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Trade Remedy Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements

Working paper by Teh, Robert /WTO; Prusa, Thomas J./ Rutgers University, USA, 2007

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This paper maps and examines the provisions on anti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguards in seventy-four regional trade agreements (RTAs). The RTAs vary in size, degree of integration, geographic region and the level of economic development of their members.


Staff Working Paper ERSD-2007-03 September 2007






World Trade Organization
Economic Research and Statistics Division














TRADE REMEDY PROVISIONS IN REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS











Robert Teh WTO


Thomas J. Prusa Department of Economics,
Rutgers University, New Brunswick,
New Jersey 08901-1248, USA


Michele Budetta University ”Cattolica del Sacro Cuore”,
Largo Gemelli 1, 21123 Milan, Italy


Manuscript date September 2007






Disclaimer: This is a working paper, and hence it represents research in progress. This
paper represents the opinions of the authors, and is the product of professional research. It is
not meant to represent the position or opinions of the WTO or its Members, nor the official
position of any staff members. Any errors are the fault of the authors. Copies of working
papers can be requested from the divisional secretariat by writing to: Economic Research and
Statistics Division, World Trade Organization, Rue de Lausanne 154, CH 1211 Geneva 21,
Switzerland. Please request papers by number and title.




Trade Remedy Provisions


in Regional Trade Agreements∗


Robert Teh†, Thomas J. Prusa‡ and Michele Budetta§


September 2007


Keywords: Regional trade agreement, anti-dumping, countervailing duties,
safeguards


JEL classifications: F13, F15, F53


∗The authors would like to thank staff of the WTO Secretariat and participants in the
Inter-American Development Bank-WTO conference on ”Regional Rules in the Global
Trading System” held in July 2006 in Washington, DC for their many helpful comments.
They are absolved of any remaining errors and omissions in the paper. The views expressed
in this paper are not meant to represent the positions or opinions of the WTO Secretariat
nor of its members and are without prejudice to members’ rights and obligations under
the WTO.


†World Trade Organization, Rue de Lausanne 154, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland.
Email: Robert.teh@wto.org.


‡Department of Economics, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-
1248, USA. Email: prusa@rutgers.edu.


§University ”Cattolica del Sacro Cuore”, Largo Gemelli 1, 21123 Milan, Italy.


1




Abstract


This paper maps and examines the provisions on anti-dumping,
countervailing duties and safeguards in seventy-four regional trade
agreements (RTAs). The RTAs vary in size, degree of integration, geo-
graphic region and the level of economic development of their members.
The key policy concern of the paper is that the elastic and selective na-
ture of trade remedies may lead to more discrimination, with reduced
trade remedy actions against RTA partners, but a greater frequency
of trade remedy actions against non-members. The adoption of RTA-
specific trade remedy rules increases this risk of discrimination, with
trade remedies against RTA members being abolished outright or be-
ing subjected to greater discipline. The templates used for mapping
the trade remedy provisions reflect this central concern.


The results of the mappings suggest the need to be vigilant about
increased discrimination arising from trade remedy rules in RTAs. A
number of RTAs have succeeded in abolishing trade remedies. Pro-
bit and multinomial logit model estimations suggest that these RTAs
are characterized by a higher share of intra-RTA trade and deeper
forms of integration that go well beyond the dismantling of border
measures. A fairly large number of RTAs have adopted RTA-specific
rules that tighten discipline on the application of trade remedies on
RTA members. In the case of anti-dumping for example, some provi-
sions increase de minimis volume and dumping margin requirements
and shorten the duration for applying anti-dumping duties relative to
the WTO Anti-dumping Agreement. In similar fashion, many of the
provisions on bilateral safeguards lead to tightened discipline or reduce
the incentives to take safeguard actions. Safeguard measures can be
imposed only during the transition period, have shorter duration pe-
riods and require compensation if put in place. Further, retaliation is
allowed if there is no agreement on compensation. RTA provisions on
global safeguards require that, under certain conditions, RTA partners
be exempted from multilateral safeguard actions. This conflicts with
multilateral rules which require that safeguard measures be applied
to all sources of imports and highlights the problem of trade diver-
sion. A small number of RTAs give a role to regional institutions to
conduct anti-dumping and countervailing duty investigations and to
review final determinations of national authorities. There is a theo-
retical presumption and some empirical evidence to suggest that this
reduces the frequency of anti-dumping initiations and final determina-
tions against RTA members. In the case of CVDs, we are unable to
find major innovations in CVD rules and practice by past and present
RTAs. A major reason for this may be the absence of commitments in
the RTA on meaningful or significant curbs on subsidies or state aid.


2




1 Introduction


This paper examines trade remedy provisions in regional trade agreements
(RTAs). By trade remedies are meant anti-dumping, countervailing and
emergency or safeguard measures. Anti-dumping and countervailing duties
can be levied on exporters who engage in “unfair” trading practices that
cause material injury to domestic producers. These unfair trading practices
can take the form of selling products below their “normal” price or of bene-
fiting from government-provided subsidies. Safeguard actions can be taken
even if there is no unfair trade practice so long as imports have increased
to an extent that serious injury has been suffered by domestic producers.
No matter the difference in conditions under which they can be triggered,
all these instruments represent internationally agreed means for a country
to temporarily increase the level of trade protection received by its injured
domestic industry.


1.1 Brief introduction of the issues


Despite the extensive literature on regionalism, not a lot is known about the
actual content of many of these RTAs. This is certainly true about the trade
remedy provisions. Thus, a major contribution of this paper to the literature
on regionalism is to provide baseline information about the contents of the
trade remedy provisions in RTAs. How many have been able to abolish
trade remedies and how many maintain the need for these instruments?
What are common features of trade remedy provisions in RTAs? Beyond
this role of filling gaps in our knowledge about the contents of RTA, the paper
also attempts to answer a range of other questions. Are there identifiable
families of trade remedy provisions (families differing by geographical regions
or nature of RTA for example)? What role do trade remedies play in RTAs?
Are there economic characteristics of the RTA members which are able to
statistically explain some key features of the trade remedy provisions? Will
the frequency of their use change as a consequence of RTA proliferation?


1.2 Survey of analytical and policy discussions surrounding
trade remedies


1.2.1 Why are trade remedies needed?


Why do trade agreements need trade remedy provisions? One explanation
for the near universal presence of trade remedy provisions in trade agree-
ments is the political economy of protectionism (Tharakan, 1995). The


3




long-term process of tariff liberalization in the post-world war II era has
successfully reduced tariff rates to very low levels worldwide. But import-
competing sectors would continue to have an incentive to secure protection
through whatever means they can find. Although trade remedy measures
are typically administered by bureaucracies which appear to be insulated
from political pressure, influence can be brought to bear on them indirectly
“through the shaping of the laws and regulations” which govern their work
(Finger, Hall and Nelson, 1982). One of the advantages offered by adminis-
tered protection to import competing sectors is that it is inherently biased
in their favour since it is a channel for complaints about an excess of import
competition and not of its lack. By design, the trade remedy bureaucracy
can only impose protection and not remove it (other than that which it
imposes itself).1


A second explanation sees trade remedy measures as a pragmatic tool to
deal with the political demands for protection that trade liberalization pro-
vokes (Jackson, 1997). Trade liberalization may lead to costs of adjustment.
If nothing is done to manage those costs, political pressure may build up to
a point where protectionist forces would be able to engineer a permanent re-
versal of trade liberalization. The introduction of trade remedy measures in
a trade agreement may be thought of as anticipating the possibility of such
difficult adjustments and the political pressure for protectionism that they
give rise to and providing a means to deflate this pressure with a temporary
reversal of liberalization. This implies that the depth of liberalization that
can be achieved by a trade agreement ex-ante may depend on whether there
are built-in escape clauses that allow governments to depart temporarily
from their liberalization commitments under well defined and circumscribed
conditions. Trade remedy measures address this need. While the use of the
trade remedy measures may result in ex-post welfare losses during periods
when the level of protection is temporarily increased, the deeper liberaliza-
tion that is allowed ex-ante means that this could be outweighed by the
long-term welfare gains.2


1Finger, Hall and Nelson (1982), p. 454. Moore (2002, 2006) offers an excellent
overview of US sunset policy.


2A recent paper by Moore and Zanardi (2007) has examined whether this particular
explanation for trade remedy measures can be empirically verified. They find that the
evidence for a sample of 23 developing countries is not supportive of the argument that
the availability of anti-dumping measures has contributed to tariff reductions. Instead,
they conclude that past use of anti-dumping may have led to less trade liberalization.


4




1.2.2 Trade remedies in RTAs


Since RTAs have the objective of dismantling all barriers to intra-regional
trade, one natural expectation is that RTA members will abolish the use of
trade remedies against intra-bloc trade. In fact, there are those who view
the elimination of trade remedies, in particular anti-dumping actions, as a
requirement under Article XXIV of GATT 1994, which deals with customs
unions and free trade areas. Paragraph 8(b) of GATT Article XXIV requires
WTO members, who form a preferential trade area, to “eliminate duties and
other regulations restricting trade”.3 Some have interpreted the reference to
“other regulations restricting trade” to include trade remedies, and to anti-
dumping actions in particular (Marceau, 1994). This view is strengthened
by the fact that paragraph 8(b) of GATT Article XXIV allows, where nec-
essary, RTA members to exclude certain GATT articles from the general re-
quirement to “eliminate other regulations restricting trade”.4 It would have
been easy to include GATT Articles VI (Anti-dumping and Countervailing
Duties) and XIX (Emergency Action on Imports of Particular Products) to
the excluded GATT articles, if that had been the intention of the framers of
the GATT. That they are not would suggest to some that RTAs which re-
tain the use of trade remedy instruments are inconsistent with GATT rules
(Marceau, 1994).


But the elimination of intra-regional tariffs may create new demands for
the protective effects of trade remedies. For a government entering into a free
trade agreement, import-competing sectors need to be given assurance that
they have the means to protect themselves from the unanticipated conse-
quences of the regional liberalization programme. Retaining trade remedies
in the regional trade agreement serves the useful purpose of soliciting politi-
cal support for the agreement. In these circumstances, trade remedies could
be seen in a similar light as long transition periods, complicated rules of
origin, and sensitive sectors in regional trade agreements, all of which result
in a slower process of liberalization for sensitive import-competing sectors.


3Article XXIV: 8(b) states that: “A free-trade area shall be understood to mean a group
of two or more customs territories in which the duties and other restrictive regulations of
commerce (except, where necessary, those permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV
and XX) are eliminated on substantially all the trade between the constituent territories
in products originating in such territories.”


4The GATT articles not covered by the requirement to eliminate “other regulations re-
stricting trade” include Article XI (General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions), XII
(Restrictions to Safeguard the Balance of Payments), XIII (Non-discriminatory Adminis-
tration of Quantitative Restrictions), XIV (Exceptions to the Rule of Non-discrimination),
XV (Exchange Arrangements) and XX (General Exceptions).


5




Instead of directly cushioning the effects of the RTA by drawing out the
process of tariff elimination, trade remedies achieve a different cushioning
effect by specifying a set of conditions – injury to the domestic industry
– under which the regional liberalization programme may be temporarily
suspended or partially reversed.


While abolishing trade remedies on RTA partners’ imports will most
likely increase intra-bloc trade, this does not necessarily mean that it is
welfare-enhancing. The ambiguity of the welfare impact stems from the
well-known insight that preferential trade arrangements have both trade
creation and trade diversion effects (Viner, 1950). The impetus given to
intra-regional trade by the abolition of trade remedy actions on RTA part-
ners’ trade may be at the expense of cheaper sources of imports that come
from non-members.


The danger in fact is that as intra-regional trade expands because of
falling intra-regional tariffs, administered protection becomes increasingly
directed at the imports of non-members. Bhagwati (1993) and Bhagwati
and Panagariya (1996) have argued that due to the “elastic” and selective
nature of administered protection, they can increase the risk of trade diver-
sion from RTAs. Administered protection is elastic because it is “subject to
serious arbitrariness and manipulation”. So apart from discrimination intro-
duced by preferential tariffs, the establishment of regional trade agreements
can lead to more discrimination against non-members of the RTA though
more frequent trade remedy actions. Thus, one key conclusion they derive
is that in a world teeming with RTAs, there is greater need for stronger
multilateral disciplines on trade remedies. It appears that both Bhagwati
(1993) and Bhagwati and Panagariya (1996) envisioned that this increase
in discrimination against non-members can take place without necessarily
requiring the adoption of special RTA rules on trade remedies. The elastic
and selective nature of trade remedy protection allows non-members to be
targeted more frequently.


But to the extent that RTAs adopt special or additional rules on trade
remedy actions on members’ trade, they can effectively increase the level
of discrimination against non-members. This increase in discrimination can
occur when RTA members abolish trade remedy actions against the trade
of RTA members but not against non-members’ trade. It could occur when
RTA members adopt rules that strengthen disciplines on trade remedy ac-
tions against the trade of RTA members but not against the trade of non-
members. While moves to strengthen disciplines on trade remedy actions
against RTA partners or to abolish trade remedy actions against RTA part-
ners outright appear good for trade, the welfare effects are ambiguous They


6




may simply lead to intra-regional imports substituting for cheaper sources
of imports from non-members (trade diversion). Since regional trade agree-
ments thrust us into the world of the second best, actions that look like
they will lead to an increase in economic efficiency may achieve exactly the
opposite effect.


The plan for the rest of the paper is as follows. Section 2 describes the
key economic characteristics of the RTAs that were included in the analysis.
Section 3 begins with a review of the available literature on the role of trade
remedies in trade agreements. Based on this review, a number of issues are
identified which need to be reflected in the mapping. One of those issues
is the possibility that trade remedies worsen the problem of trade diversion
in RTAs through rules that prohibit or deter trade remedy actions against
RTA partners. We also document some of the patterns in the incidence
or frequency of trade remedy actions over the past quarter of a century
that motivates the central concern in this paper on trade remedy rules in
RTAs. The section then presents the templates used in the mapping exercise
and also discusses some of the limitations inherent in relying primarily on
the legal text of the agreements. Section 4 discusses the results of mapping
anti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguards provisions in RTAs. The
information from the mappings is used to describe general features of the
trade remedy provisions and to provide answers to a few key questions.
Since only a small number of RTAs have actually abolished trade remedy
actions against RTA partners, Section 5 examines a number of proposed
explanations for why this could be the case and complements the analysis
with probit model estimates. Finally, Section 6 summarizes the results and
offers some conclusions.


2 RTAs Included in the Mapping


Seventy-four RTAs were surveyed for this paper (the list of the RTAs ap-
pears in Annex 1). The RTAs were selected based on a number of crite-
ria. As much as possible, they should be RTAs notified to the WTO. The
sample of RTAs should be geographically diverse, involving arrangements
from all major regions and should include North-North, South-South and
North-South RTAs. The sample should also include the most economically
important RTAs and there should be a greater representation of the more
recent generation of RTAs.


7




2.1 Key economic characteristics of the RTAs


The bulk of the 74 RTAs included in the survey have been notified to the
WTO.5 Collectively, the notified RTAs represented about 45% of the total
number of RTAs notified to the WTO under Article XXIV of GATT 1994
and the Enabling Clause.6 The RTAs surveyed accounted for about 52.5
percent ($ 4.7 trillion) of global merchandize import flows in 2005, although
not all of that trade receives preferential treatment. Intra-RTA imports in
2005 for the surveyed RTAs ranged from a high of $ 2.4 trillion (for the EC)
to a low of $ 73 million for the arrangement involving EFTA and the Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The share of intra-RTA trade was largest
(61 percent) for the EC and NAFTA (34.5 percent) while the smallest share
was for the FTA involving the EC with the Faroe Islands.


2.2 Other stylized facts


Crawford and Fiorentino (2005) and Fiorentino, Verdeja and Toqueboeuf
(2007) have provided a comprehensive picture of the current RTA land-
scape. They document the continuing increase in the number of RTAs be-
ing formed. Even countries in East Asia that have traditionally eschewed
preferential trade arrangements have now become active players in regional
trade negotiations. RTAs between developed and developing countries and
cross-regional agreements are on the increase. Many of the patterns they
have documented are apparent in the list of RTAs included in our survey.
A large number of the RTAs were formed just recently. Forty came into
force at the beginning of the current decade and 22 in the 1990s. Only 4
came into force in the 1980s; 4 in the 1970s; and 4 before 1970 (see Figure
1). The list is also geographically diverse with RTAs from North Amer-
ica, the Caribbean, Latin America, Asia and the Pacific, Africa, the Middle
East, Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe. A large majority
of the RTAs (46 RTAs) involve members who are a mix of developed and
developing countries.7 Twenty-two RTAs involve only developing countries
as members while 6 are RTAs with developed members only (see Figure


5Of the 74 RTAs included in this survey, only four have not yet been notified to the
WTO as of 18 July 2007. They are the Andean Community, the Group of Three, Mexico-
Northern Triangle and Mexico-Uruguay.


6As of 18 July 2007, 157 RTAs in force have been notified to the WTO under either
Article XXIV of GATT 1994 or the Enabling Clause of 1979. A further 48 RTAs in force
have been notified under Article V of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).


7“Developed countries” refer to Australia, Canada, EC, the members of EFTA, Japan,
New Zealand and the US. All other countries are classified as developing countries.


8




2). There is a pronounced hub-and-spoke and cross-regional pattern in the
RTAs in the sample (see Figure 3). The largest constellations are grouped
around the EC (future accession countries, Euromed and others), EFTA
and the US. But there are other active RTA players, which includes Mexico
(with 10 RTAs), Singapore (with 6 RTAs), Australia (with 5 RTAs), Chile
(with 5 RTAs) and Canada (with 4 RTAs). The sample is dominated by
free trade agreements with just a few preferential agreements of partial scope
(EC-OCT, SAPTA and SPARTECA), although there is a sizeable number
of customs unions (Andean Community, CACM, CARICOM, CEMAC, EC,
EC-Andorra, EC-Turkey, GCC, MERCOSUR and UEMOA).


The prominent hub-and-spoke and cross-regional pattern of the RTAs in
the sample accentuates features of the trade remedy provisions negotiated
by the major hubs – the EC, the US, the EFTA countries – and to a certain
extent the other major players. It would appear that each major hub was
negotiating according to certain trade remedy templates in mind. Thus,
while there could be regional (Asia-Pacific vs. Latin American) and tempo-
ral (earlier as opposed to later RTAs) differences in trade remedy provisions,
the more pronounced differences that are highlighted in this paper are those
that arise from the identity of the hub country.


3 Methodological Approach to the Mapping


3.1 Review of previous approaches to examining trade rem-
edy rules in RTAs


We know of no previous attempt to comprehensively and systematically
analyze trade remedy rules in regional trade agreements. However, the anti-
dumping rules in NAFTA have received some research attention. NAFTA
provides for the creation of bi-national panels which have the authority to
review anti-dumping determinations made by national authorities. To what
extent can the existence of such a regional institution affect the frequency
of anti-dumping initiations and measures against RTA partners?


The key policy concern that concern is the “elastic” and selective na-
ture of trade remedies which can lead to more discrimination, with reduced
trade remedy actions against RTA partners, but a greater frequency of trade
remedy actions against non-members. While reduced trade remedy actions
against RTA members may lead to more intra-regional trade, the welfare ef-
fects of this increased trade are ambiguous depending on the trade-creation
and trade diversion effects.


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3.1.1 Role of intra-regional institutions


The economic literature suggests one important avenue through which the
specific trade remedy rules in RTAs can reduce actions against imports from
RTA partners. It appears that the existence of a regional body which has
the power to review the determinations of national investigating authorities
can reduce the incidence of trade remedy actions against intra-RTA imports.


In the case of NAFTA and the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUS-
FTA) for example, a member state can request a review of the final anti-
dumping or countervailing duty determination made by the authority of
another NAFTA partner. Under Chapter 19 of NAFTA, this would be un-
dertaken by a bi-national panel, composed of five experts designated by the
concerned NAFTA members. While the scope of the review is limited to
determining whether the decision of the trade remedy authority is in ac-
cordance with national laws, the panel has the authority to remand it to
the concerned authority for action if it judges that the determination has
not been in accord with national laws. Chapter 19 also allows NAFTA
partners to request a bi-national panel review of a proposed amendment of
anti-dumping or countervailing duty statutes. The creation of bi-national
panels in NAFTA appears to have reflected Canadian concerns over US
anti-dumping and CVD actions (Gagné, 2000; Jones, 2000). If final deter-
minations can be subject to review not only by the courts or tribunals of the
country whose authorities imposed the measure but by a regional body as
well, it may provide an additional layer of objectivity (Gagné, 2000). The
existence of regional review bodies might also change the incentives for filing
unfair trade petitions by reducing the likelihood of an affirmative finding of
injurious unfair trade (Jones, 2000).


A number of empirical studies have tried to ascertain whether this spe-
cific provision in CUSFTA and NAFTA have had a discernible effect on the
number of US trade remedy actions against NAFTA partners and on the
final determinations by US authorities.


One possible test is to see whether there is a significant difference in
outcome of the appeals before bi-national panels as opposed to national tri-
bunals. Goldstein (1996) computes the ratio of the share of US unfair trade
orders against Canada as a proportion of Canadian imports to the United
States. She found that, in 1987, before the FTA, the Canadian ratio of AD
orders to its share of U.S. imports was 0.83. By the close of 1990, that
number had been reduced to 0.33. This reduction in unfair trade orders oc-
curred only in Canadian trade as the same ratio computed for the European
Community and Japan rose during the same period. She attributes this


10




shift to the rulings of the binational panels. Rugman and Anderson (1997)
reviewed the initial five-year period (1989-94) of the operation of CUSFTA.
They noted that two thirds of Canadian appeals of US trade remedy actions
before bi-national panels were remanded compared with one third for non-
NAFTA countries before US tribunals (the Court of International Trade).
Although they are critical of the bi-national panels and make a number
of recommendations for improving them, given this evidence they acknowl-
edged that Canada obtained a unique benefit from the bi-national panels
under CUSFTA.


Both the Goldstein and the Rugman and Anderson papers however did
not apply any statistical tests to the data. Using anti-dumping and coun-
tervailing duty filings of the US from 1980-97 and similar data of Canada
for 1985-97, Jones (2000) estimated a Poisson regression with macroeco-
nomic variables, imports, industry characteristics and an FTA dummy as
regressors. He found a robust inverse relationship between the introduction
of NAFTA Chapter 19 and the number of unfair trade petition filings. He
found that there was a statistically significant reduction in both US anti-
dumping filings against Canada and Canadian anti-dumping filings against
the US after NAFTA took effect.


Blonigen (2002) extended the study by Jones in a number of ways. First,
Mexico was included in the study. Second, instead of representing Chapter
19 as a time dummy, he used the number of requests for panels and or
remands, so more closely measuring the amount of Chapter 19 activity.
Third, Blonigen not only examined the possible effect of Chapter 19 on the
number of AD/CVD filings but also on the outcome of the reviews. Unlike
Jones, he found no evidence that bi-national reviews under Chapter 19 of
NAFTA affected the frequency of U.S. filings or affirmative determinations
against Canada and Mexico. However, he did discover some indication that
cumulative remands by Chapter 19 dispute panels to review U.S. decisions
against Canada have led to fewer affirmative decisions against Canada.


Thus, the mapping of RTA rules on trade remedies will need to include
a provision on regional institutions which are given the authority to review
decisions made by national authorities.


3.1.2 Frequency of trade remedy use


Before moving on to present the templates to be used for the mapping, we
document the frequency of anti-dumping activity over the past quarter of a
century and since 1995 for countervailing duties and safeguards.


First, of all we note that countries have a revealed preference for us-


11




ing anti-dumping compared to countervailing duties or safeguard measures.
Using the notifications made by members to the WTO over the 1995-2006
period, there were nearly nine times more anti-dumping initiations (3,044)
than there were countervailing duty (191) and safeguard (155) initiations
combined (see Table 1). Over the same period, there were ten times more
anti-dumping measures (1,941) than there were countervailing duty (115)
and safeguard measures (77) applied.8


Until the mid-1980s, most anti-dumping actions were taken by the four
traditional users (Australia, Canada, the EC and the US). Beginning in the
mid-1980s, anti-dumping actions began to spread beyond the traditional
users and to involve many developing countries (see Miranda, et al, 1998;
Prusa, 2005; Zanardi, 2004). Figure 4 gives an indication of the main trends.
First, total anti-dumping initiations have continued to rise during the two
decades since 1980, although there has been a significant drop in overall ac-
tivity since 2001. Second, anti-dumping initiations by the traditional users
have tailed off in the last decade. Third, the new users (primarily develop-
ing countries like Argentina, Brazil, India, and Mexico) have become quite
active and have been responsible for much of the growth of anti-dumping ac-
tivity since the mid-1990s. The new users initiate anti-dumping cases more
intensively (15 to 20 times more frequently per dollar of imports) than his-
torically predominant users like the US and the EC (Prusa, 2005). Lastly,
anti-dumping actions by developing countries are increasingly directed at
other developing countries. For the period 1995-2006, more than 70 percent
of all anti-dumping initiations by developing countries were against other
developing countries.


The average annual number of countervailing duty initiations has been
about 16 per year but with an apparent decline in recent years. The bulk of
all countervailing duty actions have been taken by the United States, the EC
and Canada. Based on notifications to the WTO, the three WTO members
accounted for nearly three-fourths of all CVD initiations during the past
twelve years (see Figure 5). More than two-thirds of all CVD initiations
were directed at developing countries, with India being the most frequent
target. With regards to safeguards, the average annual number of initiations
is about 13 per year. About 70 percent of all safeguard initiations are taken
by developing countries, principally India, Jordan, Chile and Turkey.9


While all discriminatory applications of trade remedies increase the trade
diversion effects of an RTA, the evidence presented here highlights the par-


8It should be noted though that a safeguard action may involve multiple import sources.
9See Yano (2006).


12




ticular importance of anti-dumping given the frequency with which it is
applied by many developed and developing countries. RTA provisions that
abolish or increase the discipline on anti-dumping actions against RTA mem-
bers can potentially have far more damaging effects. One other implication
is that while discriminatory anti-dumping rules in RTAs may reduce anti-
dumping actions against RTA members, they will not necessarily reduce the
total number of anti-dumping actions. Anti-dumping initiations or mea-
sures against non-members may increase to such an extent that the total
incidence of anti-dumping actions at the global level remains unchanged.


3.2 Benchmarks (templates) used for the mapping


3.2.1 Introduction


The mappings that are presented in this paper are drawn almost exclusively
from the legal text of the regional trade agreements. In a small number
of cases primarily involving older RTAs, the mapping has also relied on
directives or decisions that were enacted subsequently, several years after
the RTA came into force. The purpose of the mappings is first of all to
understand the nature of these rules but also to extract explanatory or
predictive power from the mapping which could be used to test empirically
testable hypotheses about trade remedies in RTAs. For this to hold, one
needs to be able to assume that legal provisions in the RTAs coincide with
actual practice. One important caveat to recognize then is the potential
cleavage between the language contained in the agreements and how the
provisions are actually implemented. Although the legal text controlling
trade remedy practice may sometimes be similar across RTAs, there could
be large variation in trade remedy practices that in turn generate differences
in outcomes.


Blonigen and Prusa (2001) have emphasized the importance of the in-
stitutional process surrounding the anti-dumping investigation and deter-
minations and argued that these have significant impacts beyond the anti-
dumping duty finally observed. They pointed to the substantial discretion
enjoyed by authorities in their decisions on dumping margins and injury
determinations. They identified a number of differences in anti-dumping
practices across countries. The level of transparency varied and seemed to
be a problem for new users. Price undertakings were common in some coun-
tries but not in others. Some countries began collecting anti-dumping duties
only a few days after a petition was filed although most countries waited
until a preliminary injury determination was made. Some countries levied


13




an anti-dumping duty equal to the full dumping margin while others levied
a lesser amount.


Blonigen (2003) noted that the average dumping margin calculated by
the US Department of Commerce (DOC) had risen from an average of 15.5
percent in the early 1980s to an average of 63 percent by 2000. During
the same time, the proportion of cases which the US International Trade
Commission found material injury rose from 45 percent in the early 1980s
to 60 percent by 2000. He concluded that DOC discretionary practices
have played the major role in rising dumping margins. Importantly, the
evolving effect of discretionary practices was due not only to increasing use
of these practices over time, but apparent changes in implementation of these
practices that meant a higher increase in the dumping margin whenever they
were applied.


The recent survey by Horlick and Vermulst (2005) of the anti-dumping
practices in ten major user countries – Australia, Brazil, China, the EC,
India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and the US – showed that
this problem extended to many countries. They identified a number of
problem areas: procedural issues, determination of dumping margins, in-
jury determinations and procedural issues. They found that the increasing
use of constructed normal values gave too much discretion to anti-dumping
authorities in determining the existence of dumping. They reached a similar
conclusion that there was too much administrative discretion in the deter-
mination of injury, injury margins and causation.


What these studies imply is that while the legal provisions on trade
remedies in RTAs provide important information, they may not be enough.
The institutional setting, the administrative procedures and practices will
need to be examined to ascertain what part they play in determining the
trade and welfare effects of trade remedy actions. However, we are unable
to take these factors into account in this paper. While acknowledging this
concern, we nevertheless think that the mapping of trade remedy provi-
sions continues to be a useful exercise and the only test of whether there
is predictive power from the mapping will come from empirically grounded
tests of specific hypothesis about trade remedy practice in regional trade
agreements.


3.2.2 Anti-dumping


Given the discussion earlier about the importance of ascertaining whether
trade remedy rules in RTAs treat RTA members more favourably than non-
members, a two-level template is adopted for the comparative analysis of


14




anti-dumping provisions. In the first level of the template, the key questions
that are asked are: (i) whether anti-dumping action is disallowed among the
members and (ii) if specific rules on anti-dumping apply to RTA members’
trade. If specific anti-dumping rules apply to RTA members, the second
level of the template maps these specific provisions of the agreement.


Level 1 elements for anti-dumping The first and more important
level of the template classifies anti-dumping provisions in RTAs into three
mutually-exclusive categories. The first category of RTAs includes those
which disallow anti-dumping actions among the RTA members. The second
category includes RTAs which have no such prohibition, but which at the
same time, develop no specific language or provisions on anti-dumping. The
final category is made up of RTAs which allow anti-dumping action and
which contain specific provisions on anti-dumping.


Level 2 elements for anti-dumping For those RTAs which contain
specific rules on anti-dumping, the second level of the template maps these
specific provisions in some detail. The second-level template is mainly pat-
terned after the Anti-dumping Agreement of the WTO. Thus it includes
elements such as determination of dumping, determination of injury, ev-
idence, provisional measures, price undertakings, duration and review of
anti-dumping duties and price undertakings, and notification and consulta-
tion. But it includes elements that are either quite unique in to regional
agreements or which have been highlighted in the literature that is available
on anti-dumping in RTAs.


As noted above, one important avenue through which trade remedy rules
in RTAs can affect the probability of trade remedy actions among RTA
partners is through the establishment of a regional body which has the
power to conduct investigations or has the authority to review or remand
final determinations of national authorities.


The template used to map the anti-dumping provisions of the RTAs
appears in Table 2.


3.2.3 Countervailing duties


A similar two-level template is adopted in the case of countervailing duties.
One addition to the first-level countervailing duty template is information
concerning the presence of a common policy or programme on subsidies and
any additional disciplines that are imposed on the use of subsidies and state
aid. Under multilateral rules, countervailing duties can be levied on imports


15




which benefit from subsidies if they cause or threaten material injury to
an established domestic industry, or are such as to retard materially the
establishment of a domestic industry. If the RTA members have a common
policy on subsidies or state aid, they may be able to dispense with the use of
countervailing duties. Alternatively, if the RTA members are able to agree
on additional disciplines that apply to subsidies or state aid, then it may
be possible to limit the application of countervailing duties in the RTA. But
absent a common subsidy policy or additional disciplines on subsidies, it
is unlikely for the provisions governing countervailing duties in the RTA to
depart from multilateral rules or practice.


Level 1 elements for countervailing duties The first level classifies
CVD provisions in RTAs into three mutually-exclusive categories. The first
group of RTAs are those RTAs which disallow CVD actions against RTA
members. The second category includes RTAS with no specific CVD provi-
sions. And the third are those with specific CVD rules that apply to RTA
members’ trade. And as discussed above, additional information about re-
gional disciplines on subsidies and state aid are included in the first level of
the template.


Level 2 elements for countervailing duties The second and more de-
tailed level of the template involves determining whether certain provisions
are present in the third category of RTAs and is basically patterned after
the Subsidies and Countervailing Duties Agreement (SCM) of the WTO.
These include provisions on: conditions for applying CVDs, initiation and
subsequent investigation, evidence, consultation, determination of injury,
definition of domestic industry, provisional measures, undertakings, impo-
sition and collection of CVDs, retroactivity, duration and review of CVDs
and undertakings, S & D treatment of developing countries, subsidization
by third countries and dispute settlement. We include information on the
role of regional institutions in the administration of countervailing duties.
Regional bodies that have the authority to conduct CVD investigations and
to review and remand final determinations seem to be the most important.


The template used to map the countervailing duties provisions of the
RTAs appears in Table 3.


3.2.4 Safeguards


We need to distinguish between “bilateral” and “global” safeguard provisions
in regional trading agreements.


16




Bilateral safeguard actions are meant to apply only to the trade of other
RTA members. Bilateral actions provide a temporary escape hatch for mem-
bers when as a result of undertaking the commitments under the agreement,
i.e. reducing preferential tariffs, increased imports from RTA partners result
in serious injury to the domestic industry. Triggering the safeguard provision
in the RTA allows a member to relieve itself of its RTA obligations temporar-
ily, with the period of relief providing the beleaguered domestic industry the
opportunity to adjust towards free trade. In fact, these actions are worded
in that way – bilateral safeguards – in a number of RTA agreements. But
even in those RTAs where this distinction is not made explicitly, the safe-
guard provision is clearly meant to address emergency situations that occur
as a result of the preferential treatment accorded to partners’ imports.


One aspect of bilateral safeguard actions that is of particular interest
is the special safeguard mechanism. They are special in at least two ways.
Firstly, they are triggered by a different mechanism, typically involving price
and/or quantity thresholds. Second, they do not require that injury to
the domestic industry be demonstrated. They are applied to traditionally
sensitive sectors like agricultural products and textiles and clothing.


Global safeguard actions are those actions that are triggered under GATT
Article XIX (Emergency Action on Imports of Particular Products) and the
Agreement on Safeguards. Multilateral rules require that any safeguard
measure be applied on a non-discriminatory basis.10 Typically, the RTA
provisions on global safeguard actions specify the conditions under which
RTA partners could be excluded from multilateral safeguard actions invoked
by an RTA member.


Provisions of both bilateral and global actions are included in the safe-
guard template and mapping.


Level 1 elements for safeguards The first level of the template classifies
safeguard provisions in RTAs into three mutually-exclusive categories. The
first category includes RTAS which disallow safeguard actions among RTA
partners. The second covers RTAs which allow such actions but have no
specific provisions. The third category includes those RTAs which both
allow safeguard actions and have specific language governing those actions.
The second and more detailed level of the template involves a classification
of the provisions contained in the third category of RTAs.


10Article 2.2 of the Agreement on Safeguards states that: “Safeguard measures shall be
applied to a product being imported irrespective of its source.”


17




Level 2 elements for safeguards Much of the template used for map-
ping safeguard provisions is basically patterned after the Agreement on Safe-
guards of the WTO, although other elements are included as well. The el-
ements include provisions on: conditions for the application of safeguards,
determination of injury, investigation, application of safeguard measures,
provisional measures, duration and review of safeguard measures, compen-
sation (equivalent level of concession), retaliation (suspension of equivalent
concessions), treatment of developing countries, existence of a regional au-
thority, notification and consultation, dispute settlement, special safeguards
and relationship to WTO agreements. Given that many of these elements
are familiar from the Safeguards Agreement, we shall highlight those that
are not found in that Agreement.


Like in the previous two templates, we allow a role for regional bodies in
safeguard actions. Regional institutions could have a coordinating function,
serving for example, as a clearinghouse for information on emergency action.
Or regional authorities could conduct safeguard investigations and/or review
safeguard measures taken by national authorities. The template maps infor-
mation regarding provisions on global safeguard actions, if they exist in the
RTA. Under what conditions can an RTA member exclude other RTA mem-
bers from safeguard actions invoked under Article XIX of GATT 1994 and
the WTO Agreement on Safeguards? Finally, given the role of trade rem-
edy instruments in managing regional trade liberalization, the template also
takes into account the existence of special safeguard provisions for products
or sectors which are politically sensitive.


The template used to map the countervailing duties provisions of the
RTAs appears in Table 4.


4 Analysis of the Mapping


4.1 Anti-dumping


A detailed mapping of the anti-dumping provisions of the 74 RTAs in our
sample using the two levels of the anti-dumping template are presented
in Tables 5A and 5B. Only a small number (9) of RTAs have disallowed
anti-dumping. These are Canada-Chile, CER (Australia-New Zealand),
China-Hong Kong, China-Macao, the European Communities (EC), Eu-
ropean Economic Area (EEA), European Free Trade Association (EFTA),
EFTA-Chile and EFTA-Singapore. In the case of the EEA, the prohibition
on anti-dumping applies only to intra-regional trade of goods that fall under
chapters 25 to 97 of the harmonized system. In other words, anti-dumping


18




measures can still be taken against agricultural and fishery goods.11 The
Chile-Mexico FTA, which came into force in 1999, stipulated future negotia-
tions between the partners that will lead to the removal of anti-dumping ac-
tions. However, it appears that the negotiations to achieve this goal have not
been successfully concluded. Eighteen RTAs have no specific anti-dumping
provisions. The large majority (47) of the RTAs contain specific language
or further elaboration of anti-dumping rules that applies to partners in the
RTA. It should be noted though that 9 of those 47 RTAs only state that
anti-dumping actions against RTA partners should adhere to GATT Article
VI and the WTO’s Agreement on Anti-dumping. Thus, they could as well
have been classified as RTAs with no specific provision on anti-dumping.12


Some of the specific language in the RTAs increases the threshold re-
quired to apply anti-dumping duties or shortens its duration. For example,
the Andean Community requires a higher de minimis volume (6%) and man-
dates a shorter period (3 years) for applying anti-dumping duties than the
WTO Anti-dumping Agreement. The New Zealand-Singapore FTA has a
higher de minimis dumping margin (5%) and a higher de minimis volume
requirement (5%) than the WTO benchmark. MERCOSUR also limits the
duration of anti-dumping duties to 3 years (compared to 5 years in the WTO
agreement).


Of the 74 RTAs included in the survey, five (Andean Community, Cen-
tral American Common Market, CARICOM, NAFTA and UEMOA) give
a role to regional bodies to conduct investigations and/or review the fi-
nal determinations of national authorities. In the Andean Community, the
Secretary-General of the Andean Community is given the authority to open
and conduct anti-dumping investigations and decide on provisional and fi-
nal anti-dumping duties. The Secretariat for Central American Economic
Integration (SIECA) is the regional body given the authority to conduct
anti-dumping investigations in the CACM. In the CARICOM, one of the
regional organs – the Council for Trade and Development (COTED) – has
the authority to conduct anti-dumping investigations, to authorize member
states to apply anti-dumping measures and to keep such measures under
review. The UEMOA Commission is the regional body in charge of anti-
dumping in UEMOA. In the case of NAFTA, the establishment of bi-national
panels can be requested by any of the members to review final anti-dumping
determinations.


11This is based on communication with the EFTA Secretariat.
12The 9 RTAs are EC-Chile, EC-Egypt, EC-Lebanon, EC-Mexico, EC-South Africa,


Korea-Chile, Mexico-Israel, SADC and US-CAFTA-Dominican Republic.


19




With the exception of NAFTA, the four other RTAs are customs unions.
Some of these regional groupings have a history of relying heavily on re-
gional institutions in the integration process. The Andean Community and
the CARICOM, in particular, are composed of small member states and it
could be argued that certain public goods may be better delivered by re-
gional institutions than national ones because of the possibility of pooling
expertise and resources. In the context of the current WTO negotiations for
example, CARICOM countries have tabled proposals that will allow WTO
Members to designate a regional body to carry out the functions necessary
to implement the provisions of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agree-
ment, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Trade-Related
Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. These WTO agreements
have implementation obligations that seem to pose very high hurdles for
developing countries, particularly for the smallest ones. This explanation
has some similarity to the argument made by Andriamananjara and Schiff
(1999) that a microstate’s decision to form, expand, or join a regional or-
ganization is based on reduced negotiating costs and increased bargaining
power, rather than on the traditional costs and benefits of trade integration.
While the use of regional bodies in anti-dumping actions in these RTAs may
have been intended as a device to lower the cost of public good provision,
it also mitigates the ability of domestic producers to inveigle a compliant
national investigating authority to find for them in dumping cases. Thus, all
things being equal, an RTA that gives a role to regional institutions in con-
ducting investigations and in final determinations may see less anti-dumping
initiations and findings.


Almost all of the RTAs entered into by the EC contain specific language
on anti-dumping. These provisions have a number of common character-
istics. There is a regional body that is established to oversee the whole
RTA. When (or even before) an anti-dumping action is initiated, the re-
gional body is informed and attempts are made by the partners to arrive
at a mutually agreed solution. If no mutually acceptable solution is found,
the action (investigation or final determination) proceeds. Provisional anti-
dumping measures can be taken if delay will lead to material injury. Almost
all of these EC-centred RTAs establish regional bodies (joint committees)
to oversee the implementation of the agreement. But apart from serving as
a forum for consultations or notification, they play no central role in how
the anti-dumping process affecting intra-regional trade unfolds. The RTAs
which the EFTA countries have entered into with the same partners as the
EC also exhibit similar characteristics.


With the big exception of NAFTA, the RTAs entered into by the US


20




(Australia-US, US-Bahrain, US-CAFTA & Dominican Republic, US-Chile,
US-Jordan, US-Israel, US-Morocco, US-Singapore) have no specific pro-
visions on anti-dumping. The bulk of these have been negotiated after
NAFTA. One interpretation that can be put on this is that the US wants to
preserve its autonomy in applying its anti-dumping procedures against RTA
partners.


To our mind, the large number of RTAs (56) that have either abolished
anti-dumping actions against RTA members or have drawn up specific rules
on anti-dumping action against RTA members should raise some concern
about increased discrimination, whether per se or de facto, against non-
members. From a welfare standpoint, the concern is with the likelihood of
greater trade diversion arising from the design of the anti-dumping rule of
the RTA.


4.2 Countervailing duties


The detailed mapping of the countervailing duty provisions using the two
levels of the countervailing duty template are presented in Tables 6A and
6B. Only five RTAs have abolished countervailing duties. These RTAs are
China-Hong Kong, China-Macao, European Communities, EEA and EFTA.
However, in the case of EFTA and the EEA, CVDs are disallowed only for
products falling under chapters 25 to 97 of the Harmonized System, i.e.
CVDs can be applied to agricultural and fishery products.13 The great
majority of the surveyed RTAs either have no specific countervailing duty
provisions (30 RTAs) or have specific provisions on CVDs that allow the use
of such measures (39 RTAs). But of those RTAs with specific provisions on
CVDs, 17 only state that all CVD actions should be in accord with GATT
Article VI and the SCM Agreement. Thus, we only have 22 RTAs with
any detailed provision on CVD actions. But even then, the only interest-
ing RTA provisions are those where regional bodies are allowed to conduct
CVD investigations or have the power to review and remand final CVD de-
terminations. The four RTAs involved are the Andean Community, CACM,
CARICOM and NAFTA.


This result suggests that there has been little tinkering with CVD rules
in the sample of RTAs surveyed. This can in turn be traced to the lack of
movement at the RTA level in agreeing on additional curbs on subsidies or
state aid. We have included information in the template on the type of com-
mitments made by RTA members on subsidies and state aid. The only quite


13This is based on communication with the EFTA Secretariat.


21




explicit provision we have found is the prohibition or elimination of export
subsidies to agricultural products in sixteen RTAs, none of which involve the
EC or EFTA. The RTAs which have prohibited export subsidies on agri-
cultural products are Australia-Singapore, Australia-Thailand, Australia-
US, Canada-Chile, Canada-Costa Rica, CER, Group of Three, Mexico-
Chile, Mexico-Nicaragua, Mexico-Northern Triangle, Mexico-Uruguay, New
Zealand-Singapore, US-Bahrain, US-CAFTA-Dominican Republic, US-Chile
and US-Morocco. But apart from this, there is often only the quite general
undertaking against state aid that distorts competition. It appears that
countries have not put subsidy programmes on the table in their RTA nego-
tiations and thus feel a continuing need for countervailing duties as a weapon
to wield against such support. While it is possible to agree to a reduction
or elimination of subsidies in an RTA negotiation, part of the trade benefits
from that will be captured by non-members. The reluctance to give away
a “freebie” may explain why the only meaningful negotiation on further
reductions in agricultural subsidies is occurring at the multilateral level.


Given these, it does not appear that there is increased threat of trade
diversion arising from the specific rules adopted on countervailing duties in
the RTAs covered in this study.


4.3 Safeguards


A detailed mapping of the safeguard provisions in RTAs using the two lev-
els of the safeguard template are presented in Tables 7A and 7B. Only five
RTAs (Australia-Singapore, Canada-Israel, European Communities, MER-
COSUR and New-Zealand-Singapore) have ruled out the use of safeguard
measures against a partner’s trade. In the case of MERCOSUR, Annex IV
of the Treaty of Asuncion only allowed the application of safeguard clauses
to imports of products benefiting from the trade liberalization programme
established under the Treaty up to 31 December 1994. Only 4 (CACM,
CEMAC, EC-Andorra and GCC) have no specific safeguard provisions. The
great majority of RTAs (65) surveyed have specific provisions on safeguards.
Interestingly, none of the RTAs included in the survey give a role to regional
institutions in conducting safeguard investigations or in reviewing findings
by national authorities.


4.3.1 Bilateral safeguards


There is a clear difference between the EC and EFTA-centric RTAs and
those involving the other major hubs: the US, Mexico, Chile, Australia,


22




Singapore and Canada. In these latter RTAs, safeguard measures are im-
posed only during the transition period, the stipulated period for intra-RTA
tariffs to be eliminated. For the most part, the safeguard measured allowed
is a suspension of the process of tariff reduction or, at worst, an increase
of the preferential rate to the MFN level. The RTAs limit the duration
of the safeguard measure to between one to three years, which is shorter
than the prescribed limit of four years under the Agreement on Safeguards.
The RTAs require a member to maintain an equivalent level of concession if
that member imposes a safeguard measure. Unlike the Agreement on Safe-
guards, if no mutually acceptable compensation is agreed upon between the
concerned members, the right to retaliation is not restricted.14


Limiting safeguard measures to the transition period and the shorter
duration of such measures lessen the impact of safeguard actions on intra-
regional trade. Further, the provisions on compensation and retaliation
provide greater deterrence to the use of bilateral safeguard actions in the
RTA. It is possible to argue that these features of the safeguard rule in
RTAs do not increase discrimination against non-members of the RTA. Cer-
tainly, if the safeguard action is triggered by the RTA’s tariff reduction
programme and increased imports from RTA members, the action is solely
bilateral – taken only against RTA partners and there is no spillover effect
on non-members. However, one can contemplate situations where imports
are increasing from many sources, RTA and non-RTA members alike, and
the higher threshold for successfully mounting a bilateral safeguard action
leads a country to invoke a global safeguard action. Thus, differences in the
disciplines on safeguard actions applying to imports from RTA and non-RTA
sources may lead to more frequent global actions penalizing non-members
more than would otherwise have been the case.


4.3.2 Special safeguard mechanism


Sixteen RTAs have special safeguard provisions which create a different
threshold for imposing additional protective measures on sensitive sectors.
The RTAs include AFTA, Australia-Thailand, Australia-US, Canada-Chile,
Canada-Costa Rica, EC-Chile, EC-South Africa, Group of Three, Korea-
Chile, Mexico-Northern Triangle, NAFTA, US-Bahrain, US-CAFTA-DR,
US-Chile, US-Morocco and US-Singapore. These special safeguard measures
typically allow a RTA member to impose additional duties on sensitive im-


14Article 8.3 of the Safeguard Agreement requires that retaliation not be exercised for
the first three years that a safeguard measure is in effect, provided that there has been an
absolute increase in imports.


23




ports, although the tariff should not exceed the MFN rate, once imports
cross either a volume or price threshold. They could be imposed even with-
out showing serious injury or threat of serious injury. Further, they normally
extend beyond the transition period of the RTA. The sensitive sectors are
usually agriculture and textiles and apparel. These special safeguard provi-
sions should probably be seen as part of the portfolio of trade management
instruments, which include long transition periods, sectoral carve-outs and
complex and restrictive rules of origin, to mitigate the effects of the RTA on
import-sensitive industries.


4.3.3 Provisions on global safeguards


The threat of discrimination becomes more explicit in those RTA provi-
sions that touch on global safeguards. Eighteen RTAs have provisions on
global safeguards with 14 taking exceptions to one or more provisions of
GATT Article XIX and the Agreement on Safeguards. These exceptions
take the form of RTA members excluding the imports of RTA partners
from global safeguard actions, unless the imports account for a substan-
tial share of total imports and they contribute importantly to the serious
injury, or threat thereof. The RTAs include Australia-Thailand, Australia-
US, Canada-Chile, Canada-Israel, EC-Chile, Mexico-Chile, Mexico-Israel,
Mexico-Nicaragua, Mexico-Northern Triangle, Mexico-Uruguay, NAFTA,
US-CAFTA-DR, US-Jordan and US-Singapore.


Now, the Agreement on Safeguards requires that safeguard measures be
applied to all imports irrespective of source (non-discrimination).15 Thus,
the exclusion of RTA partners from a safeguard action poses a potential
conflict between regional and multilateral rules.16 This conflict has been
addressed in a number of WTO dispute cases (Argentina–Footwear, United
States–Wheat Gluten, United States–Line Pipe and United States–Steel). In
these cases, the investigating authority had included imports from all sources
in making the determination that imports were entering in such increased
quantities so as to cause serious injury to the domestic industry. But instead
of applying safeguard measures to all imports irrespective of their source,
the country invoking the safeguard action excluded its RTA partners. In
Argentina–Footwear, Argentina had included MERCOSUR imports in the
analysis of factors contributing to injury to its domestic industry. But it


15Article 2, par. 2 of the Safeguards Agreement states that “Safeguard measures shall
be applied to a product being imported irrespective of its source.”


16Bown (2004) discusses the discriminatory protection contained in the 2002 US steel
safeguard action.


24




excluded MERCOSUR countries from the application of the safeguard mea-
sure. In United States–Wheat Gluten, the US excluded Canada from the
application of its safeguard action although imports of wheat gluten from
Canada were included in the investigation phase. In the United States–Line
Pipe case, the US excluded imports from its NAFTA partners from the safe-
guard measure. And in United States–Steel, the US included all sources of
imports in its analysis of increasing imports, injury serious injury and the
causal nexus. However, it excluded its NAFTA partners, Israel and Jordan
from the application of its safeguard action. In all four cases, the Appellate
Body had ruled against the WTO member which included its RTA partners
in the safeguard investigation but excluded them in the application of the
safeguard measure.


The key concept that underlines all these cases has been called “par-
allelism”. The WTO’s Appellate Body acknowledged that the word paral-
lelism is not found in the text of the Agreement on Safeguards; however, it
considered that the requirement of parallelism is found in the language used
in the first and second paragraphs of Article 2 of the Agreement on Safe-
guards.17 In brief, parallelism prohibits any asymmetry in the application of
safeguards measures. Regionalism is just the most relevant and prominent
application of parallelism to date. In the case of RTAs, parallelism means
that when a WTO Member has conducted a safeguard investigation consid-
ering imports from all sources, it cannot, subsequently, without any further
analysis, exclude imports from RTA partners from the application of the
resulting safeguard measure.18 In order to be able to exclude imports from
RTA partners, the investigating authority must establish explicitly that im-
ports from non-RTA sources alone caused serious injury or threat of serious
injury to the domestic industry. The investigating authority, in its causality
analysis, should ensure that the effects of the excluded (RTA) imports are
not attributed to the imports included in the safeguard measure.19


While the elaboration of the principle of parallelism by the Appellate
Body in these four cases has clarified one issue, WTO jurisprudence has
not provided a definitive ruling to what extent GATT Article XXIV could
be relied on by a WTO member to exclude RTA partners from the appli-
cation of a safeguard measure. One dispute (between the US and Korea)
in which this issue was given some consideration was the US– Line Pipe
case. There the US argued that GATT Article XXIV gave it the right to


17See Appellate Body Report, US −−Steel, para. 439.
18Appellate Body Report, US – Steel, para. 441.
19Appellate Body Report, US – Steel, para. 453.


25




exclude its NAFTA partners from the scope of the safeguard measure. The
panel accepted the US argument that the exclusion of its RTA partners from
safeguard actions forms part of the required elimination of “restrictive reg-
ulations of commerce” on “substantially all the trade” among the free trade
area members, which is a condition required by GATT Article XXIV. The
panel decision was subsequently appealed by Korea. On appeal, the Appel-
late Body declared the ruling by the panel on Article XXIV as moot and
having no legal effect.20 The question whether Article XXIV of the GATT
1994 permits imports originating from an RTA partner to be exempted from
a safeguard measure becomes relevant only in two circumstances. The first
was when the imports from RTA members were not included in the safe-
guard investigation. The second was when imports from RTA members were
included in the safeguard investigation it nevertheless was established ex-
plicitly that imports from sources outside the free-trade area, alone, satisfied
the conditions for the application of a safeguard measure. Since neither of
these applied to the circumstances surrounding the US – Line Pipe case,
the issue was not relevant to the case. The Appellate Body was careful to
point out though that, in taking this decision, it was not ruling on the ques-
tion whether Article XXIV of the GATT 1994 permits exempting imports
originating in a member of a free-trade area from a safeguard measure. This
decision thus leaves the question of an appeal to GATT Article XXIV still
very much open.21


The provisions excluding RTA partners from global safeguard actions
raises concerns about increased discrimination against non-members and
trade diversion. AlthoughWTO dispute settlement panels have ruled against
excluding RTA partners from safeguard measures if imports from those RTA
partners had been included in the investigation, they appeared to have done
so on quite narrow grounds – on the lack of parallelism in the application
of safeguard measures. Conceivably, under a different set of circumstances,
exclusion of RTA partners from safeguard measures could pass muster.


5 Abolishing Trade Remedies in RTAs


About a sixth of the RTAs surveyed have managed to abolish the application
of trade remedies on intra-regional trade. Only one RTA – the European
Communities – has managed to abolish all three forms of trade remedies
on members’ trade. Are there any economic factors which distinguish these


20Appellate Body Report, US – Line Pipe, para. 199.
21See Pauwelyn, J (2004) for a discussion of this issue.


26




RTAs and which could explain why they have been able to abolish trade
remedy measures against members’ trade?


Perhaps the leading candidate to explain the abolition of trade remedy
measures, particularly anti-dumping, is the depth of market integration en-
visioned in the RTA. RTAs that aim at deeper integration, going beyond
the elimination of border measures, and harmonizing or even in some cases
adopting common internal regulations, are more likely to do away with trade
remedy measures. We have already alluded to the role of a harmonized or
a common subsidy policy in explaining the type of CVD provisions that
can be adopted in an RTA. De Araujo, et al. (2001) have argued that the
implementation of common macro- and micro-economic policies in the EU
reduced the social and political cost related to the removal of anti-dumping.
They point in particular to the role that structural funds played in easing
the need for anti-dumping as a trade adjustment measure. Wooton and Za-
nardi (2002) link the phasing out of anti-dumping with the creation a single
market. They point as examples to the experiences of the European Com-
munities and the European Economic Area. In their view, the elimination
of anti-dumping was a necessary step to achieving a common market.


A second explanation that is sometimes provided is the adoption of a
common competition policy by members of the RTA. RTAs that adopt a
common competition policy may find anti-dumping to be redundant. Of
course, the two explanations are not mutually exclusive since a common
competition policy may not make sense until a sufficiently high level of inte-
gration is achieved. However, Hoekman (1998) dismisses the notion of a link
between the adoption of a common competition policy and the abolition of
anti-dumping in a RTA. He argues that the adoption of a common compe-
tition policy in a RTA is often motivated by the need to manage the result
of deeper integration.22 Its purpose is not to provide a substitute policy
instrument so that anti-dumping measures can be abolished (although of
course this could be one of the consequences of having a common competi-
tion policy). Another argument against this link is that there are important
differences between competition policy and anti-dumping, e.g. competi-
tion policy is often concerned with consumer protection but anti-dumping
is not, which may make one instrument rather than the other more likely
to be hostage to protectionist interests. So to the extent for example that


22Hoekman (1998) defines deep integration as consisting of explicit actions by govern-
ments to reduce the market segmenting effect of differences in national regulatory policies
that pertain to products, production processes, producers and natural persons. In practice
this will require decisions: (i) that a partner’s policies are equivalent (mutual recognition);
or (ii) to adopt a common regulatory stance in specific areas (harmonization).


27




anti-dumping is being used as a shield against imports, the adoption of a
common competition policy need not automatically lead to the abolition of
anti-dumping.


We have earlier noted the difference in how developing/developed coun-
tries use the three trade remedy instruments. For instance, developing coun-
tries have become more frequent users of anti-dumping and safeguard ac-
tions. One may therefore also need to examine what effect the development
status of the members of the RTA have on the trade remedy rule adopted.


Table 8 brings together background data on those RTAs that have abol-
ished trade remedies. The information includes level of development of RTA
members, intra-RTA imports, share of intra-RTA imports, whether the RTA
aims at “deeper” integration (which is explained in greater detail below),
the presence of a competition policy provision in the RTA and the exis-
tence of a common external tariff. We also calculate the average of these
indicators for the 13 RTAs that have abolished trade remedy instruments
and the other RTAs in the sample who have not. On average, those RTAs
that have abolished trade remedy instruments have greater intra-RTA trade
(both in value and share), are more likely to have a competition policy pro-
vision in the RTA and to achieve deeper integration. But there does not
seem to be any difference in terms of the adoption of a common external
tariff. RTAs which have disallowed trade remedies and RTAs which retain
the instruments appear equally like to have a common external tariff.


We have conducted a more formal test of what possible explanatory vari-
ables affect the decision to abolish trade remedies using a probit model. Our
explanatory variables included the development level of RTA members, vin-
tage of the RTA (when it came into force), average volume (as well as share)
of intra-RTA trade prior to the establishment of the RTA, the existence of
a common external tariff, the inclusion of a competition policy provision in
the RTA and, the degree of integration achieved by the members.


Now it is possible to distinguish between several forms of integration.
The adoption of harmonized or common behind-the-border measures such
as standards and sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be one form of
deeper integration. These would cover such RTAs as the EC, EEA, EFTA
and CER. For example, CER has harmonized business regulations, includ-
ing competition policy, standards, customs and quarantine. Another form of
deeper integration would be arrangements that allow for free or freer move-
ment of capital and labour. This characterizes the EC, the EEA and to a
certain extent EFTA. The EEA has abolished restrictions on movement of
goods, people, services and capital. EFTA has opened the labour markets
of it member states. Workers, the self-employed and persons with no gainful


28




employment who otherwise have sufficient financial means, have the right of
access to work, entry/exit and establishment (residence), the right to pro-
vide services for a period of up to 90 days per year and the right of equal
treatment. Straddling all these RTAs is of course the EC with its single
market, an acquis communautaire and a range of supranational institutions.


Another form of economic integration would be monetary union or the
adoption of a single currency. Two RTAs in the sample have some form of
monetary union, the EC and CEMAC. Although the euro has been adopted
by only 12 countries of the EC, the euro zone countries account for more
than half of EC GDP and trade. CEMAC groups together six central African
countries which have adopted the franc as the common currency.


Yet a further form of integration would be political. Although the
economic policies and political cultures of Hong Kong and Macao differ
markedly from China, they are still governed by the political framework of
China’s “one country, two systems”. Thus, it could be argued that they are
integrated politically with the mainland. Following this approach, we have
also considered Andorra, the Faroe Islands and the Overseas Countries and
Territories (OCTs) as politically integrated with the EC.23


We have incorporated all of these different dimensions into the integra-
tion variable we employ in the probit model. The probit model we use is
given by equation (1) below:


Pr(y = 1) = Φ(β0 + β1share+ β2cet+ β3comp+ β4int+(1)
β5dev + β6year)


where:


y is a dummy variable that takes on a value of 1 if the RTA has abolished
a trade remedy instrument and 0 otherwise;


Pr(y = 1) is the probability that y takes on the value 1, i.e. the RTA has
abolished a particular trade remedy;


Φ() stands for the cumulative normal distribution function;


share is the average value or share of intra-RTA imports during the 5-year
period before the implementation of the RTA;


23Andorra is a co-principality with the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell,
Spain as co-princes. The Faroe Islands are part of the Kingdom of Denmark. Denmark,
France and Spain are all member states of the European Union.


29




cet is a dummy to indicate whether the members have a common external
tariff;


comp is a dummy variable that takes on a value of 1 if the RTA has a
competition policy chapter and 0 otherwise;


int is a dummy variable that takes on a value of 1 if the members have
a common political system, or have established a monetary union or
have liberalized movement of capital and persons or have harmonized
or common behind-the-border measures;


dev is an index to indicate the development level of RTA members (1 for
RTAs whose members are all developing countries; 2 for RTAs whose
members are a mixture of developed and developing countries and 3
for RTAs whose members are all developed countries); and


year is the year in which the RTA came into force.


We present the results of the probit estimation for the 74 RTAs in the
sample in Table 9A, separately for each trade remedy instrument. For anti-
dumping and countervailing duties, the best result is obtained with the use
of degree of integration as the explanatory variable. It best explains the
pattern of anti-dumping and CVD abolition in RTAs. The existence of a
common political system, or monetary union, or free movement in capital
and people, or harmonized or common behind-the-border measures creates
a higher likelihood of RTAs abolishing anti-dumping and countervailing du-
ties. The dummy variable on competition provisions in the RTA was not
statistically significant. In the case of safeguards, none of the variables that
we used were statistically significant, although the common external tar-
iff was on the cusp of being significant at the 10 percent level. In all three
trade remedy instruments, the development status of RTA members and the
vintage of the RTA were not statistically significant explanatory variables.


Finally, we ran a multinomial logit regression to take advantage of the
distinct categories of RTAs that have emerged from the mapping. We ob-
serve five distinct RTA categories in trade remedy abolition. First, some
RTAs (Canada-Chile, CER, and EFTA-Singapore) have abolished only anti-
dumping. Second, some RTAs (Australia-Singapore, Canada-Israel, MER-
COSUR and New Zealand-Singapore) have abolished only safeguards. Third,
still some others (China-HK, China-Macao, EEA, EFTA and EFTA-Chile)
have done away with both anti-dumping and countervailing duties. Fourth,
one RTA (EC) has abolished all forms of trade remedies. Finally, the RTAs


30




which have retained all three forms of trade remedies fall into the last cat-
egory. This last group of RTAs is chosen as the baseline or comparison
category. Multinomial logit estimation allows us to estimate the likelihood,
and the effect of the explanatory variables on that probability, of an RTA
falling into any one of these categories. Formally, the likelihood of an RTA
falling into category j is given by:


Pr(yi = j) = exp(β
j
0 + β


j
1share+ β


j
2cet+ β


j
3comp+ β


j
4int+(2)


βj5dev + β
j
6year)/(1 +



j


exp(βj0 + β
j
1share+


βj2cet+ β
j
3comp+ β


j
4int+ β


j
5dev + β


j
6year))


The baseline or comparison category is given byj = 0 with probability
given by:


Pr(yi = 0) = 1/(1 +

j


exp(βj0 + β
j
1share+ β


j
2cet+ β


j
3comp+(3)


βj4int+ β
j
5dev + β


j
6year))


The results of the multinomial estimation are shown in Table 9B. In gen-
eral, the multinomial estimates confirm the results of the probit estimations
that the level of regional integration provides the best explanation for the
abolition of trade remedy instruments. The degree of integration and the
share of intra-RTA trade are significant in the case of RTAs that have abol-
ished both anti-dumping and countervailing duties; the degree of integration
is also statistically significant in the case of RTAs that have abolished only
anti-dumping. However, none of the variables included in the regressions
are statistically significant in the case of RTAs which have abolished only
safeguards or those that have done away with all forms of trade remedies.


6 Conclusions


Trade remedies seem to be permanent fixtures in international trade agree-
ments. One explanation for their omnipresence is that they provide govern-
ments entering into a trade agreement a useful policy tool to manage trade
adjustment and the political pressure for protection that is created. They
make it easier to obtain political support for the agreement. The trade
agreement, in turn, makes possible a more liberal trade regime although


31




this will be at the cost of episodic recourse to protection during economic
downturns.


There is an added layer of complexity to the role of trade remedies in-
troduced by preferential trade agreement, which by nature discriminates
between members and non-members. Even without modifications to the
rules governing trade remedies, their elastic and selective nature may lead
to more discrimination against non-members through greater frequency of
trade remedy actions against them. The adoption of RTA-specific trade rem-
edy rules increases this risk of discrimination, with trade remedies against
RTA members being abolished outright or being subjected to greater disci-
pline. As in much of theory of customs unions, the welfare effects of this
increased discrimination are unclear. Any increase in intra-regional trade
brought about by greater discipline on trade remedy action against RTA
members may simply be substituting for cheaper sources of imports from
non-members.


Based on the result of this mapping, about a sixth of the RTAs surveyed
have dispensed with at least one type of trade remedy. What these RTAs
seem to share in common is a greater level of integration (“deep” integration)
as evidenced either by the adoption of common or harmonized behind-the-
border policies and high shares of intra-regional trade.


There appears to be a large number of RTAs that have adopted RTA-
specific rules that have tightened discipline on the application of these reme-
dies on RTA members. In the case of anti-dumping for example, we noted
that some specific provisions tightened discipline by increasing de minimis
volume and dumping margin requirements, and shortening the duration for
applying anti-dumping duties relative to the WTO Anti-dumping Agree-
ment. We have also highlighted the possible contribution by regional bodies
to reducing action against RTA members. In the EC-centred and EFTA-
centred RTAs, members acting though a regional body notify and consult
one another to arrive at a mutually acceptable outcome short of applying
the measure. In the Andean Community, CACM, CARICOM, NAFTA and
UEMOA, regional bodies have the authority to conduct their own investi-
gations or to review conclusions reached by national bodies.


In similar fashion, many of the provisions on bilateral safeguards lead
to tightened discipline or reduce the incentives to take safeguard actions.
Safeguard measures can be imposed only during the transition period, have
shorter duration periods and require compensation if put in place. Further,
retaliation is allowed if there is no agreement on compensation. A final
concern is with the exclusion of RTA partners in safeguard actions triggered
under GATT Article XIX and the Agreement on Safeguards. This puts


32




RTA rules on safeguards in conflict with the non-discriminatory principle
that underlies multilateral rules on safeguard action and squarely raises the
problem of trade diversion. Although WTO panels have ruled against such
exclusions so far, it is not clear that future panels will do so consistently
given the particular ground of parallelism on which previous decisions have
been made.


In the case of CVDs, we are unable to find major innovations in CVD
rules and practice by past and present RTAs. We suspect that a major
reason for this is due to the absence of agreements in the RTA on meaningful
or significant curbs on subsidies or state aid. We have emphasized the
possible role of regional bodies in mitigating any abuse of countervailing
duties. However, only four RTAs provide a role for regional institutions as
investigating bodies or give it the power to review determinations of national
authorities.


The results of the mappings suggest the need to be vigilant about in-
creased discrimination arising from trade remedy rules in RTAs. Discrimi-
nation against non-RTA partners through more frequent trade remedy ac-
tions can arise from the elastic and selective nature of already existing rules
on trade remedies. Designing specific trade remedy rules that apply only
to RTA partners increases the likelihood of discrimination. This takes place
when an RTA abolishes trade remedy actions against the trade of RTA mem-
bers but not against non-members’ trade. It can take place when RTA mem-
bers adopt rules that strengthen disciplines on trade remedy actions against
the trade of RTA members but not against the trade of non-members.


33




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36




37


Table 1: Trade Contingent Actions, Initiations and Measures; 1995-2006


Trade contingent
instrument


Initiations


Measures


Anti-dumping


3,044 1,941


Countervailing duty


191 115


Safeguard


155 77


Source: WTO Secretariat.




Table 2
Anti-dumping Template


Elements
Anti-dumping actions disallowed
Anti-dumping actions allowed but with no specific provisions
Anti-dumping actions allowed and with specific provisions
Determination of dumping
- export price less than comparable price when destined for consumption in the exporting country
- if there are no sales in the normal course of trade in the domestic market of the exporting country,


: a comparable price of the like product when exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable amount.


- non-market economies
Determination of injury
- volume of dumped imports
- price effects of dumped imports
- the consequent impact of dumped imports on the domestic industry: material injury
- causality
-material injury
Definition of domestic industry
Mutually acceptable solution
Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the domestic industry" if collective output constitutes more than 50 % of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25% of total
- de minimis dumping margin
- de minimis dumped volume
Evidence
Provisional measures
Price undertakings
Imposition and collection of anti-dumping duties
- duty shall not exceed the margin of dumping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discriminatory basis
Retroactivity
Duration and review of anti-dumping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determinations
Anti-dumping action on behalf of a third country
Regional body/committee
-conducts investigations and decides on AD duties
-review/remand final determinations
-other
Notification/Consultation
Dispute settlement
In accordance with GATT Art. VI/ AD Agreement


1.
2.
3.


a


b


h
i


c
d
e


p
q


l
m
n


o


j
k


f
g


38




Table 3
Countervailing Duties Template


Subsidies
Disciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture
-other
Disciplines on state aid
- incompatible if it distorts competition
- Other
Countervailing duties
Countervailing duties disallowed
Countervailing duties allowed but no specific provisions
Countervailing duties allowed and with specific provisions
Mutually acceptable solution
Conditions for applying countervailing measures
- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten material injury to an established domestic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard materially the establishment of a domestic industry
- other
Evidence
Consultation
Provisional measures
Undertakings
Imposition and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the margin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discriminatory basis
Duration and review of countervailing duties and undertakings
Special and differential treatment of developing country members
Subsidization by third countries
Regional body/committee
-conducts investigations and decides on CVD duties
- reviews/remands/authorizes final determinations
- other
Dispute settlement
In accordance with GATT Article VI and/or SCM Agreement


I.


a


II.


1.


2.


1.
2.
3.


f
g


b


c
d


Elements


m
l


h
i
j
k


e


39




Table 4
Safeguards Template


Safeguard measures disallowed
Safeguard measures allowed but with no specific provisions
Safeguard measures allowed and with specific provisions
Conditions for application of safeguard
- increasing imports causing serious injury to domestic industry
- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased imports and to serious injury
- other
Investigation
Mutually acceptable solution
Application of safeguard measures
-only to the extent necessary to remedy serious injury and facilitate adjustment
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to MFN
- other
Provisional measures
Duration and review of safeguard measures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allowed beyond transition period
Maintain equivalent level of concessions (Compensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (Retaliation)
Developing/LDC Members
Regional body/committee
-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review/remand final determinations
- other
Notification and consultation
Special safeguards
Global safeguard
Relationship to Art.XIX of GATT 1994 /Safeguard Agreement
- retains rights and obligations under/in accord with GATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreement
- with exceptions


n


Elements
1.


g


f
e


l
m


k


h
i
j


c
d


2.
3.


a


b


40




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
FT


A
A


L
A


D
I


A
ndean C


om
m


unity
A


ustralia-Singapore
A


ustralia-T
hailand


A
ustralia-U


S
C


A
C


M
C


anada-C
hile


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
1


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping









- export price less than com


parable price w
hen destined for consum


ption in the exporting country
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
- if there are no sales in the norm


al course of trade in the dom
estic m


arket of the exporting country,








: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
- non-m


arket econom
ies


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


D
eterm


ination of injury








- volum
e of dum


ped im
ports


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


- price effects of dum
ped im


ports
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
- the consequent im


pact of dum
ped im


ports on the dom
estic industry: m


aterial injury
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
- causality


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


-m
aterial injury


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


D
efinition of dom


estic industry
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
M


utually acceptable solution
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
Initiation and conduct of investigations









- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
E


vidence
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
Provisional m


easures
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
Price undertakings


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
0


Im
position and collection of anti-dum


ping duties








- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
-lesser duty rule


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


- collection on a non-discrim
inatory basis


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


R
etroactivity


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


D
uration and review


of anti-dum
ping duties and price undertakings









- duration: established period


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


- review
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


R
egional body/com


m
ittee









-conducts investigations and decides on AD


duties
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
-review


/rem
and final determ


inations
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
-other


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


N
otification/C


onsultation
0


0
1


1
0


0
1


0
D


ispute settlem
ent


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rt. V
I/ A


D
A


greem
ent


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


41




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


C
anada-C


osta R
ica


C
anada-Israel


C
A


R
IC


O
M


C
E


M
A


C
C


E
R


C
hina-H


ong K
ong


C
hina-M


acao
C


O
M


E
SA


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
1












0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1











0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0












0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0











0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0












1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0











0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1












0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


42




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


E
uropean C


om
m


unities
E


C
-A


lgeria
E


C
-A


ndorra
E


C
-C


hile
E


C
-C


roatia
E


C
-E


gypt
E


C
-Faroe Islands


E
C


-FY
R


O
M


E
C


-Israel


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


1









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0











0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
1


1
1











0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


1


43




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


E
C


-Jordan
E


C
-L


ebanon
E


C
-M


exico
E


C
-M


orocco
E


C
-O


C
T


s
E


C
-Pal A


uth.
E


C
-South A


frica
E


C
-Sw


itz. &
L


iech.
E


C
-Syria


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


0
1


1
1


1












0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0












0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
1














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0












0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0












0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0












0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
1


0
1


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


0
1


1
1


1


44




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


E
C


-T
unisia


E
C


-T
urkey


E
E


A
E


FT
A



E


FT
A


-C
hile


E
FT


A
-C


roatia
E


FT
A


-FY
R


O
M


E
FT


A
-Israel


E
FT


A
-Jordan


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
1


1
1


1





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
1


1
1


1





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


45




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


E
FT


A
-M


orocco
E


FT
A


-Pal. A
uth.


E
FT


A
-Singapore


E
FT


A
-T


unisia
E


FT
A


-T
urkey


G
C


C
G


roup of 3
Japan-Singapore


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
1


1
0


1
0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
1


0
1


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0





0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
0


1
1


0
1


0


46




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


K
orea-C


hile
M


E
R


C
O


SU
R


M
exico-C


hile
M


exico-E
FT


A


M
exico-Israel


M
exico-Japan


M
exico-N


icaragua


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
1


0
1


1
0


1






0


0
0


0
0


0
0








0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1








0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0






0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0






0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0






0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


0
1


1
0


1


47




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


M
exico - N


orthern T
riangle


M
exico-U


ruguay
N


A
FT


A


N
ew


Z
ealand-Singapore


SA
D


C
SA


FT
A



SPA


R
T


E
C


A
T


urkey-Israel


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0








0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


1








0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0








0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0









0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


0
1


0
0


1


48




T
able 5A


: A
nti-D


um
ping M


apping


A
nti-dum


ping actions disallow
ed


A
nti-dum


ping actions allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
A


nti-dum
ping actions allow


ed and w
ith specific provisions


D
eterm


ination of dum
ping


- export price less than com
parable price w


hen destined for consum
ption in the exporting country


- if there are no sales in the norm
al course of trade in the dom


estic m
arket of the exporting country,


: a com
parable price of the like product w


hen exported to an appropriate third country
: cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable am


ount.
- non-m


arket econom
ies


D
eterm


ination of injury
- volum


e of dum
ped im


ports
- price effects of dum


ped im
ports


- the consequent im
pact of dum


ped im
ports on the dom


estic industry: m
aterial injury


- causality
-m


aterial injury
D


efinition of dom
estic industry


M
utually acceptable solution


Initiation and conduct of investigations
- "on behalf of the dom


estic industry" if collective output constitutes m
ore than 50 %


of total.
- no initiation if the collective output is less than 25%


of total
- de m


inim
is dum


ping m
argin


- de m
inim


is dum
ped volum


e
E


vidence
Provisional m


easures
Price undertakings
Im


position and collection of anti-dum
ping duties


- duty shall not exceed the m
argin of dum


ping
-lesser duty rule
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
R


etroactivity
D


uration and review
of anti-dum


ping duties and price undertakings
- duration: established period
- review
Public notice and explanation of determ


inations
A


nti-dum
ping action on behalf of a third country


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on AD
duties


-review
/rem


and final determ
inations


-other
N


otification/C
onsultation


D
ispute settlem


ent
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rt. V


I/ A
D


A
greem


ent


E
lem


ents


1.
2.
3. abcdefghijklmpq no


U
S-B


ahrain
U


S-C
A


FT
A


-D
om


. R
ep.


U
S-C


hile
U


S-Israel
U


S-Jordan
U


S-M
orocco


U
S-Singapore


U
E


M
O


A


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0














0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


49




50


Table 5B: Anti-dumping Provisions in Selected RTAs
Anti-dumping allowed Anti-dumping


disallowed With specific RTA provisions No specific RTA
provisions


Canada-Chile
CER
China-Hong Kong
China-Macao
European
Communities
EEA
EFTA
EFTA-Chile
EFTA-Singapore


Andean Community
Australia-Singapore
Australia-Thailand
CACM
Canada-Costa-Rica
CARICOM
COMESA
EC-Algeria
EC-Chile
EC-Croatia
EC-Egypt
EC-Faroe Islands
EC-FYROM
EC-Israel
EC-Jordan
EC-Lebanon
EC-Mexico
EC-Morocco
EC-Palestine
Authority
EC-South Africa
EC-Switzerland-
Liechtenstein
EC-Syria
EC-Tunisia
EC-Turkey


EFTA-Croatia
EFTA-FYROM
EFTA-Israel
EFTA-Jordan
EFTA-Morocco
EFTA-Palestine
Authority
EFTA-Tunisia
EFTA-Turkey
Group of 3
Korea-Chile
MERCOSUR
Mexico-EFTA
Mexico-Israel
Mexico-Nicaragua
Mexico-Northern
Triangle
Mexico-Uruguay
NAFTA
New Zealand-
Singapore
SADC
SAFTA
SPARTECA
Turkey-Israel
UEMOA


AFTA
ALADI
Australia-US
Canada-Israel
CEMAC
EC-Andorra
EC-OCT
GCC
Japan-Singapore
Mexico-Chile
Mexico-Japan
US-Bahrain
US-CAFTA &
Dom. Republic
US-Chile
US-Israel
US-Jordan
US-Morocco
US-Singapore





T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


A
FT


A
A


L
A


D
I


A
ndean C


om
m


unity
A


ustralia-Singapore
A


ustralia-T
hailand


A
ustralia-U


S
C


A
C


M


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


0
0


0
1


1
1


0


-other
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


- O
ther


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed but no specific provisions


1
1


0
0


0
1


0
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
0


0
1


1
1


0
1


M
utually acceptable solution


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


- effect of subsidization is to retard m
aterially the establishm


ent of a dom
estic industry


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
- other


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
E


vidence
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


C
onsultation


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
Provisional m


easures
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


U
ndertakings


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


- collection on a non-discrim
inatory basis


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
Special and differential treatm


ent of developing country m
em


bers
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


Subsidization by third countries
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on C
VD


duties
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
- other


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
D


ispute settlem
ent


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
In accordance w


ith G
A


T
T


A
rticle V


I and/or SC
M


A
greem


ent
0


0
1


1
1


0
1


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


51




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


C
anada-C


hile
C


anada-C
osta R


ica
C


anada-Israel
C


A
R


IC
O


M
C


E
M


A
C


C
E


R


C
hina-H


ong K
ong


1
1


0
0


0
1


0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


0


52




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


C
hina-M


acao
C


O
M


E
SA


E
uropean C


om
m


unities
E


C
-A


lgeria
E


C
-A


ndorra
E


C
-C


hile
E


C
-C


roatia
E


C
-E


gypt


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


53




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


E
C


-Faroe Islands
E


C
-FY


R
O


M
E


C
-Israel


E
C


-Jordan
E


C
-L


ebanon
E


C
-M


exico
E


C
-M


orocco
E


C
-O


C
T


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


54




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


E
C


-Pal. A
uth.


E
C


-South A
frica


E
C


-Sw
itz. &


L
iech.


E
C


-Syria
E


C
-T


unisia
E


C
-T


urkey
E


E
A


E
FT


A


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


55




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


E
FT


A
-C


hile
E


FT
A


-C
roatia


E
FT


A
-FY


R
O


M
E


FT
A


-Israel
E


FT
A


-Jordan
E


FT
A


-M
orocco


E
FT


A
-Pal. A


uth


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1


1
0


0
1


0
1


1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


0


56




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


E
FT


A
-Singapore


E
FT


A
-T


unisia
E


FT
A


-T
urkey


G
C


C
G


roup of 3
Japan-Singapore


K
orea-C


hile


0
0


0
0


1
0


0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


0
0


1
0


1


57




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


M
E


R
C


O
SU


R
M


exico-C
hile


M
exico-E


FT
A



M


exico-Israel
M


exico-Japan
M


exico-N
icaragua


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
1


0
1


58




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


M
exico-N


orthern T
riangle


M
exico-U


ruguay
N


A
FT


A
N


ew
Z


ealand-Singapore
SA


D
C


SA
FT


A


1
1


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


1
0


59




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


SPA
R


T
E


C
A


T
urkey-Israel


U
S-B


ahrain
U


S-C
A


FT
A


-D
om


. R
ep.


U
S-C


hile
U


S-Israel
U


S-Jordan
U


S-M
orocco


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


60




T
able 6A


: C
ountervailing D


uties M
apping


Subsidies
D


isciplines on subsidies
-prohibit export subsidies on agriculture


-other


D
isciplines on state aid


- incom
patible if it distorts com


petition


- O
ther


C
ountervailing D


uties
C


ountervailing duties disallow
ed


C
ountervailing duties allow


ed but no specific provisions
C


ountervailing duties allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
M


utually acceptable solution
C


onditions for applying countervailing m
easures


- effect of subsidization is to cause or threaten m
aterial injury to an established dom


estic industry
- effect of subsidization is to retard m


aterially the establishm
ent of a dom


estic industry
- other
E


vidence
C


onsultation
Provisional m


easures
U


ndertakings
Im


position and collection of countervailing duties
- duty shall not exceed the m


argin of the subsidy found to exist
- collection on a non-discrim


inatory basis
D


uration and review
of countervailing duties and undertakings


Special and differential treatm
ent of developing country m


em
bers


Subsidization by third countries
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on C


VD
duties


- review
s/rem


ands/authorizes final determ
inations


- other
D


ispute settlem
ent


In accordance w
ith G


A
T


T
A


rticle V
I and/or SC


M
A


greem
ent


II.


E
lem


ents


1.


I.1.


2.


ac


2.
3.


blm jk defi gh


U
S-Singapore


U
E


M
O


A


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


61




62


Table 6B: Countervailing Duty Provisions in Selected RTAs
Countervailing duties allowed Countervailing duties


disallowed With specific RTA provisions No specific RTA
provisions


China-Hong Kong
China-Macao
European Communities
EEA
EFTA


Andean Community
Australia-Singapore
Australia-Thailand
CACM
Canada-Israel
CARICOM
CER
COMESA
EC-Algeria
EC-Chile
EC-Croatia
EC-Egypt
EC-Lebanon
EC-Mexico
EC-South Africa
EC-Syria
EFTA-Chile
EFTA-Croatia
EFTA-FYROM
EFTA-Israel
EFTA-Jordan
EFTA-Morocco
EFTA-Palestine
Authority
EFTA-Singapore
EFTA-Tunisia
EFTA-Turkey
Group of 3
Korea-Chile
MERCOSUR
Mexico-EFTA
Mexico-Israel
Mexico-Nicaragua


Mexico-Northern
Triangle
Mexico-Uruguay
NAFTA
SADC
SAFTA
US-CAFTA &
Dom. Republic
US-Chile


AFTA
ALADI
Australia-US
Canada-Chile
Canada-Costa-Rica
CEMAC
EC-Andorra
EC-Faroe Islands
EC-FYROM
EC-Israel
EC-Jordan
EC-Morocco
EC-OCT
EC-Palestine
Authority
EC-Switzerland-
Liechtenstein
EC-Tunisia
EC-Turkey
GCC
Japan-Singapore
Mexico-Chile
Mexico-Japan
New Zealand-
Singapore
SPARTECA
Turkey-Israel
US-Bahrain
US-Israel
US-Jordan
US-Morocco
US-Singapore
UEMOA




A
FT


A
A


L
A


D
I


A
ndean C


om
m


unity
A


ustralia-Singapore
A


ustralia-T
hailand


A
ustralia-U


S
C


A
C


M
C


anada-C
hile


Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
1


1
1


0
1


1
0


1
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


1
1


0
0


1
1


0
1


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


- other
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
Investigation


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


M
utually acceptable solution


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


A
pplication of safeguard m


easures
-only to the extent necessary to rem


edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm
ent


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M
FN


1
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


- other
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
Provisional m


easures
0


0
1


0
1


1
0


0
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years


0
1


0
0


1
1


0
1


- not allow
ed beyond transition period


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


M
aintain equivalent level of concessions (C


om
pensation)


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


Suspension of equivalent concessions (R
etaliation)


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


D
eveloping/L


D
C


M
em


bers
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
R


egional body/com
m


ittee
-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


- review
/rem


and final determ
inations


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


- other
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
N


otification and consultation
1


1
1


0
1


1
0


1
Special safeguards


1
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


G
lobal safeguard


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


R
elationship to A


rt.X
IX


of G
A


T
T


1994 /Safeguard A
greem


ent
- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w


ith G
ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem


ent
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
- w


ith exceptions
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


63




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


C
anada-C


osta R
ica


C
anada-Israel


C
aricom


C
E


M
A


C
C


E
R


C
hina-H


ong K
ong


C
hina-M


acao
C


O
M


E
SA


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


1
1


0
0


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


64




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


E
uropean C


om
m


unities
E


C
-A


lgeria
E


C
-A


ndorra
E


C
-C


hile
E


C
-C


roatia
E


C
-E


gypt
E


C
-Faroe Islands


E
C


-FY
R


O
M


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


65




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


E
C


-Israel
E


C
-Jordan


E
C


-L
ebanon


E
C


-M
exico


E
C


-M
orocco


E
C


-O
C


T
E


C
-Pal A


uth.
E


C
-South A


frica
E


C
-Sw


itz. &
L


iech.


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1


1
1


0
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


1
1


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


1


1
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


66




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


E
C


-Syria
E


C
-T


unisia
E


C
-T


urkey
E


E
A


E
FT


A
E


FT
A


-C
hile


E
FT


A
-C


roatia
E


FT
A


-FY
R


O
M


E
FT


A
-Israel


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


67




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


E
FT


A
-Jordan


E
FT


A
-M


orocco
E


FT
A


-Pal. A
uth


E
FT


A
-Singapore


E
FT


A
-T


unisia
E


FT
A


-T
urkey


G
C


C
G


roup of 3


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


68




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


Japan-Singapore
K


orea-C
hile


M
E


R
C


O
SU


R


M
exico-C


hile
M


exico-E
FT


A
M


exico-Israel
M


exico-Japan
M


exico-N
icaragua


0
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


1
0


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
0


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
1


0
1


1
1


0
0


0
1


0
1


0
1


69




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


M
exico - N


orthern T
riangle


M
exico-U


ruguay
N


A
FT


A
N


ew
Z


ealand-Singapore
SA


D
C


SA
FT


A
SPA


R
T


E
C


A
T


urkey-Israel


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


0
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


0
1


0
0


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


1
1


0
1


1
0


0
1


0
0


0
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
1


1
0


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


70




Safeguard m
easures disallow


ed
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed but w


ith no specific provisions
Safeguard m


easures allow
ed and w


ith specific provisions
C


onditions for application of safeguard
- increasing im


ports causing serious injury to dom
estic industry


- during transition period, reduction in tariffs lead to increased im
ports and to serious injury


- other
Investigation
M


utually acceptable solution
A


pplication of safeguard m
easures


-only to the extent necessary to rem
edy serious injury and facilitate adjustm


ent
- suspend concessions, tariff reduction or revert to M


FN
- other
Provisional m


easures
D


uration and review
of safeguard m


easures
- duration less than 4 years
- not allow


ed beyond transition period
M


aintain equivalent level of concessions (C
om


pensation)
Suspension of equivalent concessions (R


etaliation)
D


eveloping/L
D


C
M


em
bers


R
egional body/com


m
ittee


-conducts investigations and decides on safeguard duties
- review


/rem
and final determ


inations
- other
N


otification and consultation
Special safeguards
G


lobal safeguard
R


elationship to A
rt.X


IX
of G


A
T


T
1994 /Safeguard A


greem
ent


- retains rights and obligations under/in accord w
ith G


ATT Art. XIX/Safeguards Agreem
ent


- w
ith exceptions


E
lem


ents


T
able 7A


: Safeguards M
apping


e d c


1.
2.
3.


fi agl bn m k hj


U
S-B


ahrain
U


S-C
A


FT
A


D
om


. R
ep.


U
S-C


hile
U


S-Israel
U


S-Jordan
U


S-M
orocco


U
S-Singapore


U
E


M
O


A


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


0
0


0
1


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


1
1


1
1


1
0


1
0


0
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
0


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
0


0
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
1


1
0


0
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
0


1
1


1
1


0
1


0
0


1
0


1
0


71





72


Table 7B: Safeguard Provisions in Selected RTAs
Safeguard measures allowed Safeguard measures


disallowed With specific RTA provisions No specific RTA
provisions


Australia-Singapore
Canada-Israel
European
Communities
MERCOSUR
New Zealand-
Singapore


AFTA
ALADI
Andean Community
Australia-Thailand
Australia-US
Canada-Chile
Canada-Costa Rica
Caricom
CER
China-Hong Kong
China-Macao
COMESA
EC-Algeria
EC-Chile
EC-Croatia
EC-Egypt
EC-Faroe Islands
EC-FYROM
EC-Israel
EC-Jordan
EC-Lebanon
EC-Mexico
EC-Morocco
EC-OCT
EC-Pal Auth.
EC-South Africa
EC-Switzerland &
Liechtenstein
EC-Syria
EC-Tunisia
EC-Turkey
EEA
EFTA
EFTA-Chile
EFTA-Croatia


EFTA-FYROM
EFTA-Israel
EFTA-Jordan
EFTA-Morocco
EFTA-Palestine
Authority
EFTA-Singapore
EFTA-Tunisia
EFTA-Turkey
Group of 3
Japan-Singapore
Korea-Chile
Mexico-Chile
Mexico-EFTA
Mexico-Israel
Mexico-Japan
Mexico-Nicaragua
Mexico-Northern
Triangle
Mexico-Uruguay
NAFTA
SADC
SAFTA
SPARTECA
Turkey-Israel
US-Bahrain
US-CAFTA & Dom.
Republic
US-Chile
US-Israel
US-Jordan
US-Morocco
US-Singapore
UEMOA


CACM
CEMAC
EC-Andorra
GCC







73


T
able 8: C


haracteristics of R
T


A
s that have D


isallow
ed T


rade R
em


edies
D


isallow
ed


Intra-R
T


A
Im


ports
R


T
A


s
D


evelopm
ent


Level
A


D


C
V


D


Safeguard
V


alue
($ billion)


Share
(%


)


C
om


m
on


E
xternal


T
ariff


C
om


petition
C


hapter
Integration


A
ustralia-Singapore


M
ixed






9.9


3.1
0


1
0


C
anada-C


hile
M


ixed





4.7
1.4


0
1


0
C


anada-Israel
M


ixed





3.9
1.1


0
1


0
C


ER


D
eveloped






10.1


6.9
0


1
1


C
hina-H


K


D
eveloping






202.4


21.1
0


0
1


C
hina-M


acao
D


eveloping





55.4
8.4


0
0


1
EC



D


eveloped





2,419.0
61.1


1
1


1
EEA



D


eveloped





301.4
7.3


0
1


1
EFTA



D


eveloped





1.4
0.8


0
1


1
EFTA


-C
hile


M
ixed






0.3


0.2
0


1
0


EFTA
-Singapore


M
ixed






3.1


0.8
0


1
0


M
ER


C
O


SU
R



D


eveloping





22.1
20.1


1
1


0
N


ew
Zealand-


Singapore
M


ixed





1.3
0.6


0
1


0


G
roup A


verage
233.5


10.2
15.4%


84.6%
46.2%




A
verage of O


ther R
T


A
s


28.9
3.1


13.1%
70.5%


6.6%






74


Table 9A: Probit Estimation Results
Explanatory


variables
Anti-dumping Countervailing Safeguards


int
cet
constant



1.93***


-1.68***


Prob > χ2 = 0.0000


2.15***


-2.15***


Prob > χ2 = 0.0000



0.83


-1.68

Prob > χ2 = 0.12



Number of observations = 71



Note: The three columns represent the results of using separate probit models to test what variables statistically explain the
abolition of anti-dumping, countervailing duties and safeguard measures in RTAs. * / **/ *** indicate significance at the 10%,
5% and 1% level respectively.




Table 9B: Multinomial Logit Estimation Results
Trade Remedy Abolished



Independent


Variables


Safeguards Anti-dumping Anti-dumping
Countervailing


Anti-dumping
Countervailing


Safeguards
year
cet
dev
share
int
constant




0.04
2.95
1.21


-3.50
-43.69
-74.01


-0.04
-41.92


2.83
-51.07
3.92*
80.38


0.13
-59.99


0.99
16.03*
5.83**


-256.46


-0.21
90.67
41.89


-34.29
4.60


232.04



Number of observations = 71
Prob > χ2 = 0.0022


Note: * / ** indicate significance at the 10% and 5% respectively.





Legend:

year: year that the RTA came into force;
cet: dummy variable to indicate common external tariff;
dev: index of level of development of RTA members;
share: average share of intra-regional trade during the 5-year period before implementation of


the RTA; and
int: dummy variable to indicate deep integration.








75


Figure 1: Number of RTAs in Sample that Have Come into Force, by Decade


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


40


45


Before 1970 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s


Period


N
um


be
r


of
R


T
A


s






76



Figure 2 : RTAs by Level of Development of Members


Developed
8%


Developing
30%


Mixed
62%







77


Figure 3 : H
ub-and-spoke and C


ross-regional A
rrangem


ent of R
T


A
s


EC
-Algeria


EC
-Andorra


EC
-C


hile
EC


-C
roatia


EC
-Egypt


EC
-Faroe Islands


EC-FYRO
M


EC-Israel
EC


-Jordan
EFTA-C


hile
EC


-Lebanon
EFTA C


roatia
EC-M


exico
EFTA-FYRO


M
G


roup of Three
EC-M


orocco
EFTA-Israel


M
exico-C


hile
N


AFTA
EC-O


CT
EFTA-Jordan


M
exico-EC


U
S-Australia


EC
-Pal Auth.


EFTA-M
exico


M
exico-EFTA


U
S-Bahrain


EC
-South Africa


EFTA-M
orocco


M
exico-Israel


U
S-CAFTA-D


om
. Rep.


AFTA
EC


-Sw
itz. &


Liech.
EFTA-Pal. Auth


M
exico-Japan


U
S-Chile


Singapore-Australia
C


hile-C
anada


Australia-Singapore
EC


-Syria
EFTA-Singapore


M
exico-N


icaragua
U


S-Israel
Singapore-EFTA


C
hile-EC



Australia-Thailand


C
anada-C


hile
EC


-Tunisia
EFTA-Tunisia


M
exico - N


orthern Triangle
U


S-Jordan
Singapore-Japan


C
hile-K


orea
Australia-U


S
C


anada-C
osta Rica


EC-Turkey
EFTA-Turkey


M
exico-U


ruguay
U


S-M
orocco


Singapore-N
ew


Zealand
C


hile-M
exico


C
ER


Canada-Israel
EEA


EEA
N


AFTA
U


S-Singapore
Singapore-U


S
C


hile-U
S


SPARTECA
NAFTA


E
C


E
FTA


M
exico


U
S


Singapore
C


hile
A


ustralia
C


anada







78


Figure 4A: Frequency of Anti-dumping Initiations, 1980-2006


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


400


1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006


Year


C
ou


nt


Traditional Users


New Users



Source: Prusa (2005) and WTO Secretariat.


Figure 4B: Frequency of Anti-dumping Measures 1995-2006


0


50


100


150


200


250


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006


Year


C
ou


nt


Traditional Users


New Users






79


Figure 5A: Frequency of CVD Initiations, 1995-2006


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


40


45


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006


Year


C
ou


nt


Canada, EC and US


Other Users




Source: WTO Secretariat.



Figure 5B: Frequency of CVD Measures, 1995-2006


0


2


4


6


8


10


12


14


16


18


20


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006


Year


C
ou


nt


Other Users


Canada, EC and US





80


Figure 6A: Frequency of Safeguard Initiations, 1995-2006


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


40


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006


Year


C
ou


nt


Developed


Developing





Source: WTO Secretariat.


Figure 6B: Frequency of Safeguard Measures, 1996-2006


0


2


4


6


8


10


12


14


16


18


1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006


Year


C
ou


nt


Developed


Developing





V
alue


Share
($ B


illion)
(%


)
B


runei D
arussalam


C
am


bodia Indonesia Laos M
alaysia


M
yanm


ar Philippines Singapore Thailand V
ietnam


A
rgentina B


olivia B
razil C


hile C
olom


bia C
uba Ecuador


M
exico Paraguay Peru U


ruguay V
enezuela


A
ndean C


om
m


unity
B


olivia C
olom


bia Ecuador Peru V
enezuela


26 M
ay 1969


2
-


C
U


D
eveloping


7.5
16.4


A
ustralia - Singapore


28 July 2003
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


9.9
3.1


A
ustralia - Thailand


01 January 2005
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


8.7
3.7


A
ustralia - U


nited States
01 January 2005


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloped
24.6


1.3
C


A
C


M
C


osta R
ica El Salvador G


uatem
ala H


onduras N
icaragua


12 O
ctober 1961


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


C
U


D
eveloping


2.6
9.7


C
anada —


C
hile


05 July 1997
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


4.7
1.4


C
anada —


C
osta R


ica
01 N


ovem
ber 2002


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
3.3


1.0
C


anada —
Israel


01 January 1997
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


3.9
1.1


A
ntigua &


B
arbuda B


aham
as B


arbados B
elize D


om
inica G


renada
G


uyana H
aiti Jam


aica M
onserrat Trinidad &


Tobago St. K
itts &


N
evis St. Lucia St. V


incent &
the G


renadines Surinam
C


am
eroon C


entral A
frican R


epublic C
had C


ongo Equatorial
G


uinea G
abon


C
ER


A
ustralia N


ew
Zealand


01 January 1983
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


D
eveloped


10.1
6.9


C
hina - H


ong K
ong, C


hina
01 January 2004


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloping
202.4


21.1
C


hina - M
acao, C


hina
01 January 2004


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloping
55.4


8.4
A


ngola B
urundi C


om
oros D


em
ocratic R


epublic of C
ongo D


jibouti
Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia K


enya M
adagascar M


alaw
i M


auritius
N


am
ibia R


w
anda Seychelles Sudan Sw


aziland U
ganda Zam


bia Zim
babw


e
A


ustria B
elgium


B
ulgaria C


yprus C
zech R


epublic D
enm


ark Estonia Finland
France G


erm
any G


reece H
ungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania


Luxem
bourg M


alta N
etherlands Poland Portugal R


om
ania Slovakia Slovenia


Spain Sw
eden U


nited K
ingdom


EC
- A


lgeria 3
01 Septem


ber 2005
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


24.5
0.7


EC
- A


ndorra 3
01 July 1991


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


C
U


M
ixed


1.6
0.0


EC
- C


hile
01 February 2003


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
15.0


0.4
EC


- C
roatia


01 M
arch 2002


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
17.0


0.4
EC


- Egypt
01 June 2004


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
10.8


0.3
EC


- Faroe Islands
01 January 1997


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
0.9


0.0
EC


- FY
R


O
M


01 June 2001
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


2.7
0.1


EC
- Israel


01 June 2000
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


29.8
0.7


EC
- Jordan


01 M
ay 2002


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
2.8


0.1
EC


- Lebanon
3


01 M
arch 2003


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
4.0


0.1
EC


- M
exico


01 July 2000
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


37.7
0.9


EC
- M


orocco
01 M


arch 2000
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


20.0
0.5


EC
G


reenland N
ew


C
aledonia French Polynesia French Southern


and A
ntarctic Territories W


allis and Futuna Islands M
ayotte Saint


Pierre and M
iquelon A


ruba N
etherlands A


ntilles A
nguilla C


aym
an


Islands Falkland Islands South G
eorgia and South Sandw


ich
Islands M


ontserrat Pitcairn Saint H
elena A


scension Island Tristan
da C


unha Turks and C
aicos Islands B


ritish A
ntarctic Territory


B
ritish Indian O


cean Territory B
ritish V


irgin Islands
EC


- Palestinian A
uthority


01 July 1997
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


-
-


EC
- South A


frica
01 January 2000


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
42.4


1.1
EC


- Sw
itzerland and Liechtenstein


01 January 1973
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


D
eveloped


176.0
4.3


EC
- Syria


01 July 1977
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


5.0
0.1


R
elevant G


A
T


T


Provision
T


ype of
A


greem
ent 1


D
evelopm


ent
Status of


M
em


bers


2,419.0
61.1


C
U


D
eveloped


1.9
13.1


4.5
FTA


M
ixed


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


01 January 1971
0.1


01 A
ugust 1973


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


C
U


EC
01 January 1958


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


EC
- O


C
Ts


C
A


R
IC


O
M


C
EM


A
C


24 June 1999
Enabling C


lause
3.7


0.2
C


U
D


eveloping


FTA


C
O


M
ESA


08 D
ecem


ber 1994
Enabling C


lause
9.4


1.2
D


eveloping
FTA


D
eveloping


28 January 1992
Enabling C


lause


A
LA


D
I (LA


IA
)


18 M
arch 1981


Enabling C
lause


PS
D


eveloping
68.4


16.8


A
N


N
E


X
I


2005 Intra-R
T


A
Im


ports
A


greem
ent


M
em


bers
D


ate of E
ntry into


Force


D
eveloping


104.4
24.1


A
FTA


81




V
alue


Share
($ B


illion)
(%


)


R
elevant G


A
T


T


Provision
T


ype of
A


greem
ent 1


D
evelopm


ent
Status of


M
em


bers


2005 Intra-R
T


A
Im


ports
A


greem
ent


M
em


bers
D


ate of E
ntry into


Force


EC
- Tunisia


01 M
arch 1998


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
17.8


0.4
EC


- Turkey
01 January 1996


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


C
U


M
ixed


92.2
2.3


EE A
EC


EFTA
01 January 1994


G
A


TS A
rt. V


EIA
D


eveloped
301.4


7.3
EFTA


Iceland Lichtenstein N
orw


ay Sw
itzerland


03 M
ay 1960


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloped
1.4


0.8
EFTA


- C
hile


01 D
ecem


ber 2004
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


0.3
0.2


EFTA
- C


roatia
01 January 2002


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
0.4


0.2
EFTA


- FY
R


O
M


01 January 2001
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


0.1
0.0


EFTA
- Israel


01 January 1993
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


3.0
1.3


EFTA
- Jordan


01 January 2002
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


0.1
0.1


EFTA


M
orocco


01 D
ecem


ber 1999
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


0.4
0.2


EFTA


Palestinian A
uthority


01 July 1999
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


-
-


EFTA
- Singapore


01 January 2003
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


3.1
0.8


EFTA
- Tunisia


01 June 2005
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


0.2
0.1


EFTA


Turkey
01 A


pril 1992
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


5.4
1.8


G
C


C
B


ahrain K
uw


ait O
m


an Q
atar Saudi A


rabia U
nited A


rab Em
irates


01 January 2003
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
C


U
D


eveloping
7.5


8.8
G


roup of Three
C


olom
bia M


exico V
enezuela


13 June 1994
2


-
FTA


D
eveloping


4.8
2.0


Japan - Singapore
30 N


ovem
ber 2002


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
25.9


3.6
R


epublic of K
orea - C


hile
01 A


pril 2004
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


D
eveloping


3.4
1.2


M
ER


C
O


SU
R


A
rgentina B


razil Paraguay U
ruguay


29 N
ovem


ber 1991
Enabling C


lause
C


U
D


eveloping
22.1


20.1
M


exico - C
hile


01 A
ugust 1999


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloping
2.5


1.0
M


exico - EFTA
01 July 2001


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
1.4


0.4
M


exico - Israel
01 July 2000


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloping
0.4


0.1
M


exico - Japan
01 A


pril 2005
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


15.6
2.1


M
exico - N


icaragua
01 July 1998


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloping
0.4


0.2
M


exico - N
orthern Triangle


El Salvador G
uatem


ala H
onduras M


exico
29 June 2000


2
-


FTA
D


eveloping
1.6


0.7
M


exico - U
ruguay


15 N
ovem


ber 2003
2


-
FTA


D
eveloping


0.3
0.1


N
A


FTA
C


anada M
exico U


nited States
01 January 1994


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
782.1


34.5
N


ew
Zealand - Singapore


01 January 2001
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


1.3
0.6


A
ngola B


otsw
ana Lesotho M


alaw
i M


auritius M
ozam


bique
N


am
ibia South A


frica Sw
aziland Tanzania Zam


bia Zim
babw


e
SA


PTA
B


angladesh B
hutan India M


aldives N
epal Pakistan Sri Lanka


07 D
ecem


ber 1995
Enabling C


lause
PS


D
eveloping


3.8
2.1


A
ustralia N


ew
Zealand C


ook Islands Fiji K
iribati M


arshall Islands
M


icronesia N
auru N


iue Papua N
ew


G
uinea Solom


on Islands
Tonga Tuvalu V


anuatu W
estern Sam


oa
Turkey - Israel


01 M
ay 1997


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
D


eveloping
2.0


1.3
U


nited States - B
ahrain


01 A
ugust 2006


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
0.7


0.0
C


osta R
ica D


om
inican R


epublic El Salvador G
uatem


ala H
onduras


N
icaragua U


nited States
U


nited States —
C


hile
01 January 2004


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
12.2


0.7
U


nited States —
Israel


19 A
ugust 1985


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
23.2


1.3
U


nited States —
Jordan


17 D
ecem


ber 2001
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV
FTA


M
ixed


1.9
0.1


U
nited States - M


orocco
01 January 2006


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
1.2


0.1
U


nited States - Singapore
01 January 2004


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


FTA
M


ixed
38.8


2.0
B


enin B
urkina Faso C


ôte d'Ivoire G
uinea B


issau M
ali N


iger
Senegal Togo


Legend:
1 C


U
=C


ustom
s U


nion; FTA
=Free Trade A


greem
ent; PS=Partial Scope; EIA


=Econom
ic Integration A


greem
ent.


2 D
ate of signature (See O


rganization of A
m


erican States - http://w
w


w
.sice.oas.org/agreem


ents_e.asp).
3 Y


ear 2004 trade data .
Sources: W


TO
Secretariat, U


N
C


om
trade and O


rganization of Am
erican States.


U
nited States - C


A
FTA


- D
R


01 M
arch 2006


G
A


TT A
rt. X


X
IV


SPA
R


TEC
A


01 January 1981
Enabling C


lause
1.7


FTA
M


ixed


W
A


EM
U


/U
EM


O
A


01 January 2000
Enabling C


lause


PS


C
U


D
evelo ping


M
ixed


2.6


4.4
0.5


FTA
D


eveloping
7.7


11.1


1.6
28.4


SA
D


C
01 Septem


ber 2000
G


A
TT A


rt. X
X


IV


82




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