A partnership with academia

Building knowledge for trade and development

Vi Digital Library - Text Preview

Green Economy: Why a Green Economy Matters for the Least Developed Countries

Report by UNEP,UNC TAD,UN-OHRLLS, 2011

Download original document (English)

This publication describes the policies and strategies that LDCs need to adopt to achieve successful transition to a green economy and accelerate their development

nomyecoGREEN
Why a Green Economy Matters for the Least Developed Countries




02 - 03


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
C


o
n


te
n


ts


(1) Tapping New Growth Options
for Improved Development Prospects


(2) Pathways to a Green Economy
Transition in LDCs


(3) Ways Forward


Foreword


Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2011
UNEP would like to thank the European Union for its generous support to the Green Economy Initiative.


This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational
or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided
acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of
any publication that uses this publication as a source.


No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial
purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from UNEP.


Disclaimer
The designations employed and the presentation of the
material in this publication do not imply the expression of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of the UNEP, UNCTAD and
UN-OHRLLS concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Moreover,
the views expressed do not necessarily represent the
decision or the stated policy of the UNEP, UNCTAD
and UN-OHRLLS, nor does citing of trade names or
commercial processes constitute endorsement.


Layout and printing by:
100 Watt, St-Martin-Bellevue, France - Tel. +33 (0)4 50 57 42 17


A joint publication of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and
Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries,
Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS)
for the LDC-IV Conference in May 2011.


The
United Nations


promotes environmentally
sound practices globally and in


its own activities. This publication
is printed on 100% recycled paper,


using vegetable -based inks and other
eco-friendly practices. Our distribution


policy aims to reduce UN’s carbon
footprint.


Uganda, Kampala district; women of the women’s cooperation
drying banana chips in a self-made solar energy system/contributor: Ron Giling




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


Foreword
The world is preparing for the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development
(Rio+20), where one of the themes will be “green economy in the context of
sustainable development and poverty eradication”. This publication examines the
idea that Least Developed Countries (LDCs) possess the economic conditions, the
natural and cultural assets, and the policy setting to embrace, if not lead, a green
economy transition, which would in turn accelerate their development.


In its simplest expression, a green economy can
be described as one that is low carbon, resource
efficient and socially inclusive. A green economy can
take advantage of new growth trajectories designed
to be more socially inclusive, as well as responsive
to poverty reduction and economic diversification
objectives.


The conditions in LDCs provide a basis to pursue a
low-carbon and resource efficient path of economic
growth and development, anchored in investment
and policy reform designed to enhance livelihoods
for the poor, create employment opportunities and
reduce poverty. The move towards a green economy
would also provide an opportunity to address the
infrastructure challenges of LDCs in a sustainable way.
The 48 LDCs currently present a low-carbon profile,
due to their low levels of carbon emissions. Their
economies rely significantly on natural capital assets
such as agriculture, forest resources, biodiversity,
tourism, minerals and oil extraction. There also exists
a large potential for renewable energies.


While other countries face sizeable economic and
social costs of ‘decarbonization’, alongside costs


linked with retiring inefficient fossil fuel-based
technologies, LDCs can jump start the green
economy transition by maintaining and expanding
the sustainable practices that already exist. For
example, practices such as low-carbon, labour
intensive agriculture and community-based forestry,
which have existed for decades in these countries, will
be central elements to the greening of these sectors.


Structural constraints, including dependence on
fragile agriculture, limited access to energy and low
economic diversification, which have previously
prevented LDCs from significantly reducing poverty
and achieving higher rates of development, resulted
from policies and investments that undervalued the
importance of the economic sectors most relevant to
the livelihoods of the poor. Refocusing policies and
investments to target sectors and areas including
renewable energy, agriculture, forestry, tourism and
enhanced ecosystem services can lead to the economic
empowerment of low income populations, be more
conducive to inclusive growth and jobs and make a
significant contribution to achieving the Millennium
Development Goals in the poorest countries.


04 - 05


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Fo


re
w


o
rd




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


06 - 07


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
ec


o
G


RE
EN


no
m


y Fore
w


o
rd


Fo
re


w
o


rd


Governments have a central role to play in putting in
place strategies, targeted public expenditures, policy
reforms and regulatory changes to promote further
investment and initiatives by the private sector and
civil society. Already, decision makers in a number of
LDCs are taking bold measures that can set the course
for this transition to occur.


Bringing energy to the rural poor is one of the most
important contributions that a green economy can
make to LDC economies. After decades of national
and global efforts, it is now becoming clear that
decentralized forms of energy supply offer LDCs the
most effective approach to rural energy access. In
this regard, it is encouraging to observe that many
LDCs have started to initiate policies and innovative
approaches to tap into their potential for adaptable,
clean energy solutions.


In addition to energy, there is growing evidence
that sustainable forms of agriculture, a sector which
accounts for a large share of GDP in LDCs, can
increase yields and revenues, open up new market
opportunities and reduce climate change and
environmental vulnerability. By increasing investment
and technical support, and implementing appropriate
policy reforms to encourage such practices, significant
gains can also be achieved in this area.


For LDCs to succeed in this journey, there must be a
supportive international policy framework in which
risks and uncertainties originating in other countries
are prevented from jeopardizing the progress
achieved in the more vulnerable economies. The
international community must provide the necessary
support to leverage financial resources and help LDCs
build capacity in order to seize the opportunity for
transformative change that is conducive to sustainable
development and poverty reduction, beginning with
the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least
Developed Countries (LDC-IV) being held 9-13 May
2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.


This report is a joint effort of the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP), the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) and the Office of the High Representative
for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked
Developing Countries and Small Island Developing
States (UN-OHRLLS) on the occasion of the Fourth
UN Conference on LDCs. It aims to be illustrative
rather than comprehensive by showcasing examples
of innovative policies and practices, identifying
emerging opportunities and challenges for a green
economy transition in LDCs, and stimulating further
discussion amongst interested stakeholders.


Achim Steiner
Under-Secretary General
of the United Nations
and Executive Director of the UNEP


Supachai Panitchpakdi
Secretary-General of UNCTAD


Cheik Sidi Diarra,
Under-Secretary-General of the United
Nations and High Representative
of UN-OHRLLS




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


Tapping New
Green Growth


Options for Improved
Development Prospects


Persistent poverty and low human development in LDCs can only be
reversed if structural constraints underpinning LDCs’ economic vulnerability
are addressed.1


This requires a removal of constraints on productive
capacities such as poor access to energy, the
preservation and enhancement of ecosystems and
ecosystem services including fisheries and forests
that form the basis of livelihood of the poor, and more
resilient food and agricultural production systems. The
experience of the last three decades is illustrative of
how a growth and development approach concentrated


on “growth enclaves” has failed to reduce poverty and
create employment for the vast majority of people
in LDCs. The current development approach is also
not environmentally sustainable. For example, when
national savings in LDCs are adjusted for depletion of
natural resources (of which energy depletion is the most
significant component), they had been steadily declining
since the late 1990s and were almost zero in 2008.2


Savings and depletion of natural resources in LDCs, 1990–2008 (percentage of GNI)


Source: UNCTAD, 2010. The Least Developed Countries Report 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs.


08 - 09


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Ta


p
p


ing
N


e
w


G
ro


w
th O


p
tio


ns fo
r Im


p
ro


ve
d


D
e


ve
lo


p
m


e
nt Pro


sp
e


c
ts


1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


15


10


5


0


-5


1- UN-OHRLLS, 2011. Compact for Inclusive Growth and Prosperity: Report of the United Nations Secretary-General’s Eminent Persons Group on the Least Developed Countries.
2- UNCTAD, 2010. The Least Developed Countries Report 2010: Towards a New International Development Architecture for LDCs. United Nations: New York and Geneva.




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


energy technologies that the green economy has
emerged as an economically viable approach to
electrify LDCs’ rural regions employing remote off-grid
electricity generation systems. Commercializing
renewable energy systems to serve domestic
markets now represents an attractive green growth
option. Not only can it provide electricity to the
rural poor to open new rural economic development
pathways, but it also reduces poverty by creating
local manufacturing jobs for related hardware and
for the financing, distribution, installation and
maintenance of renewable energy systems. Income
generating applications linked to existing agro-
forestry or tourism industries can help drive the
local economy.


LDCs will benefit from more affordable access to
renewable energy systems in a greening global
economy. As the transition proceeds, high levels
of demand for renewable energy technologies in
developed country markets stimulate increasing
innovation and economies of scale resulting
in improved performance and falling prices.
This makes off-grid rural electrification projects
increasingly attractive to private sector investors
considering community-scale hydro, biomass,
wind and solar facilities; and to individual
businesses and households seeking to install
small renewable energy systems. Some LDCs,
including Bhutan, Nepal, Senegal and the United
Republic of Tanzania, have successfully stimulated
rural electrification projects by mainstreaming
renewables as a central technology option in
national energy strategies.


From waste to wealth


Within the infrastructure services sector, other
green business opportunities can be found in solid
waste management and recycling in urban areas.
As with renewable energy, projects that maximize
local content and local knowledge contribute to local
job creation and income multiplying effects.


Turning waste into a dynamic business in
Bangladesh - Over 6 million people live in Dhaka,
each day producing over 3,000 tons of household
waste. The city collects less than half of it; the rest
remains on roadsides, in open drains and in low-
lying areas. A company called Waste Concern,
founded in 1995, turned this environmental crisis
into a green business opportunity by collecting
and recycling organic waste. Waste Concern
utilizes the waste in a composting scheme that
provides organic fertilizer to the nation’s farmers
while significantly reducing national greenhouse
gas emissions.


The company has also attracted foreign direct
investment through an agreement with a Dutch
company to develop two Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) projects. Based on its success
in Bangladesh, Waste Concern is now assisting
10 Asian and 10 African cities in replicating its
model. A regional recycling training centre was
opened in Dhaka in 2010 to benefit international
participants.
Source: Adapted from the Social Entrepreneurs
Brochure 2011, the Schwab Foundation for Social
Entrepreneurship.


10 - 11


ec
o


G
RE


EN
no


m
y


Ta
p


p
in


g
N


e
w


G
ro


w
th


O
p


tio
ns


f
o


r I
m


p
ro


ve
d


D
e


ve
lo


p
m


e
nt


P
ro


sp
e


c
ts


Seizing the moment


LDCs are well positioned in the transition to a
green economy given their low-carbon profile and
rich natural capital and cultural assets. Relative to
larger economies, LDCs are generally characterized
by low-levels of carbon emissions and relatively low
investments in polluting technologies. On the other
hand, poorer countries are more dependent on
natural resources, making ecosystem degradation,
resource scarcity and climate change particularly
challenging to ending poverty. Investments and
policy reforms that reduce environmental risks
and ecological scarcities are therefore critical to
improving human well-being and social equity in
these countries.


Shares of Total Wealth in Low-income Countries, 2000


Source: World Bank, 2006. Where is the Wealth of Nations?
Measuring Capital for the 21st Century


Energy access is central


Bringing electricity to the rural poor is one of
the most important contributions that a green
economy can make to LDC economies. Lack of
modern electricity infrastructure in rural regions and
access to the development options that electricity
opens are persistent impediments to economic
development in LDCs where 77 per cent of the
population is without access to electricity.3 Most
affected are the 71 per cent of the population of
LDCs that live in rural regions who rely on biomass
burning as the only source of energy. Not only does
biomass burning provide extremely limited utility
– heating and cooking only – but it also results in
deforestation and desertification that limits future
agro-forestry productivity as well as indoor pollution
that poses a serious health hazard for the rural
poor. Rural electricity thus remains a fundamental
need in LDCs to improve environmental health
conditions, light homes and schools, run information
and communication systems, refrigerate food and
medicines, and power rural businesses and industry.
Extending rural electrification can also help to
enhance linkages between rural farming and
non-farming activities, which will be a powerful
mechanism of both growth and poverty reduction.


However, bringing electricity to the rural poor
has been a persistent challenge for LDCs.
Resource constrained governments often find the
costs of extending national grids prohibitive and
such investments are generally unattractive or
entail too high a risk for the private sector. It is only
in recent years with declining costs of renewable


3- UNDP and WHO, 2009. The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries, A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and sub-Saharan Africa.


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Ta


p
p


ing
N


e
w


G
ro


w
th O


p
tio


ns fo
r Im


p
ro


ve
d


D
e


ve
lo


p
m


e
nt Pro


sp
e


c
ts




subsistence and other income to more than half
of the LDCs’ population. Sustainable agricultural
production protects natural ecosystems and yields
natural products, including organic products, that
are benefiting from growing demand. The global
market for organic food and beverage products
is projected to reach US$ 60 billion this year; a
more than three-fold expansion from 2000 levels.6
Organic farming is practiced on 37 million hectares
in 160 countries; a nearly four-fold increase over
the past decade. Increases in organic farmland
are now occurring predominantly in developing
countries to respond to growth in global demand
for organic products. The number of LDC producers
is growing. About 75 per cent of the more than 1.8
million producers worldwide are farmers, mostly
smallholders, in over 110 developing countries,
with large numbers in LDCs such as Burkina Faso,
Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. Beyond organic
food and beverages, consumer preferences for
organic fibres such as organic cotton, wool, hemp
and silk are providing new income opportunities
for LDC farmers; and, international cosmetic firms
are sourcing increasing volumes of organic oils,
waxes, fats and herbs from LDC producers. Practical
approaches toward diversifying LDC economies
includes horizontal and vertical diversification,
and strengthening inter-sectoral linkages, in the
agricultureand tourism sectors.


Producing sustainably harvested timber is
another area where LDCs can increase their
presence in greening global markets. Sustainable
forest management seeks to strike a balance between
society’s increasing demands for forest products and
benefits and the preservation of forest health and


diversity. This balance is critical to the survival of forests
and to the long-term prosperity of forest-dependent
communities. Most sustainably harvested timber is
certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). FSC
assists many LDCs in developing national standards
and marketing activities for producers. Globally, total
FSC certified forest land area has increased seven-
fold over the past decade to reach nearly 140 million
hectares in 2010 with developing countries’ share of
this total rising to about 20 per cent. LDCs involved in
FSC certified production include: Laos, Mozambique,
Nepal, Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Uganda.


Sustainable urbanization


Economic empowerment of rural areas will
contribute to reducing the unsustainable trend
of rural-urban migration while allowing a better
planning of urbanization in LDCs. As in other
parts of the world, urbanization is progressing
fast in LDCs. Key to the challenges facing poorer
countries is the massive inflow of rural poor into
urban centres, leading to growing slums under
unsuitable living conditions and lack of access
to basic services such as sanitation, clean water,
energy and transport. The large demand for new
construction offers LDCs options for deploying
already available technologies which can increase
energy and resource efficiency in this area. As many
LDCs have social housing programmes, ensuring
that such programmes include design criteria and
construction practices that support sustainable
building principles can enhance living conditions
for low income communities in urban settlements. 7


12 - 13


Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


Building on natural capital assets


LDCs are endowed with rich natural resources
amenable to ecotourism, which is commonly
perceived to be tourism in natural surroundings,
making ecotourism another major green growth
option for many LDCs. In 23 out of the 48 LDCs
international tourism is among the top three foreign
exchange earners, with island LDCs exhibiting a high
dependence on tourism. Ecotourism is built on small-scale
community-led tourism operations that preserve natural
ecosystems and generate employment for unskilled
rural laborers in locales without the capital necessary for
industrial activities. The ecotourism industry has matured
considerably over the past decade and some industry
projections position ecotourism to capture 25 per cent
of global tourism revenues in 2012.4 Excluding domestic
receipts, global ecotourism revenue from international
tourists could be as high as US$ 240 billion with the
majority of destinations in developing countries.


Although several LDCs such as Lao People’s Democratic
Republic, Madagascar, Nepal and Tanzania have begun to
develop the sector, substantial opportunities remain for
others to do so as well. The variety in products offered by
ecotourism, and tourism more generally, and their linkage
with other economic sectors can help LDCs to strengthen
and vertically diversify their economy while promoting
rural community development and generating profitable
businesses that conserve natural resources. Moreover,
carbon sequestration is another area where developing
countries are offering green services in global markets.
For example, international funds through the United
Nations REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation
and Degradation) Programme compensate land owners
for keeping forests intact and reforesting degraded areas.


Ecotourism in Laos experiences rapid growth -
In Laos, ecotourism has become a thriving
economic activity accounting for about half of
total tourism revenue. Overall, the number of
international arrivals in Laos has jumped from 1
million in 2005 to over 2 million in 2009, with most
foreign tourists coming from other countries in
the region, principally Australia, China, Thailand
and Vietnam. Much of this success is attributed
to a National Ecotourism Strategy Action Plan
established by the Lao Tourism Administration.
The strategy builds on successful demonstration
projects to introduce ecotourism in the country
that began in 1999 and benefited from support
from multilateral and bilateral donors including
UNESCO, the European Union, and the German
and New Zealand governments. Main thrusts
of the strategy are the sustainable use of the
natural and cultural resources and the delivery
of measurable socio-economic benefits to local
communities.
Source: Lao Tourism Administration.


Diversification and value addition
in agriculture


A green economy offers significant opportunities
for LDCs to diversify their agricultural sector
through horizontal diversification into organic
crops. Agriculture continues to be the primary
motor in LDC economies where it accounts for
between 30 to 60 per cent of the GDP and employs
up to 80 per cent of the national workforce.5 The
sector supplies the bulk of basic food and provides


6- Willer, H. and Kilcher, L., 2011. The World of Organic Agriculture, IFOAM, Bonn, and FiBL.
7- For more information, please see Sustainable Urban Social Housing Initiative (SUSHI) http://www.unep.org/sbci/


4- The International Ecotourism Society, 2006. Global Ecotourism Fact Sheet.
5- UNCTAD, 2010. Globestat.


ec
o


G
RE


EN
no


m
y


Ta
p


p
in


g
N


e
w


G
ro


w
th


O
p


tio
ns


f
o


r I
m


p
ro


ve
d


D
e


ve
lo


p
m


e
nt


P
ro


sp
e


c
ts


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Ta


p
p


ing
N


e
w


G
ro


w
th O


p
tio


ns fo
r Im


p
ro


ve
d


D
e


ve
lo


p
m


e
nt Pro


sp
e


c
ts




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


Pathways to a Green
Economy Transition


National development plans and strategies can provide the overall policy
framework to orient interventions by public authorities and private actors.


Experience in developed countries and emerging
economies demonstrate that governments
can set the frameworks that drive a process of
transformative change, as seen in the Republic of
Korea’s Five-Year Plan on Green Growth (2008-2012)
or China’s 12th Five-Year Development Plan for 2011-
2015. In the same vein, a number of developing
countries and LDCs have adopted long-term and
medium-term development plans that integrate the
environment and investment thereby enhancing
their environmental assets as overall development
priorities. Clear strategies and policies have greater
chances to lead to an allocation of public resources
and to encourage private investment and community
participation to achieve positive change.


For example, Rwanda’s Vision 2020 provides a
strategic direction for the country and a set of
measurable policy goals with regard to population,
land and management and utilization of natural
resources and other socio-economic sectors. Rwanda
integrated environmental targets in its Economic
Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy and
subsequently adopted an Environment and Natural
Resources Sector plan (2009 - 2013) “Towards a Green,
Clean, Healthy and Wealthy Rwanda”. Nepal’s Three-
Year Interim Development Plan for 2011-2013 lays
particular emphasis on increasing public expenditure
to assist relief and generate employment.


Community Forest Management in Nepal
Forests account for almost 40 per cent of the
land in Nepal. The Forest Act and Forest Rules
recognize Community Forest User Groups as
“self-governing autonomous corporate bodies
for managing and using community forests”,
giving a prominent role to community forest
management. Such an approach generates
employment and income from forest protection,
gains from tree felling, log extraction, and non-
timber forest products.


Community forestry has contributed to restoring
forest resources in the country, turning an annual
rate of decline in forest cover of 1.9 per cent
during the 1990s, into an annual increase of 1.35
per cent over the period 2000 to 2005.


The Plan includes development for physical
infrastructure such as the effective use, management
and conservation of forests by communities,
expanding electricity to rural populations through
the use of hydropower, and planning for effective
transport through the construction of “green roads”
for remote village communities.


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Pa


thw
a


ys to
a


G
re


e
n Ec


o
no


m
y Tra


nsitio
n


14-15




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
ec


o
G


RE
EN


no
m


y Pathw
a


ys to
a


G
re


e
n Ec


o
no


m
y Tra


nsitio
n


Pa
th


w
a


ys
t


o
a


G
re


e
n


Ec
o


no
m


y
Tr


a
ns


iti
o


n


Policies matter


Government policies can encourage a shift in
production processes in vital sectors such as
agriculture, thereby increasing incomes while
achieving sustainability. Many recent studies and
assessments have pointed to the need to reconsider
methods of agricultural production in order to
enhance productivity while reducing risks inherent
to current agricultural practices.8 In the context of
LDCs, agricultural productivity is intrinsically linked
to poverty. It has been demonstrated that even
small increases in farm yields contribute directly to
reducing poverty, based on data from Africa and
Asia9 and that conversion of farms to sustainable
practices can result in average yield increases of
79 per cent, while improving the supply of critical
environmental services.10


Governments have a key role in facilitating such
a transition. Uganda, a country where 85 per
cent of the population is engaged in agriculture
production, has taken important steps towards
sustainable farming. Having adopted the national
Uganda Organic Standard in 2004 before
being part of the East African Organic Products
Standards developed in 2007, Uganda produced
in 2009 an organic agricultural policy to support
the development of organic agriculture as “one of
the avenues for delivering self-sustaining growth
as it provides mechanisms for individual farmers
to improve productivity, add value and access
markets which are keys to achievement of the
Poverty Eradication Action Plan objectives”.


Lower use of pesticides and greater use of organic
fertilizers in Mali cotton production


Source: FAO, 2009 11
Note: Post Farmer Field School (FFS) survey of cotton farmers
in 65 villages where FFS took place during 2007 and 2008.
Pesticide difference in use is an average 4.5 L/ha compared to
0.25 L/ha or 94% less for FFS farmers. The difference in use of
soil amendments is between 1.2 T/ha compared with 4.3 T/ha
or almost a 4-fold increase in use of compost by FFS farmers.


Policies that mandate or encourage technological
shifts can foster a rapid uptake of existing and
efficient clean technologies with relatively low
economic costs and significant returns. For example,
policies aimed at increasing energy efficiency are often
the easiest and least expensive way to achieve greater
energy security, a challenge confronting a number of
LDCs. It is estimated that in a country such as Senegal,
a 100 per cent replacement of installed incandescent
lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLi) would
lead to annual energy and cost savings of 73 per cent
nearly US$ 30 million per year; and, avoid investing in a
new coal-fired power plant with a generating capacity
of 50 MW, which cost approximately US$ 50 million.
Other benefits are annual energy savings of 0.24 TWh,
equivalent to the electricity generation of one coal-
fired power plant with a capacity of 50 MW and annual
savings of 0.2 Mt CO2, equivalent to CO2 emissions of
50,000 mid size cars. The estimated cost of a transition
to energy efficient lighting is a one-time investment of
US$ 52 million.12


Clear policies and incentives can stimulate private
sector engagement in transformative sectors such
as renewable energies. The barriers to expanding the
supply of renewable energy are often the same across
countries, principally a lack of financial incentives and
limited access to appropriate technologies. In order
to encourage private investment in the development
of LDCs’ renewable energy resources, a combination
of R&D-push and demand-pull measures are crucial.
Clearly set government targets are fundamental in
giving confidence to private investors seeking to
develop renewable energy projects. There is indication
that feed-in-tariffs have been implemented with
impressive results in Kenya and Mauritius and have


stimulated interest in renewable energy development
in countries such as Tanzania and Uganda.13 Triggered
by feed-in-tariffs and other support mechanisms, a
number of renewable energy projects are under way in
many LDCs, with projects in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Tanzania,
and Uganda.


Estimated cost saving of a 100% shift to efficient
lighting in Senegal


Source: en.lighten


Annual energy comparison incandescent vs. CFLi


Annual cost comparison incandescent vs. CFLi


16-17


12- en.lighten is a UNEP initiative supported by the GEF Earth Fund, OSRAM GmbH, Phillips Lighting, and the French Environment Energy Management Efficiency Agency (ADEME).
13- AFREPREN/FWD Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa. The Role of Feed-in Tariff Policy in Renewable Energy Development in Developing Countries, September. 2009.


8- See for example: United Nations. 2008. Comprehensive Framework for Action. High-Level Task Force on the Global Food
Security Task Crisis. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge Science and Technology for Development.
2009. ‘Global Report,’ IAASTD, Beverly D. McIntyre, Hans R. Herren, Judi Wakhungu and Robert T. Watson (eds.). UNEP.
2011. Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication.


9- Irz, X., L. Lin, C. Thirtle and S. Wiggins. Agricultural Growth and Poverty Alleviation. Development Policy Review 19 (4), (2001), pp. 449–466.
10- Pretty, J., Nobel, A.D., Bossio, D., Dixon, J., Hine, R.E., Penning De Vries, F.W.T., Morison, J.I.L. Resource Conserving
Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, (2006), p. 1114.
11- FAO, 2009. The West African Regional Integrated Production and Pest Management Programme. A Case Study, September 2009.


Pesticide Quantity L/ha


Non


Non


FFS


FFS


Organic Amendments kg/ha


Incandescent 40W CFLI 11W


Incandescent 40W CFLI 11W


co
st


of
el


ec
tri


cit
y i


n
m


illi
on


$
ele


ct
ric


ity
co


ns
um


pt
io


n
in


TW
h


5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0


5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500


0


0.40


0.30


0.20


0.10


0.00


50.0


40.0


30.0


20.0


10.0


0.0




many developing country infrastructure projects.
Additionally, there is a rich array of sources of external
financing for green projects in the infrastructure services
sectors given the high potential they have to reduce
emissions of greenhouse gases. In other sectors such as
organic agriculture and ecotourism which generally rely
exclusively on support from the national government and
private sources, capacity building support is available,
for example to construct commercially viable business
models and attract foreign direct investment (FDI).


LDCs will clearly need external sources of finance to
achieve a green economy, through both public funds
and private investments. The financial and economic
crisis left many LDCs with a fragile fiscal condition.
Whereas export earnings rebounded strongly in 2010,
owing to increased commodity demand and prices,
current account deficits have widened for many non-oil
exporting countries, and especially African LDCs. New
and additional resources will be required to meet the
financing needs of poorer countries.


Oversees Development Assistance (ODA) will remain
a critical source of financing despite uncertainty
related to budgetary pressures in donor countries.
ODA is still an important source of external financing.
ODA to LDCs reached US$ 37.3 billion in 2009, slightly
less than in 2009. The share of ODA to LDCs in donors’
gross national income (GNI) was 0.1 per cent, well
below the targets of 0.15 to 0.2 per cent I the Brussels
Programme of Action and MDG 8. The 0.15 target has
been exceeded by only 10 of the 33 donors from OECD’s
Development Assistance Committee. If the higher target
of 0.2 per cent would be met by all donors, ODA to LDCs
would double.18 The extent to which the current pressure
on the budgets of advanced economies will reduce aid


flows is still uncertain and remains a concern. It is in this
context that there is a need to give increased attention to
ODA from emerging economies, in the context of South-
South cooperation.


ODA as a catalyst for FDI to support a green
economy transition in LDCs - Foreign Direct
Investment (FDI) in LDCs has been on the rise since
1990. At the same time, until countries reach a
sufficient level of development, FDI primarily flows
to the primary sector (i.e., oil, gas and minerals), and
far less into other sectors such as manufacturing
and infrastructure services that are essential for
development. In addition, FDI inflows to LDCs are
geographically concentrated in a few LDCs. ODA
remains the main source of foreign capital in LDCs,
and it can help leverage private investment. ODA
thereby contributes to promote private investment
in sectors other than the primary sector, including
green economy sectors. As such, ODA supporting
the development of green sectors remains critical in
stimulating a green economy transition in LDCs.
Source: Adapted from UNCTAD World Investment
Report 2010.


Enhancing access to international funds
A variety of specific funding mechanisms exist to
respond to LDCs financing needs in the areas of
climate change, trade and productive capacities, and
technology needs assessments, among others. To
date, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), World Bank
and UNFCCC Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
have provided incremental financing for agro-forestry
and infrastructure projects that reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. However, for many LDCs, financing made


18-19


Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


Targeted public spending


Prioritizing government investment in green sectors
can be conducive to inclusive growth and long-term
sustainability. The findings of the UNEP report Towards
a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development
and Poverty Eradication14 that investing 2 per cent of
global GDP in greening ten key economic sectors can
be conducive to economic growth, create employment
and reduce poverty while significantly reducing
ecological risks and scarcities points to the critical role of
public funding. In the context of LDCs, limited financial
resources can be a constraint to government action,
making it even more crucial to prioritize spending
in sectors and areas that can promote sustainable
social, economic and environmental gains to society.
Public procurement can play an important role in
this regard. General procurement represents a large
proportion of government spending. While data on
public procurement is limited in developing countries,
estimates are that public procurement accounts for 8
per cent of GDP in Tanzania and 30 per cent in Uganda.15
Such government expenditure on the purchase of
goods and services, should be geared towards creating
incentives to boost domestic demand and supply of
environmentally-preferable goods and services.


Governments in LDCs can consider using fiscal
policy and innovative economic instruments that
have proven effective in similar context. A number of
low and lower-middle income countries have adopted
environmental taxes or reformed subsidy programmes
for polluting activities in order to alter production and
consumption patterns. For example, in November 2010
Vietnam passed its first law on environmental taxation,
and expects to implement it as of 1 January 2012. The


law introduces new taxes on gasoline, coal, plastic bags,
pesticides, and other products. The tax is expected to
generate between US$ 757 million to US$ 3 billion.
Studies have found that while the burden of the tax,
applied primarily to fossil fuels, could cause some
efficiency and competitiveness losses, the budget-
neutral use of increased tax revenues to raise spending
on anti-poverty programmes can offset most of the
losses of poor households. In addition, if the taxes reduce
emissions growth, they will also deliver benefits in the
form of a more healthy and productive workforce.16 In
2005, Ghana used the findings of a Poverty and Social
Impact Analysis which demonstrated that petroleum
subsidies go predominantly to higher income groups to
initiate a public and parliamentary debate on reforming
such subsidies. In parallel to reducing petroleum
subsidies, Ghana eliminated fees for attending primary
and junior-secondary school, and made available extra
funds for primary health care and rural electrification
programmes.17 These approaches can enable LDCs
to raise or free up public spending from damaging
activities and redirect revenues to social programmes or
other green investments.


International cooperation is crucial


Although most green economy activities are
commercial in nature, providing positive returns on
investment, external financing is sometimes required
to complement public financing and catalyze private
investment from both domestic and foreign sources.
The need for external financing is particularly critical
for green projects in infrastructure services sectors
such as energy and waste management to make them
commercially attractive to private investors. Public-
private partnerships (PPPs) are successfully used in


18- OECD, 2010. Development Co-operation Report 2010, Paris.14- UNEP, 2011. Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. A Synthesis
for Policy Makers.
15- Odhiambo, W., & Kamau, P. 2003. Public Procurement: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Working Paper
no. 208. OECD, Paris.


16- Ian Coxhead and Nguyen Van Chan 2011. The incidence of Vietnam’s environmental tax law: general equilibrium
analysis.
17-IMF, 2008. Fuel and Food Price Subsidies: Issues and Reform Options. Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
ec


o
G


RE
EN


no
m


y Pathw
a


ys to
a


G
re


e
n Ec


o
no


m
y Tra


nsitio
n


Pa
th


w
a


ys
t


o
a


G
re


e
n


Ec
o


no
m


y
Tr


a
ns


iti
o


n




conservation, but also yield greater value addition and
higher revenues.


Uganda’s growing export of organic products -
Uganda, the African country having the largest area
under organic agricultural farming, significantly
expanded its exports of organic products despite
being an LDC far from its major export markets.
In Uganda, certified organic exports increased
from US$ 3.7 million in 2003/4, to US$ 6.2 million
in 2004/5, before jumping to US$ 22.8 million in
2007/8. Studies commissioned by UNEP and UNCTAD
indicate that in 2006 the farm-gate prices of organic
pineapple, ginger and vanilla were 300 per cent, 185
per cent, and 150 per cent higher, respectively, than
conventional products, making sustainable forms of
production highly profitable for producers and local
communities.


Targeted trade liberalization can facilitate consumer
access to clean technologies at lower costs. In general
LDCs appear to have relatively high tariffs on certain
environmentally-friendly products such as energy-
efficient electric and electronic appliances. On average,
LDCs’ apply weighted average import tariff (percentage
ad valorem) of 26.2 per cent on fluorescent lights
(compared to a world average of 5.4 per cent), while
tariffs on incandescent lights, which consume more
energy and lead to more carbon emissions face import
tariffs at 17.7 per cent (compared to a world average
of 6.1 per cent).21 Targeted liberalization of tariffs can
trigger a wider consumer access to, and use of, energy-
saving products. This, in turn, could reduce the need for
energy imports, lower energy related carbon emissions,
and lessen households’ energy bills.


While trade plays a central role in the diffusion of
green goods, services and production methods
among countries, a transition to a green economy
also poses potential challenges to the functioning
of the multilateral trading system that must be
effectively addressed. Should new or improved
disciplines be necessary, it is important that they target
countries introducing green policies and practices that
unduly distort markets and competition. Trade rules
should prevent countries from using environmental
concerns as a pretext for trade protection. However,
many restrictions placed on the import of goods
based on environmental concerns are justifiable, and
so targeted capacity building efforts will be critical in
assisting LDCs to meet emerging technical standards
and regulations designed to promote an increasingly
green economy in other countries. New rules or
understandings may also be required to increase
flexibility while at the same time disciplining the use
of green subsidies. To overcome these challenges and
dispel concerns about green protectionism, WTO trade
rules could help ensure that trade is a «transmitter» of
good practices towards an efficient and fair transition.


Adapted technologies
Clearly identifying specific needs, barriers, and
adapted solutions are fundamental prerequisites
to fostering the development and transfer of
technologies in LDCs. LDCs are recipients of
technology in many areas, making effective international
cooperation a critical enabling factor. There is no
comprehensive assessment of technologies needed
by LDCs to achieve a green economy transformation.
Nonetheless, a number of mechanisms and initiatives
have emerged under a variety of international


20-21


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Pa


thw
a


ys to
a


G
re


e
n Ec


o
no


m
y Tra


nsitio
n


Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


ec
o


G
RE


EN
no


m
y


Pa
th


w
a


ys
t


o
a


G
re


e
n


Ec
o


no
m


y
Tr


a
ns


iti
o


n


available through these channels is relatively difficult
to access and the magnitude of funds available falls
short of developing country needs. Although falling
short of requirements for a green economy transition in
poor and vulnerable countries, these sources of finance
can be part of a broader effort to leverage targeted
and tailored financing resources for LDCs. Particular
efforts are needed to improve LDCs’ access to the
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as a means of
overcoming the financial barriers, which prevent LDCs’
access to renewable energy technology.
Of particular importance to LDCs is the Least Developed
Countries Fund (LDCF), created to address the climate
change adaptation needs of the LDCs, which are especially
vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change.19
This includes technical assistance in preparing and
implementing national adaptation programmes of action
(NAPAs) and priority projects to adapt to climate change.
As of May 2010, donors have pledged contributions to the
LDCF equivalent to US$ 221.5 million but only deposited
US$ 169 million. The funds are insufficient to meet the
adaptation needs of the LDCs, and there is a need for wider
programmes that are integrated in national development
strategies. In a new Green Climate Fund adopted by the
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Conference of the Parties in Cancun in December 2010,
industrialized countries aim to provide US$ 100 billion
per year by 2020 to support climate change mitigation
in developing countries. This level of funding could
substantially boost support for LDCs green economy
activities related to climate change and adaptation and
mitigation activities in the infrastructure and agro-forestry
areas. In general there is a need to pay greater attention
to scale and predictability of the funding to LDCs, as well
as to reduce fragmentation and transactions costs and
increase country ownership.


Seizing trade opportunities


As it is widely recognized that enhanced market
access opportunities alone will not be sufficient for
LDCs to gain a larger share of global trade, financial
and technical assistance is provided through the
Aid for Trade initiative and the Enhanced Integrated
Framework (EIF) to increase their participation in
international trade by strengthening their trade-
related infrastructure and supply-side capacities.20


Although LDCs’ and low-income countries continue to
receive substantial Aid for Trade, there needs to be a
sustained effort to ensure that these countries continue
to benefit from an increase in Aid for Trade flows. Aid for
Trade could be leveraged to promote the development of
productive capacities in green economic sectors and to
support sustainable production and process methods in
LDCs. Also, LDCs could request increased support within
the EIF, in order to identify which green sectors offer the
most promising scope for building export capacities and
analyze what measures should be put in place to that aim.


Trade can be a powerful connector between
sustainable consumption and production to drive a
transition to a green economy, even in the context
of LDCs. Carefully articulated national policies and
international trade rules are therefore critical for LDCs
to seize opportunities in new markets while minimizing
risks of trade protectionism. Trade policies should
recognize the high dependence of LDCs’ exports
on commodities. Agricultural products, oil, mineral
resources, forest products and tourism account for the
bulk of exports from LDCs. The composition of exports
is thus highly dependent on natural capital assets, which
places an important role on policies that can not only
sustain the resource base and ensure sustainable use and


21-OECD, 2006. Environmental and Energy Products: The benefits of liberalizing trade. OECD Trade Policy Studies. Paris.19- UN-OHRLLS, 2009. The Impacts of Climate Change on the Development Prospects of the Least Developed Countries
and Small Island Developing States.


20- WTO. The World Trade Organization and Millennium Development Goals: Aid for Trade.




and Rwanda focused on expanding the use of efficient
cook stoves.23 As mentioned in the UNFCCC Second
Synthesis Report, over 50 per cent of the energy that
LDCs consume is used for cooking highlighting the
importance of improved (smokeless and fuel-conserving)
stoves for cooking and heating. South-South cooperation
can contribute to increasing the flow of appropriate
technologies, given that technologies such as efficient
stoves have successfully been deployed in many more
advanced developing countries such as China and India.


Leapfrogging
LDCs’ early stage of industrialization offers avenues
for leapfrogging and adopting technologies which
offer greater energy and resource efficiency. While
the technological and financial requirements of a green
industrialization are considerable, LDCs have opportunities
to leapfrog in certain cases, and adopt new and state-of-
the-art technologies. The experience with information and
communication technologies is revealing of the capacity of
poor countries and poor communities to achieve a jump in
the technological development process.


Energy efficiency in the African aluminum industry
A few LDCs are proving that leapfrogging can be
achieved in economic sectors that offer a high potential
for greater energy and resource efficiency. For example,
African aluminum smelters appear to be among the most
efficient in the word, essentially because new production
facilities employ the latest technologies in the field. African
aluminum smelters in countries such as Mozambique use
on average 14,337 kiloWatt hour per ton of aluminum
produced (kWh/t) compared to 15,613 kWh/t in North
America, or a world average of 15,268 kWh/t.
Source: International Energy Agency, 2007.


Developing, absorbing, adapting and diffusing
green technologies for domestic use, and
increasingly for world markets, requires
international cooperation and collaboration on
research and development. It will also benefit
from the introduction of policy incentives for
technology transfer in both developed and developing
countries, and improvements to the dissemination
of information on available technologies. Reform
of the global intellectual property regime should
also be considered, including broadening the
scope of compulsory licensing for essential green
technologies; limiting the duration of patent
protection; and allowing more liberal use of existing
patented knowledge to generate new innovations.


A successful, politically feasible and economically
viable transition to the green economy requires
addressing significant challenges facing many
developing countries that lack the sufficient
financial, technical and human capital needed to
structurally transform their economies. To fill these
gaps, international cooperation can help provide
capacity building, facilitating technology transfer
and coordinating financial assistance. Whatever
mechanisms are agreed to support transition to
a green economy, they must also refrain from
imposing new conditionalities on international trade
and financial cooperation, and avoid a “one-size-
fits-all” template that fails to account for countries’
different starting points and diverse development
priorities. Furthermore, international economic and
environmental agreements must provide developing
countries with sufficient policy space and flexibilities
on sequencing and implementation of any rules or
modalities that are adopted.


22-23


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
Pa


thw
a


ys to
a


G
re


e
n Ec


o
no


m
y Tra


nsitio
n


Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


ec
o


G
RE


EN
no


m
y


Pa
th


w
a


ys
t


o
a


G
re


e
n


Ec
o


no
m


y
Tr


a
ns


iti
o


n


conventions to identify needs and requirements in areas
such as climate change, the removal of ozone depleting
substances, or chemical and hazardous substances. A
review of the Technology Needs Assessments (TNAs)
conducted under the auspices of the UNFCCC can give
an indication of specific technologies that LDCs will
require to respond to the challenges of climate change.
In addition, many such technologies will be critical to
pursuing a low-carbon path of development in LDCs, an
essential element towards a green economy.


TNAs conducted in 24 LDCs pointed to main
technology needs in agriculture, land use, livestock
and forestry sector, energy, waste management,
transport and industry. The energy sector was
addressed by 87 per cent of these countries, highlighting
a specific need for improved (smokeless and fuel-
conserving) stoves for cooking and heating, as it was
shown that over 50 per cent of the energy that LDCs
consume is used for cooking. Waste management was
addressed by more than 82 per cent of the LDCs and
technologies for transport and industry were identified
by more than 78 per cent of the LDCs. The majority
of LDCs highlighted their urgent technology needs
to modernize the agriculture and forestry sectors for
adaptation to climate change. Around 70 per cent
of the LDCs identified water-related needs, such as
water transfers, and recycling and conservation. Other
technologies concern systematic observation and
monitoring, health and coastal zone sectors.22


Building on success stories
Economic and market barriers are the most common
barriers to the transfer of technology in LDCs,
followed by those relating to human capacity,


information and awareness, institutional, regulatory,
policy-related and technical barriers. Addressing the
high cost of technology, limited state resources, low
affordability and barriers to investment, and developing
cheaper alternatives, are among key barriers critical
to large deployment of priority technologies in LDCs.
While in general private investment in the development
of environmentally-sound technologies remains low, a
number of innovative mechanisms and entrepreneurship
ideas have emerged in low income countries to enhance
affordability and access to clean technologies.


Grameen Shakti Programme in Bangladesh -
Grameen Shakti (or Grameen Energy in English)
provides soft credits through different financial
packages to make solar home systems (SHSs) available
and affordable to rural populations. By the end of 2009,
more than 320,000 SHSs had been installed, in addition
to biogas plants and improved cooking stoves.
Grameen Shakti aims to install over 1 million SHS by
2015, while also providing the necessary maintenance,
thereby generating local employment. Grameen Shakti
demonstrates the potential that can be mobilized
to reduce energy poverty efficiently with innovative
financing and business models that can deliver success
with little or no external financial support.


A focus on scaling-up the deployment of technologies
used in the vast majority of households can enhance
access to low-cost and proven technologies. A review
of low-carbon policies in low income countries revealed
that in the energy sector, lower income countries focus on
off-grid PV, solar heating, small-size wind, wind pumping,
micro-hydro, bioenergy (including biogas gasification,
cogeneration, and digesters), and “clean coal” transfer.
The lowest income countries such as Ethiopia, Malawi


23-Overseas Development Institute, 2009. Policies for Low Carbon Growth.
IEA, 2007. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. Paris. International Energy Agency.


22- UNFCCC, 2009. Second synthesis report on technology needs identified by Parties not included in Annex I to the Conven-
tion. Note by the secretariat. Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, Thirtieth session, Bonn, 1–10
June 2009.




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


Ways Forward LDCs are at a critical juncture as the world renews efforts towards sustainable development and poverty eradication in the run-up to the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. The examples and success
stories featured in this report highlight some of the opportunities as well as the
challenges of a green economy transition in LDCs.


Clearly, there are gains to be made and the
economic conditions, the resource endowment
and the low-carbon profile of LDCs are all
elements on which to build for future growth and
development that enhances human well being and
social equity.


Through targeted spending, appropriate national
policies and incentives, governments can set a
direction to spur green investments, both public
and private. International cooperation will be
essential to complement national actions of LDCs.


International sources of financing to support clean
technology adoption and trade-related capacity
building in green sectors are needed to catalyze and
sustain LDCs’ transition to a green economy. Through
concerted national and international action, realizing
a green economy could make a valuable contribution
to enhanced economic diversification, inclusive
growth, poverty reduction and achievement of the
Millennium Development Goals in LDCs. The outcomes
of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least
Developed Countries (LDC-IV) can provide a critical
foundation and action points in this direction.


24-25


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
W


a
ys Fo


rw
a


rd




Why a Green Economy Matters
for the Least Developed Countries


26-27


eco
G


REEN
nom


y
ec


o
G


RE
EN


no
m


y Wa
ys Fo


rw
a


rd
W


a
ys


F
o


rw
a


rd “The environment is our life-blood...Even when we look beyond agriculture, tourism, mineral wealth and
fisheries, our economies depend critically on good environmental stewardship...


From a labor perspective, the bulk of our continent’s employment comes from utilization of the environment ...
This being the case therefore, mitigating environmental challenges, including climate change,


water availability, sustainable extraction of minerals and soil fertility management,
should be among Africa’s top priorities.”


Rwandan President Paul Kagame


Opening speech at the Third Edition of the African Ministerial Conference on Financing for Development: Climate Change: Financing
Opportunities and Challenges to achieve the MDGs in Africa, 21 May 2009, Kigali, Rwanda.


“We, the African Ministers of Environment, declare our resolve to urge all countries fully to explore
opportunities for building green economies, through, among other things, the development


of clean technologies, renewable energies, water services, green transportation, waste management,
green buildings and sustainable agriculture and forests.”


African Ministers of Environment


Bamako declaration on the environment for sustainable development, African Ministerial Conference on the Environment,
Thirteenth session, Bamako, Mali, 21–25 June 2010.


“We will play our part to spearhead the transition to a green economy in Africa, inter alia,
by supporting the necessary systemic and institutional transformations to ensure that green economies
contribute to sustainable development and poverty reduction objectives, including improving welfare


and the quality of life of Africa’s citizens.
We call on all development partners to accompany Africa in this journey.”


African Ministers of Economy, Finance,
Planning and Economic Development


Ministerial Statement, 4th Joint Annual Meetings of the AU Conference of Ministers of Economy and Finance and ECA Conference of
Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 28 – 29 March 2011.




www.unep.org
United Nations Environment Programme


P.O. Box 30552 Nairobi, 00100 Kenya
Tel: (254 20) 7621234
Fax: (254 20) 7623927


Email: uneppub@unep.org


www.unctad.org/greeneconomy
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development


Trade, Environment, Climate Change
and Sustainable Development Branch


Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10 - Switzerland
Tel: (4122) 9175731 or (4122) 9172116


Fax: (4122) 9170247
Email: Climatechange@unctad.org


www.un.org/ohrlls
United Nations Office of the High Representative


for the Least Developed Countries,
Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island


Developing States
Room DC 1-1210


New York, NY 10017, USA
Tel: (1917) 367 6006
Fax: (1917) 367 3415


Email: OHRLLS-UNHQ@un.org


Job Number: DTI/1395/GE




Login