.2 1.7 1.5 4 24 16 -1
Chinese Taipei 10.0 1.0 1.1 8 54 -1 3
Egypt 8.9 0.8 1.0 9 18 4 8
Ukraine 8.5 0.8 1.0 10 25 16 -6


Above 15 760.0 ... 85.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 337.2 36.6 29.5 4 12 10 -5
Extra-EU (27) imports 153.8 16.4 13.5 5 17 9 -3
United States 89.8 11.6 7.9 2 16 9 5
China 85.9 4.2 7.5 17 36 27 7
India 58.9 3.0 5.2 16 30 23 4
Japan 55.3 5.9 4.8 5 15 6 12
United Arab Emirates 47.7 1.6 4.2 23 12 63 14
Singapore 35.3 3.0 3.1 8 17 16 3
Korea, Republic of 30.1 3.0 2.6 6 27 0 2
Thailand 28.5 2.1 2.5 10 32 19 7
Canada 23.2 2.1 2.0 7 23 13 -1
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 17.9 0.7 1.6 21 12 21 16
Australia 17.2 1.6 1.5 7 29 16 11
Hong Kong, China 16.4 1.5 1.4 7 19 14 -1
Russian Federation 16.4 0.8 1.4 18 27 30 7
Brazil 14.2 0.7 1.2 16 42 25 0


Above 15 875.0 78.4 76.5 - - - -


Annual percentage change


Leading exporters and importers of transportation services, 2012


Table III.4


Value Share


145World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.5


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27)
World 384147 100.0 7 10 9 World 353266 100.0 6 12 10
European Union (27) 196385 51.1 7 6 10 European Union (27) 194458 55.0 6 7 11
United States 41836 10.9 1 10 7 United States 29284 8.3 3 10 11
Switzerland 18059 4.7 13 8 15 China 12301 3.5 13 27 6
China 11310 2.9 13 29 7 Switzerland 10654 3.0 7 17 10
Russian Federation 7589 2.0 11 25 20 Russian Federation 9489 2.7 10 38 6


Above 5 275178 71.6 - - - Above 5 256186 72.5 - - -
Japan 7574 2.0 2 14 9 Japan 6571 1.9 1 23 -6
Australia 6169 1.6 12 21 13 Singapore 5816 1.6 12 20 19
Norway 5938 1.5 7 15 7 Turkey 5482 1.6 7 20 13
India 5305 1.4 12 44 10 Norway 5292 1.5 4 7 14
Canada 5302 1.4 10 15 14 Hong Kong, China 3875 1.1 3 18 -1
Hong Kong, China 5259 1.4 4 24 10 Brazil 3871 1.1 15 52 14
Brazil 4965 1.3 11 20 18 Canada 3271 0.9 7 12 9
Singapore 4745 1.2 7 6 9 Korea, Republic of 2921 0.8 0 34 -2
Korea, Republic of 4271 1.1 6 20 3 Egypt 2588 0.7 5 15 0
Turkey 3106 0.8 9 20 12 India 2523 0.7 7 19 2


Above 15 327813 85.3 - - - Above 15 298396 84.5 - - -
United States a


World 79458 100.0 7 16 11 World 85453 100.0 1 16 9
European Union (27) 23644 29.8 ... 9 8 European Union (27) 30615 35.8 ... 13 9
Japan 8154 10.3 2 17 3 Japan 7590 8.9 4 21 8
Canada 7759 9.8 7 22 7 Korea, Republic of 5484 6.4 4 22 9
China 4409 5.5 18 36 21 Canada 5383 6.3 3 21 10
Mexico 4067 5.1 7 23 5 Chinese Taipei 4446 5.2 -2 22 9


Above 5 48033 60.5 - - - Above 5 53518 62.6 - - -
Brazil 3707 4.7 21 33 33 China 3695 4.3 3 35 8
Korea, Republic of 2251 2.8 6 13 7 Hong Kong, China 3453 4.0 8 15 9
Hong Kong, China 1890 2.4 19 10 17 Switzerland 2298 2.7 2 20 7
Chinese Taipei 1878 2.4 2 13 15 Mexico 1573 1.8 -2 8 -2
Switzerland 1779 2.2 11 10 15 Australia 1229 1.4 2 10 13
India 1690 2.1 33 15 12 Israel 1229 1.4 4 15 10
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 1196 1.5 15 5 24 Norway 1196 1.4 5 29 6
Australia 1192 1.5 5 12 23 Singapore 1186 1.4 -2 18 9
Israel 1094 1.4 12 17 12 Bermuda 1043 1.2 26 13 7
Argentina 1072 1.3 18 30 30 Brazil 868 1.0 7 19 16


Above 15 65783 82.8 - - - Above 15 71288 83.4 - - -
China b


World 35570 100.0 15 45 4 World 80445 100.0 19 36 27
Hong Kong, China 12015 33.8 ... ... 3 European Union (27) 11246 14.0 ... ... 30
United States 4322 12.2 ... ... 23 Hong Kong, China 6492 8.1 ... ... 8
European Union (27) 3498 9.8 ... ... -8 Japan 5911 7.3 ... ... 8
Japan 2822 7.9 ... ... 21 Korea, Republic of 5570 6.9 ... ... 19
Korea, Republic of 1647 4.6 ... ... 8 United States 3685 4.6 ... ... 7


Above 5 24303 68.3 - - - Above 5 32904 40.9 - - -
Singapore 1167 3.3 ... ... 6 Australia 3300 4.1 ... ... 38
Chinese Taipei 965 2.7 ... ... -4 Singapore 1169 1.5 ... ... 19
Australia 510 1.4 ... ... 11 Chinese Taipei 227 0.3 ... ... 42
Macao, China 94 0.3 ... ... -8 Macao, China 131 0.2 ... ... 274


Above 9 27040 76.0 - - - Above 9 37731 46.9 - - -


Trade in transportation services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


a Bilateral data include transactions in postal and courier services. b ASEAN countries accounted for 5 per cent of transportation services exports and 11 per cent of imports.


146 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.5FRQWLQXHG


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


Japan
World 38319 100.0 1 23 -1 World 49447 100.0 3 15 6
United States 7003 18.3 -1 30 -9 European Union (27) 9021 18.2 ... 14 -4
European Union (27) 6900 18.0 ... 19 -5 United States 6516 13.2 2 22 18
China 4451 11.6 8 31 2 Singapore 3763 7.6 5 23 6
Chinese Taipei 3306 8.6 10 36 18 Hong Kong, China 3029 6.1 -1 12 5
Singapore 2626 6.9 6 30 -9 Korea, Republic of 2736 5.5 1 10 1


Above 5 24287 63.4 - - - Above 5 25064 50.7 - - -
Korea, Republic of 2605 6.8 1 21 -4 China 2468 5.0 1 12 18
Hong Kong, China 2034 5.3 -5 8 -8 Chinese Taipei 2105 4.3 10 38 8
Thailand 1096 2.9 3 29 7 Cayman Islands 2068 4.2 108 … 86
Australia 612 1.6 -4 5 6 Australia 872 1.8 -3 16 -6
Malaysia 572 1.5 5 46 -12 Thailand 748 1.5 7 41 19
Indonesia 485 1.3 -3 24 10 Philippines 464 0.9 -3 10 -25
Switzerland 402 1.0 1 14 -24 Switzerland 411 0.8 0 4 -1
Philippines 374 1.0 -2 25 -8 Canada 363 0.7 -2 16 13
India 365 1.0 15 48 6 United Arab Emirates 353 0.7 13 -4 7
Canada 331 0.9 -5 7 -21 Malaysia 326 0.7 -3 44 -22


Above 15 33163 86.5 - - - Above 15 35242 71.3 - - -
Singapore c, d


World 41273 100.0 13 29 7 World 34392 100.0 9 17 16
European Union (27) 6261 15.2 ... 23 2 European Union (27) 4980 14.5 ... 19 15
United States 4670 11.3 ... 48 0 United States 4411 12.8 ... 32 2
Australia 3269 7.9 ... 15 7 Japan 2496 7.3 ... 23 33
China 3083 7.5 ... 169 -17 China 2031 5.9 ... 44 14
Japan 2806 6.8 ... 30 13 Australia 1266 3.7 ... 23 63


Above 5 20089 48.7 - - - Above 5 15183 44.1 - - -
India 1227 3.0 ... 27 -7 Hong Kong, China 1140 3.3 ... 25 4
Korea, Republic of 1067 2.6 ... 25 9 Korea, Republic of 835 2.4 ... 22 26
Hong Kong, China 1067 2.6 ... 40 3 India 683 2.0 ... 17 21


Above 8 23451 56.8 - - - Above 8 17841 51.9 - - -
Korea, Republic of


World 36938 100.0 8 36 -5 World 29537 100.0 7 27 0
China 7324 19.8 10 40 -14 European Union (27) 6692 22.7 7 20 -9
Japan 4828 13.1 12 46 19 United States 5891 19.9 5 33 2
United States 4678 12.7 -3 38 -11 Japan 3082 10.4 2 15 0
European Union (27) 4576 12.4 5 28 -3 China 2381 8.1 6 27 1
Hong Kong, China 2347 6.4 4 23 -7 Hong Kong, China 1752 5.9 5 45 -16


Above 5 23753 64.3 - - - Above 5 19798 67.0 - - -
Singapore 1409 3.8 15 23 2 Singapore 1744 5.9 8 32 -7
Chinese Taipei 949 2.6 6 62 -6 Australia 622 2.1 18 21 22
Viet Nam 804 2.2 21 48 9 United Arab Emirates 600 2.0 16 21 31
Indonesia 704 1.9 14 51 14 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 516 1.7 13 3 25
Russian Federation 700 1.9 15 72 0 Indonesia 487 1.6 14 42 18
India 651 1.8 14 45 -16 Panama 462 1.6 37 130 -16
Brazil 595 1.6 25 58 10 Philippines 443 1.5 17 251 16
Thailand 579 1.6 9 46 -3 Russian Federation 381 1.3 11 25 3
Mexico 458 1.2 13 34 -17 Chinese Taipei 370 1.3 5 12 -6
Australia 453 1.2 10 35 0 Viet Nam 339 1.1 17 61 15


Above 15 31056 84.1 - - - Above 15 25761 87.2 - - -
Hong Kong, China


World 31804 100.0 8 26 8 World 16624 100.0 8 19 14
China 5710 18.0 ... 34 16 China 3341 20.1 ... 8 4
United States 5400 17.0 ... 30 -1 United States 2607 15.7 ... 23 22
Chinese Taipei 3127 9.8 ... 24 9 Japan 1580 9.5 ... 40 21
Japan 3061 9.6 ... 17 -3 Chinese Taipei 759 4.6 ... 32 17


Above 4 17299 54.4 - - - Above 4 8288 49.9 - - -


Trade in transportation services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


c Imports of transportation freight services on goods imports are not allocated geographically. d In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 10 per cent of transportation services exports and 6 per cent of imports.


147World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.5FRQWLQXHG


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


Canada
World 13266 100.0 5 24 16 World 23369 100.0 8 23 13
United States 6490 48.9 7 20 12 United States 8852 37.9 8 24 10
European Union (27) 3692 27.8 ... 14 23 European Union (27) 5237 22.4 ... 13 14
Japan 586 4.4 4 23 17 Japan 533 2.3 1 17 -3


Above 3 10768 81.2 - - - Above 3 14621 62.6 - - -
Russian Federation e


World 17226 100.0 11 20 17 World 15398 100.0 20 27 30
European Union (27) 5416 31.4 10 21 20 European Union (27) 2292 14.9 12 31 14
Switzerland 899 5.2 5 13 17 Belarus 489 3.2 22 49 8
Ukraine 894 5.2 35 22 12 Ukraine 447 2.9 15 17 16
British Virgin Islands 549 3.2 12 9 -20 Switzerland 434 2.8 20 12 31
China 437 2.5 6 33 29 China 251 1.6 25 19 97


Above 5 8195 47.6 - - - Above 5 3912 25.4 - - -
United States 379 2.2 -3 35 3 Kazakhstan 167 1.1 13 -3 26
Kazakhstan 325 1.9 19 3 26 Turkey 154 1.0 15 38 8
United Arab Emirates 307 1.8 30 7 49 Uzbekistan 148 1.0 16 -10 25
Turkey 295 1.7 10 26 -9 United States 147 1.0 5 0 48
Korea, Republic of 221 1.3 1 22 7 Tajikistan 138 0.9 29 14 21
Tajikistan 177 1.0 43 28 32 United Arab Emirates 118 0.8 14 35 6
Belarus 176 1.0 16 58 2 Korea, Republic of 112 0.7 12 11 -8
Japan 164 1.0 -9 12 16 British Virgin Islands 99 0.6 14 -17 7
Panama 155 0.9 12 -20 1 Hong Kong, China 67 0.4 3 49 24
Uzbekistan 139 0.8 18 11 23 Azerbaijan 64 0.4 12 -17 14


Above 15 10532 61.1 - - - Above 15 5125 33.3 - - -
Norway


World 17433 100.0 ... ... 11 World 8461 100.0 ... ... -28
European Union (27) 8257 47.4 ... ... -25 European Union (27) 4953 58.5 ... ... -34
United States 904 5.2 ... ... 18 United States 352 4.2 ... ... -46
Brazil 510 2.9 ... ... 75 Japan 299 3.5 ... ... 121
China 318 1.8 ... ... 43 Brazil 171 2.0 ... ... -10
Japan 242 1.4 ... ... 27 China 156 1.8 ... ... -30


Above 5 10232 58.7 - - - Above 5 5931 70.1 - - -
Canada 185 1.1 ... ... 28 Switzerland 99 1.2 ... ... -24
India 129 0.7 ... ... 40 Canada 83 1.0 ... ... 13
Russian Federation 117 0.7 ... ... 47 Russian Federation 56 0.7 ... ... 11
Switzerland 54 0.3 ... ... 32 India 36 0.4 ... ... -45
Hong Kong, China 6 0.0 ... ... 110 Hong Kong, China 31 0.4 ... ... 189


Above 10 10722 61.5 - - - Above 10 6235 73.7 - - -
Chile f


World 7652 100.0 10 35 20 World 7721 100.0 11 38 17
China 1482 19.4 ... 200 4 Germany 1541 20.0 ... 30 18
United States 1198 15.7 ... 11 23 United States 1120 14.5 ... 31 22
Japan 398 5.2 ... -13 34 Japan 405 5.2 ... 28 22
Germany 375 4.9 ... 3 18 Switzerland 291 3.8 ... 107 28
Peru 274 3.6 ... -1 13 China 253 3.3 ... 69 39


Above 5 3727 48.7 - - - Above 5 3610 46.7 - - -
Switzerland 253 3.3 ... 24 55 France 215 2.8 ... 93 -12
France 190 2.5 ... 64 31 Korea, Republic of 213 2.8 ... 137 6
Mexico 171 2.2 ... 105 22 Mexico 155 2.0 ... 37 55
Korea, Republic of 149 2.0 ... 97 26 Netherlands 150 1.9 ... 43 49
Greece 73 1.0 ... 108 237 United Kingdom 118 1.5 ... -3 78
Netherlands 69 0.9 ... -1 53 Peru 116 1.5 ... 24 18
Belgium 56 0.7 ... 59 … Singapore 76 1.0 ... -24 88
India 51 0.7 ... 98 13 Canada 65 0.8 ... … 54
Norway 38 0.5 ... -27 203 Norway 24 0.3 ... 98 -4
Italy 37 0.5 ... 18 3 Chinese Taipei 16 0.2 ... 47 10


Above 15 4813 62.9 - - - Above 15 4759 61.6 - - -


Trade in transportation services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


e In 2011, trade in transportation services not allocated geographically accounted for 29 per cent of exports and 62 per cent of imports. f Individual members of the European Union (27) are
shown as partners, as the EU (27) aggregate is not reported. In 2011, trade in transportation services not allocated geographically accounted for 15 per cent of exports and imports.
Note: For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


148 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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3. Travel


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exports
World 1110 100.0 100.0 7 9 12 4
North America 193 18.8 17.4 6 9 10 8
South and Central America 48 4.4 4.4 7 8 8 5
Europe 428 48.1 38.6 3 -1 13 -2


European Union (27) 369 42.1 33.2 3 -1 13 -2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 24 1.6 2.2 12 1 28 12
Africa 43 4.1 3.8 6 10 -4 6
Middle East 51 3.3 4.6 12 25 2 6
Asia 322 19.7 29.0 13 25 18 10


Imports
World 995 100.0 100.0 6 9 10 5
North America 136 15.4 13.6 4 7 7 6
South and Central America 44 2.5 4.4 15 26 22 7
Europe 379 49.4 38.1 2 -1 9 -4


European Union (27) 340 45.5 34.1 2 -2 8 -4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 56 3.4 5.6 14 24 25 28
Africa 26 1.9 2.6 11 14 6 -4
Middle East 67 5.2 6.8 10 18 -11 9
Asia 287 ... 28.8 ... 20 17 15


1RWH : For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Table III.6


World trade in travel by region, 2012


Annual percentage changeValue Share


149World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 368.6 42.1 33.2 3 -1 13 -2
Extra-EU (27) exports 124.7 11.7 11.2 6 5 18 4
United States 162.8 15.2 14.7 6 9 11 9
China 50.0 4.2 4.5 8 15 6 3
Macao, China 43.9 1.1 4.0 28 53 38 14
Thailand 33.6 1.4 3.0 20 25 35 24
Hong Kong, China 32.1 1.5 2.9 18 35 25 16
Australia 31.6 2.4 2.8 9 16 8 0
Turkey 23.8 2.6 2.1 4 -2 11 3
Malaysia 20.2 1.3 1.8 13 15 9 3
Singapore 19.3 0.9 1.7 18 51 28 7
India 17.8 1.1 1.6 13 27 24 2
Canada 17.4 2.0 1.6 3 16 7 3
Switzerland 16.5 1.4 1.5 7 6 18 -6
Japan 14.5 ... 1.3 ... 28 -17 33
Korea, Republic of 14.2 0.8 1.3 14 6 21 14


Above 15 865.0 ... 78.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 339.6 45.5 34.1 2 -2 8 -4
Extra-EU (27) imports 121.7 16.2 12.2 2 0 6 -4
China 102.0 3.3 10.3 25 26 32 41
United States 91.8 11.5 9.2 3 2 4 7
Russian Federation 42.8 2.7 4.3 14 27 23 30
Canada 35.2 2.8 3.5 10 23 13 6
Japan 27.8 ... 2.8 ... 11 -2 2
Australia 27.5 1.7 2.8 14 24 20 3
Singapore 22.4 1.5 2.3 12 19 15 5
Brazil 22.2 0.7 2.2 25 51 29 5
Hong Kong, China 20.2 2.0 2.0 6 12 10 6
Korea, Republic of 20.1 2.4 2.0 4 25 6 1
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 17.0 1.4 1.7 9 4 -18 -1
Norway 16.9 ... 1.7 ... ... 15 5
Switzerland 14.2 1.4 1.4 7 3 25 2
Iran a 12.4 0.6 1.3 ... 56 ... ...


Above 15 810.0 ... 81.7 - - - -


Annual percentage change


Leading exporters and importers of travel, 2012


Table III.7


Value Share


a Secretariat estimate.


150 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.8


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27)
World 377854 100.0 4 -1 13 World 354625 100.0 3 -2 8
European Union (27) 258348 68.4 3 -3 10 European Union (27) 227837 64.2 3 -3 9
United States 22165 5.9 -1 2 11 United States 23580 6.6 2 -1 12
Switzerland 16498 4.4 4 -4 17 Turkey 11947 3.4 5 14 11
Russian Federation 10865 2.9 21 31 35 Switzerland 10203 2.9 3 3 0
Norway 10846 2.9 9 10 23 Croatia 5306 1.5 5 -9 15


Above 5 318722 84.4 - - - Above 5 278872 78.6 - - -
Australia 5170 1.4 9 5 13 Thailand 4019 1.1 7 -4 7
Canada 4830 1.3 7 14 3 Australia 3758 1.1 2 -2 15
China 4368 1.2 15 9 33 Egypt 3519 1.0 -1 0 -29
Brazil 4198 1.1 24 24 36 Norway 3395 1.0 5 -2 17
Japan 3025 0.8 0 -4 9 China 3067 0.9 1 9 8
Turkey 2210 0.6 12 35 4 Canada 3045 0.9 1 5 -5
Mexico 1755 0.5 7 3 21 India 2774 0.8 5 8 26
India 1734 0.5 12 33 6 Russian Federation 2600 0.7 1 -3 10
Israel 1329 0.4 6 6 11 Morocco 2512 0.7 5 14 -4
Croatia 986 0.3 3 -9 0 Brazil 2061 0.6 3 -2 15


Above 15 348326 92.2 - - - Above 15 309623 87.3 - - -
United States a


World 149256 100.0 6 9 11 World 86184 100.0 2 2 4
European Union (27) 30991 20.8 ... -1 9 European Union (27) 23658 27.5 ... 2 6
Canada 20291 13.6 13 27 16 Mexico 8910 10.3 -2 0 -3
Japan 10824 7.3 -4 5 0 Canada 7215 8.4 0 12 6
China 10646 7.1 26 38 33 Japan 3556 4.1 4 -8 5
Mexico 6858 4.6 -1 2 5 China 2942 3.4 5 12 5


Above 5 79610 53.3 - - - Above 5 46281 53.7 - - -
India 6396 4.3 10 8 5 India 2267 2.6 7 -12 5
Brazil 6140 4.1 23 33 30 Australia 1832 2.1 5 4 5
Korea, Republic of 5969 4.0 7 18 8 Korea, Republic of 1717 2.0 9 12 5
Australia 4379 2.9 11 19 19 Israel 1289 1.5 21 9 10
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 2163 1.4 9 -3 18 Hong Kong, China 1136 1.3 1 -5 5
Argentina 1958 1.3 24 25 22 Brazil 1121 1.3 8 13 5
Chinese Taipei 1896 1.3 4 10 3 Chinese Taipei 1038 1.2 3 10 5
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 1670 1.1 35 31 49 Philippines 980 1.1 12 1 22
Switzerland 1406 0.9 12 2 27 South Africa 903 1.0 20 14 5
Israel 1331 0.9 5 8 3 New Zealand 782 0.9 4 1 -5


Above 15 112918 75.7 - - - Above 15 59346 68.9 - - -
China b


World 48464 100.0 9 15 6 World 72585 100.0 22 26 32
Hong Kong, China 11064 22.8 ... ... 4 Hong Kong, China 18632 25.7 ... ... 21
Chinese Taipei 5985 12.3 ... ... 4 Australia 4826 6.6 ... ... 2
United States 5644 11.6 ... ... 49 Macao, China 4766 6.6 ... ... -5
Korea, Republic of 4423 9.1 ... ... 6 European Union (27) 3897 5.4 ... ... 13
Japan 4253 8.8 ... ... 1 Japan 3278 4.5 ... ... -17


Above 5 31369 64.7 - - - Above 5 35400 48.8 - - -
European Union (27) 3842 7.9 ... ... 5 Chinese Taipei 2891 4.0 ... ... 11
Macao, China 2763 5.7 ... ... 4 United States 2691 3.7 ... ... 5
Singapore 1011 2.1 ... ... 9 Korea, Republic of 1680 2.3 ... ... 20
Australia 767 1.6 ... ... 13 Singapore 1115 1.5 ... ... 23


Above 9 39752 82.0 - - - Above 9 43777 60.3 - - -


Trade in travel of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


151World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.8FRQWLQXHG


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


Australia
World 31486 100.0 11 16 8 World 26597 100.0 15 24 20
European Union (27) 5388 17.1 7 14 8 European Union (27) 6167 23.2 12 26 18
China 5230 16.6 17 27 13 United States 4144 15.6 18 28 25
New Zealand 2072 6.6 6 23 13 New Zealand 2107 7.9 13 12 18
India 2070 6.6 18 1 -22 Indonesia 1950 7.3 26 58 35
Korea, Republic of 1644 5.2 11 20 6 Thailand 1494 5.6 24 24 29


Above 5 16404 52.1 - - - Above 5 15861 59.6 - - -
United States 1544 4.9 8 11 19 Fiji 1138 4.3 17 45 18
Malaysia 1339 4.3 11 22 11 China 1086 4.1 15 33 22
Singapore 1123 3.6 11 27 29 Hong Kong, China 700 2.6 14 3 23
Japan 1049 3.3 -5 27 -5 Singapore 689 2.6 15 31 26
Indonesia 981 3.1 12 28 24 Viet Nam 643 2.4 18 36 26
Hong Kong, China 945 3.0 4 15 12 Malaysia 616 2.3 15 26 24
Viet Nam 866 2.8 34 32 12 India 584 2.2 22 25 31
Thailand 824 2.6 13 12 12 Canada 550 2.1 9 16 5
Canada 561 1.8 10 14 12 Philippines 457 1.7 19 20 35
Chinese Taipei 516 1.6 8 12 14 Japan 416 1.6 11 23 -14


Above 15 26153 83.1 - - - Above 15 22739 85.5 - - -
Canada


World 16800 100.0 3 16 7 World 33323 100.0 11 23 13
United States 7146 42.5 -1 13 2 United States 20416 61.3 13 29 16
European Union (27) 3097 18.4 ... 12 4 European Union (27) 4595 13.8 ... 9 4
Japan 345 2.1 -6 31 -3 Japan 205 0.6 1 21 7


Above 3 10588 63.0 - - - Above 3 25216 75.7 - - -
Hong Kong, China


World 27665 100.0 18 35 25 World 19172 100.0 6 12 10
China 19624 70.9 ... 34 29 China 5976 31.2 ... 12 4
United States 864 3.1 ... 38 18 United States 1982 10.3 ... 5 7
Chinese Taipei 746 2.7 ... 17 16 Chinese Taipei 1299 6.8 ... 18 16
Japan 637 2.3 ... 34 7 Japan 1241 6.5 ... 22 -11


Above 4 21871 79.1 - - - Above 4 10498 54.8 - - -
Russian Federation c


World 11328 100.0 12 -6 28 World 32902 100.0 11 27 23
European Union (27) 3762 33.2 7 -4 27 European Union (27) 14989 45.6 11 22 39
Ukraine 1207 10.7 9 -19 37 Turkey 3744 11.4 10 24 20
Uzbekistan 1058 9.3 43 -10 42 Ukraine 1928 5.9 4 16 3
Kazakhstan 642 5.7 12 9 14 Thailand 1842 5.6 55 108 92
China 638 5.6 16 11 26 Egypt 1473 4.5 8 50 -49


Above 5 7306 64.5 - - - Above 5 23976 72.9 - - -
Tajikistan 542 4.8 32 -5 21 China 1162 3.5 5 31 30
United States 427 3.8 4 -10 19 United Arab Emirates 1042 3.2 20 33 56
Moldova 405 3.6 26 -11 32 United States 786 2.4 13 13 17
Azerbaijan 359 3.2 15 19 18 Switzerland 622 1.9 12 4 22
Kyrgyz Republic 333 2.9 38 7 25 Israel 615 1.9 13 11 21
Turkey 310 2.7 5 -14 51 Kazakhstan 410 1.2 3 5 -2
Armenia 272 2.4 19 11 35 Norway 378 1.1 18 45 55
Belarus 166 1.5 16 -11 12 Montenegro 367 1.1 ... 43 18
Israel 142 1.3 11 -14 30 Croatia 280 0.8 18 33 24
Japan 106 0.9 1 1 5 Tunisia 247 0.7 12 56 -15


Above 15 10368 91.5 - - - Above 15 29884 90.8 - - -


Trade in travel of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


152 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.8FRQWLQXHG


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


Korea, Republic of
World 12525 100.0 14 6 21 World 19934 100.0 4 25 6
China 2769 22.1 23 54 26 United States 5436 27.3 5 7 7
Japan 1727 13.8 -4 1 -50 China 2833 14.2 3 27 9
Philippines 1474 11.8 67 -28 475 Japan 2097 10.5 -4 44 -19
United States 992 7.9 3 2 -17 European Union (27) 1693 8.5 4 10 15
Canada 826 6.6 35 -16 408 Thailand 1156 5.8 8 42 39


Above 5 7789 62.2 - - - Above 5 13215 66.3 - - -
European Union (27) 813 6.5 10 -14 57 Australia 1148 5.8 3 25 -5
Russian Federation 765 6.1 44 -3 318 Hong Kong, China 974 4.9 24 22 31
Thailand 390 3.1 27 42 33 Canada 935 4.7 4 19 -3
India 292 2.3 32 -13 218 Singapore 604 3.0 7 15 36
Indonesia 277 2.2 37 -14 209 Viet Nam 449 2.3 16 54 24
Hong Kong, China 241 1.9 -5 6 -25 Philippines 343 1.7 -7 436 -42
Singapore 230 1.8 11 2 8 Indonesia 323 1.6 14 25 22
Malaysia 195 1.6 9 20 45 Chinese Taipei 319 1.6 2 13 32
Chinese Taipei 166 1.3 -18 -15 -56 Malaysia 206 1.0 16 40 11
Viet Nam 146 1.2 25 -11 74 New Zealand 181 0.9 -8 -2 -33


Above 15 11305 90.3 - - - Above 15 18698 93.8 - - -
Japan


World 10967 100.0 ... 28 -17 World 27210 100.0 ... 11 -2
China 3414 31.1 ... 32 2 United States 8096 29.8 ... 15 22
Korea, Republic of 1831 16.7 ... 55 -25 European Union (27) 4786 17.6 ... 4 -10
Chinese Taipei 1354 12.3 ... 31 -34 China 3518 12.9 ... 0 -5
United States 951 8.7 ... 9 -6 Korea, Republic of 3285 12.1 ... 35 41
European Union (27) 880 8.0 ... 12 -24 Thailand 1388 5.1 ... -6 -2


Above 5 8430 76.9 - - - Above 5 21072 77.4 - - -
Hong Kong, China 506 4.6 ... 21 -47 Chinese Taipei 854 3.1 ... 13 -41
Australia 283 2.6 ... 14 10 Hong Kong, China 665 2.4 ... 29 -30
Thailand 269 2.5 ... 25 -10 Canada 634 2.3 ... 5 60
Canada 179 1.6 ... 7 -22 Singapore 487 1.8 ... 32 -21
Singapore 160 1.5 ... 31 -38 Indonesia 378 1.4 ... 13 -33
Malaysia 158 1.4 ... 30 -13 Viet Nam 365 1.3 ... 35 4
Indonesia 123 1.1 ... 36 -8 Australia 345 1.3 ... -1 -64
Viet Nam 117 1.1 ... 23 16 Philippines 340 1.2 ... 12 -18
India 94 0.9 ... 28 1 Malaysia 244 0.9 ... 21 -10
Philippines 82 0.8 ... 17 -17 Switzerland 200 0.7 ... 40 -23


Above 15 10401 94.8 - - - Above 15 25583 94.0 - - -
Turkey


World 23020 100.0 4 -2 11
European Union (27) 11183 48.6 ... -2 32
Russian Federation 2174 9.4 ... -2 36
United States 708 3.1 ... -2 125
Switzerland 293 1.3 ... -2 77
Japan 217 0.9 ... -2 81


Above 5 14575 63.3 - - -
Australia 180 0.8 ... -2 65
Canada 156 0.7 ... -2 160
Israel 79 0.3 ... -2 -57


Above 8 14990 65.1 - - -


b ASEAN countries accounted for 8 per cent of travel exports and 6 per cent of imports.
c In 2011, trade in travel not allocated geographically accounted for 2 per cent of exports and 3 per cent of imports.
1RWH For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Trade in travel of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


a Health-related expenditure and expenditure by seasonal and border workers are not allocated geographically. In 2011, they accounted for 7 per cent of travel exports and 2 per cent of imports.


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(Billion dollars and percentage)


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exports
World 2345 100.0 100.0 9 7 12 2
North America 426 19.2 18.2 9 8 8 4
South and Central America 63 1.8 2.7 16 17 30 6
Europe 1187 54.4 50.7 8 4 12 -2


European Union (27) 1089 50.2 46.4 8 3 13 -2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 41 1.1 1.7 18 9 20 11
Africa 22 1.0 0.9 9 8 3 4
Middle East 46 ... 2.0 ... -9 14 20
Asia 558 20.5 23.8 12 16 14 6


Imports
World 1965 100.0 100.0 9 6 12 2
North America 282 15.0 14.3 9 4 7 2
South and Central America 86 2.7 4.4 17 21 27 7
Europe 911 52.6 46.4 7 1 12 -2


European Union (27) 848 50.0 43.1 7 1 11 -2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 67 2.5 3.4 14 12 13 16
Africa 70 2.6 3.6 14 7 19 1
Middle East 60 ... 3.0 ... 6 20 -3
Asia 489 22.0 24.9 11 14 13 6


Table III.9


World trade in other commercial services by region, 2012


1RWH : For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Annual percentage changeValue Share


154 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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(Billion dollars and percentage)


2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 1088.7 50.2 46.4 8 3 13 -2
Extra-EU (27) exports 520.9 22.7 22.2 9 3 12 0
United States 375.6 16.5 16.0 9 8 8 4
India 103.8 3.1 4.4 15 26 11 9
China 101.5 2.3 4.3 19 24 13 11
Japan 87.8 4.8 3.7 6 3 8 -6
Switzerland 66.8 2.8 2.8 10 11 14 -4
Hong Kong, China 59.4 2.7 2.5 9 17 12 1
Korea, Republic of 54.5 1.5 2.3 17 9 20 23
Singapore a 50.2 ... 2.1 ... 15 19 2
Canada 47.0 2.5 2.0 6 10 8 -2
Russian Federation 28.1 0.8 1.2 16 3 24 8
Chinese Taipei 27.1 1.2 1.2 9 18 15 9
Brazil 26.1 0.6 1.1 19 15 24 8
Norway 20.5 0.8 0.9 10 3 3 4
Israel 20.0 0.8 0.9 10 5 14 14


Above 15 2155.0 ... 92.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 847.6 50.0 43.1 7 1 11 -2
Extra-EU (27) imports 351.5 20.3 17.9 7 -1 11 -2
United States 229.5 11.4 11.7 10 3 7 3
China 92.3 3.2 4.7 16 9 13 10
Japan 91.7 5.2 4.7 8 0 10 3
Singapore 60.0 ... 3.1 ... 19 20 2
Korea, Republic of 56.8 2.2 2.9 14 13 9 12
India 51.1 1.9 2.6 14 43 5 8
Canada 46.8 3.1 2.4 5 12 6 -2
Russian Federation 44.9 1.5 2.3 17 11 19 15
Brazil 41.3 1.2 2.1 18 27 17 10
Switzerland 27.8 1.0 1.4 14 10 26 5
Norway 23.0 0.9 1.2 14 15 28 8
Chinese Taipei 21.0 1.4 1.1 6 32 17 0
Hong Kong, China 20.6 1.0 1.0 11 21 7 0
Angola b 20.0 0.5 1.0 ... -8 45 ...


Above 15 1675.0 ... 85.2 - - - -


Annual percentage change


Leading exporters and importers of other commercial services, 2012


Table III.10


Value Share


b Secretariat estimate.
a Does not include merchanting.


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Table III.11


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27)
World 1110740 100.0 10 3 13 World 864762 100.0 9 1 11
European Union (27) 588752 53.0 10 4 13 European Union (27) 507057 58.6 8 2 10
United States 136056 12.2 8 2 11 United States 136707 15.8 6 -2 8
Switzerland 76524 6.9 11 3 13 Switzerland 44187 5.1 6 -1 9
China 20569 1.9 17 17 17 Japan 14283 1.7 9 1 21
Japan 19646 1.8 4 -2 19 China 9937 1.1 20 7 21


Above 5 841548 75.8 - - - Above 5 712171 82.4 - - -
Singapore 16980 1.5 15 15 26 India 9670 1.1 25 17 32
Russian Federation 14758 1.3 12 18 -14 Singapore 9436 1.1 16 17 32
Norway 12322 1.1 8 -10 16 Canada 7602 0.9 11 16 17
Canada 11860 1.1 15 7 23 Russian Federation 7573 0.9 11 -2 11
Australia 10684 1.0 16 11 9 Norway 7127 0.8 7 -10 13
India 8606 0.8 20 -3 10 Hong Kong, China 7022 0.8 15 2 26
Turkey 7669 0.7 18 11 28 Australia 4051 0.5 9 18 12
Hong Kong, China 7555 0.7 4 14 12 Brazil 3912 0.5 17 -27 20
Korea, Republic of 7369 0.7 11 25 20 Korea, Republic of 3133 0.4 11 6 6
Brazil 6692 0.6 21 -24 18 Turkey 2951 0.3 10 9 7


Above 15 946043 85.2 - - - Above 15 774647 89.6 - - -
United States a


World 359907 100.0 10 8 8 World 223210 100.0 11 3 7
European Union (27) 134166 37.3 ... -1 8 European Union (27) 82534 37.0 ... -2 10
Canada 28026 7.8 8 13 8 Bermuda 28108 12.6 15 -6 -9
Japan 25416 7.1 4 13 -3 Switzerland 16277 7.3 9 2 -2
Switzerland 20271 5.6 13 10 12 Canada 15429 6.9 7 15 7
Mexico 14282 4.0 2 2 4 India 14185 6.4 29 20 22


Above 5 222161 61.7 - - - Above 5 156533 70.1 - - -
Brazil 11856 3.3 27 25 27 Japan 13627 6.1 3 14 5
China 11648 3.2 19 32 18 Brazil 4940 2.2 39 6 33
Australia 10517 2.9 16 6 21 China 4692 2.1 33 18 26
Bermuda 10504 2.9 15 3 -4 Mexico 3262 1.5 6 -7 18
Singapore 8881 2.5 12 46 2 Australia 3254 1.5 8 5 13
Korea, Republic of 8342 2.3 13 20 12 Singapore 2892 1.3 10 1 32
Chinese Taipei 6671 1.9 17 75 13 Israel 2423 1.1 16 1 25
Hong Kong, China 3495 1.0 6 -11 4 Hong Kong, China 2297 1.0 5 18 -1
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 3424 1.0 16 12 3 Philippines 1450 0.6 22 12 11
India 2933 0.8 15 -7 8 Chinese Taipei 1277 0.6 19 18 38


Above 15 300431 83.5 - - - Above 15 196647 88.1 - - -
Japan


World 93266 100.0 8 3 8 World 89069 100.0 8 0 10
European Union (27) 25657 27.5 ... -5 3 United States 35556 39.9 6 3 10
United States 25149 27.0 4 0 -9 European Union (27) 19290 21.7 ... -3 9
Singapore 11911 12.8 19 21 23 Singapore 4786 5.4 13 9 22
Chinese Taipei 8850 9.5 16 42 102 China 3758 4.2 14 -2 20
China 4733 5.1 7 21 94 Switzerland 2468 2.8 11 2 17


Above 5 76301 81.8 - - - Above 5 65858 73.9 - - -
Indonesia 2714 2.9 18 113 -6 Korea, Republic of 1967 2.2 10 -5 23
Switzerland 1956 2.1 17 25 16 Hong Kong, China 1906 2.1 9 10 17
Australia 1880 2.0 13 -10 6 Chinese Taipei 1845 2.1 4 17 46
India 1672 1.8 26 64 2 Australia 1697 1.9 19 5 -2
Thailand 1638 1.8 -1 6 1 Russian Federation 1383 1.6 38 60 20
Canada 1314 1.4 -5 2 -10 Indonesia 1275 1.4 9 3 8
Malaysia 1209 1.3 ... … 415 Thailand 1233 1.4 8 8 23
Hong Kong, China 996 1.1 29 -69 … United Arab Emirates 1029 1.2 12 -52 -33
Brazil 986 1.1 26 29 8 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 771 0.9 23 -5 7
Viet Nam 614 0.7 20 -8 24 Canada 747 0.8 8 28 -23


Above 15 91279 97.9 - - - Above 15 79711 89.5 - - -


Trade in other commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


156 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.11FRQWLQXHG


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


China b, c
World 91636 100.0 21 24 13 World 83973 100.0 17 9 13
Hong Kong, China 50261 54.8 ... ... 86 European Union (27) 20859 24.8 ... ... 27
United States 17115 18.7 ... ... … Hong Kong, China 13743 16.4 ... ... 11
European Union (27) 13127 14.3 ... ... 19 Japan 11142 13.3 ... ... 26
Japan 6366 6.9 ... ... 30 Korea, Republic of 8375 10.0 ... ... 62
Singapore 5681 6.2 ... ... 37 Singapore 6981 8.3 ... ... 139


Above 5 92550 101.0 - - - Above 5 61100 72.8 - - -
Korea, Republic of 1626 1.8 ... ... 41 United States 5194 6.2 ... ... -66
Chinese Taipei 947 1.0 ... ... 16 Australia 3419 4.1 ... ... 227
Australia 860 0.9 ... ... 109 Chinese Taipei 2793 3.3 ... ... 20
Macao, China 252 0.3 ... ... 46 Macao, China 799 1.0 ... ... 206


Above 9 96236 105.0 - - - Above 9 73306 87.3 - - -
Canada


World 48151 100.0 8 10 8 World 47668 100.0 7 12 6
United States 28685 59.6 7 11 7 United States 31485 66.1 6 9 7
European Union (27) 7478 15.5 ... 6 15 European Union (27) 6758 14.2 ... 12 2


Above 2 36163 75.1 - - - Above 2 38244 80.2 - - -
Korea, Republic of


World 44369 100.0 16 9 20 World 50471 100.0 14 13 9
United States 7730 17.4 11 5 37 United States 13739 27.2 11 18 1
China 3405 7.7 27 43 23 European Union (27) 8263 16.4 11 6 2
European Union (27) 3292 7.4 7 48 4 China 6648 13.2 20 22 21
Japan 3015 6.8 9 42 1 Japan 3458 6.9 12 12 9
Hong Kong, China 1117 2.5 12 79 -7 Hong Kong, China 1474 2.9 10 14 -7


Above 5 18559 41.8 - - - Above 5 33582 66.5 - - -
Singapore 1047 2.4 11 59 -29 Viet Nam 1407 2.8 23 13 14
Chinese Taipei 472 1.1 18 227 -12 Singapore 1306 2.6 5 37 6
India 363 0.8 31 -9 43 Chinese Taipei 1043 2.1 28 68 47
United Arab Emirates 334 0.8 42 -21 -8 Indonesia 983 1.9 22 26 18
Viet Nam 310 0.7 36 -36 103 United Arab Emirates 702 1.4 28 18 2
Australia 276 0.6 19 22 23 India 558 1.1 21 1 33
Russian Federation 273 0.6 34 405 -31 Switzerland 463 0.9 7 -1 7
Malaysia 245 0.6 13 25 50 Australia 457 0.9 14 173 -27
Iran 244 0.6 66 -71 … Philippines 398 0.8 20 -24 42
Thailand 234 0.5 19 87 -39 Canada 268 0.5 15 6 -3


Above 15 22355 50.4 - - - Above 15 41165 81.6 - - -
Singapore d, e, f


World 49007 100.0 ... 15 19 World 58697 100.0 ... 19 20
European Union (27) 8425 17.2 ... 11 27 European Union (27) 13667 23.3 ... 32 13
United States 6154 12.6 ... 12 13 United States 12968 22.1 ... 8 -3
Australia 4159 8.5 ... 59 38 China 3086 5.3 ... 15 42
Japan 2782 5.7 ... 39 23 Japan 3080 5.2 ... 17 34
Hong Kong, China 2725 5.6 ... 34 12 Hong Kong, China 2024 3.4 ... 29 0


Above 5 24245 49.5 - - - Above 5 34826 59.3 - - -
China 1851 3.8 ... 20 8 Australia 1943 3.3 ... 58 29
India 1820 3.7 ... 7 14 India 1592 2.7 ... 33 5
Korea, Republic of 764 1.6 ... 10 -5 Korea, Republic of 790 1.3 ... 25 16


Above 8 28680 58.5 - - - Above 8 39151 66.7 - - -


Trade in other commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


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Table III.11FRQWLQXHG


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


Hong Kong, China g
World 58581 100.0 10 17 12 World 20478 100.0 13 21 7
United States 8314 14.2 ... 14 0 China 5029 24.6 ... 30 11
China 3924 6.7 ... 27 4 United States 3660 17.9 ... 17 1
Japan 1097 1.9 ... 6 -1 Japan 1333 6.5 ... 8 -7
Chinese Taipei 651 1.1 ... 17 23 Chinese Taipei 485 2.4 ... 18 9


Above 4 13986 23.9 - - - Above 4 10507 51.3 - - -
Russian Federation h


World 25979 100.0 18 3 24 World 39006 100.0 17 11 19
European Union (27) 11476 44.2 17 1 23 European Union (27) 22908 58.7 20 12 25
United States 3512 13.5 17 1 14 United States 3856 9.9 18 2 24
Turkey 1448 5.6 18 0 25 Turkey 1642 4.2 4 -5 4
Switzerland 1410 5.4 23 21 42 Switzerland 1533 3.9 20 23 13
Kazakhstan 744 2.9 19 12 11 Panama 1140 2.9 11 5 10


Above 5 18589 71.6 - - - Above 5 31078 79.7 - - -
British Virgin Islands 539 2.1 15 19 3 Ukraine 1035 2.7 19 66 -4
Ukraine 516 2.0 13 22 18 British Virgin Islands 571 1.5 30 106 3
Panama 374 1.4 36 25 20 China 545 1.4 51 70 54
Turkmenistan 354 1.4 93 83 164 Belarus 517 1.3 18 24 23
Belarus 329 1.3 14 23 14 Hong Kong, China 397 1.0 66 254 75
China 317 1.2 26 22 48 Korea, Republic of 331 0.8 27 5 -5
Japan 221 0.9 9 1 17 Kazakhstan 268 0.7 18 -10 23
Norway 218 0.8 28 95 26 Serbia 258 0.7 ... -52 94
United Arab Emirates 190 0.7 44 -63 141 Japan 211 0.5 25 -1 54
Serbia 185 0.7 ... -43 35 Canada 187 0.5 23 61 6


Above 15 21834 84.0 - - - Above 15 35399 90.8 - - -
Norway


World 19715 100.0 11 3 3 World 21391 100.0 15 15 28
European Union (27) 9670 49.0 ... ... -5 European Union (27) 13677 63.9 ... ... 20
United States 1702 8.6 ... ... -4 United States 1852 8.7 ... ... -4
Switzerland 495 2.5 ... ... 73 Switzerland 659 3.1 ... ... 57
China 434 2.2 ... ... 64 China 193 0.9 ... ... 135
Brazil 432 2.2 ... ... -25 Canada 125 0.6 ... ... 69


Above 5 12733 64.6 - - - Above 5 16507 77.2 - - -
Russian Federation 221 1.1 ... ... 33 Brazil 120 0.6 ... ... 56
Japan 168 0.9 ... ... -42 India 118 0.6 ... ... 65
Canada 161 0.8 ... ... -60 Russian Federation 106 0.5 ... ... 9
India 120 0.6 ... ... -72 Japan 103 0.5 ... ... -40
Hong Kong, China 32 0.2 ... ... 34 Hong Kong, China 82 0.4 ... ... 100


Above 10 13435 68.1 - - - Above 10 17035 79.6 - - -


c The sum of bilateral exports exceeds the world total due to the different way of computing merchanting between bilateral statistics and China as a whole.
b In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 8 per cent of other commercial services exports and 12 per cent of imports.


g Financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) are not allocated geographically. In 2011, they accounted for 2 per cent of other commercial services exports and 1 per cent of imports.
h In 2011, trade not allocated geographically represented 2 per cent of other commercial services exports and 5 per cent of imports.
1RWH For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Trade in other commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


Exports Imports


a Bilateral data exclude transactions in postal and courier services, which are recorded under transportation services.


d Does not include merchanting.
e The following transactions are not allocated geographically: financial services exports related to foreign exchange trading; imports of insurance on goods imports; financial intermediation services indirectly
measured (FISIM).
f In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 11 per cent of other commercial services exports and 7 per cent of imports.


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2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 54380 58266 65.2 9 6 12 7
Extra-EU (27) exports 23951 29119 28.7 17 16 16 22
United States 12886 14047 15.5 ... 10 14 9
Kuwait a 3601 3447 4.3 19 -48 1 -4
Canada 3156 ... 3.8 8 10 16 ...
China 1726 1793 2.1 24 2 41 4
India 1672 1647 2.0 1 -9 8 -1
Hong Kong, China 1568 ... 1.9 9 39 26 ...
Russian Federation 1473 1550 1.8 14 1 9 5
Indonesia 1450 1090 1.7 6 9 29 -25
Switzerland 1448 882 1.7 3 8 1 -39


Above 10 83360 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 50035 52165 68.6 8 2 5 4
Extra-EU (27) imports 21222 23902 29.1 14 7 9 13
United States 8057 8280 11.1 ... 5 -4 3
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of a 2599 2027 3.6 40 18 18 -22
Russian Federation 2530 3085 3.5 23 11 21 22
Canada 2359 ... 3.2 8 25 -2 ...
Hong Kong, China 2002 ... 2.7 10 45 20 ...
Korea, Republic of 1540 1613 2.1 12 19 5 5
India 1406 1019 1.9 22 -3 21 -28
China 1191 1647 1.6 12 -6 5 38
Malaysia a 1169 1294 1.6 9 19 27 11


Above 10 72885 ... 100.0 - - - -


Annual percentage change


a Telecommunications services.
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. See the Metadata.


Table III.13


Major exporters and importers of communications services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value
Share in 10
economies


Table III.12


World exports of communications services by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 105 110 100.0 100.0 9 11 5
North America 16 17 ... 15.6 ... 14 7
South and Central America 4 4 4.5 3.6 6 -5 11
Europe 59 62 57.9 55.3 9 12 5


European Union (27) 54 58 53.6 52.2 9 12 7
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 3 2.1 2.7 14 7 5
Africa 4 4 3.2 3.9 13 4 5
Middle East 6 6 4.9 5.3 11 -3 1
Asia 15 15 14.7 13.6 8 15 3


Annual percentage changeShareValue


4.1 Communications services


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2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 43878 ... 63.8 9 6 10 ...
Extra-EU (27) exports 19469 ... 28.3 19 19 13 ...
United States 12650 13790 18.4 ... 10 14 9
Kuwait 3601 3447 5.2 19 -48 1 -4
Canada 1977 ... 2.9 10 11 16 ...
India 1639 1623 2.4 13 -11 8 -1
Russian Federation 1349 1406 2.0 14 0 7 4
Hong Kong, China 1246 ... 1.8 11 59 32 ...
Norway 977 ... 1.4 22 9 73 ...
Morocco 762 668 1.1 15 5 8 -12
Malaysia 653 828 0.9 1 22 -5 27


Above 10 68730 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 40538 ... 67.5 9 1 5 ...
Extra-EU (27) imports 16599 ... 27.6 14 4 7 ...
United States 7690 7903 12.8 ... 6 -4 3
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 2599 2027 4.3 40 18 18 -22
Russian Federation 2513 3065 4.2 23 11 22 22
Canada 1563 ... 2.6 11 34 -2 ...
India 1340 959 2.2 36 12 23 -28
Malaysia 1169 1294 1.9 9 19 27 11
Norway 1024 ... 1.7 29 83 -32 ...
Korea, Republic of 926 910 1.5 ... 0 4 -2
Hong Kong, China 716 ... 1.2 9 73 29 ...


Above 10 60080 ... 100.0 - - - -


Share in 10
economies Annual percentage change


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain major traders in communications services do no report the item telecommunications services separately, they may not appear in the list.
Transactions on telecommunications services are often reported on a net rather than a gross basis. See the Metadata.


Table III.14


Major exporters and importers of telecommunications services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value


160 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.15


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) United States
World 43878 100.0 9 6 10 World 12650 100.0 ... 10 14
European Union (27) 24414 55.6 4 -2 7 European Union (27) 3681 29.1 ... 2 2
United States 3934 9.0 9 7 10 Brazil 3196 25.3 ... 40 48
Switzerland 2443 5.6 23 66 5 Canada 795 6.3 ... 3 10
Russian Federation 771 1.8 26 25 10 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 780 6.2 ... -21 29
South Africa 731 1.7 45 127 30 Argentina 737 5.8 ... 30 36


Above 5 32293 73.6 - - - Above 5 9189 72.6 - - -
Norway 594 1.4 8 -7 12 Japan 266 2.1 ... 0 -2
Turkey 413 0.9 25 35 6 India 237 1.9 ... -7 27
Brazil 370 0.8 30 28 -16 Mexico 213 1.7 ... 31 -47
Singapore 340 0.8 34 33 17 Chile 171 1.4 ... 24 27
Morocco 336 0.8 30 -6 9 Australia 132 1.0 ... 13 4
Canada 321 0.7 11 81 -33 Philippines 106 0.8 ... 22 -20
India 289 0.7 23 -19 16 Switzerland 104 0.8 ... -12 -9
Nigeria 270 0.6 35 31 20 Hong Kong, China 93 0.7 ... 10 22
Australia 266 0.6 7 4 7 China 91 0.7 ... -17 14
Japan 233 0.5 -7 4 10 Korea, Republic of 90 0.7 ... -2 14


Above 15 35726 81.4 - - - Above 15 10692 84.5 - - -


Exports of telecommunication services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


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Table III.16


World exports of construction by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 110 115 100.0 100.0 11 9 2
North America 4 4 2.7 3.2 13 16 1
South and Central America 0 0 0.2 0.1 3 -17 -8
Europe 49 45 55.6 40.0 5 6 -8


European Union (27) 45 41 52.2 36.6 5 6 -9
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 6 6 4.5 5.5 14 25 13
Africa 2 2 2.0 1.6 8 -9 4
Middle East 3 3 3.4 2.4 6 7 5
Asia 48 53 31.5 47.1 17 12 12


Annual percentage changeShareValue


4.2 Construction


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 45312 41322 45.8 8 -8 6 -9
Extra-EU (27) exports 26727 24846 27.0 10 -9 8 -7
Korea, Republic of 15478 21905 15.7 22 -18 29 42
China 14724 12246 14.9 34 53 2 -17
Japan 10955 11552 11.1 7 -15 3 5
Russian Federation 4408 4751 4.5 12 -15 26 8
United States 3084 ... 3.1 15 -34 17 ...
Singapore 1543 1681 1.6 19 -3 50 9
Turkey 1245 1343 1.3 6 -12 11 8
Malaysia 1103 1311 1.1 5 14 7 19
Israel 1004 1332 1.0 19 7 20 33


Above 10 98855 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 30854 29985 45.0 8 -8 5 -3
Extra-EU (27) imports 11459 11300 16.7 7 -22 7 -1
Angola 7932 ... 11.6 35 -1 71 ...
Japan 7702 7735 11.2 8 -31 -2 0
Russian Federation 5600 7424 8.2 6 -1 22 33
Korea, Republic of 3795 5153 5.5 28 -18 65 36
China 3728 3619 5.4 15 -14 -26 -3
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 2578 2729 3.8 11 15 -32 6
United States 2412 ... 3.5 13 -33 1 ...
Algeria 1988 ... 2.9 24 -15 -22 ...
Kazakhstan 1900 2757 2.8 0 -19 14 45


Above 10 68490 ... 100.0 - - - -


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain economies do not report this item separately, they may not appear in the list (e.g., Switzerland, United Arab Emirates). See the Metadata.


Value
Share in 10
economies Annual percentage change


Table III.17


Major exporters and importers of construction, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


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Table III.18


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) Japan
World 45312 100.0 8 -8 6 World 10955 100.0 7 -15 3
European Union (27) 18584 41.0 5 -5 4 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 1590 14.5 21 24 31
Russian Federation 1732 3.8 9 29 -25 European Union (27) 1369 12.5 ... 22 28
China 1617 3.6 11 64 3 Indonesia 1360 12.4 22 85 19
United States 1385 3.1 0 -11 12 Thailand 658 6.0 7 -5 85
Brazil 1080 2.4 23 21 -1 United Arab Emirates 583 5.3 -11 -54 -28


Above 5 24398 53.8 - - - Above 5 5560 50.8 - - -
Switzerland 910 2.0 4 0 -1 Australia 559 5.1 70 -16 2
Norway 875 1.9 -2 -24 36 United States 393 3.6 15 53 34
Australia 840 1.9 26 33 64 Singapore 369 3.4 11 -39 19
Nigeria 832 1.8 -4 -58 70 Viet Nam 351 3.2 7 -37 63
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 789 1.7 19 6 85 Philippines 304 2.8 20 -39 109
India 564 1.2 10 -6 -12 Chinese Taipei 262 2.4 -18 -15 10
Turkey 555 1.2 23 19 78 Malaysia 124 1.1 0 88 -52
Mexico 305 0.7 9 23 13 China 123 1.1 -12 -12 67
South Africa 296 0.7 9 -76 54 Canada 109 1.0 18 -38 …
Korea, Republic of 269 0.6 -2 -28 7 India 40 0.4 -3 -18 -72


Above 15 30635 67.6 - - - Above 15 8196 74.8 - - -
Russian Federation a Singapore b


World 4408 100.0 12 -15 26 World 1543 100.0 19 -3 50
European Union (27) 1445 32.8 11 -10 20 India 145 9.4 ... 3 12
Turkey 1267 28.7 19 4 25 United States 96 6.2 ... 9 30
Turkmenistan 318 7.2 353 115 171 European Union (27) 89 5.7 ... -64 62
United States 165 3.7 -8 49 -39 China 43 2.8 ... -24 -21
Serbia 158 3.6 ... -50 50


Above 5 3353 76.1 - - - Above 4 373 24.2 - - -


Exports of construction of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


a In 2011, construction not allocated geographically represented 3 per cent of exports.
b In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 29 per cent of construction exports.


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Table III.19


World exports of insurance services by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 100 100 100.0 100.0 11 1 2
North America 20 21 ... 20.7 ... 8 5
South and Central America 2 2 2.1 2.2 11 15 12
Europe 60 62 54.5 61.7 13 -4 4


European Union (27) 53 55 46.1 54.6 13 -7 4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 1 0.8 0.6 6 -13 2
Africa 1 1 2.4 1.1 0 15 -9
Middle East 1 2 3.8 1.7 -1 -34 27
Asia 14 12 11.5 11.9 11 19 -12


Annual percentage changeShareValue


4.3 Insurance services


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 52594 54727 59.0 15 -2 -7 4
Extra-EU (27) exports 25495 27012 28.6 23 -3 -16 6
United States 15477 16626 17.4 13 0 7 7
Switzerland 5743 5811 6.4 9 -12 17 1
China 3018 3329 3.4 33 8 75 10
Singapore 2967 2983 3.3 15 42 -21 1
India 2573 2228 2.9 18 18 44 -13
Mexico 2262 2215 2.5 7 15 24 -2
Canada 1980 1848 2.2 ... 49 5 -7
Japan 1658 -378 1.9 11 47 30 …
Turkey 869 988 1.0 18 6 21 14


Above 10 89140 90375 100.0 - - - -
Importers


United States 56620 53340 39.4 12 -4 -7 -6
European Union (27) 36627 33034 25.5 6 -2 0 -10
Extra-EU (27) imports 15313 13263 10.6 7 -2 4 -13
China 19738 20600 13.7 18 39 25 4
Japan 6806 7406 4.7 23 32 0 9
India 6052 6260 4.2 17 24 21 3
Canada 4728 4400 3.3 ... 47 8 -7
Singapore 4473 4473 3.1 15 39 16 0
Mexico 4086 4086 2.8 10 -18 56 0
Thailand 2753 3050 1.9 12 32 27 11
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 1949 2300 1.4 26 11 17 18


Above 10 143835 138950 100.0 - - - -


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Value
Share in 10
economies Annual percentage change


Table III.20


Major exporters and importers of insurance services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


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Table III.21


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) United States
World 52594 100.0 15 -2 -7 World 15477 100.0 13 0 7
European Union (27) 27097 51.5 10 -1 4 European Union (27) 3498 22.6 ... -1 1
United States 11276 21.4 73 -7 -20 Canada 2835 18.3 9 0 8
Switzerland 1927 3.7 15 14 11 Bermuda 2785 18.0 28 3 5
Canada 1641 3.1 12 1 -20 Japan 1589 10.3 12 5 13
Australia 996 1.9 11 35 -34 Australia 565 3.7 18 -3 35


Above 5 42937 81.6 - - - Above 5 11272 72.8 - - -
Brazil 433 0.8 50 10 19 Mexico 484 3.1 21 -1 -13
Japan 427 0.8 5 16 -67 Brazil 273 1.8 30 37 3
South Africa 413 0.8 3 -7 -11 Korea, Republic of 272 1.8 25 0 2
Norway 408 0.8 22 -9 -12 Chile 144 0.9 21 12 7
Mexico 360 0.7 12 15 -30 Argentina 143 0.9 26 4 24
China 345 0.7 36 50 4 Israel 137 0.9 26 18 6
Russian Federation 337 0.6 22 -34 56 Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 87 0.6 27 -18 24
Singapore 332 0.6 26 -2 -6 China 80 0.5 13 -6 19
Turkey 266 0.5 13 10 -4 Chinese Taipei 78 0.5 6 14 -12
India 190 0.4 33 -1 7 Hong Kong, China 58 0.4 -23 -1 -25


Above 15 46450 88.3 - - - Above 15 13028 84.2 - - -
Singapore a Japan


World 2967 100.0 15 42 -21 World 1658 100.0 11 47 30
Australia 485 16.3 ... -1 70 European Union (27) 542 32.7 ... 34 -19
Japan 281 9.5 ... 50 -14 United States 267 16.1 21 349 …
European Union (27) 267 9.0 ... 31 104 Hong Kong, China 124 7.5 8 61 2
China 176 5.9 ... 12 -47 China 123 7.4 13 85 40
Korea, Republic of 119 4.0 ... 21 -45 Switzerland 77 4.6 1 -28 325


Above 5 1328 44.7 - - - Above 5 1134 68.4 - - -
Hong Kong, China Korea, Republic of


World 849 100.0 13 38 -1 World 518 100.0 21 51 1
China 328 38.6 ... 50 28 United States 163 31.5 36 … …
Japan 120 14.1 ... 31 1 European Union (27) 132 25.4 2 … -60
Chinese Taipei 97 11.4 ... 94 -20 Hong Kong, China 44 8.5 ... … 235
United States 40 4.7 ... 35 -8 Singapore 39 7.6 -6 … -85


China 29 5.5 11 …. -46
Above 4 584 68.8 - - - Above 5 407 78.5 - - -


Exports of insurance services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


a In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 19 per cent of insurance services exports.


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Table III.22


World exports of financial services by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 315 305 100.0 100.0 8 12 -4
North America 78 76 23.2 25.2 9 6 -2
South and Central America 5 5 0.7 1.7 23 34 9
Europe 179 166 60.8 54.8 6 16 -7


European Union (27) 159 147 52.3 48.4 7 16 -8
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 2 2 0.3 0.6 21 -6 17
Africa 2 2 0.7 0.7 9 12 3
Middle East 3 2 ... 0.8 ... ... -23
Asia 49 49 12.3 16.3 12 16 1


Annual percentage changeShareValue


4.4 Financial services


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 158764 146734 53.0 9 2 16 -8
Extra-EU (27) exports 70765 64933 23.6 8 5 13 -8
United States 74055 72328 24.7 11 9 5 -2
Switzerland a 17017 16076 5.7 3 -3 8 -6
Singapore a 14827 14837 5.0 22 15 25 0
Hong Kong, China a 14570 14442 4.9 15 16 11 -1
India 6234 5531 2.1 33 61 7 -11
Japan 4111 4651 1.4 -3 -25 14 13
Canada 3747 3767 1.3 11 18 14 1
Korea, Republic of 3389 3192 1.1 13 20 24 -6
Brazil 2662 2684 0.9 32 32 28 1


Above 10 299375 284240 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 73647 67731 62.2 8 7 18 -8
Extra-EU (27) imports 30198 26909 25.5 9 11 22 -11
United States 16207 15641 13.7 5 2 10 -3
India 8211 5434 6.9 45 81 21 -34
Canada 4432 4330 3.7 8 13 -2 -2
Hong Kong, China a 3882 4082 3.3 18 13 10 5
Japan 3346 3221 2.8 4 3 6 -4
Singapore a 3036 3019 2.6 22 25 18 -1
Switzerland a 1894 1687 1.6 10 -9 10 -11
Norway 1876 2087 1.6 ... ... 49 11
Brazil 1804 1975 1.5 16 4 7 9


Above 10 118335 109205 100.0 - - - -


Share in 10
economies Annual percentage change


a Includes Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured (FISIM), see the Metadata.
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Table III.23


Major exporters and importers of financial services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value


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Table III.24


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) United States
World 158764 100.0 9 2 16 World 74055 100.0 11 9 5
European Union (27) 87999 55.4 10 0 19 European Union (27) 26971 36.4 ... -1 10
United States 21469 13.5 7 6 16 Canada 4933 6.7 ... 6 2
Switzerland 8846 5.6 6 -2 15 Japan 3051 4.1 ... 6 -10
Japan 4455 2.8 3 -11 18 Australia 2857 3.9 ... 19 21
Russian Federation 2540 1.6 19 16 -20 Brazil 2170 2.9 ... 21 37


Above 5 125309 78.9 - - - Above 5 39982 54.0 - - -
Hong Kong, China 1908 1.2 14 10 28 China 2131 2.9 ... 58 3
Canada 1887 1.2 18 -2 68 Bermuda 1532 2.1 ... 10 -9
Singapore 1708 1.1 19 13 42 Switzerland 1270 1.7 ... -2 -1
Australia 1488 0.9 16 5 11 Mexico 1224 1.7 ... 8 2
Chinese Taipei 1252 0.8 12 106 -35 Hong Kong, China 1207 1.6 ... 21 -3
Norway 1226 0.8 7 -7 19 Korea, Republic of 782 1.1 ... 28 -2
Turkey 681 0.4 13 6 21 Singapore 748 1.0 ... 2 -16
South Africa 674 0.4 14 29 33 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 624 0.8 ... 4 20
Brazil 560 0.4 26 6 29 India 504 0.7 ... -3 -2
China 547 0.3 9 -7 12 Norway 472 0.6 ... -4 10


Above 15 137241 86.4 - - - Above 15 50476 68.2 - - -
Singapore a, b Hong Kong, China c


World 14827 100.0 22 15 25 World 14570 100.0 15 16 11
European Union (27) 2002 13.5 ... 19 38 United States 4133 28.4 ... 24 4
United States 1085 7.3 ... 11 2 China 626 4.3 ... 69 -9
Hong Kong, China 919 6.2 ... 49 18 Japan 396 2.7 ... -12 -7
Australia 467 3.1 ... 78 20 Chinese Taipei 205 1.4 ... -5 34
Japan 419 2.8 ... 102 23


Above 5 4892 33.0 - - - Above 4 5359 36.8 - - -
Japan Russian Federation d


World 4111 100.0 -3 -25 14 World 1103 100.0 19 2 5
European Union (27) 1539 37.4 ... -21 2 European Union (27) 688 62.4 19 -17 9
United States 1285 31.3 -7 -45 10 United States 116 10.5 16 -25 47
Hong Kong, China 295 7.2 -10 18 17 Switzerland 56 5.0 39 41 63
Cayman Islands 272 6.6 9 62 23 Jersey 47 4.3 ... 306 -49
Australia 76 1.8 19 23 -18 Belarus 35 3.2 53 18 76


Above 5 3466 84.3 - - - Above 5 942 85.4 - - -


c Financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) are not allocated geographically. In 2011 they accounted for 9 per cent of financial services exports.
d In 2011, financial services not allocated geographically accounted for 1 per cent of exports.


Exports of financial services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


a Financial services exports related to foreign exchange trading and to financial intermediation services indirectly measured are not allocated geographically.
b In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 6 per cent of financial services exports.


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Table III.25


World exports of computer and information services by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 250 265 100.0 100.0 14 14 6
North America 23 24 12.3 9.1 9 9 6
South and Central America 5 6 1.0 2.1 27 23 17
Europe 138 142 60.9 54.1 12 13 3


European Union (27) 132 136 58.8 51.6 12 15 3
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 3 4 0.5 1.5 33 34 28
Africa 1 1 0.3 0.5 21 20 5
Middle East 10 11 4.4 4.4 14 22 19
Asia 68 74 20.7 28.3 19 14 9


Annual percentage changeShareValue


4.5 Computer and information services


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2009 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 132035 135684 58.0 13 6 15 3
Extra-EU (27) exports 57104 56442 25.1 18 10 14 -1
India a 43634 47323 19.2 18 24 8 8
United States 15501 ... 6.8 9 2 11 ...
China 12182 14454 5.4 37 42 32 19
Israel b 9529 11329 4.2 13 12 23 19
Canada 6993 ... 3.1 12 17 4 ...
Philippines b 2381 2036 1.0 73 10 23 -14
Argentina 1790 1826 0.8 40 27 34 2
Malaysia b 1770 1990 0.8 26 -1 23 12
Russian Federation 1753 2088 0.8 27 5 29 19


Above 10 227565 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 63041 64831 57.1 12 3 10 3
Extra-EU (27) imports 20320 22307 18.4 11 2 4 10
United States 24538 ... 22.2 15 16 16 ...
Japan 4218 4496 3.8 10 -5 18 7
Brazil 4036 4447 3.7 15 25 15 10
China 3844 3843 3.5 15 -8 30 0
Canada 3184 ... 2.9 10 0 10 ...
Russian Federation 2433 2651 2.2 31 32 29 9
India 1856 2497 1.7 7 12 -27 35
Norway 1712 1731 1.5 ... ... 2 1
Australia 1635 1575 1.5 13 17 11 -4


Above 10 110495 ... 100.0 - - - -


b Computer services.
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain economies do not report this item, they may not appear in the list. For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Value
Share in 10
economies Annual percentage change


Table III.26


Major exporters and importers of computer and information services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


a Secretariat estimate based on data reported on computer services by the Reserve Bank of India. It excludes estimates for Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing
Services (BPO), (source: RBI, Survey on Computer Software & Information Technology Services Exports, various issues), which have been included under other business services.


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Table III.27


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) United States
World 132035 100.0 13 6 15 World 15501 100.0 9 2 11
European Union (27) 74932 56.8 11 3 15 European Union (27) 6649 42.9 ... 1 10
United States 12354 9.4 7 8 15 Canada 1576 10.2 ... -2 -2
Switzerland 8917 6.8 14 3 -2 Japan 1049 6.8 ... -5 7
Japan 3080 2.3 23 27 31 Switzerland 887 5.7 ... -6 20
India 2286 1.7 47 -1 -4 Australia 805 5.2 ... 17 11


Above 5 101568 76.9 - - - Above 5 10966 70.7 - - -
Russian Federation 2212 1.7 18 22 6 Singapore 431 2.8 ... 7 45
China 2166 1.6 44 -22 12 China 370 2.4 ... 16 45
Norway 2098 1.6 17 -5 39 India 311 2.0 ... 11 17
Australia 1616 1.2 25 3 20 Mexico 306 2.0 ... -3 18
Canada 1307 1.0 16 11 62 Brazil 277 1.8 ... -27 7
South Africa 1156 0.9 13 19 -6 Hong Kong, China 256 1.7 ... 19 11
Brazil 904 0.7 27 -1 19 Korea, Republic of 222 1.4 ... -10 79
Israel 865 0.7 18 9 32 South Africa 201 1.3 ... -2 19
Chinese Taipei 744 0.6 46 21 10 Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 174 1.1 ... 11 19
Turkey 660 0.5 21 -4 -1 Chinese Taipei 111 0.7 ... 9 37


Above 15 115295 87.3 - - - Above 15 13625 87.9 - - -
Russian Federation a Norway


World 1753 100.0 27 5 29 World 1353 100.0 ... ... -55
United States 689 39.3 32 1 49 European Union (27) 961 71.0 ... ... -54
European Union (27) 655 37.4 25 6 9 United States 154 11.4 ... ... -50
Kazakhstan 68 3.9 46 21 64 Switzerland 29 2.2 ... ... -35
British Virgin Islands 65 3.7 45 41 56 Japan 22 1.6 ... ... -75
Switzerland 60 3.4 11 81 15 Canada 10 0.7 ... ... -51


Above 5 1536 87.7 - - - Above 5 1176 86.9 - - -
Japan Hong Kong, China


World 1198 100.0 1 21 15 World 946 100.0 24 30 7
United States 619 51.6 -2 18 24 China 547 57.9 ... 55 9
European Union (27) 174 14.5 ... -10 5 United States 184 19.5 ... 26 -10
Switzerland 137 11.5 26 174 -10 Japan 110 11.6 ... -3 117
Singapore 57 4.8 -10 0 53 Chinese Taipei 62 6.6 ... 15 33
Hong Kong, China 46 3.9 34 97 18


Above 5 1033 86.2 - - - Above 4 904 95.6 - - -


Exports of computer and information services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


a In 2011, computer and information services not allocated geographically accounted for 1 per cent of exports.


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4.5.1 Computer services


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 120267 ... 60.5 14 7 16 ...
Extra-EU (27) exports 50442 ... 25.4 19 13 19 ...
India a 43459 47134 21.9 18 24 10 8
United States 10110 ... 5.1 19 1 14 ...
Israel 9529 11329 4.8 13 12 23 19
Canada 6110 ... 3.1 12 16 4 ...
Philippines 2381 2036 1.2 73 10 23 -14
Argentina 1786 1822 0.9 40 27 34 2
Malaysia 1770 1990 0.9 26 -1 23 12
Russian Federation 1666 1995 0.8 28 5 31 20
Costa Rica 1566 1852 0.8 35 60 29 18


Above 10 198645 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 57982 ... 61.0 12 3 12 ...
Extra-EU (27) imports 18481 ... 19.4 11 2 6 ...
United States 22635 ... 23.8 50 15 16 ...
Brazil 3931 4337 4.1 15 26 15 10
Russian Federation 2144 2313 2.3 34 35 30 8
Canada 2085 ... 2.2 9 -2 10 ...
Norway 1707 ... 1.8 7 7 2 ...
Australia 1568 1517 1.6 14 15 11 -3
India 1252 2096 1.3 3 35 -42 67
Malaysia 1199 1453 1.3 21 -12 13 21
Argentina 553 678 0.6 19 4 28 23


Above 10 95055 ... 100.0 - - - -


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain major traders in computer and information services do not report the item computer services separately, they may not appear in the list. For more
information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Value
Share in 10
economies Annual percentage change


Table III.28


Major exporters and importers of computer services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


a Secretariat estimate based on data reported on computer services by the Reserve Bank of India. It excludes estimates for Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing
Services (BPO), (source: RBI, Survey on Computer Software & Information Technology Services Exports, various issues), which have been included under other business services.


170 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.29


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) United States
World 120267 100.0 14 7 16 World 10110 100.0 19 1 14
European Union (27) 69825 58.1 11 3 15 European Union (27) 4274 42.3 ... -4 13
United States 10830 9.0 6 8 21 Canada 1062 10.5 ... 6 -1
Switzerland 5621 4.7 18 17 17 Switzerland 733 7.3 ... -7 27
Japan 2850 2.4 23 30 33 Japan 536 5.3 ... -12 15
India 2245 1.9 47 -1 -5 Australia 475 4.7 ... 20 16


Above 5 91372 76.0 - - - Above 5 7080 70.0 - - -
Russian Federation 2153 1.8 18 21 6 Singapore 387 3.8 ... 18 50
China 2086 1.7 44 -24 13 China 290 2.9 ... 13 49
Norway 1968 1.6 17 -6 42 Brazil 223 2.2 ... -20 10
Australia 1547 1.3 28 4 20 Mexico 209 2.1 ... 2 22
South Africa 1074 0.9 12 20 -7 India 167 1.7 ... 4 18
Brazil 885 0.7 27 -2 20 Hong Kong, China 134 1.3 ... -4 44
Israel 827 0.7 19 10 30 South Africa 124 1.2 ... -3 13
Canada 825 0.7 18 9 13 Korea, Republic of 109 1.1 ... -29 51
Chinese Taipei 712 0.6 46 23 10 Malaysia 90 0.9 ... 23 14
Turkey 612 0.5 22 -3 0 Thailand 84 0.8 ... 18 15


Above 15 104060 86.5 - - - Above 15 8897 88.0 - - -
Russian Federation


World 1666 100.0 28 5 31
United States 677 40.6 32 0 52
European Union (27) 615 36.9 27 5 11
British Virgin Islands 63 3.8 56 45 58
Kazakhstan 57 3.4 45 25 48
Switzerland 55 3.3 10 89 13


Above 5 1467 88.0 - - -


Exports of computer services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
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Annual percentage
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171World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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4.6 Royalties and licence fees


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
United States a 120836 124303 42.6 8 9 13 3
European Union (27) 102730 96682 36.2 13 3 14 -6
Extra-EU (27) exports 54130 50485 19.1 11 8 21 -7
Japan 29058 31846 10.2 9 23 9 10
Switzerland 19523 ... 6.9 15 11 18 ...
Korea, Republic of 4336 3436 1.5 15 -2 38 -21
Canada 2911 3583 1.0 1 -22 3 23
Singapore 1637 1649 0.6 ... 16 68 1
Israel 1100 1146 0.4 11 11 29 4
Australia 919 854 0.3 9 25 -1 -7
Chinese Taipei 838 932 0.3 24 90 82 11


Above 10 283890 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 123174 117792 47.2 12 0 9 -4
Extra-EU (27) imports 63403 59892 24.3 8 -1 8 -6
United States a 36620 41992 14.0 6 7 10 15
Switzerland 21697 ... 8.3 19 15 31 ...
Japan 19158 19919 7.3 5 12 2 4
Singapore 16391 16511 6.3 ... 19 17 1
China 14706 17749 5.6 18 18 13 21
Canada 10352 10563 4.0 7 9 6 2
Korea, Republic of 7295 8387 2.8 8 26 -19 15
Russian Federation 5830 7629 2.2 24 21 20 31
Chinese Taipei 5788 4549 2.2 22 44 17 -21


Above 10 261010 ... 100.0 - - - -


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Annual percentage change


(Million dollars and percentage)


Table III.31


Major economies for receipts and payments of royalties and licence fees, 2011 and 2012


Value
Share in 10
economies


a The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis moved film and television tape distribution services from audiovisual and related services to royalties and licence fees.


Table III.30


World receipts of royalties and licence fees by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 290 290 100.0 100.0 9 14 0
North America 124 128 48.4 44.2 7 13 3
South and Central America 1 1 0.4 0.5 14 27 0
Europe 123 116 36.5 40.2 10 14 -5


European Union (27) 103 97 30.6 33.4 10 14 -6
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 1 0.2 0.3 16 30 18
Africa 0 0 0.2 0.1 2 -16 8
Middle East 1 1 0.4 0.4 10 31 4
Asia 39 41 14.0 14.3 9 14 6


Annual percentage changeShareValue


172 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.32


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


United States European Union (27)
World 120836 100.0 8 9 13 World 102730 100.0 13 3 14
European Union (27) 48907 40.5 ... -9 13 European Union (27) 48601 47.3 16 -1 7
Japan 10653 8.8 1 24 0 United States 19319 18.8 7 2 29
Canada 9589 7.9 10 22 16 Singapore 7117 6.9 13 28 32
Switzerland 9125 7.6 9 13 10 Switzerland 4225 4.1 7 -16 8
Chinese Taipei 5146 4.3 24 119 18 Japan 3130 3.0 3 18 7


Above 5 83420 69.0 - - - Above 5 82392 80.2 - - -
Korea, Republic of 4532 3.8 12 22 15 China 2997 2.9 17 23 15
China 4114 3.4 23 52 23 Brazil 1829 1.8 41 18 24
Singapore 3822 3.2 7 88 0 Korea, Republic of 1686 1.6 20 37 15
Brazil 3743 3.1 24 36 21 Canada 1438 1.4 19 62 -5
Bermuda 3406 2.8 26 11 11 Russian Federation 1207 1.2 28 16 43
Australia 3314 2.7 13 3 24 Australia 1081 1.1 15 -1 48
Mexico 2769 2.3 9 12 9 Chinese Taipei 733 0.7 18 75 17
Argentina 837 0.7 24 38 42 Norway 725 0.7 7 -1 25
South Africa 821 0.7 13 0 21 Mexico 640 0.6 9 8 17
India 676 0.6 20 -15 -3 South Africa 594 0.6 6 31 -1


Above 15 111454 92.2 - - - Above 15 95323 92.8 - - -
Japan Korea, Republic of


World 29058 100.0 9 23 9 World 4336 100.0 15 -2 38
United States 10607 36.5 6 24 4 United States 1549 35.7 13 -37 97
European Union (27) 4352 15.0 ... 5 11 China 1271 29.3 17 19 18
China 3149 10.8 22 17 10 European Union (27) 494 11.4 23 25 8
Thailand 2326 8.0 14 36 18 Japan 198 4.6 4 28 17
Chinese Taipei 1250 4.3 15 26 19 India 150 3.5 29 -9 28


Above 5 21683 74.6 - - - Above 5 3662 84.5 - - -
Singapore Australia a


World 1637 100.0 ... 16 68 World 919 100.0 9 25 -1
Australia 446 27.2 ... 66 435 United States 393 42.7 13 31 -16
China 329 20.1 ... 30 36 European Union (27) 107 11.7 -6 6 -21
Japan 205 12.5 ... 41 15 Canada 56 6.1 42 21 79
United States 71 4.3 ... ... ... Singapore 54 5.8 69 … 83
Hong Kong, China 56 3.4 ... 33 25 Switzerland 41 4.5 41 -4 400


Above 5 1107 67.6 - - - Above 5 651 70.8 - - -
Russian Federation b


World 556 100.0 13 1 44
European Union (27) 258 46.4 34 -1 77
United States 80 14.3 -1 -14 6
Kazakhstan 40 7.2 33 112 3
Ukraine 30 5.4 23 0 26
Belarus 18 3.3 32 16 4


Above 5 426 76.7 - - -


a In 2011, receipts of royalties and licence fees not allocated geographically accounted for 3 per cent of receipts.
b In 2011, receipts of royalties and licence fees not allocated geographically accounted for 4 per cent of receipts.


Receipts of royalties and licence fees of selected economies by origin, 2011


Annual percentage
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Annual percentage
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173World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Exporters
European Union (27) 541280 532621 57.7 9 4 13 -2
Extra-EU (27) exports 254182 258690 27.1 9 1 14 2
United States 117175 127248 12.5 10 9 4 9
China 58270 66623 6.2 17 14 12 14
Japan 45367 37603 4.8 9 0 7 -17
Hong Kong, China 39573 ... 4.2 8 16 13 ...
India a 39524 45009 4.2 13 28 13 14
Canada 26461 24978 2.8 10 10 7 -6
Switzerland b 25621 ... 2.7 24 34 16 ...
Singapore c 23469 24223 2.5 ... 10 21 3
Chinese Taipei 21298 23014 2.3 10 18 13 8


Above 10 938040 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 466419 462425 59.6 8 0 13 -1
Extra-EU (27) imports 187611 186300 24.0 10 -2 14 -1
United States 78192 81622 10.0 14 7 16 4
Japan 45889 46509 5.9 10 1 17 1
China 39620 42354 5.1 16 1 15 7
Korea, Republic of 34679 38132 4.4 14 12 14 10
Singapore 28736 29580 3.7 18 13 19 3
India 25458 30296 3.3 11 51 0 19
Brazil 25367 28346 3.2 23 36 22 12
Canada 19974 19096 2.6 8 10 8 -4
Russian Federation 18565 19875 2.4 19 9 19 7


Above 10 782900 798235 100.0 - - - -


Table III.34


Major exporters and importers of other business services, 2011 and 2012


(Million dollars and percentage)


a Secretariat estimate. It includes an estimate for Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing Services (BPO) which are classified under "software" by the Reserve Bank of
India (source: RBI, Survey on Computer Software & Information Technology Services Exports, various issues).


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Annual percentage change
Share in 10
economiesValue


b Covers construction and computer and information services.
c Does not include merchanting.


Table III.33


World exports of other business services by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 1100 1125 100.0 100.0 9 13 3
North America 144 153 13.6 13.5 9 4 6
South and Central America 42 44 2.5 3.9 16 37 4
Europe 578 569 55.0 50.5 8 13 -1


European Union (27) 541 533 52.6 47.3 8 13 -2
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 22 23 1.2 2.1 18 24 8
Africa 10 10 1.0 0.9 8 0 4
Middle East 15 20 ... 1.8 ... 56 39
Asia 288 307 25.2 27.2 10 13 7


Annual percentage changeShareValue


4.7 Other business services


174 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table III.35


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) Japan a
World 541280 100.0 9 4 13 World 45367 100.0 9 0 7
European Union (27) 287097 53.0 9 8 13 European Union (27) 17519 38.6 ... -8 0
United States 61590 11.4 6 1 12 United States 11676 25.7 4 -6 -24
Switzerland 47120 8.7 12 3 17 Singapore 11034 24.3 22 25 25
China 11982 2.2 15 24 19 Chinese Taipei 7252 16.0 22 58 141
Japan 7674 1.4 3 -17 47 China 1217 2.7 -6 1 …


Above 5 415463 76.8 - - - Above 5 48697 107.3 - - -
Singapore 6517 1.2 18 11 22 Australia 859 1.9 6 -22 18
Norway 5869 1.1 7 -13 9 Switzerland 747 1.6 13 5 -20
Russian Federation 5490 1.0 5 16 -29 India 726 1.6 28 85 -4
Canada 4900 0.9 16 -5 43 Canada 714 1.6 9 -12 -22
Turkey 4265 0.8 18 11 37 Malaysia 593 1.3 ... … …
Hong Kong, China 4165 0.8 0 18 6 Brazil 431 1.0 32 31 5
India 4134 0.8 15 -4 18 Indonesia 240 0.5 10 … -67
Australia 4058 0.7 17 8 3 Cayman Islands 218 0.5 12 5 29
Korea, Republic of 4052 0.7 9 24 23 Hong Kong, China 101 0.2 ... … …
Nigeria 3649 0.7 12 -1 49 New Zealand 83 0.2 -11 0 -18


Above 15 462561 85.5 - - - Above 15 53411 117.7 - - -
Hong Kong, China Singapore b, c


World 39573 100.0 8 16 13 World 23469 100.0 ... 10 21
United States 3855 9.7 ... 5 -3 European Union (27) 5262 22.4 ... 4 23
China 1871 4.7 ... 13 4 United States 4493 19.1 ... 15 18
Japan 430 1.1 ... 30 -11 Australia 2349 10.0 ... 70 23
Chinese Taipei 272 0.7 ... 13 36 Japan 1396 6.0 ... 7 41


Hong Kong, China 1357 5.8 ... 29 9
Above 4 6428 16.2 - - - Above 5 14858 63.3 - - -
Korea, Republic of Russian Federation d


World 18464 100.0 12 39 10 World 15859 100.0 20 9 28
United States 5798 31.4 10 52 18 European Union (27) 7258 45.8 19 5 29
Japan 2664 14.4 8 37 -1 United States 2253 14.2 21 0 12
European Union (27) 2523 13.7 5 20 11 Switzerland 1104 7.0 26 19 43
China 2049 11.1 40 70 31 Kazakhstan 424 2.7 16 36 1
Hong Kong, China 991 5.4 10 69 -11 British Virgin Islands 386 2.4 14 5 6


Above 5 14025 76.0 - - - Above 5 11426 72.0 - - -
Norway Australia e


World 13245 100.0 ... ... 7 World 7592 100.0 14 17 10
European Union (27) 6212 46.9 ... ... 19 United States 1934 25.5 12 17 26
United States 1335 10.1 ... ... 15 European Union (27) 1112 14.6 14 24 10
Brazil 413 3.1 ... ... -27 Singapore 1083 14.3 20 -12 60
China 370 2.8 ... ... 86 New Zealand 400 5.3 12 9 23
Switzerland 298 2.2 ... ... 44 Pitcairn 393 5.2 ... 109 21


Above 5 8627 65.1 - - - Above 5 4922 64.8 - - -


a In 2011, exports of other business services are counterbalanced by negative values for merchanting for the Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates and several other economies.
b Does not include merchanting.
c In 2011, ASEAN countries accounted for 12 per cent of other business services exports.
d In 2011, other business services not allocated geographically accounted for 2 per cent of exports.
e In 2011, other business services not allocated geographically accounted for 9 per cent of exports.


Exports of other business services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
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Annual percentage
change


175World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Total


Legal,
accounting,
management


and public
relations


Advertising,
market


research and
public


opinion
polling


Research and
development


Architectural,
engineering
and other
technical
services


Agricultural,
mining and


other on-site
processing


services Other a


Exporters
European Union (27) 541280 24.2 3.8 72.0 14.9 6.5 9.6 9.9 2.1 29.0


Extra-EU (27) exports 254182 23.0 4.3 72.7 14.4 5.7 11.3 12.5 2.9 25.8
United States b 117175 3.6 6.1 90.3 34.6 3.6 19.9 7.1 2.2 23.0
China 58270 44.4 … 55.6 48.7 6.9 … … … …
Japan 45367 52.6 7.8 39.6 … … 9.3 … … …
Hong Kong, China 39573 83.1 0.1 16.8 10.2 1.9 … 1.2 … …
Canada 26461 7.1 2.5 90.5 39.3 3.8 16.7 19.5 0.7 10.5
Singapore c 23469 16.2 … 83.8 53.2 5.6 2.3 10.3 … 12.4
Brazil 19675 6.4 0.3 93.2 15.7 3.0 2.3 37.4 0.2 34.6
Korea, Republic of 18464 41.6 4.1 54.3 6.2 1.9 1.9 3.1 0.2 41.0
Russian Federation 15859 7.0 8.4 84.5 17.9 23.2 2.6 22.6 4.6 13.7
Lebanon 8974 8.5 … 91.5 3.5 2.2 0.3 4.6 0.1 80.7
Argentina 5178 2.8 4.0 93.1 48.6 11.9 9.1 8.6 … 14.9
Algeria 2130 … 0.6 99.4 0.6 4.4 … 8.1 0.0 86.2
Morocco 2065 2.7 … 97.3 … 7.7 … … … 89.6
New Zealand 1289 19.7 1.3 78.9 18.1 4.3 7.3 9.6 0.6 39.0
Croatia 1218 11.0 2.8 86.1 12.9 25.5 9.5 30.3 5.2 2.8
Serbia 1191 6.6 0.6 92.9 17.8 19.8 5.5 9.6 0.1 40.1
Mauritius 876 25.2 0.1 74.7 … … … … … …
Costa Rica 818 30.5 2.5 67.0 45.7 0.2 1.2 0.0 … 19.8
Pakistan 765 3.9 0.7 95.5 14.3 2.8 0.9 3.6 … 73.8
Importers
European Union (27) 466419 12.6 4.1 83.2 15.4 8.9 13.1 8.2 1.2 36.4


Extra-EU (27) imports 187611 13.0 4.7 82.3 14.8 9.2 15.4 7.0 0.9 35.0
United States b 78192 2.0 2.5 95.5 36.9 3.7 28.6 1.9 1.1 23.3
Japan 45889 27.0 1.1 71.9 … … 23.2 … … …
China 39620 46.1 … 53.9 46.9 7.0 … … … …
Korea, Republic of 34679 35.7 3.7 60.5 6.3 11.0 5.1 2.5 0.2 35.5
Singapore 28736 20.2 … 79.8 37.2 6.3 11.6 5.4 … 19.3
Brazil 25367 3.8 66.0 30.1 3.8 3.0 0.1 17.8 0.0 5.5
Canada 19974 4.1 6.4 89.5 45.5 3.9 6.5 17.9 2.0 13.7
Russian Federation 18565 … 19.6 80.4 19.6 8.2 0.6 25.8 13.4 12.8
Hong Kong, China 10680 39.9 17.9 42.2 27.4 4.8 … 3.0 … …
Algeria 5564 … 0.3 99.7 0.0 0.2 … 96.0 0.0 3.4
Lebanon 5058 17.0 … 83.0 9.9 1.2 0.5 4.1 0.5 66.9
Kazakhstan 4181 0.4 11.8 87.8 11.2 0.5 2.7 50.2 18.7 4.5
Argentina 3161 6.4 18.4 75.2 33.4 3.9 1.2 13.5 5.2 18.0
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of d 2622 … 29.8 70.2 46.2 0.1 … 18.5 0.2 5.3
Colombia 2258 10.3 12.9 76.9 8.4 2.5 … 56.9 … 9.0
Azerbaijan 2157 0.7 0.6 98.6 3.4 0.5 0.1 … … 94.7
New Zealand 2077 6.8 14.6 78.6 16.1 10.3 2.0 12.4 1.9 35.8
Egypt 1965 … … 100.0 8.3 … … … … 91.7
Turkey 1727 3.1 15.1 81.9 2.3 4.9 … 0.5 … 74.2


Operational
leasing
services


Miscellaneous business, professional and technical services


d May cover transactions belonging to other services items.


a Covers other services not included elsewhere as well as services between related enterprises n.i.e.
b Market research and public opinion polling are included in "other".
c Does not include merchanting.


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. See the Metadata.


Table III.36


Trade in other business services by category in selected economies, 2011


(Million dollars and percentage)


Share


Total other
business
services


Merchanting and
other trade-


related services


176 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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4.8 Personal, cultural and recreational services


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 23645 22652 73.9 9 16 16 -4
Extra-EU (27) exports 9633 9339 30.1 8 18 17 -3
Canada 2474 2409 7.7 3 3 13 -3
Turkey 1267 1220 4.0 3 17 39 -4
Korea, Republic of 929 1253 2.9 23 22 46 35
United States a 893 ... 2.8 24 36 -11 ...
Australia 874 914 2.7 12 15 25 5
Singapore 503 507 1.6 ... 14 0 1
Russian Federation 493 556 1.5 17 36 4 13
Hong Kong, China 472 ... 1.5 10 9 11 ...
Norway 444 474 1.4 ... ... 12 7


Above 10 31995 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 20964 19685 58.8 3 9 7 -6
Extra-EU (27) imports 8168 7624 22.9 1 12 2 -7
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 3652 3747 10.2 63 18 12 3
Canada 2200 2460 6.2 3 -3 4 12
Australia 1646 1696 4.6 13 20 30 3
Norway 1560 1546 4.4 ... ... 156 -1
Qatar 1428 1398 4.0 ... ... ... -2
Brazil 1121 1034 3.1 16 33 -12 -8
Russian Federation 1059 1117 3.0 16 24 6 6
Korea, Republic of 1023 1167 2.9 14 21 0 14
Japan 977 1200 2.7 -2 -11 5 23


Above 10 35630 35050 100.0 - - - -


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. For more information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.


Annual percentage change


(Million dollars and percentage)


a The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis moved film and television tape distribution services from audiovisual and related services to royalties and licence fees.


Table III.38


Major exporters and importers of personal, cultural and recreational services, 2011 and 2012


Value
Share in 10
economies


Table III.37


World exports of personal, cultural and recreational services by region, 2011 and 2012


(Billion dollars and percentage)


2011 2012 2005 2012 2005-12 2011 2012


Exports
World 35 35 100.0 100.0 7 14 1
North America 3 3 11.5 9.5 4 5 0
South and Central America 1 1 2.3 2.2 6 -8 4
Europe 26 25 68.0 67.7 6 17 -4


European Union (27) 24 23 61.4 62.3 7 16 -4
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 1 1 1.0 2.5 22 0 14
Africa 0 0 1.3 1.1 5 21 16
Middle East 1 1 ... 2.3 ... -4 58
Asia 4 5 14.8 14.7 6 16 23


Annual percentage changeShareValue


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Table III.39


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) Australia a
World 23645 100.0 9 16 16 World 874 100.0 12 15 25
European Union (27) 14014 59.3 9 15 16 European Union (27) 144 16.5 9 27 41
United States 2786 11.8 3 23 3 Singapore 85 9.7 20 5 36
Switzerland 1690 7.1 7 8 19 New Zealand 73 8.4 11 28 27
Russian Federation 442 1.9 24 37 131 China 52 5.9 15 31 17
Japan 413 1.7 -7 8 -8 United States 35 4.0 -14 -4 -4


Above 5 19345 81.8 - - - Above 5 389 44.5 - - -
Norway 362 1.5 3 19 8 Malaysia 31 3.5 24 18 16
Australia 229 1.0 -1 -6 104 Switzerland 20 2.2 ... 18 137
Brazil 218 0.9 15 17 14 Canada 18 2.0 29 18 27
China 190 0.8 36 -21 53 Pitcairn 18 2.0 ... -3 -40
South Africa 169 0.7 19 23 19 Japan 15 1.8 -4 -22 -6
Turkey 165 0.7 32 36 53 Hong Kong, China 12 1.4 -11 8 -39
Singapore 127 0.5 5 -40 4 Indonesia 12 1.4 ... 6 50
Korea, Republic of 126 0.5 18 100 -7 Norway 12 1.4 ... 229 -4
Canada 109 0.5 8 25 12 India 9 1.1 16 -82 237
Malaysia 104 0.4 38 98 46 Fiji 7 0.8 45 65 12


Above 15 21144 89.4 - - - Above 15 544 62.2 - - -
Singapore Russian Federation


World 503 100.0 ... 14 0 World 493 100.0 17 36 4
India 165 32.7 ... 26 10 European Union (27) 207 42.0 17 27 6
United States 30 5.9 ... ... ... Switzerland 103 20.9 47 53 57
European Union (27) 27 5.4 ... 94 -33 United States 37 7.6 13 -36 4
China 21 4.2 ... -26 35 British Virgin Islands 32 6.4 26 … -45


Kazakhstan 24 4.9 17 17 -14
Above 4 242 48.1 - - - Above 5 403 81.8 - - -
Hong Kong, China Norway


World 472 100.0 10 9 11 World 444 100.0 ... ... 12
China 383 81.0 ... 22 17 European Union (27) 421 95.0 ... ... 49
United States 19 4.1 ... 94 32 United States 11 2.5 ... ... 180
Japan 2 0.5 ... -57 -49 Switzerland 1 0.3 ... ... -82
Chinese Taipei 1 0.2 ... -27 -25 China 1 0.3 ... ... ...


Above 4 405 85.8 - - - Above 4 435 98.1 - - -


Exports of personal, cultural and recreational services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


a In 2011, personal, cultural and recreational services not allocated geographically accounted for 25 per cent of exports.


178 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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4.8.1 Audiovisual services


2011 2012 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2012


Exporters
European Union (27) 12749 ... 76.8 5 13 15 ...
Extra-EU (27) exports 5161 ... 31.1 3 13 13 ...
Canada 2129 ... 12.8 2 -5 14 ...
Argentina 331 322 2.0 9 9 10 -3
Russian Federation 310 314 1.9 16 39 -14 1
Korea, Republic of 271 359 1.6 13 -5 44 32
Norway 238 ... 1.4 4 -17 12 ...
Australia 200 191 1.2 8 20 56 -4
India 139 289 0.8 ... ... -40 108
China 123 126 0.7 -1 26 0 2
Hong Kong, China 110 ... 0.7 -12 -2 -1 ...


Above 10 16600 ... 100.0 - - - -
Importers


European Union (27) 14290 ... 63.9 1 12 7 ...
Extra-EU (27) imports 5842 ... 26.1 -2 15 3 ...
Canada 1983 ... 8.9 3 5 2 ...
Australia 1335 1374 6.0 15 15 29 3
Brazil 1043 965 4.7 22 32 9 -8
Russian Federation 875 817 3.9 15 18 3 -7
Norway 842 ... 3.8 17 6 155 ...
Japan 804 ... 3.6 -2 -10 10 ...
Argentina 451 474 2.0 18 34 21 5
China 400 564 1.8 17 33 8 41
Korea, Republic of 330 357 1.5 13 12 -8 8


Above 10 22355 ... 100.0 - - - -


1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain major traders in personal, cultural and recreational services do not report the item audiovisual and related services separately, they may not
appear in the list. The Unites States no longer appears in this table as the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis moved film and television tape distribution services from audiovisual and related services to royalties and
licence fees. See the Metadata.


Annual percentage change


(Million dollars and percentage)


Table III.40


Major exporters and importers of audio-visual and related services, 2011 and 2012


Value
Share in 10
economies


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Table III.41


(Million dollars and percentage)


Value Share Value Share


2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011 2011 2011 2005-11 2010 2011


European Union (27) Russian Federation
World 12749 100.0 5 13 15 World 310 100.0 16 39 -14
European Union (27) 7589 59.5 6 13 16 European Union (27) 146 47.0 17 30 -14
United States 1924 15.1 0 -7 27 Switzerland 35 11.2 55 … 16
Switzerland 883 6.9 6 37 20 British Virgin Islands 28 9.0 56 … -49
Japan 306 2.4 -10 9 -10 United States 25 8.1 14 -44 -12
Brazil 184 1.4 13 12 21 Kazakhstan 17 5.5 13 2 -28


Above 5 10887 85.4 - - - Above 5 251 80.8 - - -
Norway 133 1.0 -10 0 -2 Ukraine 13 4.3 11 -16 9
South Africa 132 1.0 24 33 7 Belarus 13 4.2 14 23 -21
Korea, Republic of 101 0.8 16 104 -21 United Arab Emirates 8 2.5 365 … 62
Australia 98 0.8 -12 -11 67 Azerbaijan 5 1.8 99 -34 485
Russian Federation 92 0.7 20 22 18 Canada 2 0.7 103 58 71
Malaysia 59 0.5 61 314 -1 Moldova 2 0.7 35 3 -12
Singapore 58 0.5 2 -58 -8 San Marino 2 0.7 ... 67 71
Turkey 46 0.4 19 15 30 Israel 2 0.6 26 8 -7
Hong Kong, China 43 0.3 1 46 53 Singapore 2 0.6 ... 348 4
China 28 0.2 27 -45 -36 Japan 2 0.6 3 -50 20


Above 15 11678 91.6 - - - Above 15 302 97.4 - - -


Exports of audiovisual and related services of selected economies by destination, 2011


Annual percentage
change


Annual percentage
change


180 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Today, companies divide their
operations across the world, from
the design of the product and
manufacturing of components to
assembly and marketing, creating
international production network
or global value chains. Attributing
the full commercial value to the
last country of origin can lead to
distorted statistics. Measuring
trade in value-added terms seeks
to address this distortion.


IV. Trade in global value chains


Key developments in 2012: a snapshot


Trade data
List of tables 188


1. Overview 189


182


188


Where to find more online:
you can access and download the Excel files
for the tables via www.wto.org/statistics


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Share of intermediate goods in
non-fuel exports remains stable


World non-fuel exports of
intermediate goods, 2000–2011


Where to find more:
Table IV.1


Value (in US$ billion) of
world non-fuel exports of
intermediate goods in 20117,723


182 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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t The share of intermediate goods in
world non-fuel exports has hovered
around the 50 per cent mark since
2000, dropping during the 2009
crisis and reaching its highest
point (55 per cent) in 2011.


t The European Union was the biggest
exporter of intermediate goods
(36 per cent of all intermediate goods)
in 2011. One-third of these goods
were exported outside the European
Union, two-thirds within the EU.
China and the United States were the
second and third largest exporters
of intermediate goods respectively,
with a share in world trade of
10.0 per cent and 9.8 per cent.


t The six largest exporters of
intermediate goods - the European
Union, China, the United States,
Japan, the Republic of Korea and
Hong Kong, China - represent
nearly two-thirds of world trade
in intermediate goods.


Share of intermediate goods in
world non-fuel exports in 201155%


Share of intermediate goods in
world non-fuel exports (%)


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26%
Foreign value added


in world exports


A quarter of the content of world
exports is foreign-sourced
t On average, almost three-quarters (74 per cent) of the value of world exports is


domestically produced value added (2008 figures). Value added consumed by
the first importing country represents 42 per cent of this amount while value-
added inputs exported to third countries (and thus transiting through the first
importer) represent almost the remaining 32 per cent. The third component
of the domestic value-added content of exports, corresponding to the value
that is sent back to the original exporter, is negligible at an aggregated level
(0.5 per cent). This is identical for the three country groups displayed on this
page. The foreign value-added content of gross exports is 26 per cent.


t The composition of the European Union’s exports is similar to the value-added
trade structure of world exports. Domestically produced value added consumed
by the importer is 39 per cent, just below the world average, while the EU’s
value-added content sent to third countries amounts to 30.4 per cent, around one
percentage point below the world average.


t For “other countries”, value-added exported to the first importing country is
60 per cent while value-added exported to third countries is below the world average
(27 per cent compared with 32 per cent).


Domestic and foreign value-added content
of exports, 2008 (% of gross exports)


Where to find more:
www.wto.org/its2013: Table A1


Foreign value-added content


Domestic value-added content


Domestic value-added content
(directly consumed by importer)


Domestic value-added content
(sent to 3rd country)


Domestic value-added content
(re-imported)


Note: Value added is defined as the value that is
added by industries to produce goods and services.
The foreign value-added content of exports
corresponds to the value added of inputs that
were imported in order to produce intermediate or
final goods/services to be exported. For further
information, see “Composition, definitions and
methodology”.


184 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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42%
Share of services in


world trade measured
in value-added terms


Domestic and foreign value-added
content of gross exports, by sector,
2008 (% of gross exports)


Trade in services is
growing in importance
t The share of services in world trade is much higher when measured in value-


added terms than when measured in gross terms. Taking domestic and foreign-
produced value-added content together, the share of services in world trade
amounts to 42 per cent as opposed to around 20 per cent when measured in
gross terms (by balance of payments). This difference is due to the fact that
many services needed for manufacturing processes are included in the sales
price of goods and hence in the international transaction of goods. For the
European Union, the share of services amounts to 51 per cent.


t The share of value-added content sourced from primary products
(of domestic and foreign origin) is extremely high for non-EU countries
(58 per cent). This reflects to some extent EU competitiveness in producing
value-added content in the manufacturing and services sectors.


t The European Union imports higher than average value-added inputs from the
manufacturing and services sectors, demonstrating that its level of integration in
global value chains is greater than for non-EU countries.


Where to find more:
Table II.1


Foreign services


Foreign manufactured goods


Foreign primary products


Domestic services


Domestic manufactured goods


Domestic primary products


EU (27)


Other countries


World


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US foreign affiliates’ supplies in goods and
services within global value chains, 2010
(values in US$ billion and shares in foreign affiliates’ total supply)


Foreign affiliates play a significant
role in global value chains


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1/3
Supplies of US foreign
affiliates traded within


their multinationals


t In 2010, one-third of the supplies of
US foreign affiliates were traded with
their parent multinational company or
other affiliates (intra-firm exchanges).


t A total of 55 per cent of the goods
and services supply of US affiliates
abroad in 2010 was directed to
unaffiliated companies located in
the same country as the affiliate.


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List of tables


IV. Trade in global value chains
1. Overview


Table IV.1 Leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, 2011 189


Table IV.2 The value added components of gross exports,
selected economies, 2008 190


Table IV.3 Shares of domestic and foreign sectoral contributions in gross exports,
selected economies, 2008 191


Table IV.4 Supplies of goods and services by United States affiliates established
abroad, 2010 192


188 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table IV.1


2011 2005 2011 2005-11 2009 2010 2011


Exporters
European Union (27) 2782 40.9 35.9 7 -25 16 20


extra-EU (27) exports 967 13.5 12.5 8 -22 18 18
China a 773 6.6 10.0 17 0 0 0
United States 757 11.4 9.8 7 0 0 0
Japan 451 6.9 5.8 6 -19 31 7
Korea, Republic of 291 3.3 3.8 12 -13 35 17
Hong Kong, China 282 - - 9 -9 25 16


domestic exports 13 0.2 0.2 7 29 -22 28
re-exports 270 - - 10 -11 28 15


Singapore 218 3.1 2.8 8 -16 30 7
Chinese Taipei 209 2.7 2.7 10 -19 34 12
Canada 206 3.5 2.7 5 -30 27 17
Brazil 168 1.5 2.2 16 -18 35 31
Australia 138 1.1 1.8 19 -15 43 26
India 137 1.2 1.8 17 -15 40 24
Malaysia 133 1.7 1.7 10 -1 27 15
Mexico a 127 1.9 1.6 7 -23 34 20
Thailand 122 1.2 1.6 15 -12 32 23


Above 15 6525 87.2 84.3 9 -22 24 18
Importers


European Union (27) 2699 37.7 33.8 7 -28 18 19
extra-EU (27) imports 950 12.1 11.9 9 -28 25 18


China a 1056 9.5 13.2 16 -8 35 19
United States 771 12.8 9.7 4 -27 26 18
Japan 311 4.2 3.9 8 -28 31 17
Hong Kong, China 227 - - 7 -28 18 19


retained imports 22 0.4 0.3 9 -28 25 18
Korea, Republic of 247 2.9 3.1 11 -23 30 17
India 237 1.5 3.0 22 -1 35 30
Mexico b 209 2.9 2.6 7 -22 30 14
Canada b 194 3.2 2.4 5 -21 24 14
Singapore 167 2.5 2.1 6 -20 26 7
Chinese Taipei 158 2.2 2.0 7 -26 46 11
Thailand 133 1.5 1.7 12 -26 43 20
Turkey 120 1.3 1.5 12 -33 33 28
Malaysia 120 1.7 1.5 7 -12 32 11
Brazil b 116 0.9 1.4 18 -28 39 22


Above 15 6560 85.2 82.2 9 -23 26 18


a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Imports are valued f.o.b.


Leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, 2011


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Share in world exports/imports Value Annual percentage change


1. Overview




190 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
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Table IV.2


Direct To third countries Re-imported Total


Argentina 46.6 39.6 0.0 86.3 13.7 100.0
Australia 52.1 33.8 0.2 86.1 13.9 100.0
Austria 39.3 25.2 0.3 64.7 35.3 100.0
Belgium 34.8 24.5 0.3 59.6 40.4 100.0
Brazil 44.9 43.5 0.1 88.5 11.5 100.0
Brunei Darussalam 76.9 14.3 0.0 91.2 8.8 100.0
Bulgaria 36.9 23.1 0.0 60.0 40.0 100.0
Cambodia 45.1 18.9 0.0 63.9 36.1 100.0
Canada 49.7 28.6 0.4 78.7 21.3 100.0
Chile 48.9 30.4 0.0 79.3 20.7 100.0
China 24.7 40.9 1.1 66.7 33.3 100.0
Cyprus 67.4 12.7 0.0 80.1 19.9 100.0
Czech Republic 31.4 28.6 0.2 60.2 39.8 100.0
Denmark 43.7 22.1 0.3 66.1 33.9 100.0
Estonia 38.7 23.0 0.0 61.8 38.2 100.0
Finland 37.7 25.5 0.1 63.3 36.7 100.0
France 37.2 35.1 0.4 72.7 27.3 100.0
Germany 36.2 34.9 1.1 72.2 27.8 100.0
Greece 49.8 24.3 0.1 74.2 25.8 100.0
Hong Kong, China 46.0 24.8 0.1 70.9 29.1 100.0
Hungary 36.3 18.6 0.1 55.0 45.0 100.0
Iceland 46.3 18.0 0.0 64.3 35.7 100.0
India 42.3 33.9 0.1 76.3 23.7 100.0
Indonesia 49.3 33.2 0.1 82.6 17.4 100.0
Ireland 37.6 16.6 0.1 54.4 45.6 100.0
Israel 44.7 20.3 0.0 65.1 34.9 100.0
Italy 36.4 40.5 0.3 77.2 22.8 100.0
Japan 33.0 47.2 0.4 80.6 19.4 100.0
Korea, Republic of 28.7 27.4 0.5 56.6 43.4 100.0
Latvia 40.4 30.6 0.0 71.0 29.0 100.0
Lithuania 42.4 16.4 0.0 58.9 41.1 100.0
Luxembourg 29.9 10.4 0.2 40.5 59.5 100.0
Malaysia 37.9 23.6 0.4 61.9 38.1 100.0
Malta 46.4 13.2 0.0 59.6 40.4 100.0
Mexico 39.8 29.3 0.2 69.4 30.6 100.0
Netherlands 38.1 24.8 0.5 63.4 36.6 100.0
New Zealand 38.1 40.4 0.0 78.6 21.4 100.0
Norway 59.5 25.4 0.3 85.2 14.8 100.0
Philippines 36.7 21.3 0.2 58.3 41.7 100.0
Poland 36.2 33.0 0.2 69.4 30.6 100.0
Portugal 38.7 25.8 0.1 64.6 35.4 100.0
Romania 47.1 25.4 0.1 72.6 27.4 100.0
Russian Federation 56.9 35.5 0.1 92.6 7.4 100.0
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 90.8 6.2 0.0 97.1 2.9 100.0
Singapore 34.3 12.3 0.3 46.9 53.1 100.0
Slovak Republic 32.1 19.3 0.2 51.6 48.4 100.0
Slovenia 39.5 21.5 0.0 61.0 39.0 100.0
South Africa 46.2 32.7 0.0 78.9 21.1 100.0
Spain 40.8 34.0 0.2 75.1 24.9 100.0
Sweden 38.7 26.0 0.3 65.0 35.0 100.0
Switzerland 41.6 27.8 0.3 69.6 30.4 100.0
ChineseTaipei 27.3 24.4 0.5 52.2 47.8 100.0
Thailand 38.0 24.0 0.2 62.2 37.8 100.0
Turkey 40.2 33.4 0.1 73.7 26.3 100.0
United Kingdom 51.1 29.7 0.3 81.1 18.9 100.0
United States 48.8 35.8 0.7 85.4 14.6 100.0
VietNam 42.6 17.5 0.1 60.2 39.8 100.0


EU(27) b c 38.9 30.4 0.5 69.7 30.3 100.0
Others d 60.0 27.3 0.5 87.9 12.1 100.0
World c 42.0 31.6 0.5 74.1 25.9 100.0


a See metadata (Chapter V, Section 2.4) for more details.
b Including EU intra-exports.
c Average of individual economies.
d Includes all countries except the individual economies shown in the table.


The value added components of gross exports, selected economies, 2008


(Percentage of gross exports)


Foreign TotalDomestic
Value added content of exports a




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Table IV.3


Shares of domestic and foreign sectoral contributions in gross exports, selected economies, 2008


(Percentage)


Primary
products Manufactures Services


Primary
products Manufactures Services


Argentina 28.1 32.4 25.8 2.0 6.4 5.3 100.0
Australia 36.6 14.3 35.2 3.7 4.8 5.4 100.0
Austria 1.9 27.9 34.9 4.2 14.5 16.5 100.0
Belgium 0.8 23.9 35.0 8.2 12.8 19.3 100.0
Brazil 22.4 33.7 32.4 3.3 4.2 4.0 100.0
Brunei Darussalam 65.7 10.9 12.5 1.3 3.7 6.0 100.0
Bulgaria 8.5 21.1 30.8 9.5 12.8 17.2 100.0
Cambodia 22.9 16.6 23.5 4.5 11.5 21.0 100.0
Canada 24.2 24.6 29.9 4.8 9.3 7.2 100.0
Chili 39.8 15.3 24.1 5.4 6.6 8.8 100.0
China 9.2 39.0 18.5 7.2 14.7 11.3 100.0
Cyprus 3.4 8.8 67.0 2.5 5.3 13.0 100.0
Czech Republic 2.5 32.8 25.1 4.5 19.3 15.8 100.0
Denmark 7.0 25.2 33.9 4.1 8.4 21.4 100.0
Estonia 5.2 23.0 33.9 3.7 16.7 17.4 100.0
Finland 2.2 31.1 30.2 7.0 13.1 16.5 100.0
France 3.7 28.8 40.3 5.1 11.3 10.9 100.0
Germany 1.1 36.5 34.5 4.8 10.6 12.4 100.0
Greece 3.9 14.0 56.4 7.4 5.9 12.4 100.0
Hong Kong, China 0.1 4.7 66.2 4.2 6.9 18.0 100.0
Hungary 2.9 28.6 23.7 3.9 22.4 18.6 100.0
Iceland 11.6 24.0 29.9 2.0 7.9 24.5 100.0
India 12.2 21.2 42.9 6.0 7.1 10.6 100.0
Indonesia 31.3 35.8 15.5 4.6 6.2 6.6 100.0
Ireland 1.5 20.8 32.1 3.3 9.2 33.1 100.0
Israel 2.8 27.8 34.5 5.9 12.7 16.2 100.0
Italy 2.2 36.3 38.8 4.9 8.6 9.3 100.0
Japan 0.4 45.4 34.8 6.8 6.8 5.7 100.0
Korea, Republic of 0.6 34.4 21.6 15.7 14.2 13.4 100.0
Latvia 6.0 20.1 44.8 2.8 10.9 15.5 100.0
Lithuania 5.0 28.9 25.8 12.3 10.2 17.8 100.0
Luxembourg 0.3 5.1 35.2 3.1 8.2 48.0 100.0
Malaysia 18.4 23.6 20.0 4.5 18.9 14.6 100.0
Malta 1.9 18.5 39.5 4.0 13.4 22.6 100.0
Mexico 19.7 28.3 21.4 3.1 18.2 9.3 100.0
Netherlands 9.9 22.0 31.5 11.4 11.6 13.7 100.0
New Zealand 14.7 26.0 37.8 4.6 7.9 8.9 100.0
Norway 48.7 9.6 26.9 1.8 6.6 6.4 100.0
Philippines 3.7 29.3 25.7 4.8 18.7 17.8 100.0
Poland 5.2 32.2 32.1 4.5 13.5 12.5 100.0
Portugal 3.6 24.0 37.1 7.0 14.3 14.0 100.0
Romania 5.7 36.7 30.3 4.6 11.2 11.4 100.0
Russian Federation 29.2 32.9 30.5 0.6 2.8 4.0 100.0
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of 85.2 7.3 4.4 0.3 0.8 1.9 100.0
Singapore 0.0 18.4 28.5 10.4 16.6 26.1 100.0
Slovak Republic 2.7 27.7 21.6 7.1 22.6 18.4 100.0
Slovenia 2.0 30.5 28.9 4.9 17.7 16.1 100.0
South Africa 26.2 22.6 30.1 6.6 7.7 6.7 100.0
Spain 3.4 27.6 44.1 5.9 8.1 10.9 100.0
Sweden 2.7 27.5 34.8 7.2 12.3 15.5 100.0
Switzerland 1.4 30.1 38.1 4.4 13.0 13.0 100.0
Chinese Taipei 0.6 28.4 23.3 14.5 19.2 14.0 100.0
Thailand 8.6 36.6 17.2 8.1 13.0 16.6 100.0
Turkey 5.5 32.4 35.9 5.8 10.8 9.6 100.0
United Kingdom 5.9 26.2 49.1 4.1 7.0 7.8 100.0
United States 5.4 36.8 43.2 5.1 5.4 4.1 100.0
Viet Nam 30.0 16.3 13.8 7.8 15.0 17.2 100.0
EU(27) b c 3.3 29.4 37.0 5.5 10.9 13.9 100.0
Others d 54.6 15.2 18.0 3.4 4.2 4.5 100.0
World c 13.0 29.5 31.6 5.6 9.8 10.5 100.0


a See metadata (Chapter V, Section 2.4) for more details.
b Including EU intra-exports.
c Average of individual economies.
d Includes all countries except the individual economies shown in the table.


TotalDomestic
Origin of the value added content of exports a


Foreign




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Table IV.4


Total supplies to affiliated companies 1481.0 29.9
To parent companies 379.0 7.7
To other local affiliated companies a 303.0 6.1
To other non-local affiliated companies b 799.0 16.1


Total supplies to unaffiliated companies 3470.0 70.1
To unaffiliated companies in the United States 96.0 1.9
To unaffiliated local companies a 2703.0 54.6
To unaffiliated non-local companies b 671.0 13.6


Total supplies to affiliated and unaffiliated companies 4951.0 100.0


a Companies located in the same economy as the reporting affiliate.


b Companies located in third economies.


Supplies of goods and services by United States affiliates established abroad, 2010


(Billion dollars and percentage)


Value Share in total supplies


Note : Total supplies of goods and services are similar to sales, except for insurance and finance industries where only the service trade margin is recorded. See the metadata.




The data for this report comes
from a variety of sources.
How it is compiled and presented
is explained in this chapter.


Composition, definitions
& methodology


1. Composition of geographical and economic groupings 194


2. Definitions and methodology 198


3. Specific notes for selected economies 205


4. Statistical sources 207


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WTO members are frequently referred
to as “countries”, although some
members are not countries in the usual
sense of the word but are officially
“customs territories”. The definition of
geographical and other groupings in this
report does not imply an expression of
opinion by the Secretariat concerning
the status of any country or territory,
the delimitation of its frontiers, nor
the rights and obligations of any
WTO member in respect of WTO
agreements. The colours, boundaries,
denominations, and classifications in
the maps of this publication do not
imply, on the part of the WTO, any
judgement on the legal or other status
of any territory, or any endorsement
or acceptance of any boundary.


Throughout this report, South and
Central America and the Caribbean
is referred to as South and Central
America; the Bolivarian Republic
of Venezuela, Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region of China,
Macao Special Administrative Region
of China, the Republic of Korea and
the Separate Customs Territory of


1. Composition of geographical
and economic groupings


Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu
are referenced as Bolivarian Rep.
of Venezuela; Hong Kong, China;
Macao, China; Korea, Republic of;
and Chinese Taipei respectively.


Changes in statistical territories in 2010
and 2011 involving the Netherlands
Antilles and Sudan are reflected in this
report, as far as available statistics
permit. Data for the Netherlands
Antilles are no longer given beginning
with 2011, and are replaced with data
for the successor states Curaçao and
Sint Maarten. Further, the secession of
South Sudan from Sudan in July 2011
resulted in a decrease in the magnitude
of the latter’s trade flows. No time
series is currently disseminated for
South Sudan due to data availability.


As from 1 January 2011, Maldives is
no longer a least developed country.


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Asia
Afghanistan** Hong Kong, China* Malaysia* Papua New Guinea* Tonga*
Australia* India* Maldives* Philippines* Tuvalu
Bangladesh* Indonesia* Mongolia* Samoa* Vanuatu*
Bhutan** Japan* Myanmar* Singapore* Viet Nam*
Brunei Darussalam* Kiribati Nepal* Solomon Islands*
Cambodia* Korea, Republic of* New Zealand* Sri Lanka*
China* Lao People’s Dem. Rep.* Pakistan* Chinese Taipei*
Fiji* Macao, China* Palau Thailand*


Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


North America
Bermuda
Canada*
Mexico*
United States of America*
Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


Europe
Albania* Czech Republic* Hungary* Malta* Slovak Republic*
Andorra** Denmark* Iceland* Montenegro* Slovenia*
Austria* Estonia* Ireland* Netherlands* Spain*
Belgium* Finland* Italy* Norway* Sweden*
Bosnia and Herzegovina** France* Latvia* Poland* Switzerland*
Bulgaria* FYR Macedonia* Liechtenstein* Portugal* Turkey*
Croatia* Germany* Lithuania* Romania* United Kingdom*
Cyprus* Greece* Luxembourg* Serbia**
Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)a
Armenia* Georgia*a Moldova* Turkmenistan
Azerbaijan** Kazakhstan** Russian Federation* Ukraine*
Belarus** Kyrgyz Republic* Tajikistan* Uzbekistan**
Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


Africa
Algeria** Congo* Guinea* Morocco* South Africa*
Angola* Congo, Dem. Rep. of* Guinea-Bissau* Mozambique* Sudan**
Benin* Côte d’Ivoire* Kenya* Namibia* Swaziland*
Botswana* Djibouti* Lesotho* Niger* Tanzania*
Burkina Faso* Egypt* Liberia** Nigeria* Togo*
Burundi* Equatorial Guinea** Libya** Rwanda* Tunisia*
Cameroon* Eritrea Madagascar* Sao Tome and Principe** Uganda*
Cape Verde* Ethiopia** Malawi* Senegal* Zambia*
Central African Republic* Gabon* Mali* Seychelles** Zimbabwe*
Chad* Gambia* Mauritania* Sierra Leone*
Comoros** Ghana* Mauritius* Somalia
Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


Middle East
Bahrain* Israel* Lebanon** Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of* Yemen**
Iran** Jordan* Oman* Syrian Arab Republic**
Iraq** Kuwait* Qatar* United Arab Emirates*
Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


a Georgia is not a member of the
Commonwealth of Independent
States but is included in this group
for reasons of geography and
similarities in economic structure.


* WTO members ** Observer governments


Antigua and Barbuda*
Argentina*
Bahamas**
Barbados*
Belize*
Bolivia, Plurinational State of*
Brazil*


Chile*
Colombia*
Costa Rica*
Cuba*
Curaçao
Dominica*
Dominican Republic*


Ecuador*
El Salvador*
Grenada*
Guatemala*
Guyana*
Haiti*
Honduras*


Jamaica*
Netherlands Antilles*
Nicaragua*
Panama*
Paraguay*
Peru*
Saint Kitts and Nevis*


Saint Lucia*
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines*
Sint Maarten
Suriname*
Trinidad and Tobago*
Uruguay*
Venezuela, Bolivarian, Rep. of


South and Central America and the Caribbean


Other territories in the region not elsewhere specified


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Andean Community (CAN)


Bolivia
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) / AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area)


Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Thailand
Cambodia Lao People's Dem. Rep. Myanmar Singapore Viet Nam
CACM (Central American Common market)


Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua
CARICOM (Caribbean Community and Common Market)


Antigua and Barbuda Belize Guyana Montserrat Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Bahamas Dominica Haiti Saint Kitts and Nevis Suriname
Barbados Grenada Jamaica Saint Lucia Trinidad and Tobago
CEMAC (Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa)


Cameroon Chad Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon
Central African Republic
COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa)
Burundi Egypt Libya Rwanda Uganda
Comoros Eritrea Madagascar Seychelles Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of Ethiopia Malawi Sudan Zimbabwe
Djibouti Kenya Mauritius Swaziland
ECCAS (Economic Community of Central African States)


Angola Central African Republic Congo, Dem. Rep. of Gabon Sao Tome and Principe
Burundi Chad Equatorial Guinea Rwanda
Cameroon Congo
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States)


Benin Côte d'Ivoire Guinea Mali Senegal
Burkina Faso Gambia Guinea- Bissau Niger Sierra Leone
Cape Verde Ghana Liberia Nigeria Togo
EFTA (European Free Trade Association)


Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland
European Union (27)


Austria Estonia Ireland Netherlands Spain
Belgium Finland Italy Poland Sweden
Bulgaria France Latvia Portugal United Kingdom
Cyprus Germany Lithuania Romania
Czech Republic Greece Luxembourg Slovak Republic
Denmark Hungary Malta Slovenia
GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council)


Bahrain Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of United Arab Emirates
Kuwait
MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market)


Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)


Canada Mexico United States
SAPTA (South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement)


Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
Bhutan Maldives
SADC (Southern African Development Community)


Angola Lesotho Mauritius South Africa Tanzania
Botswana Madagascar Mozambique Seychelles Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of Malawi Namibia Swaziland Zimbabwe
WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union)


Benin Côte d'Ivoire Mali Senegal Togo
Burkina Faso Guinea- Bissau Niger


Regional integration agreements


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ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific countries)
Angola Côte d’Ivoire Haiti Niger South Africa
Antigua and Barbuda Cuba Jamaica Nigeria Sudan
Bahamas Djibouti Kenya Niue Suriname
Barbados Dominica Kiribati Palau Swaziland
Belize Dominican Republic Lesotho Papua New Guinea Tanzania
Benin Equatorial Guinea Liberia Rwanda Timor Leste
Botswana Eritrea Madagascar Saint Kitts and Nevis Togo
Burkina Faso Ethiopia Malawi Saint Lucia Tonga
Burundi Fiji Mali Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago
Cameroon Gabon Marshall Islands Samoa Tuvalu
Central African Republic Gambia Mauritania Sao Tome and Principe Uganda
Chad Ghana Mauritius Senegal Vanuatu
Comoros Grenada Micronesia Seychelles Zambia
Congo Guinea Mozambique Sierra Leone Zimbabwe
Congo, Dem. Rep. of Guinea-Bissau Namibia Solomon Islands
Cook Islands Guyana Nauru Somalia
Africa
North Africa
Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Tunisia
Sub- Saharan Africa
Western Africa
Benin Gambia Guinea-Bissau Mauritania Senegal
Burkina Faso Ghana Liberia Niger Sierra Leone
Cape Verde Guinea Mali Nigeria Togo
Côte d’Ivoire
Central Africa
Burundi Central African Republic Congo Equatorial Guinea Rwanda
Cameroon Chad Dem. Rep. of the Congo Gabon Sao Tome and Principe
Eastern Africa
Comoros Ethiopia Mauritius Somalia Tanzania
Djibouti Kenya Seychelles Sudan Uganda
Eritrea Madagascar
Southern Africa
Angola Lesotho Mozambique South Africa Zambia
Botswana Malawi Namibia Swaziland Zimbabwe
7HUULWRULHVLQ$IULFDQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
Asia
East Asia (including Oceania):
Australia Indonesia Mongolia Samoa Tuvalu
Brunei Darussalam Japan Myanmar Singapore Vanuatu
Cambodia Kiribati New Zealand Solomon Islands Viet Nam
China Lao People’s Dem. Rep. Papua New Guinea Chinese Taipei
Fiji Macao, China Philippines Thailand
Hong Kong, China Malaysia Republic of Korea Tonga
West Asia:
Afghanistan Bhutan Maldives Pakistan Sri Lanka
Bangladesh India Nepal
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)
Australia Hong Kong, China Malaysia Russian Federation Viet Nam
Brunei Darussalam Indonesia New Zealand Singapore
Canada Japan Peru Thailand
Chile Korea Papua New Guinea Chinese Taipei
China Mexico Philippines United States
BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India and China)
DEVELOPED ECONOMIES: North America


(except Mexico) European Union (27)
EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein,
Norway, Switzerland) Australia, Japan and New Zealand


DEVELOPING ECONOMIES: Africa South and Central America and the Caribbean, Mexico
Europe except the European
Union (27) and EFTA; Middle East


Asia except Australia, Japan, and
New Zealand


LDCs (Least-developed countries)
Afghanistan Comoros Kiribati Nepal Tanzania
Angola Congo, Dem. Rep. of Lao People’s Dem. Rep. Niger Timor Leste
Bangladesh Djibouti Lesotho Rwanda Togo
Benin Equatorial Guinea Liberia Samoa Tuvalu
Bhutan Eritrea Madagascar Sao Tome and Principe Uganda
Burkina Faso Ethiopia Malawi Senegal Vanuatu
Burundi Gambia Mali Sierra Leone Yemen
Cambodia Guinea Mauritania Solomon Islands Zambia
Central African Republic Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Somalia
Chad Haiti Myanmar Sudan
Six East Asian traders
Hong Kong, China Republic of Korea Singapore Chinese Taipei Thailand
Malaysia


Other groups


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2.1 Merchandise trade


2.1.1 Exports and imports
Two systems of recording merchandise
exports and imports are in common
use. They are referred to as general
trade and special trade and differ
mainly in the way warehoused and
re-exported goods are treated. General
trade figures are larger than the
corresponding special trade figures
because the latter exclude certain
trade flows, such as goods shipped
through bonded warehouses.


To the extent possible, total
merchandise trade is defined in
this report according to the general
trade definition. It covers all types
of inward and outward movement of
goods through a country or territory
including movements through customs
warehouses and free zones. Goods
include all merchandise that either
add to or subtract from the stock of
material resources of a country or
territory by entering (imports) or leaving
(exports) the country’s economic
territory. For further explanations, see
United Nations International Trade


Statistics, Concepts and Definitions,
Series M, N° 52, Revision 2.


Unless otherwise indicated, exports
are valued at transaction value,
including the cost of transportation and
insurance to bring the merchandise to
the frontier of the exporting country
or territory (“free on board” valuation).
Imports are valued at transaction
value plus the cost of transportation
and insurance to the frontier of the
importing country or territory (“cost,
insurance and freight” valuation).


2. Definitions and methodology


Products


A. Primary products


(i) Agricultural products (SITC sections 0, 1, 2 and 4 minus divisions 27 and 28)
of which,
- Food (SITC sections 0, 1, 4 and division 22)
of which,
0 - Food and live animals
1 - Beverages and tobacco
4 - Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes
22 - Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits


- - Fish (SITC division 03)
- - Other food products and live animals ( SITC sections 0, 1, 4 and division 22 minus division 03)


- Raw materials (SITC divisions 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29)
of which,
21 - Hides, skins and furskins, raw
23 - Crude rubber (including synthetic and reclaimed)
24 - Cork and wood
25 - Pulp and waste paper
7H[WLOH¿EUHVRWKHUWKDQZRROWRSVDQGRWKHUFRPEHGZRRODQGWKHLUZDVWHVQRWPDQXIDFWXUHGLQWR\\DUQRUIDEULF
&UXGHDQLPDODQGYHJHWDEOHPDWHULDOVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG


(ii) Fuels and mining products (SITC section 3 and divisions 27, 28, 68)
of which,
- Ores and other minerals (SITC divisions 27, 28)
of which,
27 - Crude fertilizers, other than those of division 56, and crude minerals (excluding coal, petroleum and precious stones)
28 - Metalliferous ores and metal scrap
- Fuels (SITC section 3)
- Non-ferrous metals (SITC division 68)


B. Manufactures (SITC sections 5, 6, 7, 8 minus division 68 and group 891)
(i) Iron and steel (SITC division 67)
(ii) Chemicals (SITC section 5)


of which,
- Pharmaceuticals (SITC division 54)
- Other chemicals (SITC divisions 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59)
of which,
51 - Organic chemicals
52 - Inorganic chemicals
53 - Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials
55 - Essential oils and resinoids and perfume materials; toilet, polishing and cleaning preparations
56 - Fertilizers (other than those of Group 272, i.e Fertilizers, crude)
57 - Plastics in primary forms
58 - Plastics in non-primary forms
&KHPLFDOPDWHULDOVDQGSURGXFWVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG


Table IV.2


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(iii) Other semi-manufactures (SITC divisions 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 69) of which,


/HDWKHUOHDWKHUPDQXIDFWXUHVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HGDQGGUHVVHGIXUVNLQV
5XEEHUPDQXIDFWXUHVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
63 - Cork and wood manufactures (excluding furniture)
64 - Paper, paperboard and articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard
1RQPHWDOOLFPLQHUDOPDQXIDFWXUHVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
0DQXIDFWXUHVRIPHWDOVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG


(iv) Machinery and transport equipment (SITC section 7)
- Office and telecommunication equipment (SITC divisions 75, 76 and group 776)
of which,


- - Electronic data processing and office equipment (SITC division 75)
- - Telecommunications equipment (SITC division 76)
- - Integrated circuits, and electronic components (SITC group 776)


- Transport equipment (SITC group 713, sub-group 7783 and divisions 78, 79)
of which,
78 - Road vehicles (including air-cushion vehicles)
79 - Other transport equipment


- - Automotive products (SITC groups 781, 782, 783, 784 and subgroups 7132, 7783)
of which,
781 - Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons (other than public-transport type vehicles),
including station wagons and racing cars
782 - Motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles
5RDGPRWRUYHKLFOHVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
784 - Parts and accessories of the motor vehicles and tractors
7132 - Internal combustion piston engines for propelling vehicles listed above
- -Other transport equipment (SITC division 79, groups 713, 785, 786 minus sub-group 7132) of which,
79 - Other transport equipment
,QWHUQDOFRPEXVWLRQSLVWRQHQJLQHVDQGSDUWVWKHUHRIQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
785 - Motorcycles and cycles, motorized and non-motorized
786 - Trailers and semi-trailers, other vehicles (not mechanically propelled), and specially designed and equipped transport
containers


- Other machinery (SITC divisions 71, 72, 73, 74, 77 minus groups 713, 776 minus sub-group 7783) of which,
- - Power generating machinery (SITC division 71 minus group 713)
of which,
71 - Power generating machinery and equipment
minus
,QWHUQDOFRPEXVWLRQSLVWRQHQJLQHVDQGSDUWVWKHUHRIQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
- - Non-electrical machinery (SITC divisions 72, 73, 74)
of which,
72 - Machinery specialized for particular industries
73 - Metal working machinery
*HQHUDOLQGXVWULDOPDFKLQHU\\DQGHTXLSPHQWQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HGDQGPDFKLQHSDUWVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
- - Electrical machinery (SITC division 77 minus group 776 and subgroup 7783)
of which,
(OHFWULFDOPDFKLQHU\\DSSDUDWXVDQGDSSOLDQFHVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HGDQGHOHFWULFDOSDUWVWKHUHRI
minus
776 - Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode valves and tubes
(OHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQWQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HGIRULQWHUQDOFRPEXVWLRQHQJLQHVDQGYHKLFOHVDQGSDUWVWKHUHRI


(v) Textiles (SITC division 65)
(vi) Clothing (SITC division 84)
(vii) Other manufactures (SITC divisions 81, 82, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89 excluding group 891) of which,


- Personal and household goods (SITC divisions 82, 83 and 85)
of which,
82 - Furniture and parts thereof, bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings
83 - Travel goods, handbags and similar containers
85 - Footwear
- Scientific and controlling instruments (SITC division 87)
- Miscellaneous manufactures (SITC divisions 81, 88 and 89 minus group 891)
of which,
3UHIDEULFDWHGEXLOGLQJVVDQLWDU\\SOXPELQJKHDWLQJDQGOLJKWLQJ¿[WXUHVDQG¿WWLQJVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG
3KRWRJUDSKLFDSSDUDWXVHTXLSPHQWDQGVXSSOLHVDQGRSWLFDOJRRGVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HGZDWFKHVDQGFORFNV
0LVFHOODQHRXVPDQXIDFWXUHGDUWLFOHVQRWHOVHZKHUHVSHFL¿HG


C. Other products: commodities and transactions not classified elsewhere (including gold); arms and ammunition (SITC section 9 and group 891)


Products (continued)


&RPPRGLWLHVDQGWUDQVDFWLRQVQRWFODVV¿HGHOVHZKHUHLQ6,7&
891 - Arms and Ammunition


D. Intermediate products include all parts and accessories as well as industrial primary and processed intermediate products. The “fuels and lubricants”
category (BEC code 3) was excluded.


BEC codes 42, 53, 111, 121, 21, 22


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2.1.2 Products
All product groups are defined
according to Revision 3 of the Standard
International Trade Classification (SITC).


Throughout this report, other food
products and live animals; beverages
and tobacco; animal and vegetable oils,
fats and waxes; oilseeds and oleaginous
fruit are referred to as other food
products; electronic data processing and
office equipment is referred to as EDP
and office equipment; and integrated
circuits and electronic components
is referred to as integrated circuits.


Agricultural products according to the
AOA (WTO Agreement on Agriculture)
definition refer to HS chapters 1 to 24
(excluding fish and fish products) and
a number of manufactured agricultural
products (for further information see
“The Legal Texts, The Results of
the Uruguay Round of Multilateral
Negotiations”, WTO). This definition
does not correspond to the definition
of agricultural products presented in
the breakdown of merchandise trade by
main commodity group (see table II.1).


2.1.3 World trade network
The world merchandise trade network
by region and product from which
Appendix tables A2 and A12 are derived
is based on export data. The network
is constructed in the following way:


First, total merchandise exports
from each of the seven regions
are aggregated from the individual
country or territory figures
published in Appendix table A6.


Next, the total merchandise exports
of each region are distributed by
destination and then by product. The
regional and commodity breakdown is
based on UNSD Comtrade database,
EUROSTAT, GTIS GTA database, national
statistics and Secretariat estimates.


During this process, the
principal adjustments to the
figures are as follows:


(i) Exports of ships to the open
registry countries Panama and
Liberia are re-allocated from
each region’s exports to South
and Central America and Africa
to “unspecified destinations” (a
category not shown separately).


(ii) China’s exports are adjusted to
approximate their final destination.


(iii) Exports of non-monetary gold,
where known, are included. When
they cannot be broken down by
destination, they are allocated
to “unspecified destinations”.


(iv) South Africa’s trade does not include
trade with the former Southern
African Customs Union members.


(v) “Estimates for the Middle East
include unrecorded re-exports of
the United Arab Emirates which
accounted for 4 per cent of the
region’s total exports in 2012.
As of this publication, these
are no longer distributed by
product and destination and are
instead included in unspecified
products and destinations.”


2.1.4 Merchandise trade by
product, region and major
trading partner (Commodity
and Appendix tables)
Appendix tables are derived from
UNSD Comtrade and EUROSTAT.
For trade by product, world totals
include shipments which have not been
distinguished by origin or destination.
For trade by region and partner,
world totals include goods which
have not been specified by product.


The following adjustment has
been made to the figures:


Exports of ships to the open registry
countries Panama and Liberia are
reallocated from each economy’s
exports to South and Central America
and Africa to “unspecified destinations”
(a category not shown separately).


The selection of each economy’s major
trading partners is based on a ranking of
total trade (exports plus imports) of each
economy with their trading partners in
2012 (member States of the EU (27)
are counted as one trading partner).


Commodity tables in Chapter II by
product, region and major trading
partner are also derived from
UNSD Comtrade and Eurostat.


2.1.5 Merchandise trade
and the goods account in
balance of payments statistics
Merchandise trade statistics serve
as an input for the compilation of
the goods account in the balance
of payments (BOP) and the rest of


the world account in the System
of National Accounts (SNA).


The compilation of international
merchandise trade statistics (IMTS)
relies principally on customs records
complemented, as appropriate, by
additional sources to enhance their
coverage (for instance, to include
electricity, or trade in vessels and
aircrafts). These statistics essentially
reflect the physical movement of goods
across borders, while National Accounts
and BOP statistics record transactions
that involve change in ownership.


The goods account in the BOP is
generally compiled on the basis of
IMTS after they have been adjusted
for coverage, timing, and valuation.


Coverage differences between BOP
statistics and IMTS concern mainly:


t JUFNTTVDIBTCMVFQSJOUT WJEFPT
and tapes which are regarded
as services within the BOP
(hence are excluded from goods)
whereas they are included in
merchandise trade statistics at the
value of the material support;


t HPPETUIBUGPSQSBDUJDBMSFBTPOTBSF
excluded from merchandise trade
but should in theory be recorded
in BOP statistics, such as fish and
salvage sold abroad by resident
vessels, or imports of bunkers and
stores acquired abroad for mobile
equipment operated by residents;


t HPPETVOEFSUIFJNQSPWFNFOU
and repair trade regime should
be excluded from IMTS, but
they are to be included in the
goods account at the value of
the repair under the BPM5;


t BOPUIFSDPWFSBHFEJGGFSFODFDPODFSOT
goods that are imported in an economy
where they undergo processing
operations, and are thereafter
re-exported. IMTS recommends
that these movements be recorded
on a gross basis, whereas BPM5
distinguishes between goods that
return to the country of origin
(included within the goods account
but reported separately) and those
that are sent to a third economy
(such flows are considered as trade
in general merchandise between the
economy of origin and final destination,
and should be excluded from the
goods account of the economy
where the processing takes place).


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The physical movement of goods
across border measured in IMTS do
not necessarily coincide in timing
with changes in the ownership of
goods. BPM5 therefore recommends
the application of specific
adjustments for such cases.


As far as valuation is concerned,
the issue that affects most data
comparability concerns the point of
valuation, namely, whether goods
are valued at the importer’s border
- that is at the cost, insurance and
freight value - or at the free on board
value at the exporter’s border. IMTS
guidelines recommend the adoption
of the c.i.f. valuation for imports
whereas the fifth edition of the IMF’s
Balance of Payments Manual (BPM5)
requires the f.o.b. valuation. Additional
adjustments may be made by BOP
compilers to conform to the BPM5
requirement for a market price for
valuing trade, processing trade, and
with respect to currency conversion.


Once adjusted, merchandise trade
is recorded in the goods category
of the current account, along with
services, income, and current transfers.
Therefore, within the balance of
payments framework transactions in
both goods and services are harmonized
and provide for comparable statistical
series. Strictly speaking, it is not
correct to aggregate the figures for
commercial services and merchandise
shown elsewhere in this report.


It should be noted that some economies
still apply the concepts of the fourth
edition of the Balance of Payments
Manual, and thus do not include goods
for processing and goods procured in
port carriers in the goods account.


2.2 Trade in
commercial services
Depending on the location of the
supplier and the consumer, the General
Agreement on Trade in Services
(GATS) defines four modes of supply.
In addition to the cross-border supply
(mode 1), where both the supplier and
the consumer remain in their respective
home territories, GATS also covers
cases where consumers are outside
their home territory to consume services
(mode 2 – consumption abroad), or
cases where service suppliers are
in the territory of the consumers


to provide their services, whether
by establishing affiliates through
direct investment abroad (mode 3 –
commercial presence), or through the
presence of natural persons (mode 4).


A country’s balance of payments, that
is the services account, can be used
to derive estimates covering trade
in commercial services for modes 1,
2 and 4. The Balance of Payments
does however not include most of the
information on the local deliveries of
services through foreign affiliates that is
required to estimate the size of mode 3.
A framework for collecting these data,
the Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)
has been developed and adopted by
the international statistical community
in 2002. Further information on these
“new” statistics is developed below.


2.2.1 Trade in commercial
services between residents and
non residents of an economy


Exports and imports
Exports (credits or receipts) and imports
(debits or payments) of commercial
services derived from statistics on
international service transactions are
included in the balance of payments
statistics, in conformity with the
concepts, definitions and classification
of the fifth (1993) edition of the IMF
Balance of Payments Manual.


Definition of commercial
services in the balance
of payments
In the fifth edition of the Balance of
Payments Manual, the current account
is subdivided into goods, services
(including government services,
not included elsewhere), income
(investment income and compensation
of employees), and current transfers.
The commercial services category
in this report is defined as being
equal to services minus government
services, not included elsewhere.
Commercial services is further sub-
divided into transportation services,
travel, and other commercial services.


Transportation services covers
sea, air and other including land,
internal waterway, space and pipeline
transport services that are performed
by residents of one economy for
those of another, and that involve the


carriage of passengers, the movement
of goods (freight), rentals (charters)
of carriers with crew, and related
supporting and auxiliary services


Travel includes goods and services
acquired by personal travellers, for
health, education or other purposes,
and by business travellers. Unlike
other services, travel is not a specific
type of service, but an assortment
of goods and services consumed by
travellers. The most common goods
and services covered are lodging, food
and beverages, entertainment and
transportation (within the economy
visited), gifts and souvenirs.


Other commercial services
corresponds to the following
components defined in BPM5:


(i) communications services includes
telecommunications, postal and
courier services. Telecommunications
services encompasses the
transmission of sound, images or
other information by telephone, telex,
telegram, radio and television cable
and broadcasting, satellite, electronic
mail, facsimile services etc.,
including business network services,
teleconferencing and support
services. It does not include the
value of the information transported.
Also included are cellular telephone
services, Internet backbone
services and on-line access
services, including provision
of access to the Internet;


(ii) construction covers work
performed on construction projects
and installation by employees of an
enterprise in locations outside the
territory of the enterprise (the one-
year rule to determine residency is to
be applied flexibly). In addition goods
used by construction companies for
their projects are included which
implies that the “true” services
component tends to be overestimated;


(iii) insurance services covers the
provision of various types of insurance
to non residents by resident insurance
enterprises, and vice versa, for
example, freight insurance, direct
insurance (e.g. life) and reinsurance;


(iv) financial services covers financial
intermediation and auxiliary services
provided by banks, stock exchanges,
factoring enterprises, credit card
enterprises, and other enterprises;


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Number of economies reporting Balance of Payments services components for 2011


Exports Imports


Total commercial services 188 188
Transportation services 166 167
Travel 167 166
Other commercial services 166 166


Communications services 159 159
Telecommunications services 129 129


Construction 124 132
Insurance services 151 161
Financial services 132 137
Computer and information services 129 134


Computer services 92 104
Royalties and license fees 126 142
Other business services 155 161
Personal, cultural, and recreational services 120 124


Audiovisual and related services 72 74


(v) computer and information
services is subdivided into computer
services (hardware and software
related services and data processing
services), news agency services
(provision of news, photographs,
and feature articles to the media),
and other information provision
services (database services
and web search portals);


(vi) royalties and licence fees,
covering payments and receipts for
the use of intangible non-financial
assets and proprietary rights, such
as patents, copyrights, trademarks,
industrial processes, and franchises;


(vii) other business services,
comprising trade-related services,
operational leasing (rentals), and
miscellaneous business, professional
and technical services such as
legal, accounting, management
consulting, public relations services,
advertising, market research and
public opinion polling, research and
development services, architectural,
engineering, and other technical
services, agricultural, mining
and on-site processing; and


(viii) personal, cultural, and
recreational services is subdivided
into two categories, (i) audiovisual
services and (ii) other cultural and
recreational services. The first
component includes services and
fees related to the production
of motion pictures, radio and
television programmes, and musical
recordings. Other personal, cultural,


importers compared to that of exporters,
e.g. financial services, computer
services. Fifth, some particular service
transactions may not be classified to the
appropriate BPM5 services classification.
Methodologies to build estimates for
certain service categories may also differ
between economies, notably due to
the continuing efforts to improve these
statistics. Some economies have made
progress in the estimation of insurance
services to take into account premium
supplements and claim volatility (i.e.
in the case of catastrophic events).
Sixth, the alternate sources used for
countries which are not members of the
IMF do not necessarily comply with the
IMF concepts and definitions. Seventh,
misclassification of transactions may lead
to an underestimation of commercial
services when service transactions are
registered as income, transfers or trade in
merchandise rather than trade in services
or, conversely, to an overestimation of
commercial services when transactions
pertaining to income, transfers or
official transactions are registered
in the private service categories.


These distortions may be particularly
significant at the detailed level, i.e.,
for a detailed service category, and
may lead to considerable asymmetries
between countries’ reported trade
flows by origin and destination.


The estimation of world trade by
services components has been
based on reported economy data
as shown in the following table:


and recreational services includes
services such as those associated
with museums, libraries, archives,
and other cultural, sporting,
and recreational activities.


Coverage and comparability
With the implementation of BPM5, the
coverage and comparability of services
trade data have improved over time.
However, given that these improvements
have been made gradually, they also
resulted in a number of breaks in series
and are subject to significant distortions.


First, some countries do not collect
statistics for certain service categories.
Second, some service transactions are
simply not registered. If central bank
records are used, situations where no
financial intermediaries are employed are
not counted. In the case of surveys, the
coverage of trading establishments is
often incomplete. A particularly serious
problem is that services transmitted
electronically are frequently unregistered
as well as when the transactions take
place within multinational corporations.
Third, statistics may be reported on
a net rather than on a gross basis,
often as a result of compensation
arrangements such as in rail transport
or in communications services. Fourth
some services transactions may be
difficult to capture. It is often easier
for compilers to collect more complete
and reliable information on trade in
services exports rather than on imports
given the large number and diversity of


Table IV.3


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First, total trade in commercial services
from each of the seven regions is
aggregated from the individual economy
figures published. The breakdown of
these data is then applied to missing
countries before aggregating regional
and world totals. Tables on major traders
are based on reported data only.


Statistics on international trade in
services are produced jointly and
published simultaneously with UNCTAD.


Regional and world estimates for 2012
for sub-item of other commercial services
should be considered as preliminary.


From BPM5 to BPM6
A number of economies have started
to compile their balance of payments
statistics according to the sixth
edition (2009) of the IMF Balance of
Payments Manual (BPM6). In August
2012, the IMF has started to publish
annual and quarterly figures according
to the new methodology, with the
new series beginning in 2005.


Starting with 2009 data, UNCTAD
and WTO have been converting trade
in commercial services figures from
BPM6 to BPM5 for the economies
which only report BPM6-based data.
The objective of this conversion is
three-fold: (i) ensuring to the fullest
extent cross-country comparability;
(ii) providing users with the longest
possible time series (which are
currently only available on a
BPM5 basis); (iii) comparability
with the more detailed EBOPS
and partner statistics.


The conversion mapping used
by UNCTAD-WTO can be
summarized as follows:


x Manufacturing services on inputs
owned by others and maintenance and
repair services, the two new services
items in the BPM6 presentation,
are subtracted from the total;


x Net exports under merchanting,
which have been moved in the
goods account, are added back to
other business services and thus
to total commercial services;


x Postal and courier services are
subtracted from transport services;


x Communication services is built
adding postal and courier services
to telecommunications;


x Computer and information services
is obtained by adding computer
services and information services.


x Financial Intermediation
Services Indirectly Measured
(FISIM), if separately reported,
are subtracted from financial
services and from the total.


This conversion was applied to the
following reporters (according to the
level of detail reported): Armenia,
Australia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize,
Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Canada, Chile, Fiji, Georgia, Hong
Kong (China), India, Jamaica, Kuwait,
Macao (China), Malaysia, Nicaragua,
Philippines, the Russian Federation,
Samoa, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,
Singapore, Thailand and Ukraine.


Bilateral trade
As from 2007, available reporters’
bilateral trade with the European Union
refers to the EU(27).


2.3 Foreign Affiliates
Statistics
The new statistical framework on
Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS) is
developed in the Manual on Statistics of
International Trade in Services 2010, the
OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign
Direct Investment and the OECD
Handbook on Economic Globalisation
Indicators. The statistical framework
covers both goods and services
producing enterprises.


It analyses the universe of affiliates
for which foreign investors own more
than 50 per cent of the voting power or
equity interest.


Depending on the compiler’s view, one
can distinguish inward FATS, that is,
activities of foreign-owned affiliates
in the compiling economy, or, outward
FATS, that is, foreign affiliates of the
compiling economy active abroad.
Variables such as sales, value added,
number of employees, etc. are used to
describe the affiliates’ activities. These
variables are broken down by country of
origin or destination of investments and
also by type of primary activity of the
affiliates. The United States also provide
a breakdown into total supply of goods
and total supply of services products.
In the case of services industries the
concept of supply (or output) is based


on measures that better capture service
output (i.e. the margin). This mainly
has an impact on the measurement of
activities of wholesalers and retailers,
insurers and financial intermediaries.


From a GATS perspective, the size
of mode 3 in a given country can be
approximated through the value of the
output (or supply) of services by foreign-
owned affiliates. In the absence of data
on output, sales of services are used. In
tables i.24-i26 the focus is on services
(i.e. to measure the GATS concept of
supply of services through commercial
presence), whereas table iv.4 covers
both goods and services.


FATS are currently available mainly for
OECD and a small number of non-
OECD economies. Given the recent
development of these statistics,
comparability and coverage of individual
economy data may not always be
complete. Availability of detailed data
and long-time series varies considerably
between economies.


2.4 Trade in global
value chains
The measurement of trade in value
added terms traces the source of the
value added, by country and industry
that is contained in the products (goods
and services) traded across the world.


Value added is defined as the
value that is added by industries to
produce goods and services. In a
national account sense, it reflects the
compensation of labour, capital, non-
financial assets and natural resources
used in the production as well as
net indirect taxes, when relevant.


The value added approach
reflects the interconnection of
economies and sectors as well as
the increasing importance of trade
in intermediate inputs that takes
place among international supply
and production chains. It provides
insights on where the value added
comes from and thus on the actual
contribution of trade to economies.


Trade in value added indicators are
estimates based on Inter-Country
Input-Output (ICIO) tables. ICIO tables
cover both goods and services. They
regroup national Input-Output tables
and international trade statistics into
a consistent framework to describe


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sale and purchase of goods and
services between producers and
consumers from various economies and
industries. They enable to disentangle
domestic and foreign value added
in each economy and industry.


Trade in value added estimates
presented in this publication are
sourced from the OECD-WTO “Trade in
value added” (TiVA) database and the
OECD ICIO table. The latter covers 57
economies plus a “rest of the world”
aggregate. Industries are regrouped
into 37 sectors and cover productive
activities in the primary, secondary and
tertiary sectors classified according to
the International Standard Industrial
Classification (ISIC) Revision 4.


2.4.1 The decomposition
of gross exports into their
value added components
The breakdown of conventional
export data (gross) into their value
added components allows showing
the role played by economies
in global value chains.


The domestic value added
content of exports is composed
of the following indicators:


(i) The domestic value added, embodied
either in final or intermediate goods/
services, directly consumed by the
importing country. This represents
a one-to-one country transfer of
value added, with exported goods/
services crossing borders only once.


(ii) The domestic value added contained
in intermediates exported to a first
country which re-exports them to a third
country as embodied in others goods/
services. This indicator represents a
one-to-many country transfer of value
added, when exported goods/services
cross borders more than once. This
illustrates the level of participation of
an economy within
international production.


(iii) The domestic value added of
exported goods/services which is
eventually re-imported by the country
itself. Such a value added round-
trip between two countries highlights
the domestic value added content
present in a country’s imports.


The foreign value added content of
exports corresponds to the value added


of inputs that was imported in order to
produce intermediate or final goods/
services to be exported. It can also be
referred to as vertical specialization,
when expressed in percentage.


2.4.2 The sectoral value added
contributions to gross exports
Exports from a (domestic) industry
do not only contain value added
produced within the same industry
but also value added sourced from
other industries within the economy
or from other economies.


The value added approach to estimate
trade flows can describe both the
geographical and sectoral origin of the
value added contained in gross exports
of any given industry. Table IV.3 presents
the value added origin (columns) of
gross exports (rows) according to the
domestic and foreign source and by
main sector. This highlights the extent
of the global value chains phenomenon
and outlines the interconnection and
related dependency across countries
and sectors for the production and
trade of goods and services.


2.5 Other definitions
and methods


2.5.1 Annual changes
Throughout this report, average annual
percentage changes are analogous to
compound interest rates. In calculating
the average annual rate of change
between 2005 and 2012, for example,
data for calendar year 2005 were
taken as the starting point, and data for
calendar year 2012 as the end point.


2.5.2 Prices
Commodity price movements are
primarily described by indices largely
based on spot market prices, and
therefore exclude transactions governed
by longer-term contracts. Price indices
for such commodities as food, beverages,
agricultural raw materials, minerals,
non-ferrous metals, fertilizers and crude
petroleum are obtained from IMF Primary
Commodity Prices (July 2012 release).
Aggregates for all primary commodities
and for non-fuel primary commodities
are calculated using IMF weights
(Appendix table A36). Beginning with
the first quarter of 2011, the crude oil


price index shown in Appendix table
A36 is computed excluding West Texas
Intermediate (WTI), which accounts for
one third of the IMF’s crude oil index. The
price of WTI became largely dislocated
from international markets in early
2011 and is thought not to represent
well prices in international oil trade. For
more information, see Box Comm.1 of
the World Bank’s Global Commodity
Market Outlook, January 2012 (see page
65 of the complete report on http://
go.worldbank.org/WI8LCZ6PT0).


Export and import prices by commodity
group of Germany, Japan and the
United States are sourced from national
statistics. Aggregates are calculated by
weighting the countries’ price indices
with the export and import values of
the countries’ respective base year
(Appendix tables A37 and A38).


2.5.3 World merchandise
trade indices
The volume indices and the deflators
(i.e. price indices or unit values) are taken
from a range of different international
and national sources. The reported
deflators and volume indices may not
always be available for the most recent
years or may differ in product coverage
from the corresponding value indices.


Aggregation of the indices to obtain
a world total is a two-tier process.
First, export and import deflators from
national and international sources
are complemented with Secretariat
estimates for missing data. They are
then aggregated to obtain regional
totals. The volume index for each region
is obtained by dividing the respective
trade value index for each region by the
corresponding regional deflator.


Second, the total world merchandise
volume index is obtained by deflating
the world trade value with the aggregate
of regional deflators. Throughout the
aggregation process trade values of the
previous year are used as weights.


2.5.4 World production
Production of agriculture (including
hunting, forestry and fish), mining and
manufacturing is defined according
to major Categories A, B, C and D of
the International Standard Industrial
Classification of all Economic Activities
Revision 3 (ISIC). World production in


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these sectors is estimated by combining
production indices published by the FAO,
OECD, UNIDO and UNSD. The world
index is derived through aggregation of
the three sectors by using value added
shares in 2005 as weights.


2.5.5 World gross domestic
product
To be consistent with production
figures, World GDP growth is estimated
as a weighted average of individual
economies’ real GDP growth. The
weights used are shares of economies
in 2005 world nominal GDP converted
to dollars at market exchange rates.


The use of official exchange rates
which are not market-based for some
major economies, together with the
fluctuations of the United States
dollar vis-à-vis major currencies,
can have a significant impact on the
weighting pattern. The increasing use
of weights based on purchasing power
parities (PPP) by other international
organizations is meant to attenuate
“anomalies” linked to these factors. In a
period of widely diverging growth rates
among countries and regions, the choice
of the weighting pattern can have a
marked influence on the global growth
estimate. For the 2000-2011 period,
global growth estimates based on
PPP-weights indicate a significantly
faster growth than estimates using
weights based on GDP data measured
at market exchange rates. This is
because of differences in the two
weighting patterns.


2.5.6 Re-exports and
re-imports
Under the system of general trade
adopted in this report, re-exports are
included in total merchandise trade (see
Section II.1).


However, in the case of Hong Kong,
China, the magnitude of its re-exports
(amounting in 2012 to $471 billion), if
included in regional or world aggregates,
would adversely affect the analytical
value of the statistics by introducing a
significant element of double counting.
Therefore, Hong Kong, China’s
re-exports are excluded from the world
and from Asia aggregates (unless
otherwise indicated); only Hong Kong,
China’s domestic exports and retained
imports are included in the totals.


For this reason, the figures for world
exports and for exports of Asia shown in
Appendix tables A2 and A12 are smaller
than those in Appendix table A6. When
retained imports are not published, an
approximation is made on the basis of
re-export values.


China reports imports from China
(re-imports), a trade flow which
accounted for 7.9 per cent
($142.9 billion) of its total merchandise
imports in 2012. These imports consist
of products which have been produced
in China and thereafter temporarily
exported. The product structure of
China’s imports from China indicates that
in absolute terms office and telecom
equipment is the largest category ($86.1
billion) in this particular trade flow. The
share of re-imports is particularly large
in the imports of telecommunications
equipment (46.4 per cent), EDP and
office equipment (40.6 per cent),
electrical machinery (28.5 per cent)
and in textiles (15.4 per cent). Further
information on these imports is provided
in Box 2 of the International Trade
Statistics 2005.


3. Specific notes for
selected economies


3.1 Merchandise
trade statistics of the
European Union
Beginning with the 2002 report, EU
data compiled according to national
statistical practices have been
replaced, starting 1993, with data
compiled by Eurostat in accordance
with EU legislation. The concepts
and definitions adopted by the EU
are in line with the United Nations’
International Trade Statistics,
Concepts and Definitions, Series
M, N° 52, Revision 2. As a result,
the conceptual differences between
EU member states’ data have been
substantially reduced. Moreover, for
the EU as a whole, Eurostat data are
more timely than the previous source,
thus reducing substantially the amount
of estimation included in the EU
aggregate.


Since January 1993, statistics on the
trade between the member states of
the EU have been collected through
the “Intrastat” system (see GATT


1994, International Trade Trends and
Statistics). The coverage of this system,
which relies on reports submitted by
firms for transactions above a minimum
value, is not as wide as the previous
one, which was based on customs
declarations. This is particularly
noticeable on the import side. For
example, prior to the adoption of the
Intrastat system, reported intra-EU
imports (c.i.f.) closely matched reported
intra-EU exports (f.o.b.). However, from
1993 onwards, the reported value of
intra-EU imports has been on average
around 3 per cent lower than the
value of intra-EU exports, indicating a
substantial under-reporting of intra-EU
imports. As a result of this inconsistency,
the Secretariat has substituted intra-EU
exports data for intra-EU imports at the
aggregate EU level when estimating
regional and world totals. However, this
adjustment is not allocated between
EU member countries. Hence, the sum
of reported imports of individual EU
members does not add to the figure for
EU imports as a whole. This adjustment
is also reflected in the volume estimates
for the EU as a whole.


3.2 Merchandise trade
of South Africa with
SACU (South African
Customs Union)
South Africa’s merchandise exports
(and imports) exclude shipments to
(from) other SACU members (Botswana,
Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland). Partner
statistics indicate that South African
shipments amount to 85 per cent of these
countries’ total merchandise imports in
2004. This share – most likely – increased
thereafter and represents an important
trade flow for the African region. If South
Africa’s exports would be adjusted for
these shipments to SACU members, its
total exports would be about $ 6 billion
higher in 2012 and intra-African trade
would be substantially higher, with intra-
SACU trade being the largest intra trade
flow for regional trade agreements in
Africa.


3.3 Major breaks in
data continuity of
merchandise trade
Beginning 2003, Singapore includes
merchandise trade with Indonesia.


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Beginning 2008, Indonesia’s imports are
reported according to the general trade
system.


With respect to the Russian Federation,
considerable uncertainty remains about
the accuracy of foreign trade statistics,
especially as regards imports. A large
proportion of the reported data on
imports consists of official estimates
of inflows of goods which enter the
economy without being registered by the
customs authorities. Such adjustments to
import data accounted for 6 per cent of
the officially reported totals in 2012; and,
on the export side, for about 1 per cent
of total reported exports.


Merchandise trade flows between
the European Union member States
include trade associated with fraudulent
VAT declaration, which concerns
mainly office and telecommunications
equipment. Between 2006 and 2007,
intra-EU merchandise trade statistics
have been particularly affected by a
considerable reduction in this fraudulent
trade in the United Kingdom.


3.4 Trade in services
of the United States
Over recent years the United States
Bureau of Economic Analysis has
continuously improved its trade in
commercial services estimates.


In 2011, the United States implemented
a number of changes in the classification
of certain services transactions beginning
with statistics for the year 1999. Apart
from regular updates in source data, these
improvements were part of a broader effort
to align with the recommendations of the
new IMF Balance of Payments Manual
(BPM6).


In particular, revisions incorporated the
results of BEAs 2009 financial services
benchmark survey (which did not
contain a reporting threshold) as well
as the reclassification of postal services
from U.S. government miscellaneous
services to other transportation. U.S.
expenditures by foreign nationals
working at international organizations
were removed from other services.
Revised methodologies were used for
estimating the U.S. expenditures of
foreign residents who work in the United
States for less than 1 year and for
estimating U.S. air carriers expenditures
in foreign ports. Finally, cruises fares


were reclassified from passenger fares
to travel. As a result of these changes,
United States’ exports and imports of
services were revised upwards.


Also in line with this gradual movement
towards the BPM6 recommendations, the
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis moved
film and television tape distribution
services from audiovisual and related
services (part of personal, cultural and
recreational services) to royalties and
licence fees starting with 1999.


In 2010, the United States revised its
goods and services accounts to reflect
the reclassification of certain transactions
from services to goods. In particular, in
previously published statistics, certain
exports and imports of military-related
goods were recorded on a transactor
basis and were combined with other
services transactions in the services
account. In addition, expenditures on
goods and services by foreign air and
ocean carriers in U.S. ports (exports)
and by U.S. air and ocean carriers in
foreign ports (imports) were included
in “other” transportation services.
Beginning with statistics for 1999, fuel
expenditures by foreign and U.S. air
and ocean carriers were reclassified
from “other” transportation services to
goods. A number of changes in terms of
content were also introduced.Beginning
with 2006 and continuing with 2007
surveys of transactions in selected
services and transactions in financial
services, transactions with affiliated and
unaffiliated persons are collected on
the same form and in the same detail.
This in particular reduces the potential
for duplicate reporting or omissions.
It is important to note that given this
major revision, some time series were
significantly revised and for some other
detailed services items, including both
affiliated and non affiliated trade, data
are not available prior to 2006.


Another major revision was introduced
in 2003, when the United States
revised its methodology for estimating
trade in insurance services. The new
methodology measures insurance
services as premiums less normal
claims. Normal claims comprise two
components: “regularly occurring claims”
that are calculated as an average of all
claims paid during the previous six years,
and a share of “catastrophic claims”
that is added-on to “regularly occurring
claims” in equal increments over the two
decades following their event.


As comprehensive data collection on
insurance services started in 1986,
the first six-year average of “regularly
occurring claims” could only be
calculated for 1992. As a result, time
series on trade in insurance services,
and consequently on other commercial
services, have been revised back to
1992. To complete the 2003 revision,
in 2004 the United States added to
insurance services an estimate of
premium supplements (or income earned
on technical reserves of insurance
companies). Insurance companies
provide financial protection to policy
holders through the pooling of risk and
provide financial intermediation services
through the investment of reserves. The
income is treated as accruing to the
policy holders who pay it back to the
insurers as supplements to premiums
to cover the full cost of insurance.
The investment income of insurance
companies is not output in and of itself;
it is used to impute the value of the
implicit component of insurance services
attributable to financial intermediation.


3.5 Travel exports
and transportation
services exports and
imports of Japan
In order to enhance the coverage of
estimates of travel exports and imports,
the Bank of Japan and the Japanese
Ministry of Finance reviewed their
compilation methodology, notably by
including results from a new expenditure
survey of foreign travellers as of 2003.
This revision had a major impact on
the estimates for travel exports. This
methodology was reviewed in 2007
based on the results of a new survey
(International Travelers’ Survey on
Expenditures) which are used in the new
compilation method to directly estimate
the amounts spent by travelers to pay
for goods and services. This applies to
exports and imports data as from 2006.


3.6 Trade in other
commercial services
of India
In the course of 2004, the Reserve
Bank of India released new data
following the introduction of a new
reporting system to improve the
coverage of Indian trade in services
statistics (mainly affecting the item


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other business services). The data
shown in tables for India for “computer
services” refer to WTO Secretariat
estimates. The Indian figures reported
by the Reserve Bank of India and
international agencies refer to “software
services” (covering Information
Technology (IT) and IT enabled services).
The coverage of “software services”
does not correspond to the definition
of computer services in international
guidelines. WTO secretariat estimates
are drawn from the software figure
which is broken down into a computer/
IT component included in the item
“computer services”, and an IT enabled
services component included under
the item “miscellaneous business,
professional and technical services”
(under “other business services”). This
breakdown is done on the basis of the
information published in the annual RBI
report “Survey on Computer Software
& Information Technology Services
Exports”.


3.7 Trade in
commercial services of
United Arab Emirates
Commercial services trade statistics
of United Arab Emirates only cover
transportation and travel.


3.8 Trade in commercial
services of Nigeria
New data from 2005 compiled on the
basis of BPM5 recommendations were
released by the Bank of Nigeria in 2007.
This results in a break in series for
Nigerian data in 2005.


3.9 Trade in
commercial services
of South Africa
In 2006 the Reserve Bank of South
Africa improved its commercial services
estimates, and revised its data back to
2001 (resulting in a break in series for
that year).


3.10 Trade in other
commercial services
of Bahrain
New data compiled from 2004 for other
commercial services items, resulting in a
break in series for that year.


3.11 Trade in other
commercial services
of Oman
In 2008 new data compiled (new national
data from new survey of corporate firms
in 2007) for other commercial services
items, resulting in a break in series for
2005 for exports and 2003 for imports.


3.12 Trade in
commercial services
of the Islamic
Republic of Iran
Starting with 2004, Iran compiles data
according to the recommendations of
the BPM5.


3.13 Trade in
commercial services of
the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia
New data are compiled from 2005
according to BPM5 principles. Prior to
2008 a number of items (e.g. financial
services, other business services) were
still not all classified according to the
BPM5 definitions and some items were
received net.


3.14 Trade in
commercial services
of Singapore
Starting with 2009, trade in
commercial services figures of
Singapore are converted from the
BPM6 to the BPM5 presentation.
As figures for net exports under
merchanting are not separately
reported, exports of total commercial
services and of other commercial
services respectively are about
20% and 35% lower than previously
reported. The break in series of
2009 results from this difference in
coverage.


3.15 Trade in
commercial services
of France
Figures released in 2012 reflect a new
supplementary survey on international
trade in services (ECEIS), which is


submitted by resident non-financial
corporations exporting or importing
services that are not subject to the
general direct reporting requirement.
The expansion of the sample of
surveyed firms led to a break in series
and to a substantial upward revision
of service receipts and payments,
excluding travel, in 2009. Starting
with 2011, a new reporting system
has been implemented for financial
intermediaries, also resulting in a
break in series for financial services,
both credits and debits.


3.16 Trade in financial
services
For Singapore (from 1995), and
Switzerland, (from 1999) data on
trade in financial services include
Financial Intermediation Services
Indirectly Measured (FISIM). This
is not in accordance with BPM5
recommendations.


For Australia and Hong Kong (China),
data include FISIM starting from
2009, due to the countries’ transition
to BPM6. In the case of Hong Kong,
China FISIM have no geographical
breakdown.


4. Statistical sources
Most frequently used sources for
statistics are:


EUROSTAT, Comext and on-line
databases
FAO, FAOSTAT Agriculture database
FAO, Production Yearbook
GTIS, Global Trade Atlas database
IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics
IMF, International Financial Statistics
IMF, World Economic Outlook database
OECD, Main Economic Indicators
OECD, Measuring Globalisation:
The Role of Multinationals in
OECD Economies
OECD, Monthly Statistics of
International Trade
OECD, National Accounts
OECD, Statistics on International Trade
in Services
OECD/IEA, Energy Prices & Taxes
UNECE, Economic Survey of Europe
UNECLAC, Overview of the Economies
of Latin America and the Caribbean
UNIDO, National Accounts Statistics
Database


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UNSD, Comtrade database
(for OECD members the UNSD-OECD
Joint Trade Data Collection and
Processing system)
UNSD, International Trade Statistics
Yearbook
UNSD, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics
UNSD, Servicetrade database
World Bank, World Development
Indicators


These sources are supplemented
by national publications and other
international databases and Secretariat
estimates.


Figures for total merchandise trade are
largely derived from IMF, International
Financial Statistics. Data on
merchandise trade by origin, destination
and product are mainly obtained from
Eurostat’s Comext database, the Global
Trade Atlas and UNSD’s Comtrade
database. Some inconsistencies in the
aggregate export and import data for
the same country or territory between
sources are inevitable. These can
be attributed to the use of different


systems of recording trade, to the way in
which for example IMF and UNSD have
converted data expressed in national
currencies into dollars, and revisions
which can be more readily incorporated
in the IMF data.


Statistics on trade in commercial
services are mainly drawn from the
IMF Balance of Payments Statistics.
Data for European Union members, EU
candidate and EU observer countries as
well as the EU(27) aggregate are drawn
from Eurostat’s on-line database from
2004. For other economies that do not
report to the IMF (e.g., Chinese Taipei)
data are drawn from national sources.
Estimations for missing data are mainly
based on national statistics. Statistics on
trade in commercial services by origin
and destination are also derived from
national statistics.


GDP series in current dollars are mainly
derived from the World Bank World
Development Indicators, supplemented
in some cases with statistics from
the IMF World Economic Outlook
database.


Acknowledgements are due to the
Food and Agriculture Organization,
the International Monetary Fund,
the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development, the
Statistical Office of the European
Communities, the United Nations
Economic Commission for Europe,
the United Nations Economic
Commission for Latin America and
the Caribbean, the United Nations
Statistics Division, the United
Nations Industrial Development
Organization, the World Intellectual
Property Organization and the World
Bank whose assistance in supplying
advance information has greatly
facilitated the work of the Secretariat.
Acknowledgements are also due to
national institutions for providing
advance statistics.


Closing date for merchandise trade
statistics (Customs basis) and
commercial services (Balance of
Payments basis) is 15 July 2013.
For foreign affiliates trade in services
statistics the closing date is 16 August
2013.


208 World Trade OrganizationInternational Trade Statistics 2013
Download the data:
www.wto.org/statistics




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