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Global and Regional FDI Trends in 2010

Report by UNCTAD, 2011

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Global FDI inflows remained stagnant in 2010 at an estimated $1,122 billion, compared to $1,114 billion in the previous year. However, they showed an uneven pattern among regions, components and modes of FDI. While FDI inflows to developed countries contracted further in 2010, those to developing and transition economies recovered, surpassing the 50% mark of global FDI flows. The improvement of economic conditions in 2010 drove up reinvested earnings, while equity capital and intra-company loans remained relatively subdued. Cross-border M&A volume rebounded in 2010, whereas greenfield investments continued to decline. The quarterly fluctuations during 2010, as reported in previous Global Trends Monitors, indicate that the worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant, although after an unexpectedly weak second quarter, global FDI flows registered an increase in the third quarter of 2010. UNCTAD’s FDI Global Quarterly Index jumped upwards, reaching 121 for the quarter, its highest reading in 2010.









Global and Regional FDI Trends in 2010





HIGHLIGHTS



Developing and transition economies, for the first time, absorbed more than half of global FDI
flows.



 Global inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) rose marginally by 1%, from $1,114 billion in 2009


to almost $1,122 billion in 2010, based on UNCTAD estimates.


Figure 1. FDI inflows, global and by group of economies, 1995-2010
(Billions of dollars)


Source: UNCTAD.


* Preliminary estimates.

 A strong rebound in FDI flows to developing Asia and Latin America offset a further decline in


inflows to developed countries (figure 1).


 Stagnant global flows in 2010 were accompanied by diverging trends in the components of FDI.


While the increased profits of foreign affiliates, especially in developing countries, boosted
reinvested earnings, the uncertainties surrounding global currency markets and European
sovereign debt, resulted in negative intra-company loans and lower equity investments.





This report can be freely cited provided appropriate acknowledgement is given to UNCTAD, together with a


reference to the document.


Developed econom ies


Developing econom ies


Transition econom ies


0


400


800


1 200


1 600


2 000


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010*


53%


For the first time, developing and
transition economies received more
that half of global FDI flows.


UNCTAD
Glloball IInvesttmentt Trrends Monii ttorr





 Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) increased by 37% in 2010, while international


greenfield projects, fell both in number and in value. Nevertheless, the total project value of
greenfield investments has been much higher than that of cross-border M&As since the crisis,
which was the opposite case before the crisis.



 The year was characterized by an unexpected drop in flows during the second quarter and a


rebound in the third quarter. UNCTAD’s Global FDI Quarterly Index dropped from 107.7 to
82.5 and then rose to 121 (see table 1 below). Projections for the fourth quarter – based on
available data on M&As and greenfield investments – show a continuing flat trend. Cross-
border M&As were down in the fourth quarter, compared to the third. Greenfield investments
in the fourth quarter showed some improvements, but remained nearly at the same level as
that of the previous year’s fourth quarter.



Table 1. UNCTAD’s Global FDI Quarterly Index


2009:Q1 62.1
2009:Q2 105.8
2009:Q3 125.7
2009:Q4 119.9
2010:Q1 107.7
2010:Q2 82.5
2010:Q3 121.0
2010:Q4 105.3*


*Preliminary estimates.



Global FDI flows stagnant in 2010



Global FDI inflows remained stagnant in 2010 at an estimated $1,122 billion (table 2), compared to
$1,114 billion in the previous year. However, they showed an uneven pattern among regions, components and
modes of FDI. While FDI inflows to developed countries contracted further in 2010, those to developing and
transition economies recovered, surpassing the 50% mark of global FDI flows. The improvement of economic
conditions in 2010 drove up reinvested earnings, while equity capital and intra-company loans remained
relatively subdued. Cross-border M&A volume rebounded in 2010, whereas greenfield investments continued to
decline.


The quarterly fluctuations during 2010, as reported in previous Global Trends Monitors, indicate that the
worldwide FDI recovery is still hesitant, although after an unexpectedly weak second quarter, global FDI flows
registered an increase in the third quarter of 2010 (figure 2). UNCTAD’s FDI Global Quarterly Index jumped
upwards, reaching 121 for the quarter, its highest reading in 2010. Preliminary data for the fourth quarter
suggests that global FDI flows continue to struggle to establish a sustainable growth path. FDI flows in the
quarter are likely to be flat, or slightly down, compared to the third quarter. While reinvested earnings will be
helped by higher corporate profits, weak equity capital flows – from cross-border M&As and greenfield
investments – will continue to keep FDI flows in a holding pattern during the quarter. In particular, cross-border
M&As registered a fall in value and in number during the fourth quarter. The high level of announced deals in
the latter half of 2010, however, indicates that the fourth quarter’s lull may be temporary and that M&A volumes
are likely to improve in early 2011.


2




Table 2. FDI inflows and cross-border M&As, by region and major economy, 2009−2010
(Billions of dollars)


FDI inflows Net cross-border M&Asb
Region / economy 2009 2010 a Growth rate(%) 2009 2010


Growth rate
(%)


World 1 114.1 1 122.0 0.7 249.7 341.4 36.7
Developed economies 565.9 526.6 -6.9 203.5 252.1 23.9


Europe 378.4 295.4 -21.9 133.9 125.0 -6.6
European Union 361.9 289.8 -19.9 116.2 115.3 -0.8


Austria 7.1 12.6 78.8 1.8 4.9 174.2
Belgium 33.8 50.5 49.5 12.1 9.4 -22.3
Czech Republic 2.7 8.2 199.6 2.7 - 0.5 ..
Denmark 7.8 6.3 -19.2 1.7 1.4 -12.6
Finland 2.6 2.6 3.1 0.5 0.3 -36.3
France 59.6 57.4 -3.7 0.7 4.3 500.3
Germany 35.6 34.4 -3.5 12.8 10.8 -15.2
Greece 3.4 2.1 -38.3 0.5 - 1.2 ..
Ireland 25.0 8.4 -66.3 1.7 2.3 31.8
Italy 30.5 19.7 -35.5 1.1 7.7 590.2
Luxembourg 27.3 12.1 -55.7 0.4 2.1 368.9
Netherlands 26.9 - 24.7 .. 18.0 3.5 -80.8
Poland 11.4 10.4 -8.9 0.8 1.0 32.5
Portugal 2.9 3.4 17.8 0.5 2.2 338.1
Spain 15.0 15.7 4.3 32.2 8.5 -73.4
Sweden 10.9 12.1 11.6 1.1 0.8 -23.0
United Kingdom 45.7 46.2 1.2 25.2 56.3 123.5


United States 129.9 186.1 43.3 40.1 79.6 98.6
Japan 11.9 2.0 -83.4 - 5.8 7.1 ..


Developing economies 478.3 524.8 9.7 39.1 85.1 117.6
Africa 58.6 50.1 -14.4 5.1 7.7 49.3


Egypt 6.7 6.8 1.7 1.0 0.2 -80.4
Nigeria 5.9 2.3 -60.4 - 0.2 0.4 ..
South Africa 5.7 1.3 -77.9 4.2 3.9 -6.5


Latin America and the Caribbean 116.6 141.1 21.1 - 4.4 32.0 ..
Argentina 4.9 5.1 4.0 0.1 3.5 3001.5
Brazil 25.9 30.2 16.3 - 1.4 9.4 ..
Chile 12.7 18.2 43.4 0.8 1.8 121.0
Colombia 7.2 8.7 20.8 - 1.6 0.6 ..
Mexico 12.5 19.1 52.9 0.1 8.0 7616.1
Peru 4.8 6.9 44.7 0.0 0.7 1689.7


Asia and Oceania 303.2 333.6 10.0 38.3 45.3 18.4
West Asia 68.3 57.2 -16.2 3.5 4.8 34.5


Turkey 7.6 7.0 -8.0 2.8 2.1 -28.0
South, East and South-East Asia 233.0 274.6 17.8 34.7 31.5 -9.2


China 95.0 101.0 c 6.3 10.9 6.0 -44.6
Hong Kong, China 48.4 62.6 29.2 3.0 12.2 301.5
India 34.6 23.7 -31.5 6.0 5.2 -14.3
Indonesia 4.9 12.8 162.7 1.3 0.9 -33.1
Malaysia 1.4 7.0 409.7 0.4 3.7 939.0
Singapore 16.8 37.4 122.7 9.7 4.7 -51.1
Thailand 5.9 6.8 14.2 0.3 0.5 32.0


South-East Europe and the CIS 69.9 70.5 0.8 7.1 4.3 -39.8
Russian Federation 38.7 39.7 2.5 5.1 2.9 -43.6


Source: UNCTAD.
a Preliminary estimates by UNCTAD.
b Net cross-border M&As are sales of companies in the host economy to foreign transnational corporations (TNCs) excluding sales of foreign
affiliates in the host economy, while table 3 includes all cross-border M&A deals.
c Not including the financial sector.
Note: World FDI inflows are projected on the basis of 153 economies for which data are available for part of 2009 or full year estimate, as of
7 January 2011. Data are estimated by annualizing their available data, in most cases the first two or three quarters of 2010. The proportion
of inflows to these economies in total inflows to their respective region or subregion in 2009 is used to extrapolate the 2010 regional data.




3




Figure 2. UNCTAD’s Global FDI Quarterly Indexa 2007 Q1–2010 Q4
(Base 100: quarterly average of 2005)


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4*


2007 2008 2009 2010



Source: UNCTAD.
* Preliminary estimate.
a The Global FDI Quarterly Index is based on quarterly data of FDI inflows for 67 countries, which together account for roughly


90% of global flows. The index has been calibrated such that the average of quarterly flows in 2005 is equivalent to 100.


Developed countries: a further contraction


Developed countries did not return to FDI growth in 2010. UNCTAD’s latest estimates show that FDI
flows to this group of economies fell some 7% to $527 billion, despite the robust recovery in some countries.
Most notably, FDI in the United States surged by more than 40% over 2009 levels, an increase worth $56
billion, the single biggest increase in FDI among the major economic regions. This rise is largely due to a
significant recovery in reinvested earnings of foreign affiliates.


Europe stood out as the subregion where flows fell most sharply, explained largely by two groups of
countries. First, the Netherlands and Luxembourg saw significant declines. Negative FDI flows in the former
country were caused by more volatile flows related to transactions of financial affiliates. Second, uncertainties
about sovereign debts caused drops in FDI, with the largest impacts seen in Ireland and Italy (Greece and
Spain are less significant FDI recipients). FDI in the region’s major economies (France and Germany) fell only
slightly.


Within the group of developed countries, declining FDI flows were also registered in Japan due to a
number of large divestments (e.g. Liberty Group, Ford).


Developing countries: the recovery has started


FDI flows to developing economies rose some 10% to $525 billion in 2010, thanks to a relatively fast
economic recovery and increasing South–South flows. The value of cross-border M&As doubled – an
increasingly important mode of FDI entry into developing countries. Behind this general increase lie significant
differences: while Latin America and South, East and South-East Asia experienced strong growth in FDI inflows,
West Asia and Africa continued to see declines (table 2).


Inflows to Africa, which peaked in 2008 driven by the resource boom, appear to continue the downward
trend of the previous year. For the region as a whole, UNCTAD estimates show that FDI inflows fell by 14% to
$50 billion in 2010, although there are significant regional variations. While the downward trends of inflows to
North Africa appear to have stabilized, in sub-Saharan Africa, inflows to South Africa declined to barely a
quarter of the 2009 level, contributing to the large fall of FDI inflows in the subregion. Cross-border M&As,


4




mainly in extractive industries, registered an increase of 49%,1 while the number and value of greenfield
projects − normally the main mode of FDI in Africa − suffered a decline of about 10% in 2010. The rise of FDI
from developing Asia and Latin America to Africa was not yet enough to compensate for the decline of FDI from
developed countries which still account for the lion’s share of inward FDI flows to many African countries.


Thanks to its position as a leader of the global economic recovery, FDI flows to South, East and South-
East Asia have picked up markedly, outperforming other developing regions. After a 17% decline in 2009,
inflows to the region rose by about 18% in 2010, reaching $275 billion, due to booming inflows in Singapore,
Hong Kong (China), China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Viet Nam, in that order. FDI flows (in the non-financial
sector) to China, for example, reached more than $100 billion. Breaking this general upward trend, South Asia
experienced a 14% drop in FDI, mainly due to declines in flows to India.


FDI flows to West Asia, at $57 billion, continued to be affected by the global economic crisis, despite the
steady economic recovery registered by the economies of the region. Sizeable increases in government
spending by oil-rich countries helped push their economies forward, but conditions in the private sector
remained subdued. The picture varies by country, with inflows to the United Arab Emirates rebounding
modestly from the relatively low values of 2009, to little change in performance for Lebanon, to a drop in Saudi
Arabia due in part to foreign investors pulling out of or freezing large refinery projects (ConocoPhillips, Dow
Chemicals).


A surge in cross-border M&As is the main factor explaining the significant increase in FDI flows to Latin
America and the Caribbean, which attained the level of $141 billion. Compared with negative values in 2009,
M&As reached $32 billion in 2010, nearly reaching the high values registered in the region during the 1990s.
The targets of these deals were mainly in the oil and gas, metal mining and food and beverages industries.
Strong economic growth, spurred by robust domestic and external demand, good macroeconomic
fundamentals and higher commodity prices, explain the quick recovery of FDI flows to the region. Nearly all the
big recipient countries saw inward flows increase, with Brazil remaining the largest destination for the fourth
consecutive year.


Transition economies: a halt to the decline


The transition economies of South-East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
registered a marginal increase in FDI inflows, of roughly 1%, in 2010 to $71 billion, after falling more than 40%
in the previous year. FDI flows to South-East Europe continued their decline with a further negative 31% due to
sluggish investments from European Union countries (traditionally the dominant source of FDI in the subregion).
In contrast, the CIS economies saw flows increase by 5% on the back of stronger commodity prices, a faster
economic recovery and improving stock markets. Foreign investors in the Russian Federation are increasingly
targeting the fast growing local consumer market (the deal agreed by PepsiCo to buy Russian juice and dairy
company Wimm-Bill-Dann for $3.8 billion is emblematic).


Diverging patterns in FDI components and modes of entry


Stagnant FDI flows in 2010 were accompanied by diverging trends in the components of FDI flows
(equity, intra-company loans and reinvested earnings) and by modes of entry (M&A and greenfield investments).
Improved economic performance in many parts of the world and increased profits of foreign affiliates, especially
in developing countries, lifted reinvested earnings to nearly double their 2009 level (figure 3). This increase
compensated for the decline in equity capital flows (down slightly despite an up-tick in cross-border M&As) and
in other capital flows (mainly intra-company loans) which saw a significant drop.



1 India’s Bharti Airtel acquisition of the African mobile phone networks of Kuwait’s Zain for $10.7 billion (table 3)


is not reported as an addition to FDI flows to Africa since it is only a change of foreign ownership.


5




6


Figure 3. Quarterly FDI inflows by components for 37 selected economies, 2007 Q1- 2010 Q4
(Billions of dollars)


- 100


0


100


200


300


400


500


600


Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4*


2007 2008 2009 2010


Equity inflows Reinvested earnings Other capital


Source: UNCTAD.
* Preliminary estimate.


Note: Economies included are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Estonia,
France, Germany, Hong Kong (China), Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico,
Republic of Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan Province of China, United Kingdom, United States and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.



Cross-border M&As, which typically react more quickly to changing economic conditions, jumped 37% in


2010 (figure 4), reflecting both the growing value of assets on the stock market and the increased financial
capability of potential buyers to carry out such operations. International greenfield investments, however, still
registered a drop in both value and number during the year (figure 4).


Figure 4. Value and number of cross-border M&As and greenfield FDI projects, 2007 Q1 - 2010 Q4
(Billion of dollars and number of deals)


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


400


450


500


Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


2007 2008 2009 2010


$
bi


lli
on


0


500


1 000


1 500


2 000


2 500


3 000


3 500


4 000


4 500


5 000


Nu
m


be
r


M&A value Greenfield value M&As number Greenfield number


Source: UNCTAD.
Note: Data for value of greenfield FDI projects refer to estimated amounts of capital investment.



Project value of greenfield investments has held up better since the crisis than that of cross-border M&As.


While the value of M&As equalled or exceeded greenfield investment before the crisis, it is now significantly lower.




Improving FDI prospects for 2011


For 2011, UNCTAD estimates FDI flows to be between $1.3 trillion and $1.5 trillion. Improved
macroeconomic conditions in 2010 strengthened TNCs’ corporate profits and boosted stock market valuations.
These favourable conditions coupled with rising business confidence in 2011 will help translate TNCs’ record
levels of cash holdings (in the order of four to five trillion dollars among developed country firms alone) into new
investments. TNCs will also face increasing pressure to make strategic investments to cement their business
plans for the post-crisis period. Worldwide M&A activity (domestic and cross-border M&As combined) is also
expected to rise further in 2011. The current overall favourable policy climate for foreign investors further
supports the positive prospects for FDI flows in 2011. Clearly, a number of risks to this positive scenario persist.
Worldwide GDP growth, after the “recovery-boost” in 2010, will slow down. In addition, risks related to currency
volatility, sovereign debt and investment protectionism could still derail the expected FDI upturn. A strong
global FDI recovery depends much on the steady economic and FDI recovery of the developed economies.


Table 3. Cross-border M&A deals with a value of over 3 billion in 2010
Value


($ million) Acquired company
Industry of the acquired


company Host economy
(Ultimate) acquiring


company
Ultimate acquiring


nation


7 603 Solvay Pharmaceuticals SA Pharmaceutical preparations Belgium Abbott Laboratories United States


5 195
Unity Media GmbH Cable and other pay television


services
Germany Liberty Media Corp United States


4 469
Egyptian Co for Mobile Services


Radiotelephone
communications


Egypt France Telecom SA France


4 000
Liberty Global Inc- Subsidiaries


Cable and other pay television
services


United States KDDI Corp Japan


3 700
Kraft Foods Inc-North American


Pizza Business Frozen specialties, nec United States Nestle SA Switzerland


3 363
Springer Science+Business Media


Deutschland GmbH
Books: publishing, or
publishing & printing


Germany Group of Investors Guernsey


18 769
Cadbury PLC


Candy and other confectionery
products


United Kingdom Kraft Foods Inc United States


10 700 Zain Africa BV
Radiotelephone
communications Nigeria Bharti Airtel Ltd India


8 496
T-Mobile(UK)Ltd


Radiotelephone
communications


United Kingdom France Telecom SA France


7 325
Fomento Economico Mexicano SAB


de CV-Beer Operations
Malt beverages Mexico Group of Investors Netherlands


5 516
ZAO Kyivstar GSM


Radiotelephone
communications


Ukraine Vimpelkom
Russian


Federation


4 848
Republic of Venezuela-Carabobo


Block
Crude petroleum and natural


gas
Venezuela Group of Investors India


4 031 OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc Pharmaceutical preparations United States Astellas Pharma Inc Japan


3 800
Bunge Participacoes e


Investimentos SA
Soybean oil mills Brazil Vale SA Brazil


3 426
Tandberg ASA


Radio & TV broadcasting &
communications equipment


Norway Cisco Systems Inc United States


3 160
Tommy Hilfiger Corp Men's shirts and nightwear Netherlands Phillips-Van Heusen Corp United States


3 100
Bridas Corp


Crude petroleum and natural
gas


Argentina CNOOC China


9 743
Brasilcel NV


Radiotelephone
communications


Brazil Telefonica SA Spain


9 018 Lihir Gold Ltd Gold ores Papua New Guinea Newcrest Mining Ltd Australia


6 127
Millipore Corp


Laboratory analytical
instruments


United States Merck KGaA Germany


5 959 Sybase Inc Prepackaged Software United States SAP AG Germany
4 931 Ratiopharm International GmbH Pharmaceutical preparations Germany Teva Pharm Inds Ltd Israel


4 380
Tomkins PLC


Mechanical power transmission
equipment, nec


United Kingdom Onex Corp Canada


4 110
Denway Motors Ltd


Motor vehicle parts and
accessories


Hong Kong, China GAIG China


4 052
AXA SA-Life Assurance


Business,UK Life insurance United Kingdom Resolution Ltd Guernsey


3 717
Valeant Pharmaceuticals


International Inc
Pharmaceutical preparations United States Valeant Pharmaceuticals Canada


3 713
Piramal Healthcare Ltd- Healthcare


Solutions Business
Pharmaceutical preparations India Abbott Laboratories United States


3 679
Abertis Infraestructuras SA Highway and street construction Spain CVC Capital Partners Ltd United Kingdom


3 330 Interactive Data Corp Information retrieval services United States Interactive Data Corp SPV United States


3 164
Arrow Energy Ltd


Crude petroleum and natural
gas


Australia Royal Dutch Shell PLC Netherlands


3 100
BP PLC-Permian Basin Assets Crude petroleum and natural


gas
United States Apache Corp United States


9 056
EDF Energy PLC-UK Power


Distribution Business
Electric services United Kingdom Group of Investors Hong Kong, China


7 625 E.ON US LLC Natural gas distribution United States PPL Corp United States


7 111 Repsol YPF Brasil SA
Crude petroleum and natural


gas Brazil Sinopec Group China


4 540
Porsche Holding GmbH


Automobiles and other motor
vehicles


Austria
Porsche Automobil


Holding SE
Germany


4 517 Pactiv Corp Plastics foam products United States Rank Group Ltd New Zealand
3 397 HS1 Ltd Railroads, line-haul operating United Kingdom Group of Investors Canada
3 374 Andean Resources Ltd Gold ores United States Goldcorp Inc Canada


3 270 General Growth Properties Inc Real estate investment trusts United States Brookfield Asset Mgmt Inc Canada


3 269
Sunrise Communications AG


Radiotelephone
communications


Switzerland CVC Capital Partners Ltd Luxembourg


3 250
BP PLC-Western Canadian


Upstream Gas Assets
Crude petroleum and natural


gas
Canada Apache Corp United States


3 119
Dimension Data Holdings PLC


Computer integrated systems
design


South Africa
Nippon Telegraph &


Telephone
Japan


3 090 Intoll Group Investment offices, nec Australia Canada Pension Plan Canada


3 019
RBS WorldPay


Functions related to depository
banking, nec


United Kingdom Group of Investors United States


Third quarter


Fourth quarter


Second quarter


First quarter



Source: UNCTAD.


7











The next issue of UNCTAD’s Global Investment


Trends Monitor will be released in
mid-April 2011.



The next issue of UNCTAD’s Investment Policy


Monitor will be released in the last week of
January 2011.































8




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