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Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Mozambique

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This report was prepared with the purpose to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the current status of creative industries in Mozambique to identify key issues and formulate policy proposals to assist the government to shape a strategic plan of action aiming at building a solid basis for enhancing its creative economy for employment, trade and development gains.

Multi-agency pilot project: acp/ec/ilo/unctaD/uneSco

I N C O L L A b O R A T I O N w I T h

T h E G O V E R N M E N T O F T h E R E P U b L I C O F M O Z A M b I Q U E

Strengthening the Creative Industries
in Five Selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries

through Employment and Trade Expansion

Strengthening the
Creative induStrieS

FOr deveLOPMent
in Mozambique

Strengthening the Creative Industries
in Five Selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries

through Employment and Trade Expansion

New York and Geneva, 2011

I N C O L L A b O R A T I O N w I T h

T h E G O V E R N M E N T O F T h E R E P U b L I C O F M O Z A M b I Q U E

Strengthening the
Creative induStrieS

FOr deveLOPMent
in Mozambique

Multi-agency pilot project: acp/ec/ilo/unctaD/uneSco



Creative industries Country Studies series:
No. 1: Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development in Zambia
No.2: Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development in Mozambique (English and Portuguese)


Material in this publication maybe freely quoted or reprinted as long as acknowledgement is provided
with a reference to the source. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be
sent to the UNCTAD secretariat, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.


The English/Portuguese version of the study is available on the internet at www.unctad.org/creative-



Copyright © United Nations, 2011

All rights reserved




At UNCTAD's XI Ministerial Conference, held in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2004, more than 150 UN
Member States agreed to introduce the topic of creative industries into the international economic and
development agenda. Since then, UNCTAD has been shaping a number of international and national
policy initiatives in the area of the creative economy and its development dimension.

This policy-oriented country report is the first prepared as part of UNCTAD’s involvement in a pilot
project on "Strengthening the Creative Industries in Five African, Caribbean and Pacific countries,
through employment and trade expansion". This multi-agency undertaking is a component of the
ACP-EU Support Programme to Cultural Industries in ACP countries, being jointly implemented by
ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO during 2008-2011.

The main purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Mozambique in articulating a
development strategy that can optimize the economic potential of the creative sector for job creation,
trade expansion and social inclusion. In addition to reviewing current policy in these areas, the report
proposes a plan of action to be conducted with the support of relevant United Nations agencies, and
an institutional mechanism to facilitate concerted policy actions and interministerial decisions, as a
basis for a long-term national strategy.

The report responds to the specific objectives of the project, which operates within the framework of
national priorities to meet two core objectives: (a) providing policy recommendations at enhancing
the institutional and regulatory environment in the county; and (b) fostering the development of
productive creative capacities, cultural entrepreneurial skills and trade opportunities. Ultimately, the
aim is to boost the number and quality of jobs, generate income, increase trade in creative products
while promoting cultural diversity and a more inclusive and sustainable development. Among the
expected results are the creation of a participatory methodology, the identification of key creative
sectors, and the development of a policy framework to foster creative capacity1.

UNCTAD will continue to assist governments to nurture their creative economy in support to the
achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. In line with the three pillars of its work: (a)
consensus-building, by providing a platform for intergovernmental debates; (b) policy-oriented
analysis, by identifying key issues underlying the creative economy and the dynamics of creative
industries in world markets; and (c) technical cooperation, by helping developing countries to
enhance their creative economies for trade and development gains.

UNCTAD renews its commitment to join the European Commission and the ACP Group of States in
this endeavour by recommending concrete measures to take better advantage of the creative potential
and cultural richness of ACP countries to transform untapped creative resources into socio-economic

Supachai Panitchpakdi
Secretary-General of UNCTAD

See annex I-1: Logical Framework, from the Project proposal entitled "Strengthening the creative industries in

five selected ACP countries through employment and trade".



This report was undertaken under the overall guidance of UNCTAD’s Project Coordinator and Chief
of the Creative Economy Programme, Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg, co-author of this country study
jointly with Dr. Teresa Hoefert de Turégano, UNCTAD international consultant. Together, they
carried out a fact-finding mission in Mozambique in July 2008, holding consultations with government
officials, and meetings and interviews with stakeholders, visiting relevant institutions, and collecting
documentation and factual information. Pedro Pimenta, UNCTAD’s local consultant, provided
comments. From the UNCTAD secretariat, Carolina Quintana provided research and statistical
assistance, Eleanor Loukass provided editorial support, Sophie Combette designed the cover page and
Maria Leonor de Oliveira made the translation into Portuguese of this publication. Experts from the
International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) involved in the project were invited to provide comments.
Many people and institutions contributed to this study with their ideas and information, and UNCTAD
is greatly indebted to them all. Special thanks go to the representatives of the European Commission in
Brussels and Lusaka, in particular, Mr. Jose Valente and Ms. Cesaltina Bastos, as well as to the
officials of the ACP Secretariat, in particular Ms. Aya Kasasa, for their institutional and financial
support, which was paramount to move ahead this project.
Our gratitude also goes to the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC), for the support provided to
the project and also to the other line ministries that provided comments to this study, including the
Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MIC), the Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Foreign Affairs
and Cooperation.

The large number of institutions engaged in the promotion and dissemination of creative industries
includes the National Institute of Cinema (INAC), Mozambican Association of Film Producers
(AMOCINE), Association of Mozabican Musicians (AMMO), Mozambican Society of Authors
(SOMAS), Observatory for Cultural Policies in Africa (OCPA), Society to Support Small Project
Investments (GAPI), National Institute of Book and Records, Centro de Estudos e Desenvolvimento do
Artesanato (CEDARTE), Escola National de Artes Visuais (ENAV), Instituto Superior de Artes e
Cultura (ISAC), Centro Nairucu Artes, Ekaya Productions and Radio Mozambique.

UNCTAD also wishes to thank artists and intellectuals alike, for their creativity and insights which
made this exercise a participatory process reflecting the aspirations of the artistic and creative
communities and the civil society in general. We look forward to their continued engagement for a
successful implementation of the actions proposed and for the sustainability of a creative economy
strategy in the long term to ensure development gains and poverty reduction in line with the
achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

Finally, UNCTAD expresses its special thanks to key international organizations based in Mozambique
that have been supportive of our work in the context of implementing this project, in particular the
United Nations Resident Coordinator and the offices of the United Nations Development Programme
and the International Labour Organization, as well as representatives of the European Commission and
the UNESCO office.



FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................................................................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................... v
LIST OF FIGURES AND CHARTS ......................................................................................vii
LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................................................viii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...................................................................................................ix
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................... xiii
PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................1

1.1 Country information ...................................................................................................................2
1.2 Political structure ........................................................................................................................3
1.3 Economic background.................................................................................................................4

PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT................................................................................................7
2.1 The Millenium Development Goals............................................................................................9
2.2 Sustainable development and the green economy ..................................................................10
2.3 Mozambique agenda 2025.........................................................................................................10

PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW......................................................11
3.1 Institutional framework around the creative economy..........................................................12

3.1.1 Cultural policy.................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.2 Financing mechanisms ....................................................................................................................... 20
3.1.3 Organization of the professional sector .............................................................................................. 21

3.2 Regulatory framework and legislation ....................................................................................21
3.2.1 Competition policy ............................................................................................................................. 22
3.2.2 Employment conditions...................................................................................................................... 22

3.3 Intellectual property rights.......................................................................................................23
3.4 Fiscal policy................................................................................................................................25
3.5. Investment .................................................................................................................................26
3.6 Entrepreneurship and SME development...............................................................................27

3.6.1 A successful case of creative fashion in Africa .................................................................................. 29

3.7 Trade...........................................................................................................................................30
3.7.1 South-South Trade.............................................................................................................................. 31
3.7.2 Regional and international agreements............................................................................................... 32
3.7.3 Export promotion................................................................................................................................ 34
3.7.4 Trade facilitation ................................................................................................................................ 35

3.8 Services sector ............................................................................................................................36
3.8.1 Tourism .............................................................................................................................................. 36
3.8.2 Audiovisual sector .............................................................................................................................. 38

3.9 Technology and connectivity ....................................................................................................38
3.10 Education and training ...........................................................................................................39
3.11 Creativity and biodiversity .....................................................................................................41
3.12 Data collection..........................................................................................................................42


PART 4. SECTOR-SPECIFIC OVERVIEW .........................................................................43
4.1 Performing arts..........................................................................................................................43
4.2 Audio-visuals and new media ...................................................................................................45
4.3 Publishing and “book chain”....................................................................................................47
4.4 Other potential sectors ..............................................................................................................48

4.4.1 Visual arts........................................................................................................................................... 49
4.4.2 design.................................................................................................................................................. 50
4.4.3 Art crafts............................................................................................................................................. 52
4.4.4 Music .................................................................................................................................................. 55

PART 5. CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................................................57
5.1 Results of meetings with government and stakeholders.........................................................57
5.2 Sector evaluation........................................................................................................................57

5.2.1 Visual arts........................................................................................................................................... 57
5.2.2 Design................................................................................................................................................. 58
5.2.3 Film, audio-visual and new media...................................................................................................... 58
5.2.4 Performing arts ................................................................................................................................... 58
5.2.5 Music .................................................................................................................................................. 58
5.2.6 Book sector......................................................................................................................................... 59

5.3 Communication, networking and strategic alliances..............................................................59
5.4 Toward a comprehensive creative industries policy...............................................................59

PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION.................................................................................................61
LIST OF CONTACTS ....................................................................................................................65
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................67

PART 7 -COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS.............................................................69
7.1 Country Profile and Statistics...................................................................................................70
7. 2. Mozambique Creative Industries Trade Performance ........................................................72
7.3 Mozambique trade of creative goods .......................................................................................76

7.3.1 Mozambique trade of creative goods, by product groups, 2003-2008................................................ 76
7.3.2 Mozambique trade of creative goods with SADC countries............................................................... 76
by product groups, 2003-2008.................................................................................................................... 76
7.3.3 Mozambique Trade of Creative goods with South Africa .................................................................. 77
by product groups, 2003-2008..................................................................................................................... 77
7.3.4 Mozambique trade of creative goods to EU 27 .................................................................................. 77
by product groups, 2003-2008..................................................................................................................... 77
7.3.5 Mozambique trade of creative goods to ACP countries ..................................................................... 78
By product groups, 2003-2008 .................................................................................................................... 78
7.3.6 Mozambique Trade of Creative goods with China ............................................................................. 79
By product groups, 2003-2008 .................................................................................................................... 79
7.3.7 Mozambique trade of creative goods with Portugal ........................................................................... 79
By product groups, 2003-2008 .................................................................................................................... 79
7.3.8 Mozambique trade of creative goods with Brazil ............................................................................... 80
By product groups, 2003-2008 .................................................................................................................... 80
7.3.9 Mozambique Trade Balance of Creative goods, 2003-2008............................................................... 80

7.4 Mozambique Trade of Creative Services ................................................................................81
7.5 World trade statistics of creative goods and services .............................................................82

7.5.1 Creative goods: world exports by economic group and country/territory, 2003-2008 ....................... 82
7.5.2 Creative goods: world imports, by economic group and country/territory, 2003-2008...................... 86
7.5.3 Exports of all creative services, (1) by country/territory 2003-2008.................................................. 90
7.5.4 Imports of all creative services, (1) by country/territory, 2003-2008................................................. 93




Figure 1. H.E President of the Republic of Mozambique with the Chief of the Creative
Economy Programme at UNCTAD, inaugurating the Makonde Art exhibition at the
United Nations in Geneva

Figure 2: UNCTAD High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries and presentation of the
Study "Strengthening the Creative Industries in Mozambique", Maputo, June, 2009

Figure 3. Country map of Mozambique
Figure 4: Economic and social indicators of Mozambique
Figure 5: Art crafts from the market in Maputo
Figure 6. UNCTAD classification of creative industries
Figure 7. The development dimension of the creative economy
Figure 8. The Creative Nexus CITET Model
Figure 9. Creative industry value chain
Figure 10: Art crafts from Mozambique
Figure 11: Sustainable fashion show during National Conference on Culture, Maputo, 2009


Chart 1: Mozambique Creative Industry Trade Performance
Chart 2. Mozambique creative goods exports by product groups, 2003-2008
Chart 3. Mozambique main destinations of creative goods exports, 2008
Chart 4 South-South Trade of all creative goods, 2003-2008
Chart 5: Top 10 Exporters from SADC countries, 2008
Chart 6. Mozambique imports of creative goods, 2003-2008
Chart 7. Mozambique exports of creative goods from the publishing sector, 2003-2008
Chart 8. Mozambique’s exports of creative goods from the visual arts sector, 2003-2008
Chart 9. Mozambique exports of creative goods from the design sector, 2008
Chart 10: Mozambique exports of art crafts, 2003-2008


Box 1. Companhia Nacional de Canto e Danca
Box 2. DOCKANEMA Festival
Box 3. A tribute to Malangatana Valente Ngwenya
Box 4. Mozambican Fashion Week 2009
Box 5. Nairucu Arts promoting cooperation between Europe and Mozambique




7.1 Country Profile and Statistics
7. 2. Mozambique Creative Industries Trade Performance
7.3 Mozambique trade of creative goods

7.3.1 Mozambique trade of creative goods, by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.2 Mozambique trade of creative goods with SADC by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.3 Mozambique Trade of Creative goods with South Africa by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.4 Mozambique trade of creative goods to EU 27by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.5 Mozambique trade of creative goods to ACP countries by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.6 Mozambique Trade of Creative goods with China by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.7 Mozambique trade of creative goods with Portugal by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.8 Mozambique trade of creative goods with Brazil by product groups, 2003-2008
7.3.9 Mozambique Trade Balance of Creative goods, 2003-2008 82

7.4 Mozambique Trade of Creative Services
7.5 World trade statistics of creative goods and services 84

7.5.1 Creative goods: world exports by economic group and country/territory, 2003-2008
7.5.2 Creative goods: world imports, by economic group and country/territory, 2003-2008
7.5.3 Exports of all creative services, (1) by country/territory 2003-2008
7.5.4 Imports of all creative services, (1) by country/territory, 2003-2008



ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific States
AGOA Africa Growth and Opportunity Act
AMOCINE Mozambican Film-makers Association
EBA Everything But Arms
EBAS European Business Assistance Scheme
EC European Commission
EU European Union
CNCD National Song and Dance Company of Mozambique
ILO International Labour Organization
INAC National Cinema and Audiovisual Institute
INLD National Institute of Books and Disks
IPEX Instituto para a Promoção de Exportações
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
ISAC Instituto Superior de Artes e Cultura
ITC International Trade Centre
LDCs least developed countries
MDG-F Joint Programme on Strengthening Culture and Creative Industries and Inclusive

Policies in Mozambique of the UNDP/Spain MDG Achievement Fund
MEC Ministry of Education and Culture
MIC Ministry of Industry and Trade
NEPAD New Partnership for African Development
NGO non-governmental organization
ODA official development assistance
PARPA II Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty, 2006-2009
PEEC Strategic Plan for Education and Culture, 2006-2011
PPP public-private partnerships
SADC Southern African Development Community
SME small and medium-sized enterprises
SOMAS Mozambican Society of Authors
UNDP United Nation Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
VAT value added tax
WTO World Trade Organization


Strengthening the Creative Industries in

Project background

This report was prepared under the multi-agency project “Strengthening the creative industries
in five ACP [African, Caribbean and Pacific] countries through employment and trade
expansion”. This ACP pilot project is funded by the Ninth European Development Fund of the
European Commission, as a component of the Support Programme to ACP Cultural Industries
with the institutional support of the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group and
has being jointly implemented by ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO, during the period 2008–2011.
The idea of this project emerged during the First Meeting of the ACP Ministers of Culture held
in Dakar in June 2003, and a project proposal was presented and endorsed at the Second
Meeting of ACP Ministers of Culture held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic in October

This policy-oriented report addresses the objectives set out for phase I of the project. It was
prepared by UNCTAD in collaboration with the Government of Mozambique with a view to
identify needs and priorities and recommend policies to foster employment, enhancing creative
capacities, trade expansion and the linkages between culture and development. The purpose is
to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the current status of creative industries
in Mozambique to examine key issues and formulate policy proposals for a strategic plan of

The EU-ACP Support Programme to cultural industries in ACP countries is funded by the
European Commission, managed and implemented by the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean
and Pacific Group of States (ACP). It is open to the 79 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
Group of States and the European Union Member States that are signatories to the 9th
European Development Fund (EDF). It aims at reinforcing the capacities of policy and decision
makers, cultural operators and certain domains of culture and cultural industries in the ACP
countries, and it is structured around three complementary components:
(1) the establishment of an ACP Cultural Observatory as a mechanism for providing technical
advice and information in order to improve the policy, legal and institutional frameworks of the
sector; (2) an ACP/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO joint project to strengthen the creative industries
in 5 selected ACP countries (Fiji, Mozambique, Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago and Zambia),
implemented by the UN agencies, and (3) a grant scheme seeking to reinforce the technical,
financial and managerial capacities of ACP cultural operators and cultural industries.

The European Union remains the world’s leading donor for technical cooperation projects. In
2008, the year this project has started, the European Commission and its Member States
collectively provided 60 per cent of total development assistance for developing countries. For
ACP countries a budget of 23 billion euros has been allocated under the 10th European
Development Fund for the period 2008-2013, nearly the double of the amount allocated under
the 9th EDF. Furthermore, the EU Commissioner for Development and Humanitarian Aid, in
collaboration with the EU Commissioner for Education, Culture and Youth, in the context of
the EU-ACP policy and economic relations, organized an important EU-ACP colloquium on
the topic "Culture and Creativity, Vectors for Development" held in Brussels in April 2009.
The event gathered about 800 participants from 65 African, Caribbean, Pacific and EU
countries, including policymakers, development professionals, artists, creators and the civil
society. The innovative aspect of the colloquium was that the "Brussels Declaration" was
prepared by artists and cultural and development professionals setting three types of objectives
at policy, economic and cultural levels. The growing importance of the creative industries to
foster development was recognized by both the European and the ACP partners.



This report was prepared with the purpose to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the
current status of creative industries in Mozambique to identify key issues and formulate policy
proposals to assist the government to shape a strategic plan of action aiming at building a solid basis
for enhancing its creative economy for employment, trade and development gains.

Part I of the study provides a general introduction to Mozambique's economic, political and social
environment. Throughout each of the chapters of the study, concrete policy actions are proposed with
the aim to promote and strengthen the creative industries in Mozambique.

Part II describes the project context and the efforts undertaken at local level to develop the creative
economy. The Government of Mozambique has always given culture an important place in society and
recognizes the importance of nurturing its rich traditions of art, music, dance, literature, film, and other
forms of creative talent, as well as its richness in cultural heritage and traditional knowledge. The
study analyses the linkages between the creative economy with the Millennium Development Goals. It
also highlights the importance of shaping policies for the creative economy in line with the objectives
for a sustainable development and a greener economy taking into consideration the Mozambique
Agenda 2025.

Part III, provides an overview of macroeconomic issues and cross-cutting factors that have an impact
in the development of the creative economy. The institutional framework and the current
organizational structure for the administration of cultural policy are analysed. Particular attention is
given to the Agenda 2025 and the Mozambique Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and the
Education and Culture Strategic Plan (PEEC) with a view to provide an enabling environment for
safeguarding and promoting Mozambique's tangible and intangible heritage and to ensure the
development and promotion of cultural industries. The chapter highlights the main institutional
mechanisms in place to support the sector and gives an overview of the organization of the
professional sector in the country, identifying the main stakeholders, and key actions. An examination
of the current regulatory framework and legislation is also presented. Issues related to financing and
possible links with microfinaning schemes, as well as competition policy, and employment are some
of the areas that need to be reinforced for the development of a creative business environment. The
report also emphasizes the importance of IPRs and the need to make its implementation at local and
international level more effective. In the same way, countries can stimulate their creative sectors by
providing special fiscal regimes as an incentive to artists and cultural producers. Investments and
access to capital remains a key issue for unleashing the creative potential of developing countries.
UNCTAD proposes the "Creative Nexus" model as a way to stimulate private investment, attracting
new technologies, promoting entrepreneurship and setting the basis for a an export-led strategy for the
creative industries. The study recognizes that the creative entrepreneurs are mostly micro and small
enterprises often at the top of the supply chain at the creation stage.

Part III highlights that creative industries are among the most dynamic sectors of world trade.
According to the Creative Economy Report 2010, world exports of creative goods and services are
expanding fast and reached $592 billion in 2008 with an annual growth rate of 14 per cent during the
2002-2008 period. South-South trade of creative goods amounted to nearly $60 billion. However,
Mozambique's total trade on creative goods amounted to $4.5 million in 2008. Services are of critical
importance for most economies in Africa; therefore, two main sectors are briefly examined, the
tourism and the audiovisual sectors, due to their close linkages with the local creative economy.
Technology and connectivity, education and training as well as the linkages between the creative
economy and the ecology are discussed as key components for a national strategy to reinforce
entrepreneurial and creative capacities. Collection of reliable data for the creative industries remains
imperative for a clear picture of the country situation and for policy formulation. On the basis of the


UNCTAD Global database on creative economy, a country profile for Mozambique was created to
analyze the trade performance of the creative industries in the country.

Part IV, focus on a sector specific overview, describing the performance of pre-designated creative
industries, including performing arts, audiovisuals, new media, music and the publishing sector. In the
views of UNCTAD, in the short-medium terms, the creative sectors with better potential for
development are: visuals arts, art crafts, and fashion.

In Part V conclusions and policy actions are integrated into the analysis. A plan of action jointly
prepared by UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO and validated by the Government of Mozambique is presented
in Part VI of this study.

In Part VII, to finalize, a comprehensive compilation of economic indicators brings evidence on the
potential of the creative industries to foster inclusive and sustainable development. UNCTAD presents
a country profile highlighting the trade performance of Mozambique creative industries, as a tool to
formulate a strategy to enhance creative capacity and trade opportunities in the future.



This project is a contribution to the objectives set by the Dakar Declaration and Plan of Action for the
Promotion of ACP Culture and Cultural Industries (2003) as well as the Santo Domingo Resolution
(2006), adopted by the ACP ministers of culture. Mozambique was the second beneficiary country
visited. This study is the UNCTAD contribution for the first phase of the project implementation.
In the scope of the project, UNCTAD is focusing on the economic aspects, offering policy advice,
technical assistance and capacity-building activities intended to enhance public policies, supply
capacities and trade and investment related to the creative industries. ILO work is oriented towards the
social aspects by promoting employment, decent work and entrepreneurship in the creative sectors.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is setting standards
in the cultural field, aiming at safeguarding cultural diversity and enhancing linkages between culture
and development.

Initially, various methodological questions were set out in the project document,2 including the
rationale for selecting the five countries and the target creative sectors. Three segments of the creative
industries were designated as preferential for project activities, depending of course, on the results of
the policy analysis, the priorities and the creative potential in each country. The target creative sectors
are: (a) performing arts;3 (b) audiovisual and new media;4 (c) publishing and aspects of the “book
chain".5 Within the broader scope of these subsectors, a tailor-made selection will be made depending
on the specificity of each pilot country.

The analysis in this report is the result of research based on primary and secondary material. The
research process included two local missions and extensive collaboration with local stakeholders,
including government officials, professionals from the specific sectors and civil society. Feedback on
the main findings of this analysis was provided by the government and by stakeholders, including
discussions about the priorities for the national policy agenda.

ACP secretariat, ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO. Summary Joint Programme Document for Strengthening the

Creative Industries in five selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries through Employment and Trade
Expansion. Geneva, February 2001.
Performing arts refers to: music recordings, musical instruments, musical compositions and publications, etc.;

festivals, concerts, plays and artistic performances, dance, songs, other performing arts; performing arts venues;
music and performing arts production, dissemination, operation and promotion services.
Audiovisual and new media refers to: film, video recording, radio and television programmes, Internet creativity

sites, etc.
Publishing and other elements of the “book chain” refers to: bookshops, libraries, initiatives to support the

development of reading (such as public reading).

Figure 1. H.E President of the Republic of Mozambique with the Chief of
the Creative Economy Programme at UNCTAD, inaugurating the

Makonde Art exhibition at the UN in Geneva, 2009


As part of the methodology, UNCTAD organized a High-level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries
in Mozambique, which was held on 29 June 2009 in Maputo.6 The purpose was to submit the final
draft of this policy-oriented study for discussion and validation by the government and stakeholders. In
order to prepare for the session, UNCTAD worked in close collaboration with the office of the United
Nations Resident Coordinator and the UNESCO office in Maputo as well as in liaison with the
Ministry of Education and Culture. The meeting was opened by the United Nations Resident
Coordinator and chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Labour, and included the
participation of key stakeholders from the public and private sectors, in particular practitioners from
the creative industries and representatives from relevant international organizations. UNCTAD made a
comprehensive presentation of the study identifying key issues and proposing a number of policy
actions. Officials from six ministries and all the stakeholders addressed the session and unanimously
recognized the importance and good quality of this study. It was agreed that the chair would lead the
process of official validation of the study and that the UNCTAD secretariat would incorporate all
comments received in order to finalize and publish this study in English and Portuguese. As a follow-
up to the meeting, a document was signed by the main stakeholders from the government and artistic
community endorsing the study and approving the plan of action jointly prepared by
UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO. This official signing and validation statements by government officials was
received on 15 October 2009 agreeing to constitute the Creative Economy Inter-Ministerial
Committee, as proposed by UNCTAD.

Figure 2: UNCTAD High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries and presentation of the
Study "Strengthening the Creative Industries in Mozambique", Maputo, June, 2009

Photo by Carolina Quintana

Mozambique currently has a population of about 20.4 million inhabitants and demographic growth
was 2.4 per cent over the 2001–2007 period.7 Mozambique is situated on the south-east coast of
Africa, on the Indian Ocean. The country shares common borders with Malawi, South Africa, the
United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The territory is subdivided into 10 provinces
and the capital city of Maputo. Approximately 30 per cent of the population live in the urban areas of
Maputo, Beira and Nampula. The country is home to a rich mix of people and cultures, including the
Bantu from Central Africa, Arabs, Indians and Europeans. The Bantu is the predominant ethnic group
made up of a number of different groups and sub-groups. The country has 28 recognized languages
and many dialects, although according to national experts today there is no exact information about the
precise number of languages spoken in the country.8 Portuguese is the main language of education,

See: UNCTAD Creative Programme E-Newsletter no.° 10. Geneva. September 2009.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC: 2.

See, Desafios na gestão da diversidade do patrimonio linguistico em Moçambique. Paper presented by Dr.

Marcelino Liphola at the II National Conference on Culture, Maputo, May 2009.


communication and administration. In spite of Portuguese being the official language, only about 6.5
per cent of the population speak Portuguese as their mother tongue.

According to the United Nations, Mozambique is among the world's 49 least developed countries
(LDCs), based on the three criteria of low income, human resource weakness and economic

Mozambique achieved independence on 25 June 1975. Armed fighting against Portuguese colonial
rule began in 1964 under the leadership of the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO). Eduardo
Mondlane was the first leader of the FRELIMO party, and after his death in 1969, Samora Machel
assumed leadership and became the first president of the Republic of Mozambique. FRELIMO gained
power in 1975. Two years later in 1977, fighting broke out between FRELIMO and the National
Resistance Party of Mozambique (RENAMO) and lasted 15 years. Tensions with neighbouring states,
economic collapse and a completely disrupted infrastructure characterized the post-independence
period. After Samora Machel died in a plane crash in 1986, Jaoquim Alberto Chissano became
president. In 1992 the Rome General Peace Accords were signed. The new constitution that was
enacted in 1990 called for a multi-party political system, a market-based economy, and free elections.

During the presidential elections held in Mozambique in 2009, Armando Guebuza was re-elected.

Figure 3. Country map

Source: Map of Mozambique, WorldAtlas.com

In Mozambique the electoral and democratic process has existed for about two decades. Suffrage is
universal and the President is elected for a term of five years. The government structure consists of a
President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal
assemblies. The judiciary system has a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts.
The 1990 Constitution was amended in 2004.

The government’s drive for reform had transformed Mozambique into a multi-party democracy with a
market economy. In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected

See the annual issues of the Least Developed Countries Report published by UNCTAD.


President and a 250-member National Assembly was voted. The second general elections were held in
December 1999, and President Chissano was re-elected. The second local elections, with about 2.4
million registered voters, took place in November 2003. The third general elections were in December
2004. Armando Guebuza won and became President of Mozambique on 2 February 2005. The
government scheduled municipal elections in 2008 and presidential and parliamentary elections took
place in October 2009. Armando Guebuza became Mozambique's President for a second five-year

Mozambique is one of the 49 least developed countries (LDCs) in the world. Most of its population is
poor but with increasing purchasing power, because since 1995 the country has been enjoying a steady
economic growth of more than 7 per cent per year. It managed to maintain a high economic growth
rate, with an average of 8.7 per cent during 2000–2007.10 This growth is driven mainly by foreign
direct investment and public spending largely financed by foreign aid to undertake mega-projects.
Mozambique’s gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated at around $9.8 billion in 2008, and GDP
per capita has increased to $900 in 2008. Today, Mozambique is considered a successful example of a
post-conflict transition economy.

Since its initial reform, macro-economic policies have been geared to reduce inflation and achieving
exchange rate stability. The government has placed tight controls on spending and money supply,
combined with financial sector reforms, all of which have contributed to reducing inflation from 70
per cent in 1994 to 16.7 per cent in 2002 and 10.3 per cent in 2008, helped by a major reform that
introduced the new metical as the national currency. In recent years, trade has become more important
to its economy. The ratio of trade in goods and services to GDP increased form 54 per cent in 2001 to
64 per cent in 2007.

Figure 4: Economic and social indicators

Population, mid-year (millions) 22.4
GNI per capita (Atlas method, US$) 380
Poverty (% of population below national poverty line) 54
Urban population (% of total population) 35
Life expectancy at birth (years) 48
Literacy (% of population age 15+) 44

(% of GDP) 1988 1998 2007 2008

Agriculture 42. 30.8 28.1 28.6

Industry 25.4 22.0 25.9 24.3

Manufacturing 11.1 14.9 13.9

Services 31.7 47.2 46.0 47.1

Source: Mozambique at a glance (http://devdata.worldbank.org/AAG/moz_aag.pdf)

The country has an abundant endowment of renewable energy and unexploited mineral wealth. Its
market-oriented policies have attracted a number of large-scale manufacturing and mineral exploration
projects to Mozambique. Economic development has been quite uneven in Mozambique, with the
capital city of Maputo enjoying a GDP per capita that is about six times higher than the national
average.11 The traditional Mozambican role of providing its eastern and southern neighbours with

AfDB/OECD (2008): 461.

UNCTAD/ICC (2001). An Investment Guide to Mozambique, Opportunities and Conditions.


access to seaports has given transport (rail, road and ports) and related services a central role in the
economy as illustrated by the Maputo, Beira and Nacala corridors.

The liberal economic reforms pursued by the government, the privatization of formerly state-owned
enterprises and a variety of incentives schemes have laid the ground for profitable investment in a
number of areas. Given the low level of diversification of the national industry, an industrial policy
strategy was approved in July 2007 providing the basis for the development of key economic sectors.12
Agriculture (cotton, tobacco, sugar and cashews), fishing and aqua-culture (prawns) are the backbone
of the Mozambique economy. More than 75 per cent of the population is employed in the agricultural
sector. Nonetheless, services are now becoming a key sector for the economy.

In 2007, Mozambique was upgraded from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Poverty Reduction
and Growth Facility (PRGF) programme and has since pursued a macroeconomic stabilization and
structural reform programme for the 2008–2010 period, supported by a three-year Policy Support

In 2008, total exports amounted to about $2.6 billion and are dominated by primary commodities. The
main exports are aluminium, electricity, tobacco, gas, prawns, sugar, cotton, cashew nuts and timber.
The main export markets are Belgium, South Africa, Spain, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Italy,
Holland, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Japan, the United States, Brazil and India.14 The main imports are
machinery, fuels, automobiles, cereals, electrical power and medicines. The main countries from
which Mozambique imports are South Africa, Australia, the United States, India, Portugal, China,
Germany, France, Japan, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom.15

International aid plays a pivotal role in Mozambique’s economy and in balancing its external accounts.
Official development assistance (ODA) finances more than half of the government expenditure. In
recent years approximately 19 donors have been providing direct budget support to Mozambique;
these are lead by the United Kingdom, the World Bank, the European Commission and Sweden. While
in the short term international donor support remains strong, at 14.2 per cent for 2008, this is
scheduled to decrease in the medium term, for example to 12 per cent by 2010. On the expenditure
side, the government plans to boost investment in the priority sectors of education, health, agriculture,
infrastructure and governance.

Mozambique has established itself in recent years as one of the leading foreign direct investment (FDI)
recipient countries in Southern and Eastern Africa. Leading investor's countries are South Africa, the
United Kingdom, Portugal and Japan. In terms of infrastructure, the rehabilitation of the internal
transport system has been target as a priority for the transport sector through roads and coastal

A second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PARPA) was introduced in 2007 with the fundamental
objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction. The incidence of poverty is gradually declining
from 54 per cent in 2003 to 45 per cent in 2009. The strategy places great emphasis on entrepreneurial
initiative and private sector growth as the driving force of economic and social development.

Tourism is increasingly being recognized as a valuable source of long-term growth and a key role for
Mozambique's development strategy. To a certain extent, it appears that investment in the sector has
matched these high expectations. Since 1995, investments projects worth over $1.8 billion (USD) have
been approved by the Investment Promotion Centre, being equal in value terms to 14 per cent of all
approved investments16. The creative industries have a close link with the tourism industry. The
creative industries are a sector with growing economic potential (see chapter 3), with art crafts, visual

Ministry of Industry and Trade (2007). Industrial Policy and Strategy,

IMF (2008b).



The contribution of tourism in Mozambique, present and future by Sam Jones (MPD) and Hanifa Ibrahimo

(MPD), discussion paper, January 2008.


arts, and design industries standing out as the sectors with the best prospects of contributing to
employment, exports and GDP. In addition, the creative industries can have a positive impact on
enhancing gender equality, as they offer numerous possibilities to women to be active in the creative
sectors. They also contribute to social inclusion because of their attractiveness to young people,
including those from rural communities.


This project to enhance the economic potential of the creative industries in five Africa, Caribbean and
Pacific countries embodies a new approach to this fast-growing sector, and has been designed and
agreed upon between three United Nations agencies, the ACP Group of States and the European
Commission. By nurturing and building upon cultural assets already existing in a set of countries, the
project is intended to develop the music, film, performing arts, publishing and other related creative
industries, through a variety of targeted activities spread over four years. It will respond to needs
expressed by ACP countries, by offering effective policy guidance and developing capacity-building
materials to assist transform local talent into a catalyst for dynamic creative industries that can foster
sustainable employment, encourage economic growth and enhance trade capacity. Project activities
will aim at providing support to policy-makers responsible for promoting creative industries, creative
industries workers, agents/managers and practicing artist-entrepreneurs. The project will be centered
on local people's needs and expectations, with a view to preserving its traditions and encouraging its
creativity and thereby contributing to the promotion of cultural diversity while fostering an inclusive
and sustainable development.

Creative industries comprise the creation, production, marketing and distribution of products and
services resulting from human creativity. According to UNCTAD, the creative industries deal with the
interplay of various knowledge-based economic activities comprising tangible products and intangible
intellectual services, with economic and cultural value, creative content and market objectives. They
include the performing arts, the motion picture and recording industries, book, journal and newspaper
publishing; and the computer software and games industry, music and theatre production,
photography, commercial art, advertising, radio, television and cable broadcasting industry. The
prominent role of creativity in shaping the direction and volume of trade flows has important
implications for both development and economic growth, especially in developing countries. In
developed countries, the creative economy is becoming a platform for promoting innovation,
enhancing services and reducing unemployment. The strengths of the creative economy rely on its
capacity to improve competitiveness and to help countries to generate jobs and revenues. While the
range of skills and specific cultural features of a country are preconditions for successful expansion of
the sector, creativity can be a crucial element in their economic integration in the global economy.
Creativity is a strategic asset that can offer a comparative advantage in the globalizing economy and
help maintain a country's cultural identity.

In many developing countries, the performance and competitiveness of the creative industries have
suffered from weak institutional and political support, low levels of entrepreneurial capability, low
added value, over-dependence on foreign firms and massive copyright infringement. Earnings,
working conditions and employment could be enhanced if the industries were more effectively
organized: if capacities for cultural entrepreneurship were strengthened and if new market
opportunities were identified and exploited more fully. Challenges posed by globalization, can be dealt
with by expanding the economic and trade potential of local talents, through cultural traditions and
expertise. Understanding and responding to the influences shaping the creative industries is a
precondition for defining effective intervention strategies17.

Noteworthy policies and project policies have been undertaken in support of the creative industries in
some developing countries, but few could be identified as models for systematic and strategic support
to build and strengthen their competitiveness. The potential for boosting sustainable socio-economic
growth and employment through the creative industries in developing countries remains mostly
untapped. Although creative industries currently contribute significantly to employment, this is often a
precarious source of income, characterized by unstable work contracts, poor working conditions and
lack of social protection.

Creative industries could promote new ways of integration with the global economy, through regional
cooperation. They could thus become a more important economic sector recognized for its substantial

Strengthening the Creative Industries in five selected African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, project

document, Annex 1, description of action.


contribution to GDP. With appropriate strategic policy support at both national and international levels
and strengthening of the capacities of creative industry practitioners and entrepreneurs, the creative
economy represents new opportunities for developing countries to create new products, open up access
to global markets and "leap-frog into new areas of wealth creation".18

Creative industries have impressive growth and economic performance in many countries in
comparison to other more traditional sectors. The complex global value chain of creative industries
offers many opportunities for developing countries to link up with international production networks.
Special attention should be paid to ways of increasing the participation of developing countries in
international trade. Each country needs to choose its own "model" based on its realities and
specificities, because there is no "one size fits all" model of development for creative industries
suitable to all countries.

This project is building on ongoing work of the three implementing agencies. In the case of UNCTAD,
the project takes into account the progress made in the intergovernmental debate in the area of the
creative industries and the emerging creative economy. Particularly, in the context of mandates from
UNCTAD XI (2004) and UNCTAD XII (2008), UNCTAD has been playing a key role in sensitizing
governments to the potential of the creative economy to foster trade and development gains,
promoting policy initiatives and enhancing cooperation with countries, institutions and the
international community. UNESCO has been promoting the implementation of the Convention on the
Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions as well as its Global Alliance for
Cultural Diversity that creates synergies among public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The project
also links up with related work in the area of culture, promoting demand for cultural goods, sustaining
local initiatives and businesses, encouraging investments by the state or local structures and engaging
other partners from the culture sector, especially those involved in fostering publishing, recording and
live performance.

In most advanced countries, the creative industries have already become a strategic priority. For
example, some governments have carried out analysis and mapping exercises, and consciously defined
and planned national policies for each sector. Unfortunately, this is not happening in most developing
countries, where the lack of attention given to producers of cultural goods and services translates into
weak support in specific accompanying measures (legislation and regulation, institutional support,
access to credit and funding, etc.). In this environment, policy guidelines can assist in supporting the
creative industries to develop and flourish. Governments remain key partners and facilitators in the
design of the policy framework for this sector.

The economic importance of culture in the development of ACP countries was clearly stressed in the
Cotonou Agreement, in particular in Article 2719. The Agreement urges ACP governments to
undertake action aimed at promoting and implementing ACP cultural projects and programmes. It
highlights the importance of culture in terms of identity, cultural dialogue and cultural industries. The
Nadi Declaration of Heads of State of ACP countries (July 2002) underscored the contribution of
culture to the economic and democratic development of ACP countries. The First Conference of ACP
Ministers of Culture in Dakar, June 2003 clearly acknowledged the importance of cultural industries in
development processes in the Dakar Declaration on the Promotion of ACP Cultures and Cultural
Industries and its Plan of Action. The ACP Ministers of Culture recognized "the potential of
enterprises involved in culture and their contribution to sustainable economic development and the
fight against poverty". The Dakar Plan of Action identifies, among others, as objectives: the
development or the creation of several mechanisms to improve the ACP cultural institutions (capacity-
building); the development of human capital (artists, designers, managers, etc.), the development of
cultural products, businesses and industries, and, the development of ACP cultural markets for better
integration in global markets.

UNCTAD, "Creative industries and development"(Eleventh Session, Sao Paulo, 13-18 June, 2004).

TD(XI/BP/13 June 2004, p.7.

European Commission DG-Development - Cotonou Agreement.


The transition from cultural to creative industries is not a straightforward or automatic process and
requires nurturing and specific policy initiatives. The First Conference of ACP Ministers of Culture in
Dakar recognized the specific role that ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO can play in this area and this
was endorsed by the Declaration on the Promotion of ACP Cultures and Cultural Industries. The ACP
Group confirmed its commitment "to work with the private sector and specialized agencies, such as
the International Labour Organization (ILO), to promote the creation and development of Small and
Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship in the cultural sector" (Clause 58). The Declaration
also recognized "the work by UNCTAD on the development potential of cultural industries and
requests UNCTAD and other relevant international organizations to carry out studies in evaluating the
impact of the current trade regime on domestic cultural policies" (Clause 58). It also supports
"facilitating partnerships between the public sector, private sector and civil society, in particular within
the framework of UNESCO'S Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity" (Clause 54).

Furthermore, within the framework of Regional Strategy Papers20 between the ACP region and the
European Community, complementary actions to regional economic integration and trade are to be
considered. It is a sector of growing significance throughout the region and can be used as a unifying
factor to cement regional ties. The development of creative industries can be part of the ACP-EU
policy agenda with its potential impact on integration processes, intra-ACP and international trade,
institutional capacity building, regional cooperation and integration, conflict prevention and dialogue
between nations.

This policy-oriented study was also carried out in the context of the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) since they represent the international policy environment within which national strategies for
advancing the creative economy in developing countries are being implemented. The MDGs express
the international community's commitment to the global development agenda. There are eight goals
with specific targets to be reached by 2015 namely to: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2)
achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce
child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7)
ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development. The
MDGs address development challenges as an inherent part of the global economy and the life of

The creative industries of the developing economies have significant potential to contribute towards
the achievement of 5 out of the 8 MDGs. The creative economy has a multitude of dimensions and it
contributes to economic, social, cultural and sustainable development in a number of ways. From the
economic perspective, it promotes economic diversification, revenues, trade and innovation.
According to UNCTAD, world trade in creative industries products continues to increase; trade in
creative goods and services grew on average 14 per cent annually during the period 2002-200821. A
major social impact of the creative industries is their contribution to employment, particularly for
women and the youth. Another important social aspect of the creative industries relates to their role in
fostering social inclusion. At the grass-root level, the creative economy includes cultural activities that
can be important in linking social groups in communities and contributing to social cohesion. Finally,
the manifestations of a people's culture - customs, rituals, artifacts, music and so on permeate the daily
lives of men, women and children and constitute a significant element in providing for their education,
culture, happiness and well-being22.

Regional Strategy Papers and Regional Indicative Programmes for 2002-2007 for: 1. Southern African

Development Community/European Community; 2. West Africa/European Community; 3. Region of Eastern
and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean/European Community; 4. Central African Region /European
Community; 5. Pacific ACP/European Community; 6. Caribbean Forum of the ACP States/European

Creative Economy Report 2010 by UNCTAD/UNDP.

The Creative Economy Report 2010: A feasible development option. UNDP/UNCTAD. For further
information on the MDGs please refer to page 33.


The creative industries also contribute to sustainable development. It is becoming increasingly
recognized that the concept of "sustainability" has a larger scope beyond its application to the
environment. The tangible and intangible cultural capital of a community, a nation or a region of the
world is something that must be preserved for future generations just as natural resources and
ecosystems need to be safeguarded to ensure continuation of human life on the planet.

Cultural sustainability implies a development process that maintains all types of cultural assets, from
minority languages and traditional rituals to artworks, artifacts and heritage buildings and sites. The
contributions that artistic and cultural production, dissemination and participation make to economic
empowerment, cultural enrichment and social cohesion in the community, in order to promote major
social progress, are the main reasons to support the principles of cultural sustainable development.

Creative industries built on cultural capital and heritage often have deep roots in the natural
environment. The traditional knowledge that makes the creative industries so unique evolved over
centuries through observation and use of the natural environment. From the study and use of plants
came our first systems of medicine and the basis of the natural health and cosmetics industry.
Indigenous knowledge of the natural environment has created lucrative markets for visual arts, eco-
fashion and ecotourism.

The primary input for creative activities is creativity, a natural resource in abundance in the world. The
creative industries production is usually less dependent on heavy industrial infrastructure and can be
easily compatible with environmental protection and preservation. For ethical trade to be sustainable,
producers are advised to focus on innovation, and not only to seek out low-cost solutions. There is a
recent trend towards ethical consumerism. Both producers and consumers of creative products
increasingly question the true cultural, economic and environmental value of what they create, buy and
sell. In this spirit, UNCTAD has been spreading the message that creativity and biodiversity are well
matched and should be seen as a win-win solution to promote responsible use of the world's
biodiversity, while promoting the development dimension of the creative economy23.

The Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty (PRS) or "Plano de Ação para a Redução da
Pobreza Absoluta (PARPA) for 2006-2009, outlines the strategy to achieve the country's development
goals (MDGs) and with the broad objectives of the agenda 2025. PARPA II was intended to reduce
poverty from 54 per cent to 45 per cent by 200924. PARPA II was acknowledged as the operational
plan for the Government’s Five Year Programme, Mozambique’s National Development Plan.
Specifically, the PARPA II stresses the need to improve the business environment and the financial
sector in order to promote private sector growth. It identifies actions to strengthen the judicial system,
reform the labor code, promote rural development and increase investment in infrastructure. It focuses
on three pillars: i) governance, ii) human capital, and iii) economic development. It also tackles
HIV/AIDS, gender, natural disasters, science and technology, rural development, food security and
nutrition, and demining as key cross-cutting issues.

There is an Observatório de Pobreza (OP) which was established by the Government in 2003 as a
consultative forum for discussion of poverty reduction issues. The OP is facilitating regular dialogue
between the Government and stakeholders on development objectives and poverty issues. For
example, the OP met regularly to provide inputs for the preparation of the PARPA II25. In this context,
the creative economy could be added as a sector that can also contribute to poverty alleviation in

The Creative Economy Report 2010: a feasible development option. Chap 1.3.4 Sustainable development,

page 26 and Creativity and Biodiversity: a win-win solution, page 66.

Mozambique Poverty Observatory and the Programme Aid Partnership.

Agenda 2025, the PARPA II, the Five-Year Program for 2005-09 and the 2006 PES are broadly in line with
the MDGs, World Bank.



This section looks at macro-economic issues and cross-cutting factors that have an impact on the
development of the creative industries at a national level and policy formulation at an international
level. Throughout this report, recommendations are made in each subsection for possible policy
actions that could be taken in order to enhance the creative industries for development gains.

It is important to understand the interface between creativity, culture, economics and technology, for
the articulation of the development strategies of the twenty-first century. In a world increasingly
dominated by images, sounds, texts and symbols, the so-called creative economy is leading growth,
employment, innovation and social cohesion in many developed countries. It can also be a feasible
development option to diversify the economies of developing countries, if effective public policies are
in place. At the heart of the creative economy are the creative industries.

The creative industries are a fast-growing economic sector holding great potential for developing
countries, which often have rich cultural traditions expressed in the form of arts, music, dance,
literature, films and other forms of creative talent, thanks to an affluent cultural heritage and traditional
knowledge. According to UNCTAD, the creative industries are among the most dynamic sectors of the
world economy and in international trade, but the large majority of developing countries are not yet
able to harness the potential of their creative economies for creating jobs, revenues and export

As per the Creative Economy Report 2010, as a result of the financial crisis and the global recession in
2008, global trade declined 12 per cent. However, world trade of creative goods and services
continued its expansion, reaching $592 billion and reflecting an annual growth rate of 14 per cent
during the period 2002-2008.27

Africa, however, is not yet benefiting from its creative economy to accelerate development. For the
moment, the creative industries in the continent are relatively small and very fragmented. According to
available official statistics, Mozambique exports of creative goods although small increased fast in
recent years and were estimated at around $4.5 million in 200828, compared to less than $1 million in
2005, as shown in chart 1. The trade aspect of the creative industries will be further elaborated in
subsequent sections.

See UNCTAD (2008a).

The Creative Economy Report 2010: a feasible development option. UNDP/UNCTAD.


UNCTAD Global Database on Creative Goods and Services, www.unctad.org/creative-programme


Chart 1: Mozambique Creative Industry Trade Performance, 2003-2008

Mozambique Creative Industries Trade Performance (2003-2008)








2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
(in millions of US)


Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy


Since independence in 1975, the Government of Mozambique has always given culture a key role in
its official discourse. While years of civil war and political and economic strife have eroded much of
the country, there is still an underlying cultural basis on which Mozambique can build.

In fact, the first cultural act of the new independent government in 1975 was to create a Cinema
Institute.29 The Mozambican-born film director Ruy Guerra returned to Mozambique following
independence to help plan the film industry. World-renowned film-makers like Jean Rouch and Jean-
Luc Godard were invited to the country to carry out training and help develop national cinema
policies. It is not only in the cinema sector that Mozambique had begun to cultivate a strong local
culture. The country has also made its mark internationally in the areas of visual arts especially wood
sculptures, as well as in literature and poetry. For example, the intricate wood carvings of the
Makonde art coming from the northern parts of the country are well known throughout the world by
those involved in the market of African visual arts, just as the name of Malangatana30 enjoys wide
recognition as a vibrant expression of African contemporary art.

In literary circles, for example, José Craveirinha was awarded the Premio Camões in 1991, the world’s
highest honour for lusophone literature. He was considered several times for the Nobel Prize for
Literature. In 2003, President Chissano declared Craveirinha a “national hero” of Mozambique. More
recently, the work of the renowned Mozambican writer Mia Couto is gaining wider recognition
nationally and internationally.

The government recently launched an export promotion campaign called “Made in Mozambique”31.
This campaign has been directed at the more classic industries without any focus on the creative
sectors. While the economic rationale behind such a campaign is clear, underlying it is also the

Information based on discussions with Camillo de Sousa. Maputo, 3 September 2008.

Valente Malengatana Ngwenya, is one of the most famous artists from Mozambique, his art – work, paintings,

sculptures, ceramics – has been exhibited in many countries around the world. He continues to influence new
generations of African plastic artists. In 1997 he was named UNESCO Artist for Peace.

An initiative of the Ministry of Tourism to promote the image of Mozambique as an attractive African tourist
destination, September 2008.


acknowledgement of the importance of cultivating aspects of national culture, pride and self-esteem. It
is noteworthy however, that in an official speech in 2008, the President recognized the importance of
the cultural industries for the development of the country32 It could be expected that in the near future,
the products of Mozambican creativity will also soon be seen abroad as “Made in Mozambique”.
Figure 5: Art crafts from the market in Maputo

Furthermore, Mozambique is a favoured country by international donors. There are various
internationally funded programmes currently in place in the country, including projects in the area of
the creative industries. These projects are complementary with this ACP/EC/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO
multi-agency project to enhance the creative economy. These projects have the benefit of reinforcing
each others’ objectives and strengthening the overall effectiveness of results. Three ongoing projects
are especially noteworthy and should be linked with this current project:
1.“Joint Programme on Strengthening Culture and Creative Industries and Inclusive Policies in
Mozambique” (MDG-F) (UNDP/Spain MDG Achievement Fund)

The MDG-F Joint Programme is based on the United Nations Development Assistance Framework for
Mozambique and contributes to the implementation of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
(PRSP) and the Plano de Ação para a Redução da Pobreza Absoluta, 2006–2009 (PARPA II)33, the
government’s five-year plan, the Strategic Plan for Education and Culture 2006–2011 and the
Employment and Vocational Training Strategy. The programme is part of the “One UN” process in
Mozambique and aims at “promoting cultural and creative industries’ contribution to social and
economic development in Mozambique through strengthening the policy strategy and legal and
regulatory frameworks as well as access to quality data on the sector, its importance and development
challenges”.34 In its first component, UNESCO, ILO and the International Trade Centre (ITC) set out
to promote the cultural and creative industries’ contribution to social and economic development. In
the second component the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), UNESCO, the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Population Fund
(UNFPA) will work jointly to ensure inclusion of social and cultural aspects in development policies
and strategies. A central element of the programme is building the capacity of the national and local
partners to ensure the sustainability of results.

2. “Development of Cultural Institutions of Mozambique” 2006–2009 (UNESCO) The second ongoing
project of relevance to the ACP/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO project is the “Development of Cultural
Institutions of Mozambique” (2006–2009) being implemented by UNESCO. It is mainly focussed on
museums and monuments and on the promotion of art and creativity. Its activities include

Information based on discussions with Pedro Pimenta, Maputo, 2 September 2008.

Action Plan for Reducing Absolute Poverty.

MDG-F 2008 document: 4.

Photo by Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg


strengthening museums (accessibility, quality improvements, promotional materials, etc.), addressing
problems of preservation and promotion of cultural heritage and training cultural professionals. The
project is also concerned with re-empowering the existing casas da cultura (cultural houses).35
3. “Capacity-Building for Professionals, Managers and Administrators of the Cultural Programme at
the Ministry of Education and Culture” 2006–2009 (UNESCO)

The third directly relevant project is also being implemented by UNESCO and is entitled “Capacity-
Building for Professionals, Managers and Administrators of the Cultural Programme at the Ministry of
Education and Culture” (2006–2009). Its aim is to strengthen the capacity of government officials in
the management and administration of the culture programmes at the central, provincial and district
levels and to improve communication between the different sectors of culture, at the Ministry of
Education and Culture: national directorates, provincial directorates, district directorates and cultural
institutions, and to develop capacities in the identification, planning, implementing, administrating,
monitoring, evaluating and reporting on cultural projects.36
Cooperation and coordination among the different activities within the scope of these projects has
already been discussed.37 The ACP/EC/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO project distinguishes itself from the
others primarily because it focuses on areas that are not covered by the other projects, such as the
crafts and music sectors, developing cultural tourism and elaborating the national language policy.
This multi-agency pilot project also distinguishes itself because it will include support for the
formulation of inter-ministerial policies, the reinforcement of institutional mechanisms and capacity-
building primarily at the national governmental level and it also moves beyond the government realm,
including associations, private sector, culture professionals and artists.

Finally, because of the multi-sectoral nature of the creative industries, this project will tackle
economic, social and cultural issues simultaneously. It is clear that other ongoing programmes in the
country can also be considered complementary, albeit indirectly. For example, an Italian-funded
project supports the development of the National Statistics System and a the Dutch cooperation project
with IPEX promotes capacity-building and identifying and strengthening exports, within which crafts
and home decor have been identified as a priority sector. The Norwegian Agency for Development
Cooperation also has an ongoing project that deals with the promotion of intangible heritage. All these
projects are evidence of the growing role of international cooperation in enhancing the role of culture
and the creative industries for the development of Mozambique.

There have been several variants to the official positioning of culture within the government over the
years: 1975–1983 Ministry of Culture and Education; 1983–1987 State Secretary for Culture; 1987–
1992 Ministry of Culture; 1992–1996 Ministry of Culture and Youth; 1996–2000 Ministry of Culture,
Youth and Sports; and 2000–2005 Ministry of Culture. Since 2005, culture has been under the
auspices of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC).

Like many other LDCs, development efforts in Mozambique do not include culture among the priority
sectors in the country. In recent years there has been some encouraging progress in terms of
integrating culture into the country strategic development thinking. The Agenda 2025, the
government’s five-year plan 2005–2009 and the PRSP (PARPA II) all describe culture as an important
contributor to the country’s human, social and economic development. However this recognition has
not yet been translated into concrete budgetary changes in the government or the MEC budget.
Nonetheless, within the framework of formulation of the sectoral strategic plans (PARPA II) the
government has developed and approved a strategic plan for culture (PEEC) for the period from 2006–

UNESCO (2006–2009b).

UNESCO (2006–2009a): 4.

Discussed at the inter-agency meeting between the lead agencies for the joint programme (Maputo UNESCO

office) and the ILO/UNESCO/UNCTAD group. Maputo, 4 September 2008.


2011,38 which commits it to various policy revisions and aims to emphasize the role of culture in the
country’s development.39

The government has been active in supporting the development of culture and creative enterprise in
myriad ways. To begin with, the National Song and Dance Company of Mozambique (CNCD), the
National Film and Audiovisual Institute (INAC), the National Museum of Art, the National Fund for
Arts and Culture (FUNDAC) and the National Institute for Books and Discs (INLD) are under the
tutelage of the MEC. These institutions are, for the most part, in need of serious rehabilitation at all
levels, ranging from infrastructural aspects to professional capacity-building.

Various organizations and associations in different sectors have been created by the government.
Under the patronage of the ministry, an amateur group of dancers, musicians, actors and storytellers
was created in 1976. In 1983 the group turned professional and was named the CNCD.

The government also initiated the creation of the Association of Mozambican Musicians (AMMO).
The AMMO held its first general assembly, after almost 20 years of relative inactivity, in September
2008, with the aim to revive the association and to elect a new secretary-general and board.

According to discussions with local stakeholders, the Department of Culture is called upon to invest
much of its human capacity to organize public events and festivities, which is time diverted from
focusing on the real needs of the sector itself. It is clear for all involved that there should be more
focus on strategy and policymaking and in particular the implementation of those policies.

The Ministry of Youth and Sport runs a crafts project called Mozarte.
Action: The current institutional framework for the administration of cultural policy and its impact on
creative industries could be enhanced to facilitate concerted policies with greater socio-economic
impact over the short and long term. It could be useful to introduce a mechanism to facilitate a multi-
disciplinary approach and inter-ministerial actions towards a broader creative economy strategy. This
could be done, for example, through the establishment of an empowered Inter-ministerial Steering
Committee on Creative Economy, as a standing coordinating body to play a key role in shaping inter-
ministerial decisions involving government officials from all the relevant ministries and institutions.
Such a committee would also interact with key stakeholders from professional associations of the
creative sector, to develop and put in place appropriate and more effective public policies for
enhancing the creative industries, as a strategic component of Mozambique’s economic development

The implementation of this action is likely to reinforce the current structure and allow for more
articulated and effective policy actions.


The Strategic Plan for Culture was elaborated taking into account the recommendations of the First
National Conference on Culture (July 2003), the Agenda 2005 and the Cultural Policy of Mozambique
and its implementation strategy. The plan takes into consideration a number of issues that were not
addressed in the 1997 Cultural Policy of Mozambique and which are relevant for this project, notably,
that of strengthening the economic contribution of the culture sector for the development of
Mozambique, enhancing capacity and infrastructure in the sector and improving cooperation between
the different stakeholders.40

The strategic plan points out seven core problems for the development of the cultural sectors in
Mozambique: (a) competent and skilled manpower; (b) lack of cultural infrastructure and facilities

República de Moçambique, Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2006). The Strategic Plan refers to the English

translation (first draft and unofficial) of the PEEC.

MDG-F: 6.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC (2006): 9.


(equipment and materials); (c) limitations of the government and need for private sector mobilization;
(d) information, data and documentation on the sector; (e) barriers to competitiveness for cultural
stakeholders; (f) provision of the required legal and regulatory frameworks, which is lacking in some
areas or weak in terms of enforcement; (g) streamline the activities of various cultural agencies.41

The strategic plan also points out 10 major institutional weaknesses associated with the sector: (a) poor
perception of culture among senior public officials; (b) poor infrastructural capacity and poor human
capacity to manage existing infrastructure; (c) lack of a comprehensive national system for data
collection, documentation, storage, dissemination and statistics and information, especially on the
economic impact of culture; (d) inadequate integration of culture into the economic and social sectors
and into the school curricula; (e) absence of a comprehensive national language policy; (f) inadequate
dissemination of policies, legislation and regulations related to culture, to enhance better
understanding of their value to stakeholders; (g) poor institutional capacity to monitor and evaluate
policies, strategies, programmes and projects contributing to weak delivery; (h) lack of appropriate
managerial, technical and professional capacity and competence among cultural managers, artists and
producers thus reducing their ability to be competitive; (i) lack of linkages and networking among
institutions; and (j) excessive dependence on the government by cultural practitioners.42
These points can be substantiated based on the current research. On the last point it is worth pointing
out that the encounters with professionals of the various cultural sectors did not lead to the impression
that there was an excessive dependence on government, rather that there were many motivated
professionals who clearly had to be dynamic in their own right in order to achieve the success they
already had, but that there was an overall interest in seeing some structural and systematic government
engagement and encouragement for the creative industries.

The government’s six priorities for the development of the creative industries are clearly identified in
the strategic plan. It is worth reiterating the strategic priorities and the specific objectives set out in the
PEEC that are directly pertinent to UNCTAD’s role in this project.
Strategic priority 2: Promote activities within the culture sector that generate income;43

Strategic objective 3: Elaborate and enact the appropriate legislation to provide fiscal
incentives to artists, cultural producers and the corporate sector as a way of encouraging the
development of cultural industries;

Strategic objective 4: Promote the commercial exploitation of local cultural productions and
artistic creations;

Strategic objective 5: Strengthen (copyright) enforcement regimes to protect the interests and
rights of artists and cultural practitioners;

Strategic objective 6: Improve access to quality data on the economic importance of the
culture sector;

Strategic priority 4: Develop and strengthen the capacity and infrastructure of the culture sector;44

Strategic objective 1: Develop and strengthen both institutional and human capacity in the
culture sector;

Strategic objective 2: Expand and improve the network of cultural infrastructure;

Republic of Mozambique, MEC (2006): 4.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC (2006): 5.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC (2006): 17–19.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC (2006): 23–24.


Strategic objective 3: Activate and update the information management system for the culture

Strategic objective 4: Review and update the national policy framework for culture;
Strategic priority 5: Strengthen the partnerships between the various stakeholders in the field of

Strategic objective 1: Create an “arm’s length” body to ensure ongoing dialogue and exchange
between the stakeholders and the government;

Strategic objective 2: Create an enabling environment for encouraging and enhancing
participation of potential partners in the field of culture;

Strategic objective 3: Promote and support professional cultural associations and community-
based organization.

Action: Implement this strategic plan for culture. A clear implementation mechanism indicating the
time frame and resources allocation should accompany the strategic plan. Through this project, the
implementing agencies can support the priorities and objectives identified in the strategic plan. They
are in line with the objectives of the project to assist the government for enhancing the creative
capacities in the country. UNCTAD will be working closely with the government at macro and micro
levels, by providing policy advice and capacity-building for government officials to facilitate policy
formulation for the development of the creative industries and its interactions with the overall

Action: The idea of holding the Second National Conference on Culture in 2009 to promote inter alia
awareness about the economic and development potential of the creative industries was a timely
initiative. This event was held in Maputo on 14–15 May 2009 bringing together about 500 participants
from all provinces. The conference provided a platform for open debates about the current situation
and ways to move forward. UNCTAD was invited by the MEC to address the conference on the
potential of the creative industries in international markets and the challenges and opportunities for
Mozambique. The presentation attracted great interest and generated a lively debate. It was a good
opportunity to emphasize the importance of the linkages between cultural, economical, social and
technological aspects to enhance the creative sector in the country. Debates about the interface
between tourism, the role of the media and creative industries were very useful to facilitate better
understanding about the growing importance of the creative economy in overall development
strategies. UNCTAD took advantage of the event to interact with high officials from the MEC on how
this multi-agency project can effectively contribute in the process of revision, adoption and
implementation of the Mozambique’s Strategic Cultural Policy.46

It is noteworthy that the government has put in place a decentralization programme worth 7 million
Mtn ($300,000) that is directed toward developing the districts. The emphasis is on food and
agriculture whereas cultural and creative entrepreneurship are not prioritized. 47

Action: It would be timely to include the creative industries among the priorities, since the creative
sector has a potentially positive impact for revitalizing socio-economic growth in rural areas,
generating employment and so contributing to better gender balance and poverty reduction.

Another dimension is that the creative industries can be a catalyst to support government efforts to
further integrate Mozambique into the world economy, by increasing the competitiveness of its
creative goods and services in global markets, while at same time promoting job creation, social

Republic of Mozambique, MEC (2006): 25.

See presentaion on “Política Cultural de Moçambique e Estratégia de sua Implementação”, Dra. Sonia,

Ministério da Educação e Cultura, May 2009.

Directorate of International Relations, MIC, Maputo, 9 September 2008.


inclusion and cultural diversity. According to UNCTAD, the creative economy deals with a set of
knowledge-based economic activities with a development dimension and cross-cutting linkages at the
macro and micro levels with the overall economy.

The creative industries have significant potential for development on a wide scope, since they result in
tangible goods or intangible services able to generate revenues through trade and intellectual property
rights (IPRs), if appropriate policies are in place. It should be noted that although many countries uses
the terms “cultural industries” and “creative industries” interchangeably, the concept of the creative
industries is broader than the traditional notions of the cultural sector, which are seen mainly from the
public sector perspective.

The creative industries comprise the cycles of creation, production and distribution of goods and
services with creative content, cultural and economic value and market objectives. In this regard, the
creative industries have been classified by UNCTAD to include creative goods and services related to
heritage, arts, media and functional creations, with subsectors identified in each of these categories,48
as shown in figure 6. It deals with the interplay of various creative sectors starting from the most
traditional like art crafts and cultural festivities to more technology-intensive sectors such as
audiovisuals, to higher value-added creative services like architecture, advertising and digital services.

In this regard, it should be noted that the term “creative industries” emerged in the 1990s, broadening
the scope of cultural industries beyond the arts, and marking a shift in the approach to potential
commercial activities that until recently were regarded predominantly in non-economic terms.49

Figure 6. UNCTAD classification of creative industries

Action: It is recommended to enlarge the scope of the traditional cultural industries by adding new
services-oriented and technology-intensive creative sectors along the lines indicated above. There are
several classifications; this one was designed by UNCTAD taking into account the current and
potential interests of developing countries.

Reference is made to the UNCTAD’s definition and classification of the creative industries and the creative

economy, elaborated in 2006 by the Creative Economy Programme. This classification is also presented
UNCTAD/UNDP (2008): 14.

See UNCTAD (2008a).


A key component of the development dimension of the creative economy is that it greatly contributes
towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, particular in the following areas:

(a) Eradication of extreme poverty, by generating employment and income, particularly for creative
workers from small communities and rural areas;

(b) Gender balance, by providing equal opportunities for women;

(c) Social inclusion, particularly of the youth living in less advantaged areas;

(d) Education and access to new information and communication technologies;

(e) Global partnerships, by cooperation inside and across countries involving the public and private
sectors as well as international cooperation and civil society.

Given the multi-disciplinary nature of the creative economy, policymaking should not be confined to a
single ministry or government department, but involve a number of relevant ministries such as culture
and education, industry and trade, labour, science and technology, communications, tourism, finance,
youth, planning and foreign affairs. Moreover, to be effective, the process should be participatory
involving multi-stakeholders not only from the government but also from the private sector,
professional associations, artists and the non-profit civil society.50 Figure 7 underlines the key
characteristics of the creative economy, which extend to almost all areas of government policy, calling
for integrated inter-ministerial policy responses.

Figure 7. The development dimension of the creative economy

Action: In order to articulate an institutional mechanism to shape policies for the creative economy, an
initial step would be to organize a high-level policy dialogue to present and debate the main findings
and policy actions put forward by this report. This forum would provide the occasion to engage
policymakers and some key stakeholders to harmonize views and increase understanding on this
innovative approach. This action would be followed by, or optimally done in conjunction with, a
commitment from the government to support the implementation of the plan of action proposed by the

UNCTAD/UNDP (2008): 203.


three United Nations agencies. This procedure would pave the way for the setting up of the Creative
Economy Inter-ministerial Committee, as a standing body.


As mentioned earlier, the official budget allocated to culture is insignificant as in many other
developing countries. In 2008, the budget for education accounted for 2.25 per cent of the national
budget, while the cultural sector had only 0.03 per cent. Interestingly, for 2009 the budgetary
allocation for education increased to 8 per cent but the cultural sector received only 0.3 per cent. This
means that for the total allocation for the Ministry of Education and Culture, education accounted for
96.4 per cent of the budget while culture had received 3.6 per cent.51 Education is undoubtedly a key
priority; however culture also deserves more funds. According to the directives under consideration at
the cultural policy, other sources of financing should be envisaged for the cultural activities, including
grants from the FUNDAC and incentives from the Law of Protection of Heritage, as well as from the
involvement of the private sector through sponsorships and corporate social responsibility schemes.

At present, the banking system of Mozambique has three micro-financing banks52 and five credit
unions. Banking and micro-finance activities are subject to the banking law.53 However, the
government does not have any specific public funding programmes in place to support the creative
industries. It does provide periodic support through various activities. For example, the MEC
organizes an annual Festival of Culture and a Festival of Traditional Song and Music. Competitions
are held throughout the different districts and regions of the country and the winners go to compete at
the national level. The winners receive a monetary prize. The MEC also gives out awards once a year
to distinguished artists who receive monetary prizes.

Action: A Creative Industries Fund, either sector-specific, or for the entire creative industries should
be established. The fund could be financed through a variety of both public and private sources. For
example, broadcasters, internet service providers, and satellite TV should pay a tax to supply the fund.
Government could make straight contributions or use a fund matching system. Contributions could
come through the modification of the sponsorship law.

Many of the skills and professions linked to the creative economy are not recognized in business
terms, thus making access to funding and or credit extremely difficult. The possibility of microcredit is
particularly interesting in this sector. Microcredit schemes already exist in various forms in many
countries; however the level of interest rates should not be abusive.

Action: Establish microfinance schemes to encourage the development of creative enterprises, in
particular through public-private cooperation.

There is no specific policy on financing new enterprises in the creative sectors. Nevertheless, a
strategic plan to reinforce small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been approved by the
Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MIC) and is under implementation, which can have a positive
impact for enhancing the creative industries.54 Certain encouraging initiatives do exist. For example,
GAPI is a financing institute for SMEs that promotes jobs through capacity-building. It is a PPP in
which the government has a 30 per cent share. The board includes a government representative, a
representative from civil society and one person from the Foundation for Community Development
(funded by Graça Machel). They are involved in microcredit and they try to establish a link with
capacity-building and financing. GAPI facilitates the creation of associations, facilitates business
development and assists in microfinance management, legislation for associations and for businesses.
It also provides training for local trainers and managers. In the context of this project, GAPI will be

During the Second National Conference on Culture, there were lively debates about the financing of culture.

The information above was provided in the paper “Financiamento da Cultura: Desafios e Oportunidades” by
Salomão Julio Manhiça, May 2009.

Socremo-Banco de Microfinanças; Novo Banco and Banco Oportunidade de Mozambique.

See Law No. 15/99, November 1999.

MIC, Maputo, 4 September 2008.


involved in capacity-building in cooperation with ILO. GAPI has already worked successfully with
ILO on previous training projects.


In terms of the way that the professionals within the various sectors have organized themselves, one
can note that the associative structures in place are quite weak and need to be reinforced. There are
three main organizations: (a) the musicians’ association (AMMO); (b) the Association of Mozambican
Writers (AEMO); and (c) the Association for Filmmakers (AMOCINE). There are also many smaller
associations throughout all sectors. However, the high degree of fragmentation of these three creative
industries does not provide the capacity to make effective changes in the sectors.

These main associations are well aware of their weakness and voiced their priority needs: (a) financial;
(b) capacity-building, notably learning how to manage the artistic enterprises and creative business in
more professional ways, and getting a better idea of how they can better protect and manage their
intellectual property rights; (c) social security improvements, remuneration of their activities; and (d)
their effectiveness as a group working for improvements for their respective sector, vis-à-vis the

In 2008, a national meeting for culture was initiated by artists and professionals active in the culture
sector. A three-day meeting was planned to discuss the way to move Mozambique forward in this
respect. Their aim was to write a manifesto and to help instigate the drafting and approval of a Law for
Artists. Artists and creative professionals would like to create an organization that could regroup all
those working in the sector. As in most countries, the creative economy is very fragmented and there is
a need to work together to be able to push any legislation forward in the area of the arts and media.
One of the subjects of discussion according to an instigator of the project was the necessity of finding
public-private partnerships (PPPs) and of finding ways of getting investment from the domestic or
foreign private sector into the creative industries and not just rely on donor funding.55
Action: The creation of a National Creative Economy Centre could be a response to enhancing
creative capacities and facilitate sharing of information and knowledge, networking, strategic
alliances, capacity-building activities involving artists, creative entrepreneurs, academia, NGOs, etc.

Action: The organization of networking is encouraged to facilitate contacts within the artistic and
business communities and reinforce skills and techniques.

There is some legislation in place with respect to the creative industries in general or specific sectors
but implementation is needed. A useful initiative by the Ministry of Education and Culture in this
regard was to publish a document in 2007, listing all the legislation related to culture in

The Lei do Mecenato (Law 4/94) was adopted in September 1994, but no regulatory framework has
been adapted for an effective implementation of this law so far.

Action: Establish a regulatory framework conducive to the implementation of this law, including the
fiscal treatment foreseen for the public or private sector institutions willing to support activities in the
area of arts, literature, science, culture and social actions.

A law (Law 10/88) was adopted in December 1988 to regulate the legal protection of material and
immaterial assets to preserve the cultural heritage of Mozambique.

There is also a decree (10/81) of July 1981, defining the rules and criteria for the commercialization of
artworks, art crafts, furniture and precious wood objects, precious and semi-precious gemstones, ivory

Discussions with Naguib, well-known plastic artist, Maputo, September 2008.

See Ministry of Education and Culture (2007).


and special skins, with the aim to avoid abuse and unscrupulous commerce and exports of those
protected creative and heritage goods.

Within the cinema and audio-visual sector there are discussions of creating a cinema law. In October
2008 an agreement was established with Brazil, signed during President Lula’s visit to Mozambique,
which foresees some assistance from Brazil on this issue.57

Action: The completion of the cinema law is highly encouraged. In this regard, UNCTAD can act as
facilitator to promote further cooperation between Mozambique and Brazil concerning the formulation
of the audio-visual law; the Brazilian experience can be a useful model to be adapted for the case of
Mozambique. The fact that both countries have signed the Cooperation Agreement, within the context
of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries, in the area of film and audio-visuals, is an
important element.58 UNESCO can also play a role in assisting the government in the process of
adopting and implementing the law, also taking into account some successful experiences in other
developing countries such as Colombia and Cuba.

Action: A broadcasting law should be put in place. As regards television and radio broadcasting, an
attempt is apparently being made to draft a law. At present there are no rules to regulate television
programmes. This lack of a regulatory framework results in serious difficulties for local producers of
creative content who have to compete with well-established international players and an invasion of
imported television programmes (films and soap operas). There is very little space allocated for
national content. This is an area in which UNESCO is willing to provide technical assistance.


The government developed a general policy on competition in 2007,59 but the regulatory framework
for its implementation is still under consideration by the Assembly. The Ministry of Industry and
Commerce has started to prepare a Competition Law, which was expected to be completed at the end
of 2008.60 The law is expected to regulate several areas of relevance for the creative industries, such as
abuse of dominant positions, agreements between companies and concentrations that impede

Action: Encourage the completion of Competition Law that is being prepared. Encourage the creation
of a Competition Authority and the implementation and regulation of the upcoming Competition Law.
UNCTAD has been providing assistance to governments in this area.

Action: Particular attention should be given to regulatory practices and implementation processes of
existing and upcoming legislation for the creative industries, particularly the audio-visual sector.

Action: Strengthen the legal and regulatory framework for the creation of cooperative and cultural
enterprises, including the registration of such entities, their constitutions and their labour policies.

Action: Institutional restructuring should also be prioritized.


In Mozambique as in most countries, developing and developed alike, it is very difficult to assess the
volume of employment generated from the creative industries. National statistical offices are having
great difficulty in quantifying employment in this area and in delimiting it. ILO and UNESCO have
been examining issues related to definitions, delimitation of sectors, classifications of occupations,

Discussions with Pedro Pimenta, well-known film producer, November 2008.

It is noteworthy that Mozambique hosted the First Exhibition of Films and Audiovisuals from CPLP countries.

This event took place from 18–25 June 2009. Films from the nine lusophone countries were screened (35mm and
DVD), along with debates and workshops, etc. The event was organized under the auspices of the Ministry of
Education and Culture, by AMOCINE and AMOVIDEO.

Resolution No 37/2002, November 2007.

Discussions with the Chefe do Departamento de Politica Comercial, MIC. Maputo, September 2008.


methodologies for data collection and working with national statistical offices to improve the quality
of data as regards employment in the various segments of the creative industries. This work is an
ongoing process.

Moreover, in most developing countries, the majority of artists and creative entrepreneurs are still part
of an informal sector, and as such they do not benefit from the usual rights and obligations covered by
labour regulations.

Social and economic security for art workers and creators is essential to change the traditional
misperception that creative activities are transitory or recreational activities or hobbies.
Comprehensive national legislation is required to regulate creative activities and their relationship with
employers in order to set up a social and economic security scheme for these workers. Why is this
important? Many artistic workers must become entrepreneurs out of necessity; they are the first in
setting up small enterprises, the first who are interested in looking for clients and contracts, and in
creating job and income opportunities.
Furthermore, it is widely recognized that employment conditions for artists are often very precarious.
Artists’ contractual obligations are usually project-based, with long periods of unemployment between
engagements. Most artists, particularly in the performing arts, work on an irregular, part-time or self-
employed basis, with limited or inexistent coverage for pension and medical schemes.61

Action: ILO has an established working relationship with the Ministry of Labour (MITRAB) and has
been supporting government efforts to improve employment conditions. Special emphasis will be
given in the context of this multi-agency project to strengthen the ministry’s capacity for creating
decent jobs and reinforcing creative capacities and entrepreneurship.
The ILO will be working in collaboration with the Institute for Employment and Professional
Formation (INEFP) in this regard. During a meeting held in July 2009, both ILO and INEFP reached a
consensus on the action plan main activities and included some additions, e.g. a study on the
implication of the Employment and Vocational Training Strategy within the crafts sector, and the
agreement that all activities linked to vocational training will be channelled through INEFP.62

It should be noted that a “Start Your Cultural Business” (SYCB) pilot training took place (in Maputo,
from 24 to 28 August 2009). INEFP is the lead institute coordinating various technical as well as
logistical issues, and this arrangement will be replicated in other provinces where the pilot is taking
place (Inhambane and Nampula). This mode of working will be replicated in all the other activities, as
it is likely to guarantee the sustainability of all the tools and approaches that will be introduced within
the joint programme. The SYCB materials were adapted and translated under the EU-ACP
programme, hence demonstrating a clear link of this multi-agency project and the MGD-F Culture and
Creative Industries programme, to ensure complementarities and effectiveness.

Mozambique already has a structure of professional organizations in place, as described in the section
above; a large number of creative workers are registered in their respective associations. This already
provides a good basis for a categorization by size, type and employment in the creative sector, as a
first step for the mapping of the creative industries at the national level. In this regard, the
classification of occupational categories for the cultural and creative sectors is an important aspect.

In Mozambique, the industrial property code was approved by decree 18/99 of May 1999, as a new
code to create conditions for technological development and to enable the transfer of knowledge and
new technologies. It is applicable to signatory countries to the International Union for the Protection of

UNCTAD/UNDP (2008): Creative Economy Report, page 118.

Information provided by the ILO Director in Mozambique to the UNCTAD secretariat in August 2009.


Industrial Property, and in full compliance with the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of
Intellectual Property (TRIPs) of the World Trade Organization.63

A copyright law exists in Mozambique (Lei do Direito de Autor e Direitos Conexos Lei no. 4/2001 de
27 Fevereiro).64 It covers literary, artistic and scientific works; in addition, computer software is
explicitly identified. The law covers the life of the author plus 70 years, while a term of 50 years
applies for performers’ rights and sound recordings, and 25 years for broadcast programmes.
According to the law, the responsibility is on the injured party or his legal representative to initiate
legal proceedings in defence of infringed rights.

Action: The existing copyright administration needs to be enabled. The legislation is in place;
however its implementation needs to be revised.

The Associação Moçambicana de Autores (Mozambican Association of Authors) (SOMAS) was
established in 1998 and has the responsibility of a collecting society. It is a private institute but a
representative of the MEC, the Director of the INLD, is on the Executive Board. SOMA does not
receive funds from the government but receives funding from Scandinavia. SOMA has two licenses
and only collects from TV Mozambique and the Radio Mozambique. They collect a lump sum and do
not receive statistics on how many times a film has been programmed or how many times a song was
played on the radio.65

For the time being SOMAS only collects rights for the music industry. Since it began collecting, it has
made three payments to local artists. Their average annual collection has been $10,000. Only the two
public institutions make the payments and just for the music sector. In recent years, the association had
no real increase in the amount collected, although there was an increase in its membership. In
consequence, members of the association receive a percentage of the overall collection, which is
divided by the number of members and not relative to the programming of their work.

In November 2008, the Procuradoria General da Republica announced that more robust action on the
part of the government against piracy and counterfeiting was needed.

Action: It is necessary to improve the functioning and the methodology used by SOMAS so that it can
work more efficiently. It also needs more human resources and better computer systems. This is an
area in which UNESCO could provide some assistance. In the context of the United Nations
Development Assistance Framework project, the International Confederation of Societies of Authors
and Composers (CISAC) is already providing some technical assistance to SOMAS.66

There is no provision in the law to oblige private users to make payments. The current lack of
implementation of the legislation means that SOMAS is unable to collect from the private sector. For
example, there are four other main private radio stations in Mozambique, in addition to many others
throughout the country, but no agreements are signed with radio stations other than Radio

Many artists are currently registered in South Africa because there is no incentive to be registered in

Action: Encourage the creation of a national federation of collecting societies, which would regroup
the different creative industries in a type of loose affiliation.

According to discussions with various artists, it became clear that many sell their rights outright
according to the buy-out concept. For example, one usually sells the rights for an artistic work for a

UNCTAD/International Chamber of Commerce (2001).

See Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2007).

Discussions with the Director of SOMAS, Maputo, 3 September 2008.

When we visited SOMAS during the fact-finding mission, an international expert was working at SOMAS.

The joint mission invited him to attend the stakeholders’ meeting held in September 2008.


specific territory, for a specific time period, in a specific medium. Simply put, in concrete terms, that
would mean selling the rights to a film to be shown in cinema theatres (as opposed to DVD, VoD or
other rights), in Mozambique (as opposed to another country or region), for a period of five years, for
a specific sum of money. Some artists end up by selling all the rights for their film or their music
without being able to negotiate any of the details because they have little leverage to do so.
Associations and unions can help individual artists or managers become more aware of their
possibilities and can help them negotiate better deals so that they can earn income from their
professional and creative activities.

Action: It is necessary to improve the functioning and the methodology used by SOMAS so that the
association is able to carry out its functions more efficiently and effectively.

Furthermore, according to discussions with stakeholders, the main priorities identified in the area of
rights were: (a) funding; (b) awareness and understanding of regulations; and (c) the necessity of going
into the field to do training on a broad scale.

Action: Capacity training and awareness of rights issues for professionals in the creative sectors and
for civil society is a priority issue. The advisory services of a legal expert in IPR issues could be
provided to the associations from time to time, to assist the artists in negotiating their contracts,
particularly those oriented towards global markets. In the scope of this project, assistance from
UNESCO in association with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) could be
envisaged to tackle this problem.

Of particular concern to creative entrepreneurs are issues related to copyright and trademarks and the
necessity to strengthen the ability of creators to learn about their rights. Ideally, each province should
appoint a person responsible for providing guidance and training in contractual negotiations and
marketing issues.

Action: An education training package of 2–3 days could be implemented in the artistic community at
the province level to deal with topics such as training and personnel development, work and
environmental protection, waste disposal, basic trade techniques, government supporting institutions
and how to access international markets.

At present there are no specific fiscal benefits to encourage the creative industries, although there is a
decree that grants fiscal and customs incentives for investors in the tourism sector. As presented at the
Creative Economy Report, sources of finance for businesses in the creative industries may arise from
public sector funding programmes of various sorts, private sector investment and PPPs involving joint
contributions and responsibilities.67

As mentioned above (3.2) a sponsorship law (Lei do Mecenato) exists in Mozambique, however it
does not respond to the current needs of the cultural and creative sectors, nor does it contribute to
nurture the sector. The government apparently gives a “tax rebate” or tax exemption if a company
sponsors a cultural event. However, there is a lack of transparency of how the process of sponsorship
actually functions, or if it is currently controlled in such a manner that it contributes to the growth of
the local creative sectors. Companies such as MCEL, Vodacom and beer breweries do currently
sponsor cultural events.

Action: The government could impose some conditions on the sponsorship process in order to
enhance the creative sector. For example, in Germany a 20 per cent tax rebate in the film sector is
available; however, the rebate depends on fulfilling specific conditions. For example, the primary
conditions are that a certain amount of the overall spending must be in the country, a German cinema
distribution deal must be confirmed with a minimum number of copies, a number of local technicians
must be used, a certain amount of the filming must take place in the country, etc. By linking the rebate

For further reference, see UNCTAD/UNDP (2008): 177, 178.


to specific conditions the local sectors can benefit. South Africa also has a substantial tax rebate
scheme that could be used as a reference for Mozambique to develop its own.

Action: Another variation to this sponsorship law might be that part of the tax exemption could go
into a public fund and not just “back” to the investor.68
Information available from local musicians indicates that, at present, there is 40 per cent tax on DVD
imports, comprised of 25 per cent import duty plus value added tax (VAT). Musical instruments are
normally taxed at 80 per cent plus VAT because they are considered a luxury item. Technical
equipment is taxed at 40 per cent plus VAT.69

It is possible, under special circumstances, to obtain a reduction of import duties/taxes on musical
instruments.70 However, the process is apparently lengthy and not sufficiently transparent.

Action: Reducing import taxes on the import of materials and services used in the creative sectors
should be envisaged.

Action: The government is encouraged to enact legislation to provide fiscal incentives to artists,
cultural producers and the corporate sector involved in the creative sector.

Action: The government is encouraged to provide tax exemptions and reductions on duties and levies
on the import of equipment used in creative enterprise.

Action: The government is encouraged to provide tax exemptions of the import of books, for at least a
specified period of time.

Action: The government is encouraged to revise the tax rebates for the corporate sponsorship of the
arts and culture with a view of greater and sustainable benefits to the local creative sectors.


Mozambique has been attracting higher inflows of FDI but mainly for its mining mega projects. The
Investment Code continues to provide protection for investors, and the Investment Promotion Centre
remains responsible for dealing with all investment procedures and for promoting Mozambique as a
destination. A consolidated Code of Fiscal Benefits is operational, and both national and foreign direct
investors can access to it if registered. At present, Mozambique has minimum investment thresholds of
$5,000 for national investment and $50,000 for foreign investment.71 The Foreign direct investment;
net inflows (% of GDP) in Mozambique was reported at 5.96 in 2008, according to the World Bank.

Efforts have been made to improve the investment climate but investors both foreign and domestic still
face bureaucratic and infrastructural constraints. It should be pointed out however that a new
Commercial Code governing the establishment of companies has improved legal procedures. For
instance, the registration process for new companies has been modernized and a simplified licence
procedure is now in place.

A comprehensive model of investment is necessary for the sustainability of the creative industries.
There is a simultaneous call by professionals for both government and investors in the creative
industries to establish some funding mechanisms, as well as for the provision and encouragement of
private sector investment and opportunities. Funding mechanisms that combine public and private
sources, for example through industry transfers, are discussed below.

Suggestion made by local film professionals.

Pauta Aduaneira (customs and duty tax scheme established by the government).

President of the AMMO, Maputo, 3 September 2008.

Centro de Promoção de Investimentos – CPI, online information.


Public-private schemes can be especially useful to harness the creative industries. Measures to
facilitate such a process can include public guarantees that can be combined with a lending credit line
from a local bank. In addition, entrepreneurs can be made more “bankable” by lowering operation
costs by streamlining the credit/risk assessment procedure.

Public-private sector dialogue is maintained primarily through the Confederation of Economic
Associations, which has been active in improving the business and investment environment. The
creative industries, particularly the audio-visual, film and video industry also deserve special attention.
In this regard, UNCTAD proposes the “creative nexus” as a long-term strategy to stimulate private
investment to attract new technologies, promote entrepreneurship and set the basis for an export-led
strategy for the creative industries. In this scheme, effective public policies would induce a virtual
circle as shown in figure 8 below.

Figure 8. The Creative Nexus CITET Model

According to a survey carried out by the government in 2004, more than 28,474 SMEs were registered
in the country, with 129,225 employees, SMEs make up 89.5 per cent of the total number of
enterprises in the country.72 About 2,621 were medium enterprises, while 25,853 were small
enterprises. In the SME sector, commerce is the dominant activity accounting for 57 per cent of the
total number of SME sector as a whole, followed by the hotel industry with 20 per cent.73

There is evidence that a SME development strategy is already in place and it also incorporates a
microenterprise development plan. However, these are still considered as having very little or no
impact on the economy. The government is in the process of creating an Institute for SME
Development, which needs to be approved by the Cabinet. This institute is designed to provide
services and facilitate the establishment of small enterprises, by speeding up the process, facilitating
licenses, avoiding redundancies, etc. This initiative could certainly be a catalytic force and an effective
way to attract the informal creative sector into the existing formal structures.

Nonetheless, the MIC proposed that a specific strategy should be developed for the creative sectors
and that it should not necessarily be mixed with the other areas. Such a strategy could be defined
conjointly with the MEC and the Ministry of Tourism, for example.74 The MIC pointed out the

See Ministry of Industry and Trade (2007).

Data from the Censo de Empresas 2004, INE.

Direccao National de Industria, MIC, Maputo, 4 September 2008.


necessity to focus on implementation and encouraged the creation of an Inter-Ministerial Committee
but stressed that it would be important to include all the stakeholders involved and not just the
ministries, but that the question of leadership would have to be very clear in such a situation. There
was general agreement that it is necessary to build more awareness about the creative industries
concept and specific results-oriented initiatives. The MIC expressed its willingness to take the
initiative and move forward on these issues especially since they are involved in financing and their
role is to improve access to international markets and they are also responsible for IPR issues.

Action: Support clusters of SMEs, enabling interconnected creative industries and the cooperation of
services providers, the sharing of facilities and know-how, as well as seeking financing together and
providing collective guarantees.

Working together means that confidence can be increased between creative industries and financial
institutions and thus make it easier to obtain loans and reduce costs for materials and equipment. Such
experiences are relatively undeveloped in Africa and are concentrated in neighbouring countries such
as Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania.75

Action: Support non-financial institutions in the area of technology, skill development and marketing.

If creative SMEs are to become vibrant and contribute to the economy, they need to be provided with
adequate support that enhances their capacities, for example in the preparation of sound commercial
business plans to be submitted for microfinancing facilities in commercial banks. Many projects are
rejected because of poor business plans despite the commercial viability of the project.
Action: A key component of this project is the capacity-building and training activities to be provided
by ILO, to assist artists and creators to establish their creative business in a sustainable way and
improve their entrepreneurial skills.

The encouragement of SMEs is crucial to the development of the creative industries in developing
countries. Many creative enterprises are microsized, and in many cases a sole independent artist or
creator covers all the various stages of the supply chain, from creation to the market.76

Figure 9. Creative industry value chain

Source: UNCTAD/UNDP (2008).

In all the steps of the value chain, from the creative process to retail and consumption, secondary
economic fallouts are expected with the creation of employment. For example, creative industries
generate work opportunities for logistic and transport companies, when selling the creative products,
as well bringing economic spillovers to other sectors, for example, by sourcing cotton fabric for the
production of some art crafts, fashion, etc.

Financing SMEs in Africa, OECD Development Centre, Issue No. 7, 2005.

UNCTAD/UNDP (2008): 69, 183.



Alphadi, the Fashion Caravan

Seidnally Sidhamed, alias Alphadi, was born on 1 June 1957 to trader parents in Timbuktu, Mali.
One of nine children, in Niger he grew up in the company of his siblings and liked to put makeup
on his sisters and mother. He also studied the makeup of actresses in Hindu films. At a young age,
this designer-to-be was already intrigued by everything that could enhance and better showcase
feminine beauty. In Niger, however, fashion was taboo for boys.

While his father had envisaged that Alphadi would pursue a medical career or work in the family
business, following graduation from high school, Alphadi went to Paris to study tourism. In this
centre of fashion, he was able to attend fashion shows and he also took night courses at the
Chardon Savard atelier. Once he had completed his studies, he accepted a director's position at the
Ministry of Tourism in Niger, but he still had a passion for fashion. While working at the Ministry,
he continued to perfect his fashion skills by receiving in Niger professors from Chardon Savard.

In 1985, two years after having decided to devote his life to fashion, he presented the haute couture
fashion line that he had created at his first fashion show, which was held in the City of Light during
the International Tourism Trade Show. From that time on, Alphadi has had many successes,
including the Best African Designer Award from the Fédération Française de la couture et du prêt-
à-porter in 1987. His fashions shows are familiar worldwide - in Abidjan, Brussels, New York,
Niamey, Paris, Quebec, Tokyo and Washington. In 1999, he expanded his label by creating a line
of sportswear called Alphadi Bis. With Wrangler, he also created Alphadi Jeans, and 2000 saw the
launch of l'Air d'Alphadi, the first perfume by an African couturier.

After twenty years of a career in fashion, with fashion shows organized all over the world,
boutiques in Africa, Europe and the United States and, most importantly, an internationally
respected brand, Alphadi is one of the most well-known African designers from the continent.
Warm, very affable and experienced, this artist is ever ready to talk about his field. Inspired by the
rich traditions and colours of Africa, Alphadi "firmly believes that fashion and culture are the
industries that can lift Africa to the ranks of prosperous nations".

Alphadi, Paris


Africa has a very weak presence in global markets for creative goods and services mainly due to its
very limited supply capacity. The same applies for the totality of ACP countries, which includes 78
countries in the African, the Caribbean and Pacific regions. Together, their exports of creative goods
amounted only to $1.5 billion in 200877. Undoubtedly, given the abundance of creative talents in the
region, the creative potential of these countries is extremely underutilized.

Mozambique has a weak presence in world markets, even if its exports of creative goods are
increasing. According to official figures, the value of exports of creative goods amounted to less than
$1 million in 2005 and reached $4.5 million in 200878. Imports, however, increased from $46.6 million
in 2005 to $51.3 million in 2008. Efforts should be made to redress this big trade deficit by enhancing
creative capacities and improving the export performance of the most competitive creative sectors.

Chart 2. Mozambique creative goods exports by product groups, 2003-2008

Mozambique, creative goods, exports by product groups, 2003 and 2008

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Art Crafts

Audio Visuals


New Media

Performing Arts


Visual Arts

(in millions of US)


Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy

Furthermore, at present the cultural and creative industries are not on the priority list of the MIC.79 The
MIC pointed out that even though the creative industries are not listed as priorities in Mozambique’s
industrial policy that does not mean that they are not important for the government.80 Indeed, the MIC
noted a situation pertaining to Makonde art, which is being made in Mozambique but being exported
internationally by a neighbouring country. The government is aware of this situation and wants to
address it. The MIC indicated that they are trying to introduce the notion of clusters in the country,
having one village or region specializing in a particular creative product or activity.

Action: The MIC pointed out that incorporating the creative industries into their national policies and
strategies is only a matter of reviewing the country National Plan.

Issues related to multilateral trade negotiations and market access for cultural and creative goods and
services are very complex. They involve several agreements such as GATS (General Agreement on
Trade in Services), TRIPS, TRIMS (Trade-related Investment Measures), competition policies, trade
efficiency and most importantly, special and differential treatment for developing countries. For

The data provided by national governments to the database of the United Nations seem to present some

inconsistencies, mainly in the publishing sector. In the context of this project, efforts will be made to improve the
quality and coverage of the data on creative industries.
78Creative Economy Report 2010: a feasible development option. UNCTAD/UNDP-

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism (1999) and Boletim da República, I Série,
Número 26, 7 de Julho de 1998.

Direccao Nacional de Industria, MIC, Maputo, 4 September 2008.


instance, the temporary access for artists from developing countries to supply services in major
markets, the so-called Mode 4 at World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, or in other words,
the mobility of artists to provide creative services in global markets is a key issue for the expansion of
trade in creative services.

In terms of market access, Mozambique, like other LDCs, has duty-free, quota-free access into the
European Union under the “Everything but Arms” (EBA) Initiative for LDCs introduced in 2001. It
should be noted however that EBA (GSP plus) is a unilateral preferential scheme for LDCs granting
market entry under very stringent rules of origin. More generally, according to the WTO review of
developed country unilateral preferential schemes in favour of LDCs, on average (weighted), LDCs
benefit from preferential duty-free treatment on nearly 84 per cent of the dutiable most favoured
nation (MFN) tariff lines. The coverage is 100 per cent or close to it for non-agricultural commodities
(raw materials and minerals, including fuels). Over 88 per cent of manufactured products benefit
potentially from the preferential duty-free treatment.

Creative services are granted market access in all modes of supply along the line of the existing GATS
commitments and limitations of WTO members.

The Economic Partnership Agreement under negotiation between the European Union and Southern
African Development Community (SADC) countries may represent new real opportunities for
achieving market access of creative goods and services on a permanent basis.

Like many other LDCs, the main problem of Mozambique is its limited supply capacity. At this
juncture, the key issue is developing productive creative capacities rather than market access. In a very
simplistic way, the country first has to produce before looking into trade opportunities and a bigger
presence in world markets. Lack of infrastructure, high costs of transportation and macroeconomic
instability such as the weakness of exchange rates are some of the main impediments hampering the
production and exports of Mozambique creative goods.

Chart 3. Mozambique main destination of creative goods exports, 2008

Mozambique main destinations of creative goods exports, 2008

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5





United States of America




South Africa


(in millions of US$)


Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy


In recent years, UNCTAD trade analysis has provided evidence of new market opportunities in the
South. The region's emerging trading and economic dynamism has created a new set of relationships
among North and South economies, Between 2002 and 2008, thee South's exports of all goods to the
world rose from $1.4 trillion dollars to $6.1 trillion dollars. South export to the South, increased from


$828 billion to $3 trillion during this period. Exports from South to South have increased faster than
exports from South to North, revealing further opportunities for developing countries to engage in
trading relationships with one another.

South-South trade of creative goods reached nearly $60 billion in 2008, tripling in six years. This
represents an astonishing rate of 20 per cent annually; while South export to the North has been
growing at an impressive, but relatively slower, annual rate of 10.5 per cent. For developing countries,
art crafts are the most important creative goods, accounting for 65 per cent of these countries' share in
the world market for creative industries.

Mozambique could benefit from the trade links it has with partners in the South such as Asia-Pacific,
Latin America and the Caribbean and within Africa. It should also take advantage of the numerous
cooperation agreements established while strengthening the creative sectors by tailoring policies to
enhance their creative industries and the competitiveness of their products in regional and international

Chart 4 South-South Trade of all creative goods, 2003-2008

South-South Trade all Creative Goods









2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


All Creatives Goods

Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy


Mozambique’s foreign policy is largely focused on South Africa, the SADC, the African Union, the
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Western donors and Portugal. The government
has entered regional, multilateral, bilateral and preferential trade agreements.

The country is involved in the development of the cultural and creative industries at a regional level
through the SADC and the Nairobi Plan of Action for Cultural Industries in Africa (December 2005)
and NEPAD priorities.

The Mozambican Strategic Plan for Culture (PEEC) was written in compliance with the Charter for
the Cultural Renaissance of Africa of the African Union.81 The PEEC was also written in coherence
with the Nairobi Plan of Action for Cultural Industries in Africa, in particular, the objectives to
strengthen the economic contribution of creative sectors to the country’s development.82 Mozambique
has also taken into account the SADC protocol on culture in the development of the creative
industries. The NEPAD culture priorities are also incorporated into the PEEC. However, its focus with
respect to the creative sectors is on indigenous knowledge.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC: 10.

Republic of Mozambique, MEC: 11.


In December 1999, the Mozambican Council of Ministers approved the SADC Trade Protocol.

Chart 5: Top 10 Exporters of creative goods from SADC countries, 2008

Top 10 exporters from SADC countries, 2008

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450








United Republic of Tanzania


South Africa

(in millions of US$)

Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy

The protocol creates a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region.
Implementation of the protocol began in 2002 and the free trade area of SADC has been in force since
1 January 2008, so that in principle the vast majority of goods produced in other SADC countries can
enter Mozambique free of customs duties.83 However, Mozambique’s country-specific zero-tariff goal
is currently 2015.

The language barrier for Mozambique within the SADC region creates some impediments to the
common development of the creative sectors; however, the effective use of the free trade protocol is a
priority. Strengthening ties within the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is important for
Mozambique in terms of the export of potential creative products that are language-linked like
literature, films, videos and television programmes.

Mozambique has also been a member of the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization since
May 2000.

Action: With respect to existing bilateral trade agreements, Mozambique could give more attention to
including the creative sectors within the scope of the agreements. Relevant ministries could identify
specific areas and the possibility of including the creative industries in agreements could be explored.84
This is a concrete example of an area in which concerted inter-ministerial action is invaluable.

Mozambique joined the WTO on 26 August 1995 and is a signatory of the TRIPS Agreement. The
country is a signatory of the following preferential trade agreements: the Trade Protocol of SADC (see
above under the regional context), the Cotonou Agreement, the EBA, the African Growth and
Opportunity Act (AGOA) and the European Business Assistance Scheme (EBAS).

Political relations between Mozambique and the European Union (EU) are established on both
bilateral and regional levels. The legal framework for EU cooperation was based on the Cotonou
Agreement signed in June 2000 between the EU and the 78 ACP countries, which expired in 2007. At
present, negotiations are under way for the conclusion of an Economic Partnership Agreement

AfDB/OECD (2008): 467.

Directorate of International Relations, MIC, Maputo, 9 September 2008.


between SADC and the EU. Mozambique has preferential trade agreements allowing duty-free access
to the EU markets, as mentioned above.

Mozambique also has a preferential trade agreement through the United States AGOA, which gives
preferential access to United States markets for several products including textiles and clothing. The
AGOA includes special treatment for some cultural goods going to the United States, exempting them
from import taxes under certain conditions. It is not reciprocal.85

Mozambique is part of the EBAS, a grant fund that operates on a cost-sharing basis to encourage
businesses’ and intermediary organizations’ (trade associations, chambers of commerce, etc.) finance
expansion projects. The objective of EBAS is to reinforce the competitiveness of ACP enterprises. To
achieve this, EBAS strives to promote the market for business consulting services by encouraging
private enterprises and business associations to procure the services of outside professional consultants
or service providers to improve their business performance. It provides up to 50 per cent of the costs of
services facilitating an increase in competitiveness.

(i) International agreements in the area of culture: Mozambique has ratified the UNESCO Convention
on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972).

It has begun the ratification process for the Means of Prohibiting the Illicit Import, Export, and
Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970), the Convention for the Safeguarding of the
Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) and the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the
Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005).

The ratification of these conventions is important for the development of creative industries in the

(ii) Memberships in international organizations: In 1996, Mozambique became a founding member
and the first President of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries and maintains close ties
with all lusophone states.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of
the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations.

In 1994, the government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part
to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country’s sizeable Muslim

Mozambique has observer status with the Commonwealth States and in the Organization
Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).

(iii) Membership in WIPO treaties: WIPO Convention since December 1996; Paris Convention
(Industrial Property) since July 1998; PCT (patents) since May 2000; Madrid Agreement (International
Registration of Marks) since October 1998); Madrid Protocol (International Registration of Marks)
since October 1998; Nice Agreement (International Classification of Goods and Services) since
January 2002.

According to the PEEC, Mozambique is planning on ratifying the Universal Copyright Convention


In terms of export promotion the government created the Institute for the Promotion of Exports
(IPEX), which functions under the auspice of the MIC. IPEX is currently working on a national export
strategy for the EU and is currently involved in a capacity-building programme “to train IPEX staff in

National Directorate of Trade, MIC, Maputo, 9 September 2008.


identifying products in Mozambique that could be improved upon in terms of production, quality and
market access issues to meet the market requirements of the European Union”.86

The IPEX organization has included Mozambican handicrafts in a priority list: handicrafts that can be
classified as home accessories (decorative items and household utensils made from wood) have been
identified for their export potential. Part of the project includes the process of identifying partners in
Europe and China. They are working together with the ITC on this project and the capacity-building
programme for IPEX staff. There is another EU-funded project involving the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO) and being implemented by IPEX, the customs authority and
INOC (quality standards), which is designed to focus on trade facilitators, for example, implementing
the idea of clusters. The focus sectors are currently in the process of being defined. IPEX is also
currently working with UNCTAD on the Global Gap project.

Chart 6. Mozambique imports of creative goods, 2003-2008

Mozambique Imports creative goods, 2003-2008








2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008




f U



Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy


One concern pointed out by those involved in the creative sector is the slow clearance of goods through
ports and customs offices. Inspection and paperwork for exports seemingly complicate shipping
deadlines. Delays in VAT and other refunds owed to the private sector is a recurrent problem.

Action: As encouraged by the MIC, it is important to develop a specific strategy for the creative sectors
that could be defined jointly with the MEC and the Ministry of Tourism with a focus on implementation.
Action: Encourage the expansion of the inter-ministerial committee that would also include all
relevant related institutions in addition to the ministries.

Action: Take up the MIC suggestion that it could play a central role, given their involvement in
financing of industry and in improving access to international markets.

Action: Trade-related capacity-building developed for government officials in the second stage could
include the promotion of creative sectors into bilateral agreements.

Mozambique Institute of Export Promotion. Pilot Projects: CBI Recommendation List and Rationale. BSOD

IPEX Mozambique – EMM module. September 2008. Discussion with the Managing Director of IPEX. Maputo,
9 September 2008.


Action: Encourage the development of a strategy for export development in which the creative sectors
should be taken into account.


Services are of critical importance of most economies in the SADC region87. They provide the bulk of
employment and income and are major contributors to GDP and trade. In 2006, the services sector
contributed on average 50 per cent to the region's GDP. Services exceeded 40 per cent of GDP in
Mozambique. The construction sector accounts for 6.4 per cent of GDP (2006). The SADC region is a
net importer of electricity. South Africa and Mozambique were the leading exporter and importer
countries, together accounting for approximately 45 per cent and 39 per cent of total electricity trade
in SADC respectively.88

Communication services are among the key services in Mozambique. However, teledensity remains
very low at less than one fixed line per 100 persons and the subsector is marked by insufficient
competition and high operating costs and charges. Most of the region's main (fixed) telephone lines
are concentrated in just four of its 14 countries: Botswana, Namibia and South Africa account for
approximately 80 per cent of all fixed lines in SADC. Radio and television services are State-owned in
all SADC countries and access is now by digital satellite which allows for more universal coverage89.

The construction industry, which includes architecture, an important creative sector, continues to grow
in Mozambique due to the rehabilitation and expansion of the road and rail network90.

The energy sector has been identified as a priority sector for investments in the national strategy for
poverty alleviation. Less than 3 per cent of the population enjoys access to electricity. Energy is
paramount for the infrastructure development needed to implement technological advances in the area
of ICT tolls and digital services, an important component for enhancing the creative economy.

In the last decade, financial services have been contracting. The banking sector is highly concentrated
and comprised of eight commercial banks, all of which are majority foreign owned by Portugal and
South Africa. The microfinance industry, which extends lending to rural areas, has started to grow.
Similarly, access to capital is essential to stimulate the development of creative entrepreneurs which
are mainly SMEs who require seed money to start up their activities.

Due to its location bordering the Mozambique Channel, the country is a natural transport hub for
several of its neighbors (e.g. Malawi, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe).


Mozambique is endowed with natural resources including beaches, exceptional fauna, flora and
wildlife and a climate that provide it with enormous potential for tourism. The sector has attracted
major investment and already constitutes one of the country's main exports.

However, development in the tourism sector is constrained by a lack of capacity and inefficiency in
the supporting services sectors, such as telecommunications, finance and transport.91. Tourism

Mozambique is a member state of SADC.

UNCTAD (2010: Towards SADC services Liberalization: Balancing Multiple Imperatives. 3 SADC priorities

services sector, pag. 21.

The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the largest radio and television transmission company
in the region, comprising 18 radio stations targeting a combine audience of over 20 million.

This is done with donor funding from the World Bank and other organizations.

Towards SADC Services Liberation: Balancing Multiple Imperatives, Tourism Sector, pag.66. UNCTAD,


contributed 3.4 per cent to the GDP of the region and was directly responsible for 1.75 million jobs in
Mozambique has a wealth of natural tourism assets including 2,700 km of tropical coastline, wide
sandy bays, coral reefs and 15 per cent of its land declared “protected area”. Over the centuries, the
Portuguese, Arabic and African influences have fused together to create a uniquely Mozambican
culture, reflected in architecture, cuisine, language, art and music. Today, Mozambique still represents
a relatively untouched country.93 Nevertheless, in 2007 the tourism sector attracted almost $1 billion in
FDI, mainly for the construction of luxury hotels. The country has three tourism zones: the south, the
centre and the north, which offer a range of destinations for discovery tourism and eco-tourism.
Progressively, efforts are being made to protect natural parks and reserves.

Within the strategy of the Plano Estratégico de Educação e Cultura, tourism appears to be a key sector
for economic development for the preservation of the natural and cultural heritage of Mozambique.
The planning for cultural tourism development should be articulated among the main actors in this
market, the government, the local community and the private sector. It is also important to highlight
the connection between tourism and the creative industries as an important source of employment and
a vibrant asset for the attraction of tourism and investment in local communities. The production of
creative goods and services such as cultural performances, films, music, books and art crafts should be
seen as an integral part of the economic and social life as well as of the cultural identity of the country.

Action: Measures should be put in place to provide information and sensitization programmes to
enable tourists and creative artists to be in more direct contact. For instance, this can be done through
the organization of tourist groups visiting specific art crafts communities, where a real exchange of
traditional knowledge takes place and the uniqueness of handmade techniques is displayed, traditional
dances are performed, stories of cultural heritage can be shared, etc.

SMEs and microenterprises account for a significant share of tourism development in most developing
countries, particularly in LDCs. The role of the creative industries should be recognized within the
tourism infrastructure of the country (art crafts, festivals, celebrations, cultural sites, paintings,
sculpture, live music, theater, dance, etc.). Accompanying national policies to sensitize creative
industries about the potential linkages with the tourism sector are also desirable.

Action: Create greater synergies between the creative industries with the tourism sector.

Figure 10: Art crafts from Mozambique

Mfune F (2008). Tourism Development in Southern Africa. The Official SADC Trade, Industry and

Investment Review 2007/08, SADC.

Mozambique Tourism Anchor Investment Programme.

Photo by Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg



The audiovisual sector is or particular interest to developing countries because it generates jobs and it
also is a vehicle of expression of cultural identities. Therefore, countries feel compelled to protect the
audiovisual sector and are reluctant to conduct negotiations or take on specific liberalization
commitments within the framework of the WTO. This trend is reflected at the regional level within
SADC, as audiovisual services have not been addressed in the SADC Protocol on Transport,
Communications and Meteorology.

Even where commitments are made, it is mostly in motion picture projection services and motion
picture and videotape production and distribution services. The analysis of the audio-visual sector is
further elaborated in chapter 4.

The interface between technology, culture and economics is the essence of the creative economy.
Information and communication technology (ICT) plays a key role for strengthening the creative
industries, due to two phenomena: digitization and convergence. ICT is important as a creative product
itself, expressed by the digitalized form of creative content in products like new media, software, video
games and cartoons, or as an enabler of connectivity used as a tool for marketing and distribution of
other creative products such as music, films, books and news, or creative services such as advertising
and architecture.94 Therefore, digital technologies have opened up huge opportunities to boost the
potential of the creative industries in developing countries.

Internet connectivity in Mozambique is relatively low but growing quickly. According to UNCTAD’s
Information Economy Report 2007–2008, the number of internet users in Mozambique increased from
50,000 in 2002 to 178,000 in 2005; this means that it has more than tripled in three years. The number
of mobile subscribers had also a vertiginous jump from around 255,000 in 2002 to 2.3 million in 2006.
Prospects are that by 2011 Mozambique will be “wired” that is, fully covered through a digital

A number of initiatives are under implementation to put in place an infrastructure enabling the use of
ICT tools and promote their use.95 Among these initiatives, the Ministry of Science and Technology
(MST) has set up community multimedia centres in various parts of the country, which could be
likened in some cases to a “hole in the wall” that enables easy internet access in rural areas.96 This
project started in 2004 and is now active in 20 districts throughout the country.
The MST is clearly active in a number of areas that are relevant for the development of the creative
industries and with a few linkages with their existing activities, not only in terms of ICTs but also in
the area of innovation and research at the grass-roots level. In addition, the MST is also involved in the
organization of the new School for the Arts, which the MEC is leading.

The MST noted that, along with the MEC and the MIC, they are part of inter-ministerial working
group on IPRs and its potential for generating revenue. The strategy they are working on also includes
the culture sector. The MST clearly sees the synergies between their work and the development of the
creative industries.97

Action: Encourage the MST to expand their inter-ministerial cooperation to also cover the
development of the creative industries. It would be advisable to expand this existing inter-ministerial
mechanism with a broader mandate to deal with all cross-cutting issues related to the creative

Reference is made to chapter 7 of UNCTAD/UNDP (2008).

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Science and Technology (2006)

Ministry of Science and Technology, Maputo, 5 September 2008.

Ministry of Science and Technology, Maputo, 5 September 2008.


The use of mobile phones in Africa is expanding at an extraordinary growth rate according to a recent
special report on telecommunications in Africa.98 There are more mobile phones being used than there
are fixed lines. Just as internet use is increasingly being combined with telephony in developed
countries, it is seems reasonable to assume that Internet access through telephones may have an
important future in Africa.

Even though Internet access in Mozambique, at this point in time, may not be significant, it will
certainly continue to grow rapidly, as mentioned above. For the time being, radio remains the prime
source of information for the majority of the Mozambican population.
Action: With regard to medium-term strategies, it is clear that creative content for the Internet, which
is of interest to Mozambicans and Africans, should be a priority. Therefore digital content and design
have a potential market in the growing number of users. This is linked with the promotion and
development of creative content, which is at the basis of the film, audio-visual and new media areas of
the creative sectors.

It is important to align the policies already identified in the fields of science, technology and
innovation, particularly the strategic objectives that include the promotion of the use of ICT, as well as
the promotion of grass-roots innovation and the use of science- and technology-based approaches by
poor and disadvantaged communities,99 in the context of a overall strategy to foster the creative
economy in Mozambique.

The government itself has pointed out that the current situation in terms of arts education and training
for professionals working in the cultural sectors does not meet the current needs of the country.100

In terms of higher education, there is a School of Communication and Arts at the Eduardo Mondlane
University (UEM), which provides courses for music and theatre. The UEM also has a Faculty of
Architecture and Planning. There is some training for fine arts teachers in drawing at the UEM and
there is also a Pedagogic University of Mozambique.

At secondary education level there is the Escola Nacional de Artes Visuais, the Escola Nacional da
Musica and the Escola Nacional de Dansa. Photography is taught at the Centro de Formaçâo
Fotografica in Maputo.

While its vocation is not training, AMOCINE does one or two short workshops per year, on the film
and media sector, usually initiated by donor partners.

The Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Moçambique (ISCTEM), a private higher
education institution has just announced that, in partnership with the Universidade Nova de Lisboa,
they will launch a two-year Masters programme in Communication and Cultural Management.

The Instituto Superior de Artes e Cultura (ISAC), was inaugurated by the Minister of Culture in
September 2009 in Maputo. It is designed to provide higher level (graduate) education in the arts and
culture. On the one hand, its aim is to train high-level creators and on the other hand, to provide
training on cultural and arts management. The institute has started to offer both theoretical and
practical education in arts and design. In its initial phase it will cover a limited number of sectors,
namely the visual arts (painting and sculpture) and design (product design, fashion design and visual
communication). As the institute grows, it plans to expand the number of creative sectors on which it
will provide education.101 The ISAC set up curricula that are compatible with the Bologna

Ford (2008): 34.

As listed in the Mozambique Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy prepared by the Ministry of

Science and Technology and approved by the Council of Ministers in June 2006.

República de Moçambique, Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2008): 1, “Fundamentação”

MEC, Maputo, 3 September 2008.


Declaration102 with a view to facilitate the recognition of studies in Europe and in all the
Commonwealth countries.

Action: A specific project target is to contribute to the further development of the ISAC as soon as
possible. The ISAC already counts with ninety (90) students and in early 2010, it has put in place a
comprehensive curriculum, taking into account the multi-disciplinary nature of the creative economy,
and the interface between cultural, economical, technological and social aspects. Areas related to
cultural management and production, as well as specialized technical services for lightning, sound, co-
editing of films, etc., should not be neglected. Possibilities for the creation of incubators and creative
clusters could also be envisaged.

In June 2009, UNCTAD facilitated the initial contacts between the Director of ISAC and some
professors from the Oslo National Academy of the Arts and the Royal Academy of Arts of the United
Kingdom. The purpose was to explore opportunities for North–South partnerships and concrete
initiatives for education, research and training in the area of design and functional creations in
Mozambique.103 This partnership is taking shape to assist ISAC, as the first higher education art and
design school, to better formulate the curricula of its course and to network with other similar schools
in Africa and elsewhere for the sharing of research and best practices.

Discussions with stakeholders indicated that there are various needs in the domain of education and
training. They include:

(a) Arts education from the primary level to the university level;

(b) Capacity-building in terms of vocational training for artists who would like to improve
their skills for contractual and IPR arrangements;

(c) Capacity-building in terms of entrepreneurial skills and ITC tools for creative business;

(d) Continuous learning in specific creative sectors (e.g. new techniques for music-making);

(e) Capacity-building in terms of institution-building, policy formulation and implementation
for policymakers.

Action: Education and training at all these levels need to be addressed. In the context of this project
the ILO will provide capacity-building on entrepreneurial skills. UNESCO may provide some
assistance in terms of vocational training and continuous learning for creators, artists and associations.
On the basis of funds availability, UNCTAD intends to provide capacity-building in terms of
institution-building and the regulatory framework for enhancing public policies, as well as on trade
and investment-related issues for government officials.

It is imperative to invest in education and vocational training for the creative industries, including
through private sector mobilization and initiatives. Support is needed not only to facilitate the start-up
of creative enterprises but also to monitor quality control and develop a new attitude towards creative
work in which the artists and artisans can feel proud of their native cultures and care for equipment
and materials.

Action: Establish professional encounters and facilitate actions offering a variety of point of views but
always keeping in mind what can be achieved and can remain as added value to the country.
Encouraging a second language at secondary schools to facilitate trade and exchanges would also be

The purpose of the Bologna Process is to create the European higher education area by making academic

degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe.

UNCTAD organized a workshop in the context of the Europe-Africa Campus for Cultural Cooperation, held
in Maputo in June 2009.


Education and training on IPR issues is a must, particularly on issues related to copyrights and
trademarks. Artists and authors should know better what their rights are so that the value of the
creative works is not underpriced. This training and information should not be restricted to the artists
working in centres in the main cities, but should be spread throughout each province.

Action: A specific education package of 2–3 days free of charge could be target to creative workers
and implemented in each province. Ideally, it should cover: training and human development;
government supporting institutions; IPR basic information; basic trade techniques including market
access; some knowledge of environment; and cultural protection.

Developing countries are often endowed with rich biodiversity but they face the big challenge of
finding the right balance between the sustainable use and the conservation of their biodiversity. In
recent years, a positive trend towards ethical consumerism and eco-ethical fashion is emerging. The
fashion industry can play an increasingly important role in preserving natural heritage, encouraging
sustainable consumption patterns and shaping a new consumer culture. The fashion industry provides
an opportunity for developing countries to shift up the economic ladder by using their creative talents
in harmony with the best use of the nature, including the use of natural fibers and environmentally-
friendly processes. Many businesses are embracing innovative approaches in dealing with global
supply chains, worker’s rights and environmental issues.

Action: Responsible business initiatives are needed by both SMEs and multinational companies. It is
important to use processes that consume less water and energy to avoid the abusive use of animal
species for the use of skins.

Action: Efforts should be made to promote the use of biodegradable, the use of organic products,
natural fibres and use of local material. The use of pesticides and insecticides should be avoided as
well as chemical processes that harm the fauna and flora.

Creative industry products are not only cultural ambassadors; every product represents a specific
attitude towards our planet and environment. Artists and cultural operators have a chance to play a role
by promoting products as a vehicle for social, cultural, and economic transformation. The main
challenge remains in bridging awareness between designers and product managers, producers and co-
producers, consumers and citizens.

Action: A positive dialogue is needed to engage business and consumers to come together to conserve
biodiversity. Throughout supply chains, partnerships among farmers, NGOs, and government are
needed at a global scale. The eco-fashion, interior design and natural cosmetics industries in particular
are booming sectors, providing jobs and export revenue from the sustainable use of biodiversity.
Figure 11: Sustainable fashion show during the National Conference on Culture, Maputo, 2009

Photo by Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg


The issue of the necessity of reliable statistics is ever-present in all reports and discussions about the
creative industries. It is redundant to say that effective and useful data collection is necessary and an
imperative for any type of assessment and policy formulation. The importance of data collection to
support the development of the creative industries cannot be overstated, as emphasized by UNCTAD
in the Creative Economy Reports of 2008 and 2010.104 In the case of Mozambique, the issue was
pointed out by the Chairman of the High-level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries, particularly as
regards the lack of data regarding jobs in the creative industries and its impact in the overall

The Instituto Nacional de Estatistica (National Statistics Institute) in Mozambique is actively
collecting information.106 It has a website on which data is posted and to some extent downloadable.
Most notably, it has recently posted statistics in the domain of culture. Only a limited amount of
information is available on the cinema, radio and television and museums. In the realm of cinema,
limited statistics are available on the numbers of cinemas, seats, screenings and tickets sold in six
provinces of Mozambique for the period 2004–2005. For radio and television, some statistics are
available on the number of hours of public broadcasting and number of hours and types of
programmes of public and private broadcasters for the period from 2003–2005. For museums, some
statistics are available on the number of visitors to museums, according to gender and nationality
(Mozambican or foreign).

The National Customs Authority also compiles statistics, although its accessibility seems problematic.
Based on official sources, UNCTAD has compiled statistics on trade in the creative sectors, as
presented in the annex of this study.107 However, some figures for 2005 seem discrepant and need to
be checked, as mentioned earlier. The importance of data collection to further enhance the creative
industries cannot be overstated, as is evident from the UNCTAD Creative Economy Report.108

Action: Priorities need to be established on what data is collected, that is both quantitative and
qualitative. At this stage, basic data that can be useful for policymaking and for an overview of the
landscape and market of the creative industries should be a priority.

Action: Efforts to collect and compile data should be consolidated among the different public
agencies. The MEC, the National Statistics Institute and also the MST, the MIC and the Customs
Authority should consolidate forces on this issue. As the central organizing entity, the National
Statistics Institute could include not only collection of statistics on culture but it could broaden its
scope to a section on the creative sectors, which would include creative goods and services.

UNCTAD and UNDP (2008). Creative Economy Report 2008. The challenge of assessing the creative

economy: towards informed policymaking. UNCTAD/DITC/2008/2. UNCTAD and UNDP (2010): the Creative
Economy Report 2010: a feasible development option". UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2010/3

As stated by the letter from H.E. the Ministry of Labour in Mozambique addressed to the United Nations
Resident Coordinator, dated 17 August 2009.


See Annex I.




As mentioned in the introduction, this project pinpointed three possible sectors for action: the,
performing arts, the audio-visual and new media and publishing sector. The extent to which these
previously identified sectors become the focus of the project activities obviously depends on the
results of research on the ground and the assessment within each country. They must be coherent with
the aim to provide the most optimal possibilities for enhancing the creative industries in the country in
the short- and long-term perspectives. This section will look at the local situation in three pre-
designated sectors and a number of additional sectors that are of relevance to the creative economy in
Mozambique. It will also make suggestions regarding the priority sectors, as well as those with greater
potential to generate employment and trade. From the trade perspective, the best performing sectors
according to UNCTAD, in Mozambique are the creative goods from visual arts, art crafts and fashion.

After independence the government was keen on promoting a revival of culture and became directly
involved in promoting music and dance.

In 1978, the Ministry of Culture and Education organized a national dance festival that led to the
establishment of a number of organizations. As mentioned above, a group of dancers, musicians,
actors and storytellers was established in 1976 under the patronage of the Ministry. This group turned
professional and in 1983 officially became Companhia Nacional de Canto e Dança (CNCD). The
CNCD is based in Maputo but recruits the best dancers, musicians and performers from around the
country. The company has 50 members in total. The CNCD has been and continues to be instrumental
in promoting Mozambican culture around the world. Nimbu Productions is a similar organization that
also stages productions, although it is not as famous internationally as the CNCD.

In terms of its human resources practices, an alarming aspect is the tendency towards more
precariousness in the contracts, status and social benefits of the members of the CNCD. A labour law
exists and applies to all employers in Mozambique,109 regardless of type of company and covers all
fields of activity in both the public and private sectors, so in practice performing artists should have
the same rights as other employers.

Concerning the infrastructure, the theatre in which the CNCD works and rehearses needs renovation.
The company is also currently going through restructuring and is trying to work on improving their
marketing promotion schemes.

Labour law of 20 July 1998.


There are similar song and dance groups all over the country. Each province has its own group based
on its local identity, traditions and languages. There are also many choral groups.110

These types of performing groups are very active in Mozambique as they are called upon to perform at
almost every public and social event. Within the internal market there is a clear demand for such
performances. Traditional dance performances already have a comparatively high level of support
within the country. Increasing the international visibility and performing at certain international fairs
and events throughout the world could serve an ambassadorial role for Mozambique, adding a new
dimension to the cultural image of the country and contributing to strengthening the creative economy
in general.

However, while this type of performing arts is extremely valuable in terms of maintaining vibrant
cultural traditions, it is less evident as a high potential growth sector for the development of
international trade and exports of creative services.

Action: It is recommended to review and reinforce legislation on performers’ rights to ensure that
social security and pension systems are inclusive and applicable also to artists, performers and all
different categories of creative workers.

A famous festival of choral groups was broadcasted on television on 15 May 2009.

Box 1. Companhia Nacional de Canto e Danca

The group originated with 20 young artists coming from different regions of the country that
dedicated their free time to dancing and poetry. This group gave birth to the National Company of
Dance and Songs. Today the group comprises 50 people including dancers, musicians, technicians,
assistants and leaders from the professional sector. Performances are attended by 300,000
spectators. The National Company performs mainly cultural Mozambican traditional, popular
dances. The search for existing cultural traditions within the country is another constant and
obligatory component of the work undertaken by the company. The mission of the CNCD is to
recover, preserve, value and disseminate culture, through its performances, in particular in the field
of dance, music, songs, theatre and related activities. This way, the CNCD contributes to the civic
education of the urban and rural population in key aspects of national and universal interest such as
public health, national reconciliation, democracy, tolerance, preservation of the environment and
others, crossing barriers of dance, music, ethnicity and language.

Source: Institutional Memory of the Companhia Nacional de Canto e Dança- www.cncd.org.mz


Creating the Instituto Nacional de Audiovisual e Cinema (INAC) was one of the government’s first
actions in 1975 when independence was achieved. Today the institute is in a seriously dilapidated
state. The former cinema theatre has no roof and the walls are falling apart. The institute used to
provide training but it no longer does so.

The Polytechnic University provides some film courses. There is no school of cinema, faculty of
cinema or media studies at the university level, yet there is a serious need to train people to make

AMOCINE has a small fund of 90,000 euros for film and audio-visual production, which is financed
through the French Embassy. This fund was established in 2004. They have had two editions and the
fund has supported one fiction film and three documentaries.

There are currently no public financing structures in place, no incentives for film making and no tax
exemptions of any sort.

The FUNDAC, which is part of the MEC, gives a prize once a year of $4,000.

Film work is exclusively done on video. Films are made for the national market but there are hardly
any possibilities for projecting these films. Many of the cinema theatres were sold and are now
churches. In Maputo, films can be seen at the Cultural Centre of the University of Eduardo Mondlane.
However, they do not have any projection equipment so screenings only happen when and if
equipment is brought in. The Xenon and Gil Vicente cinema theatres have 35 mm projection
possibilities. These theatres are owned by Lusomundo, a Portuguese distributor, and they show United
States films. The Charlot cinema theatre shows Indian films. The Scala (Mozambique-owned) shows
Indian and action films. The Avenida (Mozambique-owned) only has intermittent screenings. The
Franco-Mozambican Cultural Centre (CCFM) also projects films.
Mozambique also has a considerable archive of historical films that are of significant value for the
Southern African region. Films were produced in Mozambique that documented critical political
events such as independence movements in e.g. Angola, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania,
Zimbabwe and the Western Sahara. There are no reproduction possibilities in Mozambique and
professionals usually go to South Africa to do the work.

There are no cooperative projects in the film and audio-visual realm at the regional level. It is
primarily at the European level that any support and cooperation takes place. The Pan-African
Association of Film-makers (FEPACI) is not particularly active at the moment.

An important initiative in this sector has been undertaken by Pedro Pimenta, a professional film
producer and creative entrepreneur, to establish DOCKANEMA, a documentary film festival in
Maputo. The festival continues in Nampula in partnership with Universidade Lurio. In addition, the
festival does a travelling cinema programme with mobile film units on buses throughout the entire
country. (The mobility programme has been linked to HIV/AIDS projects in the country.)
DOCKANEMA is a young festival developed through private initiative and has no government
funding. In 2007 it had 14,000 spectators, including visitors from around the world.111

In June 2009, an important international event was the holding of the First Festival of Films and
Audiovisuals from the CPL Countries. This event was a good occasion to promote lusophone films
allowing for sharing of information and knowledge about the film industry. The event aimed at
promoting further cooperation for co-productions among the eight Portuguese-speaking countries.

Director of the DOCKANEMA Festival, Maputo, 1 September 2008.


The linkages between cinema and the audio-visual sector in Mozambique are extremely limited. TV
Mozambique, a public broadcaster that covers the entire country, recently started buying some
productions. However, they do outright buys, or in some cases the directors simply give the film to the
broadcaster in exchange for publicity.

Action: A priority need in this sector is the formulation of a cinema law and a broadcasting law.

Action: A funding mechanism for the film and audio-visual sector should be established. Such a fund
could largely be supplied from industry transfers within the film, audio-visual and media sector itself.
This could include contributions from broadcasters, i.e. a percentage of their overall advertising
earnings could be destined to a fund; a tax on DVD sales; a tax on blank DVDs; or a contribution from
Internet service providers or telephone companies who are or will soon be interested in providing
creative content though their services.

Action: The FEPACI could eventually be considered as a vehicle through which to create regional
structures and build cooperation within and across this sector.

The film, audio-visual and new media sector holds great potential within the creative economy in
Mozambique. This sector can be considered as a medium- and long-term target. On the one hand, there
are few training possibilities and facilities at the moment and it will take some time for things to move
forward. On the other hand, long-term possibilities exist in terms of the growing need for creative
content in all the media. There is potential for development in terms of both the national market and a
targeted international market. One main obstacle to consider is the language barrier; however, this is
not insurmountable given the rapid technological advances for translation. Given the outreach of the
Brazilian soap opera (tele-novela) industry in the country, it might be more advantageous to focus on
different aspects of creative content production. Attention should be paid to the documentary sector
where the country has a comparative advantage.

Action: Assist feasibility studies with respect to the establishment of a film and video training
institution, perhaps similar to the IMAGINE set-up in Burkina Faso by Gaston Kaboré.

Action: Assist in the identification of and contacts with international documentary distributors in the
Portuguese-speaking countries, in particular Brazil and Portugal with the aim to facilitate joint

Mozambique has attracted attention from international crews in search of the war-torn images offered
by Maputo’s battered, lush green streets. Hollywood productions such as Blood Diamond, Ali and The
Interpreter (respectively starring Leonardo di Caprio, Will Smith and Nicole Kidman) were shot in
Mozambique. “The problem is that in Mozambique, unfortunately, nobody is taking care of the film
industry,” said Joao Ribeiro, who is working on a new 1.3 million euro adaptation of a novel by local
author Mia Couto, backed by Portuguese investors.112

Action: Assist government actions to streamline working permits for international film crews and
reinforce contractual arrangements and the partnership position of Mozambique for co-productions
and joint ventures.

AFP (2009). Mozambique film-makers turn opportunity into art. 19 March.


Mozambique has a strong literary tradition with a population that tends to read. The INLD within the
MEC is actively working on implementing its national book policy.113

Approximately 180–200 titles are published each year in Mozambique, mostly for national
consumption. According to some sources, up until 2000 there were about 70 publishers in the country
and now there is a maximum of about 15 publishers. Other sources suggest that these figures are
somewhat inflated.

The Ministry organizes book fairs in all the provinces, however many publishers do not have the funds
to participate. The Ministry also promotes a publishers’ association to establish the ISDN system.
They also have training programmes on desktop publishing. It is foreseen to start producing paper in
the country in 2011. Educational books are subsidised by the government. The government has

República de Moçambique. Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2008).

Box 2. DOCKANEMA Festival

DOCKANEMA is a documentary film festival in Mozambique. Documentary film-making in
Mozambique reached a very high level in the past and it is essential to keep it alive, in the name of
collective memory and of individual cultural affirmation in the world at large. DOCKANEMA is
intended to be an opportunity for meetings, discussions and contacts and a reflection on the present
and the future. The festival shows dozens of films in various cinemas, and also takes them to other
cities in the country. This sample includes films that have won international prizes, some very
polemical, that have also been commercially successful. The documentaries come from every
continent and from a great variety of countries, which normally do not reach interested audiences,
most particularly film-makers in Mozambique. DOCKANEMA reaches a huge and growing
audience, with its showings in the townships around the Mozambican capital and in other cities in
the country. It wants to stir up a public that has become used to being passive when faced with the
commonplace and cultural sameness of television, offering alternative views of the world. Parallel
to the film shows, DOCKANEMA promotes formal and informal discussions around the situation
of the documentary in Mozambique, the resources available to film-makers and the role of the
various parties in this process (state television, backers and cooperation, writers, technicians, etc.).
For this reason, DOCKANEMA invites directors and others involved in the films in the programme
to interact with the Mozambican public.

Pedro Pimenta, Director of the Dockanema festival, 5th Edition, 2010 Maputo, Mozambique,


decided that a certain percentage of books should be published in Mozambique.114 Books are exempt
from taxes but all intermediary services to make books are taxed. Although sources diverge on this
point, there are currently no taxes on educational books when they are imported. There is a plan for tax
reductions on ink, paper and other materials necessary for publishing, but this fiscal policy has not yet
been implemented by the government. The government has liberalized the publishing of school books.

One major obstacle for the development of the publishing sector is language and the limitation of
Portuguese because there is no large market. Publishers indicated that they only go to fairs in Portugal
and Brazil; otherwise they have problems with language. There is also a need to cultivate a book
culture. It was also noted that local language publications are not exported to neighbouring countries,
although in theory they could be. Mozambican books are often more expensive than imported
Brazilian books. Finally, discussions with stakeholders also clearly indicated the need for capacity-
building, in particular in the area of graphic design.115

Given the information gathered, it seems that the potential of the publishing and book sector lies
primarily within the national markets. In this respect it can be considered for its contribution to
national employment. In spite of the comparatively strong literary culture in Mozambique, the
potential of this sector for export does not seem especially high. Even the possibility of electronic
publishing seems to lie more in the long-term given the relatively low rate of accessibility to computer
technology and Internet access.

Paradoxically, according to available trade data, the publishing sector leads the exports of creative
goods from Mozambique, as shown in chart 7 below.

Chart 7. Exports of creative goods from the publishing sector, 2003-2008

Mozambique exports creative goods from Publishing sector









2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy

In addition to the sectors noted above, there are other creative industries with economic potential that
deserve attention. Noteworthy are visual arts, fashion and the music industry. It should be pointed out
that music comes under the category of performing arts, which is one of the pre-designated project
sectors. However, as noted in the introduction, it has been excluded as a primary target sector for this
project because it is covered under the “One UN” MDG-F project, as is the crafts sector. Likewise, as
you will see many of the predetermined sectors in the project are not position as priority sectors
according to UNCTAD's trade data.

Education Division, MEC. Maputo, 4 September 2008.

Stakeholders’ meeting, Maputo, 2 September 2008.



The visual arts sector in Mozambique appears to have enormous potential to be enhanced. In terms of
painting and sculpture there are already internationally famous painters, sculptors and artists who
circulate internationally in world art venues.

Mozambique has incredible wealth in terms of natural wood resources, with excellent quality and rare
hard woods. As a consequence, the country has a very strong and vibrant wood sculpting and
woodworking culture. Artistic talents and this exceptional resource have been nicely combined to
create impressive creative works. This clearly can be pointed out as a sector that puts in evidence the
cultural identity of the country and has great prospects for a further recognition in global markets.
Mozambique has a comparative advantage in the area of original wood sculptures and the sector can
greatly contribute to fostering inclusive development in Mozambique.

The target market for consumption in this domain is largely a higher income, global, urban market,
primarily external but also upscale internal. The increased global visibility in this area will also have a
spillover effect on the art crafts sector.

Box 3. A tribute to Malangatana Valente Ngwenya

The most remarkable story in the field of visual arts in Mozambique is the “discovery” of
Malangatana Valente Ngwenya. He used to work as a servant in the colonial Lourenço Marques
Club. The chairman of the club at that time, Augusto Cabral, encouraged the young Malangatana
to resume his education and start his artistic works. A few years later, he became the spiritual
father of Mozambican painters after his successful solo exhibition in 1961. His work was also an
expression of emerging nationalism. When, in 1964, the Core Group of African Students (Núcleo
dos Estudantes Africanos) staged an exhibition of exclusively Mozambican artists’ works, the
secret police interfered. The successful exhibition displaying many of Malangatana’s works was
closed because the works had too much nationalism. Repression increased and Malangatana
disappeared in jail for a period of 18 months. In 1971 he studied engraving and ceramics. Since
1981, Malangatana has worked full-time as an artist. He has exhibited in Angola, Chile, India,
Nigeria, Portugal and Zimbabwe, and his work is in collections in Angola, Bulgaria, Cape Verde,
India, Mozambique, Pakistan, Portugal, Nigeria, Switzerland, the United States, Uruguay and
Zimbabwe. He has been commissioned for several public art works, including murals for
FRELIMO and UNESCO. Malangatana has also been active in establishing cultural institutions
including the National Museum of Art, the Centre for Cultural Studies, the Centre for the Arts and
a youth skills training centre in Maputo. He was also one of the founders of the Mozambican
Peace Movement. After independence in 1975 the name was changed into Centro Organizativo
dos Artistas Plásticos (COAP); eventually, the name Associação Núcleo de Arte was re-
established. Source: African Contemporary http://www.africancontemporary.com.

Source: Photo from soultrainc.blogspot.com


Action: A policy and implementation strategy could be developed in conjunction with the MIC
industrial policy, with the MEC and the Ministry of the Environment, given the urgent necessity to
protect and nurture the natural resource “wood”, which, although a renewable resource, should be
preserved and properly regulated in order to not disappear. One can imagine that given these existing
talents and traditions in terms of woodwork in the country, there is future in all creative work that links
design and wood, including furniture.

Action: Local initiatives such as the Nucleo de Arte, a cooperative of local artists and the associative
structuring of artists should be encouraged just as in the example of the musicians’ association.
Specific funding opportunities should be developed in this realm, through residencies for example.

Action: The mobility and exposure of talented artists to global markets should be encouraged.

Action: A communication campaign through commercial embassies should be launched to promote
and organize exhibitions of Makonde art, which is well known for the traditional sculpture and wood
carving produced by the Makonde people in the north. Using hard woods (primarily mahogany, ebony,
and ironwood), the Makonde create masks and sculptures known as “family trees”, which are large
depictions of various figures that tell stories of generations. The government is encouraged to display
on its official government websites illustrations of these quality creative products made in

Chart 8. Mozambique’s exports of creative goods from the visual arts sector
(in thousand of US$)

Mozambique exports from Visual Arts











2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


Visual Arts

Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy

4.4.2 DESIGN

In recent years, fashion has emerged as a promising creative sector in Mozambique. In 2005, a group
of entrepreneurial cultural promoters and creative designers organized a Fashion Week in
Mozambique. Since then it has become an annual event that is attracting growing interest not only on
the part of Mozambicans and tourists, but also from those involved in the fashion sector in
neighbouring countries. Every year the event is becoming more professionally prepared and is now a
key event in the official cultural calendar of Mozambique. At the closing of the Second National
Conference on Culture held in May 2009, a fashion show was among the cultural events promoted by
the Ministry of Education and Culture. The event presented a retrospective of the highlights of
previous shows and showcased the work of the fashion design winners since 2005.


Given the increasing focus at worldwide level for eco-ethnic fashion and given that Mozambique is an
important textile producer, the creative fashion sector seems to have good potential for the national
and international markets, and certainly deserves more strategic attention from the part of the
government and creative business entrepreneurs.

Action: An effort should be made to put in place conducive conditions to allow the sector to flourish.
Usually the fashion sector is very fragmented, composed of small and micro enterprises, therefore
requiring appropriate financing mechanisms; vocational training and capacity-building to develop
business skills; awareness of intellectual property issues like the creation of brands, labels and
certificates of origin; a target export promotion strategy; possibilities to establish associations with
other fashion designers for joint international campaigns; and participation in other international
fashion shows in both northern and southern countries.

In this regard, UNCTAD invited a talented fashion designer from Mozambique, Sandra Cardoso
Muendane, and an emerging creative artist specialized in fashion accessories made by natural fibres
and organic materials, Henriette Njami, to take part on its Eco-Chic Fashion Initiative in January 2010
at the Palais des Nations, United Nations in Geneva. This event was jointly organized by the
UNCTAD Creative Economy Programme and the UNCTAD Biotrade Initiative in partnership with the
non-governmental organization GreentoGreener. The aim was to build upon the celebrations under the
United Nations 2009 Year of National Fibres and the United Nations 2010 Year of Biodiversity, to
engage the business community on the conservation of biodiversity and the development of creative
industries. A seminar, a fashion show and a fashion exhibition spotlighted eco-ethnic fashion articles
during a two-day event, with the objective of encouraging governments and creators involved in the
fashion industry to promote the use of natural fibres and raise awareness to protect biodiversity.

Action: In terms of institutional mechanisms, an attempt should be made to set up an association of
professionals from the fashion industry. This may facilitate at a later stage the formation of a creative
cluster for fashion, allowing for cooperation, continuous learning, sharing costs for buying materials
and equipments, a coordinated export promotion strategy, etc.

Interior design, including furniture, appears, as the fastest growing sector within the design component.
See Chart 8. below.

Chart 9. Exports of creative goods from the design sector, by sub-categories, 2008
(in thousand of US$)

Mozambique exports of creative goods from Design, 2008

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450







(in thousands of US)


Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy



The art crafts sector in Mozambique is clearly flourishing and there seems to be good potential to be
enhanced. There is already a significant amount of external and internal support for the crafts sector in
the country. The local association CEDARTE is particularly present in this field. CEDARTE does not
provide funding, although in their strategic plan they would like to develop the link between producers
and microfinancing. The United States organization Aid to Artisans has been working for many years
with local crafts organizations, in particular with CEDARTE. The organization is trying to encourage
the sustainable management of resources, for example given the use of wood for many crafts and
cultural objects they are concerned with sustainability of forests. Their priorities are marketing, access
to markets, capacity-building on production and financing.

In the internal market, many tourists and upper income locals buy the crafts available locally. In terms
of export markets there seems to be a great potential based on previous experience and success at fairs
such as the New York Art Fair. According to stakeholders, there are about 50 associations in the
sector, but the internal market is too small to support all the production and some craft producers do
not deliver on time. Among the 50 associations there are only few exporters. Stakeholders noted the
possibilities to expand the export of art crafts to global markets.116

It was noted that there are many sculptors that have had to start working as craftsmen because they
were unable to make a living from their own sculptures. They started making copies for the market
because of financial necessity. If an artist makes one object a month, the duplication work earns the

Stakeholders’ meeting, Maputo, 2 September 2008.

Box 4. Mozambican Fashion Week 2009

The biggest winner of the Mozambique Fashion Week (MFW) 2008, fashion designer Taibo, was
the great representative of Mozambique in the annual fashion event of South Africa, the Audi
Joburg Fashion Week (AJFW) 2009, held from 21 to 24 January 2009 in the cosmopolitan city of
Johannesburg. The AJFW 2009, with the participation of designers from different African
countries including Egypt, Nigeria and Mozambique – represented by the MFW’s winner of the
category of Established Designer – has marked positively this event that has the participation of
some of the most prestigious designers such as Thule Sindhi and Fabiani. Taibo showed his class in
a parade marked by the glamour and innovation that is already registered as his trademark and
style, through the eyes of an excited audience composed of respected African designers and critics
uplifting the class and name of Mozambique.

Source: www.mfw.co.mz


person significantly more money. However, they clearly pointed out that this duplication work should
not be confused with creativity and that there was a serious need to support artists.117

Chart 10: Mozambique: exports of Art Crafts
(in thousand of US$)

Mozambique exports from Art Crafts









2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008






f U

Art Crafts

Source: UNCTAD global database on the creative economy

A positive initiative is the organization of the National Art Crafts Fair by CEDARTE. In 2009, the
third edition of the fair took place from 3–8 September in Maputo, bringing together more than 30
exhibitors showcasing more than 300 product lines of 100 per cent handmade quality items. According
to the organizers, the event was successful and recorded sales amounting to over 720,000 meticais.

Mozambique has a vast range of natural resources suitable for the craft production of handcrafts, along
with a large pool of talented artisans and strong cultural traditions throughout the country.118

Nairucu Arts is one active association established for the preservation and development of Makonde
Art. The Makonde Art is typical of the North of Mozambique and it consists mainly of wood carvings
made in ebony, sandal wood or light wood.

Stakeholders’ meeting, Maputo, 2 September 2008.

For further information, please visit www.cedarte.org.mz


Box 5: Nairucu Arts : promoting cooperation
between Europe and Mozambique

The Nairucu-Arts Art Craft Centre is located in Rapale,
Nampula and has been inaugurated by the Chief
Administrator of Rapale in 2009. Art and Craft objects of
high quality for national and international markets are
produced and sold to sustain the long term development
activities of the Centre. To optimize the work the persons
selected to work and specialized there are provided with a
meal and a modest fellowship for a period of 3 years,
renewable for a maximum of another 2 years to allow them
to exploit fully their creativity. The activities will be
sustained for the Centre to become self-sufficient. The aim
is to build cultural heritage, to bridge culture, creative
economy and education and to invest in talent and

Sculptures and paintings from the Nairucu-Arts Centre - A Better Future Through Art - were
exhibited to give a good overview of the current artistic production from the Centre, showing
Makonde Art from Northern Mozambique. This event was opened by His Excellency Armando
Emilio Guebuza, the President of the Republic of Mozambique. During a guided tour,
representatives of Nairucu-Arts presented: Posters illustrating Mozambique history, geography
and its natural attractions, the achievements realized by the country in the field of education and
economic development, the Makonde art, the Nairucu-Arts Centre and its artists. The works
included 22 Blackwood Sculptures, 2 Terracotta Sculptures and 7 Paintings.

The President of Cultural Activities Committee of the United Nation Office at Geneva
introduced the speeches given by the Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva
and the President of Mozambique. The exhibit was under the high patronage of Sergei
Ordzhonikidze, Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva and Frances Rodrigues,
Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Mozambique to the United Nations
Office and other International Organizations in Geneva and counted with the support of the
Creative Economy Programme of UNCTAD.

Fonte: Associação Nairuco Arts, http: www.nairuco-arts.org


4.4.4 MUSIC

The music scene in Mozambique is extremely vibrant and seems to have potential for market
development. For the time being, the sector is largely centred on live performances by the musicians as
opposed to recorded sales. The complications in terms of rights and benefits for the creators in this
sector are crucial to address issues related to the current situation.

There are a few local clubs in Maputo where local bands play live on a regular basis. There are also a
number of studios in Maputo. An example is Ekaya, a young dynamic company headed by Joao
Schwalbach,119 that employs five people. The company’s reputation for quality work is growing. Their
primary source of income is from television work and the company’s connections to the South African
industry seem fundamental to the enterprise.

Ekaya has two activities that could be of particular interest for this project. First, the company is
planning on doing a Mozambican version of the Cuban Buena Vista Social Club project with
Marrabenta, with a recording. Just as the Buena Vista project had an impact on Cuban music exports
in international markets, the Marrabenta project could work in the same direction for Mozambique.
Second, Ekaya is interested in starting an international music festival in Maputo. The intention is to
create a festival with roots music from Mozambique, bringing together musicians from the different
regions of the country, but also to programme international musicians in that genre, which could
increase the visibility of such an event. This is precisely the type of event that can create a powerful
stimulation for the growth of the sector in terms of artistic exchange, development and visibility.

Action: Local professionals such as this creative entrepreneur should be identified and invited for
capacity training in terms of business skills.

Possibilities to facilitate networking and partnerships with local and international companies could
help to materialize initiatives. In this context, UNCTAD invited the President of WOMEX (World
Music Expo) to address a workshop in Maputo on June 2009120 with the aim to facilitate a strategic
alliance for shaping the future international music festival of Maputo.

The local music industry is confronted by a number of obstacles. In terms of markets, it has to compete
with its overwhelming neighbour, South Africa and with other African countries such as the Congo
and Senegal, which are already established in both African and international markets. In addition, the
local industry also faces obstacles related to rights issues and piracy.

Action: As mentioned above, the music sector is covered in the “One UN” MDG-F project. The
Danish Government is also active in supporting the music sector. Nonetheless, this project could
provide some input in the sector in a targeted manner. This could entail providing some institution-
building support and focused capacity-building. In particular, AMMO could benefit from training in
two areas. First, strengthening the organization so that it can improve its ability to help musicians
protect and promote their own interests. For example, a website for the association could help
disseminate information about the musicians and their music. Second, the musicians themselves could
benefit from capacity-building. For example, since the musicians are often constrained to producing
themselves and to being their own agents, training linked to entrepreneurial skills for artists and on
rights issues seems rather crucial in this sector.121

Meeting with João Carlos Schwalbach, Ekaya Producões Maputo, 3 September 2008.

The workshop was an event in the context of the Euro-African Campus for Cultural Cooperation, organized

by the Observatory of Cultural Policies for Africa based in Maputo and the InterArts Foundation from Spain.

Meeting with members of the Association of Musicians, Maputo, 3 September 2008.



Recommendations for actions to be taken are indicated throughout the entire document and thus
integrated into the analysis. Instead of reiterating all these points, the conclusions are more general.
The first part of this section summarizes the results of the meetings with stakeholders and with
relevant government ministries. The second part emphasizes the sectors with high potential for growth
among the creative industries and finally some concluding remarks are made and a Plan of Action
proposed as a tool for the formulation of a comprehensive policy towards the enhancement of the
creative economy in a long-term perspective.

The results of the meetings with stakeholders and with relevant government ministries made it clear
that there is a strong consensus on the priority issues to be addressed.

The main results from stakeholder meetings were:

(a) The need for institution-building;

(b) The need for capacity-building;

(c) The need for financing mechanisms and legislation;

(d) A framework to support creative SMEs and to attract investors.

The main results of the government level meetings were:

(a) The need to reinforce policy procedures;

(b) The need to implement the policies through regulations and strategies;

(c) The need for inter-ministerial actions and better communication;

(d) The need for capacity-building in policy formulation.

There are two broad consensus issues that cut across both groups:

(a) Reinforcing institutions and regulatory framework;

(b) Capacity-building in general.

A differentiation can be made among sectors that have a high development potential nationally or in
terms of exports. Furthermore, a distinction can be made in terms of the targeted markets, for example,
mass/popular markets or different categories of tourist markets, such as international mass or
international upper income markets. An additional differentiation can be made in terms of short-,
medium- and long-term goals.

A number of sectors stand out as having high potential for development in the short term because they
are already in a comparatively strong position in Mozambique.


In the visual arts sector, reference has been made to the possibilities for strengthening the area of
sculpture, in particular woodworking, and the area of painting.


In terms of sculpture and woodworking two levels can be distinguished: (a) art crafts and home decor
(directed at a larger mass-oriented export market and a tourist market) and (b) sculpture (which is sold
largely to an elite clientele, tends to circulate abroad in international art circuits and also addresses part
of the tourist market).

This project should target enhancing upscale production linked to sculpture in general and in particular
woodworking, and in a long-term perspective, work toward bringing it closer together to design-
related wood production, as for example in wood furniture.

5.2.2 DESIGN

The design sector in Mozambique can take advantage of the skilful imagination of its people and the
richness of its natural resources, and take a stake in an ever increasing eco-friendly global market.
Thanks to the power of the media, consumers are becoming more conscious of the environmental and
social impact of their purchase. Eco-fashion, including jewellery and accessories, handicrafts and
interior design products can work in harmony with nature, and are feasible options for the country.

It is worth noting that the MIC has wood as one of its priority sectors, as well as textiles and
garments.122 This area could also be targeted for further development in the direction of creative eco-
ethical textiles and fashion. In a longer-term perspective the importance of the design sector should be


The film, audio-visual and new media sectors seem to have potential for development above all, in the
medium term. Taking into account the historic culture of cinema in the country, and in particular the
growing role of documentary work in Mozambique, there is a strong foundation to build upon.123 The
potential for audio-visual products, in both national and international markets, should be given
attention. Strengthening this domain can go hand in hand with nurturing new media and graphic
design. Placing emphasis on graphic design can have a double function for its utility in both the
electronic visual domain and the publishing area.


The performing arts sector seems to have the most potential in terms of the national market and as
such it should be considered for its contribution to employment creation and to keep alive the local
culture. This sector seems not very attractive to international markets. However, their participation in
Festivals should be encouraged.

5.2.5 MUSIC

In terms of the music sector, this project could intervene in a specific manner by contributing to the
reinforcement of the associative structure of the industry, notably AMMO, although attention must be
given to avoid duplicating other donor projects and to focus on the points mentioned earlier. A second
targeted intervention in this sector could be to support the development of an international
Mozambican roots music festival. Festivals can be crucial instruments to create awareness, interest,
supply and demand to creative goods and services around the music industry.

See, Industrial Policy and Strategy, Ministry of Industry and Trade, July 2007.

DOCKANEMA is currently setting up a networking/professionalization/marketing scheme for the documentary

sector, together with two partner countries. This could be a specified target project to provide training and
professional capacity-building.



The book publishing sector just as the performing arts sector may have not a high potential target for
increased exports. It seems to have most potential for responding to the growth of demand at the
national level and in other lusophone countries. A distinction should also be made between policies
oriented towards educational books and printed material, and those relating to literary production.

Three different aspects should be considered in this area.

First, a communication strategy to create and improve awareness of the creative industries within
Mozambique seems essential. A first step could be to present and discuss the findings and proposals
put forward in this project document with high-level government officials, to allow for a policy
dialogue that could take the form of a workshop. The event could be participatory and also involve the
representatives of all creative sectors and relevant institutions, including the media.

Second, enabling arts professionals to network abroad, attend fairs and build alliances is crucial for
opening up markets.

Third, the creation of festivals and large events can be extremely beneficial to the development of the
creative sectors. Creating an area of specialization in a particular sector attracts people and expertise,
and it fosters exchange and learning within that sector. Thus, projects like the documentary film
festival should be encouraged, as well as the planned roots music festival. Such initiatives are part of a
long-term strategy given that the benefits are often not immediately visible. Finally, events such as the
EU-ACP festival, the EU-ACP Cultural Colloquium held in Brussels in April 2009 and other similar
events not only in Europe but also in other developing countries could be used as an international
platform to increase visibility, interest and business opportunities for the creative industries, while
contributing to enhance North–South and South–South cooperation in the area of the creative sectors.

With the objective of working toward a comprehensive policy not only to strengthen the creative
industries, but also to put in place the basis for a solid and sustainable strategy for the creative
economy, the ACP/EC/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO project recommendations have been structured
around three components that span the two phases of the project:

(a) Reinforcing the institutional structures and policy framework;

(b) Capacity-building activities and technical assistance;

(c) A communications strategy and awareness building on the creative industries

In phase one of the project, UNCTAD activities were centred on research analysis and policy advice.
In phase two, UNCTAD plans to focus on institution-building and capacity-building for government
officials, including the skills to articulate cross-cutting actions that are crucial to putting in place
concerted multi-disciplinary policies to enhance the development dimensions of the creative economy.
This activity would include the areas covered under section 3 in this report, in particular the interface
between investments, digital technologies, enterprise and trade. ILO will focus on labour issues and
training activities on creative entrepreneurship and managerial business skill, while UNESCO will
provide technical assistance to targeted institutions to reinforce cultural associations and the regulatory
framework around the creative sector.

A priority action must be seen in the mobilization of the pertinent government ministries to agree and
implement a policy in favour of a long-term strategy for the creative economy as a whole. It is
important to optimize existing mechanisms to facilitate inter-ministerial regular consultations to ensure
that the different ministries are aware of policies and projects pertaining to the creative sectors within


their respective spheres and with the ability to propose and implement the necessary actions on their
respective domains.

There are already two inter-ministerial task forces in place: one on IPR strategies as noted by the
Ministry of Science and Technology, and another was set up in the context of the MDG-F project to
facilitate its implementation. The MDG-F task force includes a representative from the Ministry of
Agriculture, the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry of Labour,
the Ministry of Youth and Sport, the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of International
Trade and Cooperation and the Ministry of Health.

The establishment of an Inter-Ministerial Committee for the Creative Economy could be an extension
of the already in place IPR inter-ministerial task force with a broader scope and carefully determined
and above all maintaining a multi-sectoral cross-cutting agenda, involving all the ministries concerned.
This standing mechanism should remain in place after the implementation of the ongoing projects, and
should meet on a regular basis at least every three months to ensure implementation and monitoring of
the policy actions. Moreover, in its strategic plan the MEC has already laid the foundations for
addressing the creative industries. This rationale could be enlarged to create a common policy which
spans across the ministries.

The analysis and policy framework proposed by UNCTAD in this study and the process of its
validation, including the proposed plan of action for the joint implementation by ILO, UNCTAD and
UNESCO, by all relevant ministries has already paved the way for the setting-up of this institutional
inter-ministerial mechanism. This is a prerequisite and a key starting point for the long-term strategy
on the creative economy and the successful execution of this pilot project.
In a complementary manner, this report has pointed out various macro- and micro-level issues
proposing a series of possible policy interventions. Our intention was to propose feasible options to
assist the government to put in place appropriate public policies and concrete measures to reinforce the
creative sectors with greater competitive advantage in local and world markets. It is expected that this
combined approach will form the basis of a comprehensive policy to enhance the creative economy in
Mozambique on a sustainable and long-term basis.



In order to support the government to execute the required policies and to take the necessary steps to
strengthen its creative industries, the implementing agencies have jointly prepared a Plan of Action, as
presented in the table below. It lists a series of activities expected to be undertaken during the second
phase of implementation of this multi-agency project foreseen for the period 2010–2011.
Due to budgetary constraints, the number of planned activities is relatively limited but they are
targeted and expected to have a far-reaching positive impact for harnessing the creative economy in
Mozambique, particularly because other complementary measures are gradually being taken by other
ongoing international cooperation projects.
In phase I of the project, UNCTAD activities are centred on policy advice to the Government through
the elaboration of this country study and the elaboration of a plan of action. In phase II of the project,
UNCTAD activities will be focused on institution-building and capacity-building for government
officials, including on the cross-cutting issues and on trade and investment matters which are crucial
for strengthening the creative industries in the country. These activities will cover the topics addressed
under sections 3 and 4 of this report. Policy advice and technical assistance will also be provided to
relevant institutions and professional associations, with the aim of promoting concrete initiatives,
strategic alliances and partnerships. UNCTAD will promote targeted activities to improve the visibility
of the most competitive creative sectors and to facilitate North–South and South–South cooperation
and business opportunities between artists, creators and creative enterprises.

ILO will focus on vocational training and managerial and entrepreneurial skills. Policy advice will be
given on issues related to job creation and social security. ILO will also explore linkages with other
projects being carried out, particularly on issues related to women artists and better use of ICT tools.
UNESCO is expected to assist the Government in the reinforcement key artistic and professional
associations, as well as on matters related to cultural heritage and cultural diversity. UNESCO will
also facilitate networking among artists, the sharing of information, and the marketing of cultural
products domestically and in global markets.

In this context, upon the request of UNCTAD, the United Nations Resident Coordinator in
Mozambique convened a High-level Policy Dialogue held on 29 June 2009, in Maputo, on behalf of
ACP/EU/UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO. The meeting gathered government authorities, associations and
stakeholders from the creative sectors with the aim to present, discuss and validate this UNCTAD
study, Strengthening the Creative Industries in Mozambique, and the proposed Plan of Action.
Participants recognized that the study was in line with government priorities and therefore received
full support from the United Nations Coordination Office in Mozambique. The validation process of
the Plan of Action was under the responsibility of the UNESCO office in Maputo.

This report provides the analysis and the arguments in support of the proposed activities as presented
in the Plan of Action, which has been duly validated, both by the donors of this project, namely the
European Commission and the ACP secretariat, and by the beneficiaries, i.e. the Government and all
the stakeholders from the creative industries, in particular from Mozambique's artistic and creative
communities in October 2009. The validated Plan of Action is presented below.


Joint Programme for Strengthening the Creative Industries in Five ACP Countries through
Employment and Trade Expansion, financed by the European Union

Mozambique Action Plan – October 2009

ACTIVITY 2008 2009 2010 2011


Output 1: Reinforced institutional mechanisms and policy formulation for an enabling environment for creative
1.1 Coordination meeting in Brussels x x All EU, ACP
1.2 Preparation for launching of the
project in Mozambique x

All All relevant ministries and institutions

1.3 Fact-finding mission/stakeholder
consultations in Maputo x

All relevant ministries and
institutions and key

1.4 Preparation of plan of action x x All
1.5 Policy framework and institutional
mechanism for creative policies x x


All relevant ministries and

1.6 Set up coordination mechanism for
inter-ministerial action. Set up advisory
group on creative industries with
public/private stakeholders



EU; Observatory of
Cultural Policies in
Africa; Ministries of
Education and Culture,
Industry and Trade, Youth
and Sport, Tourism,
Science and Technology

1.7 Regular meetings of advisory
group and coordination facility

x x x

All Private and public

1.8 Facilitate the adoption of a Cinema
Law: establishing a negotiating


Ministry of Education and

1.9 Facilitate the adaptation of this
Cinema Law: sharing international
experience, technical assistance and
elaboration of new a draft

Ministry of Education and

1.10 Facilitate the adaptation of this
Cinema Law: raising awareness and
gaining parliamentarian support

Ministry of Education and

1.11 Support the development of the
copyright regulatory framework:
provide technical assistance and
knowledge transfer

x x


1.12 Support the development of the
copyright regulatory framework:
negotiate with stakeholders the decrees


Ministries of Education
and Culture, Science and
Technology, CISAC,

1.13 Support the development of the
copyright regulatory framework:
strategy of influence and advocacy,
secure political backing

Ministries of Education
and Culture, Science and
Technology, CISAC,

Output 2: Developed publicity and visibility for programme in the country

2.1. Hire a web designer x UNESCO Project Steering Committee
2.2. Design web page x UNESCO Project Steering Committee
2.3. Develop web content x x x All Steering Committee
2.4. Update and maintain website

x x All


ACTIVITY 2008 2009 2010 2011 (UNCTAD,


Output 3: Policy review on creative industries: identified key issues and policy recommendations
3.1 Preparation of Mozambique
Creative Industries Policy Review

x x UNCTAD All relevant ministries and

3.2 Convening of High-level Policy
Dialogue to present the study to
authorities and key stakeholders

x UNCTAD All relevant ministries and

3.3 Consultation/validation plan of

x All All relevant ministries and

3.4 Printing, translation and
distribution of the study

x UNCTAD All relevant ministries and

3.5. Follow-up of policy

x x x

All relevant ministries and

Output 4: Strengthened capacities on trade- and investment-related issues for policymakers and institutional
4.1 Preparation of capacity-building
model on trade and investment
covering: -Trade negotiations: market
access; EU /ACP cooperation
agreement; WTO negotiations -Export
promotion strategies; investment
agreements, incentives, etc.; ICT tools

x UNCTAD Ministries of Trade,
Technology, Foreign

Affairs, Finance, Culture;
and other relevant


4.2 Testing, translation and publishing
training materials and handbook


4.3 Capacity-building workshop on
trade and investment issues, an policy
formulation for the creative economy

x UNCTAD Ministries of Education and
Culture, Industry and

Trade, Youth and Sport,
Tourism, Science and

Technology; EU; OCPA;
and other relevant

4.4. Follow-up and evaluation of
capacity-building session


4.5. Strengthen AMMO through the
development and implementation of
an operational plan


AMMO; International
Federation of Musicians

4.6 Support the INAC through
mentoring relationships with relevant

x x UNESCO Audio-visual Institute of
Colombia (ICAIC)

Output 5: Developed capacity of institutions and skilled artists in business management
5.1 Preparation of publications,
workshops, training activities

x x ILO Ministry of Labour

5.2. Training materials

x ILO GAPI; Ministry of Labour

5.3 TOT workshops x x x ILO GAPI; Ministry of Labour;
and other relevant bodies

5.4. Follow up trainers support x x x ILO GAPI; Ministry of Labour
5.5. Training of artists x x x ILO GAPI; Ministry of Labour
5.6. Monitoring and evaluation x x ILO GAPI



Abdula, Naguib – Painter – naguibart@yahoo.com.br

Afonso, Boaventura – Director – INLD – MEC – bao_afonso@yahoo.com.br

Cabaço, João – Singer

Caetano, Paulina – Mozarte – cpaulinacaetano@yahoo.com.br

Capão, José – Book publisher – Director of KAPICUA – kapicuadir@tdm.co.mz

Chisaano, Alfredo – Executive Director – SOMAS – somasmocambique@hotmail.com

Cossa, Francisco – Escritor – INLD – ungulani@yahoo.com.br

Covane, Luis – MEC – covane@yebra.uem.mz

Filimão, Estevão José – MEC – ISAC ejfilimao@yahoo.com.br or estevao.filimao@mec.gov.mz

Give, Vicente – PAC – givezinco@yahoo.com.br

Gravata, José – Ministry of Tourism – josegravata@hotmail.com

Hooijer, Robert – CISAC – robert.hooijer@cisac.org

Johnson, Lorraine – Aid to Artisans – Regional Representative, Africa – lorraine@tvcabo.co.mz

Jossias, José Fernando – Managing Director –IPEX – jjossias@ipex.gov.mz

Langa, Francisco Chuquela - Ministry of Industry and Commerce - Chefe do Departamento de Politica
Comercial - flanga@mic.gov.mz

Langa, Hortencio - Associasção des Musicos Moçambicanos (ex-President of the Association)

Langa, Tiago – INLD – langa.tiago@gmail.com

Léman Pinto - Musician

Lourenço, Djalma Luíz Felix – INAC – Director – dg.inac@tvcabo.co.mz

Macamo, Domingos – Radio Mocambique – dmacamo@rm.co.mz

Macamo, Sérgio Carlos – Ministry of Industry and Commerce – Directorate of Trade – Director
Nacional – smacamo@mic.gov.mz

Macuacua, Elton – Ministry of Youth and Sport

Madime, Evaristo José – CEDARTE – Executive Director – emadime@tvcabo.co.mz

Manuense, Herminia – Arquivo do Património Cultural (Social and Cultural Research Institute) –
Directora Adjunta – arpac@tvcabo.co.mz

Mata, Candida – Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) – Directora Nacional Adjunta da Cultura –


Mbuyamba, Lupwishi – Executive Director – Observatory of Cultural Policies in Africa (OCPA) -

Moises, Zitenhe – Biblioteca nacional – zitenhemoises@yahoo.com.br

Mondlane, Carlos – Director Commercial – Craft Centre – Organizações Artes Mondlane -

Muholove, Adolfo Adriano – Director de Extensão de Serviços Financeiros – Sociedade de
investimento – GAPI – adolofo@gapi.co.mz

Nhantumbo, Solomão André – Ministry of Industry and Commerce – Directorate of International
Relations – snhantumbo@mic.gov.mz

Noronha, Isabel – Film-maker and Director of Training – AMOCINE – ebano@tropical.co.mz

Oliveira, Jorge – AEMO – Secretário General – aemo.escritores@gmail.com

Pimenta, Pedro –Festival Director, DOCKANEMA – p.pimenta@dockanema – Producer, Ebano
Multimedia – piripiri@tvcabo.co.mz

Pinto, Léman – Musician – xipalapala@gmail.com

Santana, Carlos – Ministry of Science and Technology – Gabinete do Ministro – Assessor Jurídico do
Ministro – www.mct.gov.mz

dos Santos, Sidónio – Ministry of Industry and Commerce – Direcção Nacional de relações
Internationais – Director Nacional Adjunto – ssantos@mic.gov.mz

Schwalbach, João Carlos – Ekaya Productions, Ghorwane – info@ekayaproductions.com

Sithole, Virgílio – Coreografo – CNCD –virgilio.sitoe@gmail.com

Sitoe, Silvério S. – Painter, President – Associação Núcleo de Arte – sssitoe@yahoo.com

de Sousa, Camilo – Producer, Ebano Multimedia – ebano@tropical.co.mz – General Secretary,
AMOCINE – Camilo.sousa@tvcabo.co.mz



AfDB/OECD (2008). Mozambique. African Economic Outlook.

ACP/EC/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO (2007). Summary Joint Programme Document for Strengthening
the Creative Industries in five selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries through
Employment and Trade Expansion. Brussels, Paris and Geneva.

Bologna Declaration, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bologna_Process

Dos Santos-Duisenberg E (2009). A importância das indústrias criativas nos mercados internacionais
: Desafios e oportunidades para Moçambique. Paper presented at the Second National
Conference on Culture. Maputo. May.

Ford N (2008). Telecoms in Africa – Moving to the next stage. African Business. 345: 34–40.

ILO (2003). Promoting the culture sector through job creation and small enterprise development in
SADC countries: the film and television industry. SEED working paper no. 53. May.

Liphola M (2009). Desafios na gestão da diversidade do patrimonio linguistico em Moçambique. Paper
presented at the Second National Conference on Culture. Maputo. May.

Members of the Trinity Session, South Africa (2003). Promoting the culture sector through job creation
and small enterprise development in SADC countries: crafts and visual arts. SEED working
paper no. 51. May.

Mozambique Institute of Export Promotion (2008). Pilot projects : CBI recommendation list and
rationale. BSOD IPEX Mozambique – EMM Module.

Mozambique Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PARPA).

National Institute for Statistics. The informal economy.

Observatory of Cultural Policies in Africa (2006). Compendium of Reference Documents for Cultural
Policies in Africa. Maputo.

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Industry and Trade (2007). Política de Concorrência. Maputo.

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism (1999). Trade Policy and Strategy.

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Industry and Trade (2007). Strategy for the Development of
Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Maputo.

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Education and Culture. Strategic Plan for Culture.

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Science and Technology (2006). Mozambique Science,
Technology and Innovation Strategy (MOSTIS) – Time Horizon: 10 Years.

Republic of Mozambique, Ministry of Tourism (2004). Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism
in Mozambique (2004–2013), Volume I.

República de Moçambique, Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2008). Instituto Superior de Artes e


República de Moçambique, Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2008). Proposta da Política Nacional
do Livro.

República de Moçambique, Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2006). Plano Estratégico de Educação
e Cultura 2006–2010/11.

República de Moçambique, Ministério da Educação e Cultura (2007). Colectânea da Legislação
Cultural de Moçambique.

República de Moçambique (2007). Política cultural de Moçambique e estratégia de sua implementação.
Boletim da República. I (23).

Sambo L (2007). Case study on Mozambique. Presented at the Expert Meeting of LDCs in preparation
of UNCTAD XII. October.

The contribution of tourism in Mozambique, present and future by Sam Jones (MPD) and Hanifa
Ibrahimo (MPD), discussion paper, January 2008.

The Arterial Conference – Vitalising African Cultural Assets. Conference report, Gorée Island. 5–7
March 2007.

UNCTAD/UNDP (2008). Creative Economy Report 2008: The Challenge of Assessing the Creative
Economy: towards Informed Policymaking. United Nations publication.
UNCTAD/DITC/2008/2. New York and Geneva. www.unctad.org/creative-programme

UNCTAD/UNDP (2010): Creative Economy Report 2010: A feasible development option. United
Nations publication UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2010/3. www.unctad.org/creative-programme

UNCTAD/ International Chamber of Commerce (2001). An Investment Guide to Mozambique –
Opportunities and Conditions. United Nations publication. Geneva.

UNCTAD (2009). Global databank on creative industries. www.unctad.org/creative-programme.

UNCTAD (2008a). Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on the Creative Economy and Industries for
Development: background paper by the UNCTAD secretariat. TD(XI)/BP/4. Geneva.

UNCTAD (2008b). Least Developed Countries Report 2008: Growth, Poverty and the Terms of
Development Partnership. United Nations publication. New York and Geneva.

UNCTAD (2008c). Information Economy Report 2007–2008. United Nations publication. New York
and Geneva.

UNCTAD (2006). Statement made to the Second Meeting of Ministers of Culture of the African,
Caribbean and Pacific Countries. Santo Domingo.

UNCTAD/UNDP -The Creative Economy Report 2010: a feasible development option.

UNESCO (2006–2009a). Capacity-building for professionals, managers and administrators of the
Cultural Programme at the Ministry of Education and Culture.

UNESCO (2006–2009b). Development of cultural institutions of Mozambique.

UNDP/Spain MDG Achievement Fund. MDG-F Joint Programme on Strengthening Cultural and
Creative Industries and Inclusive Policies in Mozambique 2008-2011.






7.1 Mozambique Country profile: Economic indicators and statistics, 2003-2008 .......... 70

7.2 Mozambique Creative Industries Trade Performance, 2003-2008 .............................. 72

7.3 Mozambique Trade of Creative Goods........................................................................... 76

7.3.1 Mozambique trade of creative goods, by product groups, 2003-2008....................................... 76

7.3.2 Mozambique trade of creative goods with SADC countries, 2003-2008 ................................... 76

7.3.3 Mozambique trade of creative goods with South Africa, 2003-2008......................................... 77

7.3.4 Mozambique trade of creative goods with EU27, 2003-2008 ..................................................... 77

7.3.5 Mozambique trade of creative goods to ACP countries, 2003-2008 .......................................... 78

7.3.6 Mozambique trade of creative goods to China, 2003-2008 ........................................................ 79

7.3.7 Mozambique trade of creative goods with Portugal, 2003-2008................................................ 79

7.3.8 Mozambique trade of creative goods with Brazil, 2003-2008 .................................................... 80

7.3.9 Mozambique trade balance of creative goods, 2003-2008 .......................................................... 80

7.4 Mozambique trade of services, 2003-2008 ...................................................................... 81

7.5 World Trade Statistics of creative goods and services, 2002-2008 ............................... 82

7.5.1 Creative goods: world exports, by economic group and country, 2003-2008.................. 82

7.5.2 Creative goods: world imports by economic group and country, 2003-2008 .................. 86

7.5.3 Exports of all creative services (1) by country, 2003-2008................................................ 90

7.5.4 Imports of all creative services (1) by country, 2003-2008................................................ 93

Note: All charts and statistical data in this report are generated from the UNCTAD Global databank
on Creative Economy


Part I. Mozambique Country Profile: economic indicators and statistics

2000 2005 2008
Population in thousands 18,249 20,834 22,383
GDP in millions US$ 4,310 6,579 9,840
GDP per capita in US$ 236 316 440

Gross domestic product by economic activity in 2008- Mozambique

Mozambique GDP by economic activity in %








Services Industry Agriculture


f G


Annual average gross domestic product growth rate in %

2000 - 2005 2005 2008
Mozambique 8.51 8.39 7.00
Developing economies 5.47 6.77 5.47
Transition economies 6.15 6.41 5.40
Developed economies 1.95 2.37 0.86

Current account balance as % of GDP

Current account balance as of % of GDP









2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008



Developing economies
Developed economies


Financial flows to country in US$ million - Mozambique

Financial flows to country in US$million- Mozambique










2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Direct investment in
reporting economy (FDI
Direct investment abroad
(FDI Outward)

Total international trade in million US$ - Mozambique

2000 2005 2008
Exports of merchandise 364 1745 2653
Exports of services 325 342 555
Imports of merchandise 1,162 2,408 4,008
Imports of services 446 649 965

Exports of merchandise by product and partner in 2008 - Mozambique

Exports of merchandise by product and partner in 2008

All food items
Agricultural raw materials
Ores and metals
Manufactured goods

Top 5 partners in millions of US$











Netherlands South Africa Italy Spain Belgium Malawi




Part 1. Creative industries trade performance, 2003 and 2008

Value (in thousands) Mozambique
2003 2008

Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports Balance
All Creative Industries 9,744 69,689 -59,945 53,632 99,122 -45,490
Creative Goods 1,198 23,285 -22,087 4,513 51,378 -46,865
Creative Services 8,546 46,404 -37,858 49,119 47,744 1,375

Source: UNCTAD Global database on Creative Economy

Mozambique Creative Industry Trade Performance








2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U



Creative goods, exports by product groups, 2003 and 2008
























l A




f U



Creative goods, Imports by product group, 2003 and 2008























l A




f U




Mozambique exports from the Publishing sector, 2003-2008









2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


Mozambique exports from the Design sector, 2003-2008









2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U



Mozambique exports from Visual Arts, 2003-2008











2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


Visual Arts

Mozambique exports from Art Crafts goods, 2003-2008









2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


Art Crafts

Mozambique exports from Performing Arts, 2003-2008











2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008





f U


Performing Arts

Top 10 creative goods exporters from ACP countries, 2008

0 100 200 300 400 500 600









South Africa

Dominican Republic

(in millions of US$)


Mozambique main destinations of creative goods exports, 2008

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5





United States of America




South Africa


(in millions of US$)



Part 2. Mozambique Creative Industries Trade Performance by sectors, 2003 and 2008

Value Share (%)
(in millions of US$) (%) of total

(% of world)

PRODUCT Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports Exports Imports
All Creative Industries 1.2 23.3 -22.1 100.0 100.0
Art Crafts 0.0 0.5 -0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Carpets 0.0 0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Celebration 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0
Paperware .. 0.0 0.0 0.0
Wickerware .. 0.0 0.0 0.0
Yarn 0.0 0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0
Audio Visuals .. 0.0
Film .. 0.0
Design 0.2 8.7 -8.4 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0
Architecture .. 0.0 0.0
Fashion 0.0 1.2 -1.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
Glassware 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Interior 0.2 6.8 -6.6 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0
Jewellery 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Toys 0.0 0.5 -0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
New Media 0.0 0.7 -0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Recorded Media 0.0 0.6 -0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Video Games 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Performing Arts 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Music (CD, Tapes) 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Printed Music .. ..
Publishing 0.2 12.9 -12.7 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.0
Books 0.0 10.7 -10.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0
Newspaper 0.1 1.3 -1.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Other Printed Matter 0.0 0.9 -0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Visual Arts 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0
Antiques 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Paintings 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Photography 0.1 0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sculpture 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0


Mozambique Creative Industries Trade Performance by sectors, 2008

Value Share
(in millions of US$) (% of total

(% of world) Growth

PRODUCT Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports Exports Imports 2003-


All Creative

4.5 51.4 -46.9 100.0 100.0 27.3

Art Crafts 0.0 1.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5
Carpets 0.0 0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2.3
Celebration 0.0 0.3 -0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 109.5
Other 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2
Paperware .. 0.0 ..
Wickerware 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -47.0
Yarn 0.0 0.3 -0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.1
Audio Visuals 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6
Film 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6
Design 0.6 19.7 -19.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 21.2
Architecture 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ..
Fashion 0.2 2.7 -2.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 49.2
Glassware .. 0.3 137.0
Interior 0.4 15.0 -14.6 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 15.4
Jewellery 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 106.3
Toys 0.0 1.6 -1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -11.7
New Media 0.0 1.6 -1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 174.5

0.0 1.5 -1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 156.0

Video Games 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 81.7

0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -20.3

Music (CD,

0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -20.3

Printed Music .. 0.0 ..
Publishing 3.3 28.3 -25.0 0.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 67.1
Books 0.0 25.1 -25.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 -9.0
Newspaper 0.0 2.1 -2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -12.4
Other Printed

3.2 1.1 2.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 230.2

Visual Arts 0.6 0.8 -0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 -3.5
Antiques 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.9
Paintings 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6
Photography 0.0 0.4 -0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -25.0
Sculpture 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 -7.2



Value (in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative
Goods Imports 23,285 32,179 46,637 42,971 44,069 51,378

Exports 1,198 586 927 625 1,221 4,513
Art Crafts Imports 541 658 2,614 1,839 1,496 995
Exports 21 65 34 32 46 29
Audio Visuals Imports 10 25 29 27 12 14
Exports .. 0 1 3 0 0
Design Imports 8,668 9,947 12,651 14,167 15,016 19,671
Exports 221 130 203 157 225 644
New Media Imports 653 1,191 839 3,073 2,123 1,566
Exports 1 0 279 37 254 7
Performing Arts Imports 125 210 226 245 177 122
Exports 6 4 0 16 2 1
Publishing Imports 12,857 19,630 29,165 21,856 24,399 28,254
Exports 173 125 59 54 378 3,282
Visual Arts Imports 431 518 1,114 1,765 846 757
Exports 777 262 351 327 316 551

Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported



Value (in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 8,678 11,766 14,434 18,171 16,260 15,258

Exports 233 233 125 246 1,067 745
Art Crafts Imports 283 361 326 427 586 475
Exports 19 2 2 14 39 16
Audio Visuals Imports 0 1 5 5 1 1
Exports .. .. 0 0 .. ..
Design Imports 4,609 5,018 5,816 7,207 7,096 8,263
Exports 117 90 44 79 176 530
New Media Imports 244 956 566 2,107 1,495 848
Exports 0 0 4 35 212 3
Performing Arts Imports 60 95 99 116 69 54
Exports 3 3 .. 12 2 ..
Publishing Imports 3,181 4,947 6,831 7,573 6,603 5,194
Exports 40 110 24 27 350 44
Visual Arts Imports 301 388 790 736 409 423
Exports 53 28 51 77 288 151
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported




(in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 8,637 11,436 13,641 15,269 15,988 14,649

Exports 225 101 77 175 727 480
Art Crafts Imports 281 273 321 407 586 470
Exports 19 2 2 14 27 15
Audio Visuals Imports 0 1 4 4 .. 0
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 4,584 4,931 5,748 7,159 7,051 8,126
Exports 116 85 21 76 165 396
New Media Imports 244 943 448 2,062 1,476 639

Exports 0 0 .. 4 212 3
Performing Arts Imports 57 95 99 116 69 53
Exports 1 1 .. 12 1 ..
Publishing Imports 3,170 4,807 6,231 4,786 6,402 4,938
Exports 40 3 22 19 41 11
Visual Arts Imports 300 385 790 736 404 422
Exports 49 11 32 49 281 55
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported


Value (in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 7,021 12,633 21,343 15,901 15,527 18,354

Exports 675 143 231 234 58 221
Art Crafts Imports 50 93 90 75 46 119
Exports 1 62 12 16 2 8
Audio Visuals Imports 9 24 21 22 11 13
Exports .. .. .. 0 .. 0
Design Imports 1,523 1,263 1,783 1,755 2,356 3,723
Exports 9 3 4 20 36 5
New Media Imports 263 126 135 828 397 320
Exports .. .. 5 0 .. 1
Performing Arts Imports 32 30 49 42 17 15
Exports .. .. .. 3 0 1
Publishing Imports 5,117 11,058 19,228 12,375 12,605 14,057
Exports 2 0 2 3 19 5
Visual Arts Imports 26 39 37 804 95 109
Exports 662 78 209 192 0 202
EU 27: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain,
France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and United Kingdom.
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported




Value (in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 8,694 11,782 14,438 18,212 17,102 15,290

Exports 268 234 135 246 1,067 746
Art Crafts Imports 283 367 326 427 588 476
Exports 19 2 2 14 39 17
Audio Visuals Imports 0 1 6 5 1 1
Exports .. .. 0 0 .. ..
Design Imports 4,617 5,026 5,819 7,233 7,187 8,273
Exports 118 90 54 79 176 530
New Media Imports 244 957 567 2,108 1,495 848
Exports 0 0 4 35 212 3
Performing Arts Imports 60 95 99 116 69 54
Exports 3 3 .. 12 2 ..
Publishing Imports 3,189 4,948 6,831 7,586 7,348 5,215
Exports 40 110 24 27 350 44
Visual Arts Imports 301 388 790 737 414 423
Exports 87 29 52 77 288 151
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported
ACP member States: Angola, Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana,
Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameron, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic
Republic of Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Cook Islands, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, St. Kitts and
Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe




(in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 970 1,415 2,496 2,297 2,681 4,228

Exports .. 9 .. 0 0 2
Art Crafts Imports 68 84 85 243 114 193
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Audio Visuals Imports .. .. 1 0 .. ..
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 822 1,232 2,191 1,872 2,276 3,516
Exports .. .. .. 0 0 0
New Media Imports 26 1 20 29 46 22
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..

Imports 5 14 24 21 73 16

Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Publishing Imports 10 54 38 14 82 374
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Visual Arts Imports 40 31 137 117 91 108
Exports .. 9 .. .. .. 1
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported



(in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 4,442 10,595 16,352 9,500 13,387 14,064

Exports 73 67 13 73 29 27
Art Crafts Imports 39 73 66 53 41 113
Exports 0 60 1 2 .. 3
Audio Visuals Imports 9 24 21 22 11 13
Exports .. .. .. 0 .. 0
Design Imports 1,047 776 1,094 1,175 1,749 2,895
Exports 4 0 0 20 28 4
New Media Imports 58 85 72 225 105 229
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..

Imports 25 29 33 35 14 12

Exports .. .. .. .. .. 1
Publishing Imports 3,252 9,586 15,032 7,955 11,373 10,708
Exports 2 .. 1 3 .. 3
Visual Arts Imports 13 22 34 36 92 94
Exports 66 7 11 49 0 16
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported




(in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Creative

Imports 742 885 1,428 1,067 1,037 1,236

Exports .. 42 0 3 4 23
Art Crafts Imports .. 0 17 29 5 5
Exports .. .. .. .. .. 1
Audio Visuals Imports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 536 666 859 774 676 879
Exports .. .. .. .. 4 ..
New Media Imports 0 0 6 1 1 5
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Performing Arts Imports 6 49 26 17 2 0
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Publishing Imports 199 168 520 236 256 346
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Visual Arts Imports .. 2 0 11 97 0
Exports .. 42 0 3 .. 22
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported


Value (in thousand US$)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Industries Imports 23,285 32,179 46,637 42,971 44,069 51,378

Exports 1,198 586 927 625 1,221 4,513



Creative Services

Value (in thousands)

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Exports 439 .. 7,087 .. .. ..

Advertising, market research
and public opinion polling Imports 812 .. 11,239 .. .. ..
Research and development Exports 6,013 .. 1,984 .. .. ..
Imports 6,581 .. 3,147 .. .. ..

Exports 1,984 .. 1,417 32,117 35,534 47,751
Architectural, engineering
other technical services

Imports 38,979 .. 2,248 82,582 80,876 46,308

Exports 55 162 434 2,319 490 684 Personal, cultural, and
recreational services Imports 16 354 871 1,139 686 718
Audiovisual and related

Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..

Imports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Exports 55 162 434 2,319 490 684 Other other personal, cultural,

and recreational services Imports 16 354 871 1,139 686 718
Note: .. Data not available or not separately reported
Source: UNCTAD Global database on Creative Economy



Economic group and EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $) Growth
rate (1)

country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-

World 233400 269331 298549 324407 370298 406992 11.53
Developed economies 140884 158144 171023 185895 211515 227103 10.02
Developing economies 91124 109267 125321 136100 156043 176211 13.55
Transition economies 1392 1920 2206 2413 2741 3678 18.76
Developed economies:

28774 31557 35221 38841 42012 44215 9.27

Canada 9576 10067 10500 10356 9661 9215 -0.94
Greenland 3 7 8 11 3 - -
United States of America 19195 21483 24713 28475 32348 35000 13.31
Developed economies:

4055 4611 6122 5480 7045 7574 13.02

Israel 588 623 555 567 612 586 -0.13
Japan 3468 3989 5567 4913 6432 6988 14.74
Developed economies:

106998 120701 128355 140251 161087 174018 10.16

European Union (EU) 101459 114176 121573 132501 151876 163650 9.99
Austria 4212 4435 4690 5191 5645 6313 8.48
Belgium 6496 7325 7373 7562 8673 9220 6.74
Bulgaria 186 221 228 255 345 377 15.23
Cyprus 32 38 39 30 29 29 -4.27
Czech Republic 1824 2114 2437 3195 4075 4892 22.74
Denmark 2883 3202 3173 3903 4366 4319 9.44
Estonia 237 247 267 294 337 382 10.27
Finland 1083 1078 976 1091 1224 1113 1.80
France 10556 11865 12834 14108 15640 17271 10.16
Germany 17442 19955 22487 25578 30393 34408 14.66
Greece 625 655 701 818 828 944 8.68
Hungary 563 707 761 794 947 1096 12.92
Ireland 2922 2774 2769 2796 2300 2192 -5.53
Italy 17712 19962 20478 22954 26688 27792 9.69
Latvia 133 176 182 207 235 261 13.24
Lithuania 249 338 427 544 730 766 26.30
Luxembourg 227 252 215 199 341 327 7.89
Malta 100 118 112 124 136 131 5.53
Netherlands 5587 6314 6687 7019 7772 10527 11.59
Poland 2565 3170 3440 3732 4723 5250 14.89
Portugal 928 1011 926 987 1206 1248 6.10
Romania 1008 1199 1279 1355 1401 1471 7.13
Slovakia 546 701 814 868 1122 1264 17.59
Slovenia 516 682 728 777 919 977 12.59
Spain 4898 5236 5140 5236 5965 6287 4.85
Sweden 3025 3484 3458 3825 4166 4897 9.09
United Kingdom 14903 16917 18952 19060 21669 19898 6.47
Other European countries 5539 6525 6782 7750 9211 10367 13.08
Andorra 6 7 10 12 - - -
Faeroe Islands - - - 0 0 0 -


Economic group and EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $) Growth
rate (1)

country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-

Iceland 13 12 10 9 7 5 -16.36
Norway 319 347 367 364 385 446 5.82
Switzerland 5201 6159 6395 7364 8820 9916 13.54
Developed economies:

1057 1275 1325 1323 1371 1297 3.60

Australia 780 959 1005 1015 1072 1022 4.96
New Zealand 277 316 320 308 299 275 -0.68
Developing economies:

809 889 981 1361 1520 2220 22.09

Developing economies:
Eastern Africa

124 170 182 495 424 364 29.71

Burundi - - - 1 1 0 -
Ethiopia - 1 1 1 40 4 -
Kenya 18 20 26 37 45 58 28.40
Madagascar 24 29 30 33 42 50 14.74
Malawi 1 1 1 6 6 8 52.47
Mauritius 76 75 77 93 82 82 2.24
Mayotte 0 0 0 0 0 0 60.02
Mozambique 1 1 1 1 1 5 27.27
Rwanda - 0 1 0 1 2 -
Seychelles - - - - - 0 -
Uganda 1 1 1 1 8 11 90.89
United Republic of

- - 11 18 25 76 -

Zambia 3 2 9 1 4 2 -3.20
Zimbabwe - 40 23 303 169 65 -
Developing economies:
Middle Africa

- 8 7 2 - - -

Cameroon - - 1 1 - - -
Gabon - 8 6 0 - - -
Developing economies:
Northern Africa

293 304 333 384 447 1185 26.72

Algeria 5 5 5 3 4 3 -10.23
Egypt - - - - - 703 -
Morocco 159 162 178 178 207 217 6.73
Sudan - - - - - 0 -
Tunisia 129 138 150 202 237 262 16.97
Developing economies:
Southern Africa

374 385 406 364 360 443 1.53

Namibia 15 22 21 22 24 35 14.28
South Africa 360 362 385 342 335 408 0.79
Developing economies:
Western Africa

17 21 54 116 289 228 84.85

Benin - - - 0 - - -
Burkina Faso - 2 3 - - - -
Cape Verde - - - - 0 - -
Côte d'Ivoire 12 11 12 13 14 15 5.83
Ghana - - 27 86 2 4 -
Guinea - - 0 0 0 0 -
Mali - 1 0 1 1 2 -
Niger - 0 0 0 3 1 -
Nigeria - - - 9 259 197 -
Senegal 5 7 8 6 9 9 10.50

Togo - 1 4 - 1 - -
Developing economies:

5381 6059 6584 7405 8012 9030 10.66

Developing economies:

26 125 59 645 456 548 85.34

Aruba - - 1 - - - -
Bahamas 4 3 1 4 2 6 9.89
Barbados - - 10 21 4 26 -
Cuba 22 103 16 21 - - -
Dominica - - - 0 0 0 -
Dominican Republic - - - 544 405 481 -
Jamaica - 4 5 8 5 4 -
Montserrat - 0 0 0 0 0 -
Netherlands Antilles - - 9 30 19 15 -
Trinidad and Tobago - 16 17 18 20 17 -
Developing economies:
Central America

3453 3582 3983 4128 4717 5496 9.53

Belize - - 0 1 1 0 -
Costa Rica 82 114 139 129 118 109 4.34
El Salvador 26 20 60 65 78 98 36.41
Guatemala 33 37 104 45 99 105 25.32
Honduras 8 4 3 29 22 - -
Mexico 3298 3402 3672 3853 4390 5167 9.13
Nicaragua 2 2 2 2 2 11 37.51
Panama 5 4 3 4 6 7 9.29
Developing economies:
South America

1902 2351 2542 2633 2840 2986 8.50

Argentina 192 254 294 328 335 295 9.26
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)

67 76 78 90 99 89 6.87

Brazil 895 1159 1200 1175 1211 1222 4.89
Chile 163 194 220 231 214 227 5.92
Colombia 365 406 450 480 654 748 15.62
Ecuador 23 26 25 32 24 47 11.18
Guyana - - 2 1 2 2 -
Paraguay 9 14 13 13 15 24 16.14
Peru 138 176 207 224 239 263 12.77
Uruguay 51 47 52 55 48 52 0.60
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)

- - - 5 - 16 -

Developing economies:

84923 102299 117733 127313 146484 164933 13.64

Developing economies:
Eastern Asia

66735 78496 89512 97324 111030 125706 13.04

China 38568 45620 55515 62725 72999 84807 16.92
China, Hong Kong SAR 24210 25885 27237 27552 31080 33254 6.33
China, Macao SAR 76 86 74 93 138 170 17.62
China, Taiwan Province of - 3137 3017 3177 3223 3203 -
Korea, Republic of 3877 3765 3665 3773 3585 4272 1.05
Mongolia 3 3 4 5 5 - -
Developing economies:
Southern Asia

6605 8838 10247 11720 11531 11161 10.69

Afghanistan - - - - - 182 -
Bangladesh 60 126 139 145 180 - -
Bhutan - - 8 - - 1 -
India 4444 6746 7630 9125 9907 9450 15.70
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 783 774 812 843 - - -


Maldives - 0 0 0 0 0 -
Nepal 80 - - - - - -
Pakistan 1059 1013 1495 1434 1282 1349 5.50
Sri Lanka 179 179 162 171 162 179 -0.66
Developing economies:
South-Eastern Asia

8393 10943 11855 13042 14789 17379 14.17

Cambodia - 35 - - - 14 -
Malaysia 1934 2459 2702 3022 3576 3524 12.86
Philippines - - - - 659 580 -
Singapore 3454 3753 3771 4220 3787 5047 5.99
Thailand 3005 3318 3794 3873 4319 5077 10.31
Timor-Leste - 1 1 - - - -
Viet Nam - 1376 1588 1927 2449 3136 -
Developing economies:
Western Asia

3190 4021 6119 5228 9134 10687 26.94

Bahrain 10 14 26 21 32 - -
Jordan 110 156 217 245 203 198 11.61
Kuwait - - - 56 54 - -
Lebanon 125 154 170 188 218 278 15.74
Occupied Palestinian

- - - - 14 19 -

Oman 8 25 36 18 18 45 22.56
Qatar - - 17 9 27 15 -
Saudi Arabia 307 471 311 522 514 - -
Syrian Arab Republic - - 56 263 241 - -
Turkey 2629 3200 3756 3900 4890 5369 14.96
United Arab Emirates - - 1532 - 2915 4760 -
Yemen - - - 6 6 2 -
Developing economies:

12 20 22 21 27 27 15.76

Cook Islands - - 0 - - - -
Fiji 11 9 5 5 5 - -
French Polynesia - 9 16 15 20 26 -
Kiribati - - - - - - -
New Caledonia 1 1 1 1 1 1 5.43
Papua New Guinea 0 0 - - - - -
Vanuatu - - - - 0 - -
Transition economies:

32 56 77 78 69 54 9.90

Armenia 29 36 37 39 31 27 -2.21
Azerbaijan - 2 5 6 12 11 -
Georgia - - 4 5 3 5 -
Kazakhstan - 12 26 21 18 12 -
Kyrgyzstan 3 5 4 7 5 - -
Turkmenistan - - - - - - -
Transition economies:

1348 1822 2079 2262 2573 3307 17.37

Albania 8 13 16 19 26 30 27.99
Belarus 247 328 276 303 397 451 11.09
Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 48 66 80 102 129 31.15
Croatia 192 353 367 372 422 412 13.29
Russian Federation 869 1080 1256 1380 1481 1734 13.69
Serbia and Montenegro - - 98 108 145 - -
Ukraine - - - - - 553 -
SOURCE: UNCTAD secretariat calculations based on United Nations Comtrade database data. Data extraction date (31
May 2010).



Economic group and IMPORTS (c.i.f., in millions of $) Growth
rate (1)

country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-

World 250160 284624 317175 337506 402452 420783 11.15
Developed economies 205869 230741 250975 266902 306808 317058 9.18
Developing economies 41842 50492 62090 65426 88370 93721 17.90
Transition economies 2448 3391 4110 5178 7274 10003 31.40
Developed economies:

79805 86735 94453 100243 109145 104706 6.20

Canada 9162 9846 10940 12015 13602 14736 10.33
Greenland 22 26 26 25 17 - -
United States of America 70621 76862 83488 88203 95525 89971 5.63
Developed economies:

13810 15399 17095 18073 19484 19736 7.55

Israel 786 872 894 946 1103 1224 8.87
Japan 13025 14526 16202 17128 18381 18512 7.46
Developed economies:

107686 123069 133393 142370 170815 184353 11.27

European Union (EU) 97541 111718 120901 129456 155144 166750 11.26
Austria 3946 4742 4953 5279 6768 7132 12.40
Belgium 5685 6412 6769 6919 7940 8632 8.18
Bulgaria 258 313 363 430 633 756 24.46
Cyprus 256 295 311 350 433 497 14.01
Czech Republic 1609 1987 2185 2660 3185 3802 18.41
Denmark 2188 2270 2696 3099 3789 4129 14.87
Estonia 181 198 222 277 365 387 18.15
Finland 1089 1251 1343 1490 1691 1918 11.59
France 13339 15105 16141 17035 20428 22791 10.95
Germany 16841 18372 20757 20730 24579 26866 9.60
Greece 1714 1996 2188 2366 2816 3560 14.59
Hungary 1090 1274 1230 1320 1525 1624 7.72
Ireland 1521 1853 2047 2384 2682 2549 11.60
Italy 7337 8738 9523 10657 12231 12597 11.54
Latvia 204 232 269 404 492 466 21.37
Lithuania 175 225 276 376 497 484 24.83
Luxembourg 527 567 541 578 712 717 6.75
Malta 115 132 140 147 163 174 8.14
Netherlands 5366 6074 6339 6920 8042 12082 15.32
Poland 1332 1634 1891 2257 2988 3837 23.11
Portugal 1547 1764 1697 1827 2100 2161 6.70
Romania 809 901 1034 1204 1546 1791 17.83
Slovakia 436 570 637 709 903 1291 21.84
Slovenia 395 493 470 522 671 711 12.01
Spain 5999 7269 8200 8311 10184 10491 11.53
Sweden 2601 3056 3281 3518 4008 4458 10.76
United Kingdom 20979 23996 25396 27684 33774 30847 9.07
Other European countries 10145 11351 12492 12914 15671 17604 11.33
Andorra 119 130 - - - - -
Faeroe Islands 23 26 27 33 37 37 11.29
Iceland 124 142 192 212 253 195 12.32
Norway 1875 2112 2365 2547 3092 3468 13.05


Switzerland 8003 8941 9907 10122 12289 13904 11.27
Developed economies:

4569 5539 6033 6216 7363 8262 11.62

Australia 3747 4566 4931 5146 6103 7040 12.32
New Zealand 822 973 1102 1071 1260 1222 8.11
Developing economies:

2032 2749 3468 4306 4728 5693 22.12

Developing economies:
Eastern Africa

341 450 542 652 691 857 18.96

Burundi - - - 7 5 9 -
Ethiopia - 51 49 55 82 72 -
Kenya 72 90 115 133 133 135 13.70
Madagascar 35 35 33 42 46 108 21.24
Malawi 22 23 31 32 29 43 12.16
Mauritius 116 117 101 106 113 143 2.87
Mayotte 6 9 9 10 11 13 12.47
Mozambique 23 32 47 43 44 51 14.76
Rwanda - 4 8 20 20 28 -
Seychelles - - - - - 29 -
Uganda 33 38 39 49 77 68 18.51
United Republic of

- - 52 73 69 83 -

Zambia 34 35 36 61 44 54 10.62
Zimbabwe - 15 21 20 17 20 -
Developing economies:
Middle Africa

- 19 79 77 - - -

Cameroon - - 51 52 - - -
Gabon - 19 28 26 - - -
Developing economies:
Northern Africa

943 1118 1277 1350 1754 2381 18.83

Algeria 183 224 306 253 230 295 6.75
Egypt - - - - - 522 -
Morocco 380 435 489 560 796 799 17.55
Sudan - - - - 102 99 -
Tunisia 380 459 482 537 625 667 11.64
Developing economies:
Southern Africa

694 1035 1335 1712 1675 1677 19.06

Namibia 41 80 84 93 111 125 20.67
South Africa 652 955 1251 1619 1565 1552 18.95
Developing economies:
Western Africa

55 127 234 515 607 778 70.86

Benin - - - 13 - - -
Burkina Faso - 22 18 - - - -
Cape Verde - - - - 12 15 -
Côte d'Ivoire 28 38 34 46 52 63 16.19
Ghana - - 90 76 105 118 -
Guinea - - 8 14 13 18 -
Mali - 17 14 18 41 42 -
Niger - 8 19 10 11 13 -
Nigeria - - - 282 291 435 -
Senegal 27 38 46 56 69 74 22.69
Togo - 5 5 - 13 - -
Developing economies:

6683 7437 9140 11522 16862 16007 22.33

Developing economies:

184 413 652 1081 1005 1193 43.05

Aruba - - 21 - - - -
Bahamas 88 106 122 132 151 106 6.06
Barbados - - 94 75 52 84 -
Cuba 95 89 106 110 - - -
Dominica - - - 5 6 5 -
Dominican Republic - - - 392 416 486 -
Jamaica - 141 166 184 192 304 -
Montserrat - 1 1 1 1 1 -
Netherlands Antilles - - 50 71 71 88 -
Trinidad and Tobago - 76 92 112 116 119 -
Developing economies:
Central America

4651 4710 5604 6318 7105 7901 12.12

Belize - - 18 15 16 13 -
Costa Rica 172 183 193 223 269 292 11.96
El Salvador 101 106 210 221 279 265 24.84
Guatemala 200 228 326 289 376 369 13.54
Honduras 75 83 111 130 153 - -
Mexico 3908 4061 4505 5178 5695 6538 11.23
Nicaragua 47 49 55 60 73 69 9.89
Panama 149 - 186 202 245 355 -
Developing economies:
South America

1848 2314 2884 4123 8752 6912 36.71

Argentina 217 350 486 602 793 990 34.08
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)

40 42 40 47 58 77 13.34

Brazil 374 484 647 898 1017 1728 33.87
Chile 387 463 556 692 789 1070 21.81
Colombia 275 315 398 500 603 702 21.67
Ecuador 226 254 287 307 310 427 11.61
Guyana - - 18 18 19 38 -
Paraguay 74 106 112 159 191 356 32.81
Peru 219 247 282 307 4032 - -
Uruguay 37 54 59 76 99 123 26.23
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)

- - - 516 841 1402 -

Developing economies:

32975 40072 49286 49413 66597 71834 16.75

Developing economies:
Eastern Asia

24146 28315 30421 33413 39501 43631 12.27

China 3339 3563 3956 4292 5622 6078 13.54
China, Hong Kong SAR 18072 19828 20726 22752 26310 29473 10.16
China, Macao SAR 253 335 366 492 619 674 22.23
China, Taiwan Province of - 2055 2292 2220 2382 2604 -
Korea, Republic of 2472 2524 3062 3633 4549 4802 16.21
Mongolia 9 10 18 25 19 - -
Developing economies:
Southern Asia

2160 2553 3212 3517 3918 3482 11.35

Afghanistan - - - - - 490 -
Bangladesh 270 348 369 265 332 - -
Bhutan - - 3 - - 6 -
India 1313 1621 2016 2548 2913 2273 14.50
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 86 153 259 50 - - -
Maldives 20 27 27 30 32 40 12.64
Nepal 59 - - - - - -
Pakistan 171 139 216 285 292 314 17.18


Sri Lanka 241 266 323 339 348 359 8.50
Developing economies:
South-Eastern Asia

4054 5764 5832 6192 8143 9769 17.00

Cambodia - 376 - - - 215 -
Malaysia 670 874 848 932 1022 1004 7.66
Philippines - - - - 590 500 -
Singapore 2546 2815 3186 3409 4400 5207 15.30
Thailand 837 869 1012 1131 1367 1974 17.88
Timor-Leste - 2 2 - - - -
Viet Nam - 828 785 721 764 870 -
Developing economies:
Western Asia

2616 3439 9820 6291 15035 14953 43.73

Bahrain 108 106 143 121 148 - -
Jordan 160 270 416 455 455 457 21.82
Kuwait - - - 721 873 - -
Lebanon 268 329 305 260 301 389 4.19
Occupied Palestinian

- - - - 40 48 -

Oman 7 150 180 227 304 390 90.57
Qatar - - 360 470 628 636 -
Saudi Arabia 896 1046 1286 1386 1494 - -
Syrian Arab Republic - - 91 61 55 - -
Turkey 1177 1538 2063 2547 3208 3523 25.32
United Arab Emirates - - 4977 - 7467 9442 -
Yemen - - - 42 62 66 -
Developing economies:

152 234 197 185 184 187 0.73

Cook Islands - - 3 - - - -
Fiji 77 83 57 51 43 - -
French Polynesia - 67 68 67 67 92 -
Kiribati - - 1 - - - -
New Caledonia 55 66 68 66 70 96 8.75
Papua New Guinea 21 18 - - - - -
Vanuatu - - - - 5 - -
Transition economies:

26 375 512 712 1014 898 82.30

Armenia 15 18 25 38 52 89 43.74
Azerbaijan - 44 52 41 56 61 -
Georgia - - 44 88 126 137 -
Kazakhstan - 300 373 518 738 611 -
Kyrgyzstan 12 13 17 26 41 - -
Turkmenistan - - - - - - -
Transition economies:

2391 2919 3439 4272 6003 8281 27.82

Albania 43 53 65 76 120 133 26.71
Belarus 145 183 170 254 324 386 22.13
Bosnia and Herzegovina 123 148 210 200 259 327 20.56
Croatia 519 679 758 848 979 962 13.05
Russian Federation 1560 1857 1987 2579 3882 5304 27.82
Serbia and Montenegro - - 249 315 437 - -
Ukraine - - - - - 1170 -
SOURCE: UNCTAD secretariat calculations based on United Nations Comtrade database data. Data extraction date (31
May 2010). Note: (1) Annual average growth rate only available for countries that reported consistently in 2003-2008



EXPORTS (in million of $)
Economic group and
country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


72308 86031 99235 147736 164158 185087

DEVELOPED ECONOMIES 61320 73185 81998 125218 138045 153414
Australia 1356 1367 1656 1980 2481 3038
Austria 177 219 236 5226 274 301
Belgium 5224 5609 6075 6482 4550 7167
Bermuda - - - 17 33 31
Bulgaria 66 74 106 204 265 336
Canada 6888 8151 9271 9393 10278 10550
Cyprus 57 101 122 166 226 172
Czech Republic 221 360 842 980 1530 1994
Estonia 67 95 102 131 185 257
Faeroe Islands 1 - - - - -
Finland 784 826 924 24 19 12
France 1864 2298 2158 1743 1963 2240
Germany 14856 19410 23646 26212 31005 36116
Greece 548 1253 433 425 537 583
Hungary 845 1662 1857 1788 2435 2160
Iceland 4 9 16 12 9 12
Ireland 1228 442 824 297 1607 1777
Italy 4511 5085 5434 6471 7484 6328
Japan 140 72 97 140 156 155
Latvia 79 108 142 160 219 284
Lithuania 77 67 69 90 95 110
Luxembourg 162 189 239 331 626 902
Malta 73 174 384 596 698 780
Netherlands 618 771 902 25784 28968 31052
New Zealand 282 393 287 279 346 460
Norway 1272 1367 2201 3321 3327 4427
Poland 350 669 1049 1524 2049 3282
Portugal 478 617 674 905 1237 1499
Romania 264 378 401 559 758 1235
Slovakia 162 121 218 312 516 397
Slovenia 189 305 324 360 38 479
Spain 4389 5386 5763 7476 9651 10533
Sweden 3861 4126 4501 5072 6296 6923
Switzerland 4 4 5 3 2 4
United Kingdom 3086 3928 4082 3932 3759 4220
United States of America 7137 7549 6958 12823 14422 13598
DEVELOPING ECONOMIES 8185 9363 12771 17133 18835 21182
Angola 1 3 5 6 9 13
Argentina 273 369 572 786 955 1263
Bangladesh 21 19 19 22 72 58
Barbados 1 - 0 0 1 -
Benin 0 1 1 1 1 -
Bolivia 1 1 1 1 1 2
Botswana 5 9 9 17 22 25


Brazil 1664 2171 2962 3403 4659 6331
Cambodia 1 1 1 2 2 2
Cameroon 11 17 18 13 14 23
Cape Verde 0 0 0 0 2 0
Chile 68 58 69 78 84 111
China 2405 890 1210 1582 2229 2620
China, Hong Kong SAR 137 290 270 280 272 265
Colombia 83 117 143 228 209 344
Congo 9 11 - - - -
Costa Rica 3 2 3 2 3 3
Côte d'Ivoire 5 5 5 5 6 -
Ecuador 34 36 39 41 44 47
Egypt 84 82 102 147 163 195
El Salvador 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ethiopia 5 4 2 2 2 8
Fiji 0 2 2 3 2 3
French Polynesia 8 5 4 4 9 18
Guatemala 9 2 2 6 3 4
Guinea - - - - 1 5
Guinea-Bissau 0 - - - - -
Guyana - 6 6 7 7 7
Honduras 0 0 0 0 0 12
India - 1108 3345 5445 5591 4894
Indonesia - 47 57 74 55 77
Iraq - - - - 1 -
Jamaica 20 29 30 31 29 39
Kenya 0 0 0 1 2 2
Korea, Republic of 76 128 268 1248 1643 1838
Lebanon - - 0 - - -
New Caledonia 2 2 1 5 15 6
Madagascar 4 8 2 - - -
Malaysia 1835 1670 1562 863 832 872
Mali 0 1 1 1 1 -
Mauritius 5 4 2 2 4 6
Mexico 293 358 373 383 308 87
Mongolia 0 1 0 - - -
Morocco - - - - - 93
Mozambique 8 0 11 34 36 48
Myanmar 0 - - - - -
Namibia 0 2 0 1 1 3
Netherlands Antilles 5 5 5 8 9 -
Niger 0 - 0 1 1 -
Occupied Palestinian

3 1 5 0 - -

Pakistan 35 38 75 121 66 89
Panama - - 26 1 - -
Papua New Guinea - 0 0 - - -
Paraguay 14 16 19 18 19 20
Peru - - - - - 4
Philippines 9 7 20 789 34 40
Republic of Moldova 2 2 5 8 11 18
Rwanda - - - 1 0 -
Samoa - 0 1 2 4 -
Senegal 2 6 3 3 5 -

Sierra Leone - 0 0 0 0 0
Singapore 154 185 180 203 239 268
Solomon Islands 1 1 1 2 - -
South Africa 60 88 114 103 90 99
Sudan 0 - - 0 5 0
Swaziland 2 22 2 3 4 -
Syrian Arab Republic - 62 85 92 30 -
Togo 0 0 0 0 0 -
Tonga 1 0 1 1 1 -
Tunisia 5 10 4 3 3 6
Turkey 781 1418 1079 998 971 1224
United Republic of

1 0 1 0 1 10

Uruguay 0 1 0 2 0 0
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)

36 42 45 49 51 77


2803 3483 4467 5385 7279 10491

Albania 5 8 18 58 141 72
Armenia 2 6 6 7 8 9
Azerbaijan 2 3 3 4 5 8
Belarus 10 31 37 5 99 151
Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - 4 4 5
Croatia 334 413 441 498 595 841
Georgia 0 2 3 6 11 12
Kazakhstan 28 40 60 81 118 210
Kyrgyzstan 7 10 10 15 50 75
Montenegro - - - - - 18
Russian Federation 2183 2628 3384 4015 5191 6994
Serbia - - - - - 584
Tajikistan 0 1 1 1 4 1
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

34 46 45 56 87 116

Ukraine 198 295 458 636 966 1396

IMF Balance of Payments Statistics and UNCTAD calculations based on IMF Balance of Payments Statistic
NOTES: (1) “All creative services” is composed of the following categories of services: “advertising, market
research and public opinion polling services”; “architectural, engineering and other technical services";" research
and development services”; and "personal, cultural and recreational services". “Audiovisual and related services”
and "other personal, cultural and recreational services" are sub-items of "personal, cultural and recreational
(2) The figures in this table cannot be used for international comparisons or ranking because most countries do not
report all categories of creative services and the reported categories vary with countries. Therefore, the figures
present only the aggregation of reported categories by country.
note: .. Data not available or not separately reported



Economic group and IMPORTS (in million of $)
country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

76066 82774 92609 122714 154387 168669

DEVELOPED ECONOMIES 62349 69611 77143 100104 124777 134043
Australia 1125 1361 1460 1495 2102 3144
Austria 467 693 728 2927 845 929
Belgium 4393 4896 5165 5329 6136 8317
Bermuda - - - 10 18 17
Bulgaria 172 151 223 343 439 596
Canada 4749 5127 5200 5782 6320 6440
Cyprus 76 135 134 160 196 212
Czech Republic 482 468 841 925 1147 1177
Estonia 41 48 51 69 82 121
Faeroe Islands 1 - - - - -
Finland 2874 3013 3742 27 4742 82
France 2344 2624 2821 2687 3156 3671
Germany 17346 19538 22031 25253 25872 28416
Greece 338 552 415 509 634 836
Hungary 845 1911 2171 1826 2229 2433
Iceland 11 12 13 14 17 10
Ireland 5663 3992 4855 4707 15247 16764
Italy 4444 5449 6155 5669 7228 6636
Japan 946 1081 1115 1299 1318 1215
Latvia 38 70 85 111 161 208
Lithuania 28 41 44 61 69 89
Luxembourg 418 477 333 428 617 820
Malta 8 52 111 211 288 248
Netherlands 746 880 949 18475 19992 21713
New Zealand 256 301 212 322 205 217
Norway 664 832 1338 1651 1743 2136
Poland 831 917 1110 1356 1783 2253
Portugal 612 789 823 1118 1269 1602
Romania 327 350 385 399 447 785
Slovakia 331 112 399 449 541 655
Slovenia 256 314 404 462 99 578
Spain 4527 5593 5635 6487 8014 8115
Sweden 5298 5708 5636 6362 8268 9591
Switzerland 90 95 87 85 94 106
United Kingdom 1396 1619 1515 1577 1907 2033
United States of America 206 409 959 1520 1552 1878
DEVELOPING ECONOMIES 10487 8513 10175 16574 21107 23447
Angola 11 28 45 65 99 121
Argentina 172 242 280 335 440 513
Bangladesh 37 40 69 88 79 75
Barbados 0 1 0 0 1 -
Benin 0 0 0 0 2 -
Bolivia 4 5 6 8 9 10

Botswana 37 44 21 20 36 39
Brazil 1435 1678 2158 2389 3251 4089
Cambodia 3 4 4 5 5 5
Cameroon 4 4 2 9 10 6
Cape Verde 3 3 3 2 6 8
Chile 47 48 53 55 42 47
China 3977 874 869 1076 1491 2195
China, Hong Kong SAR 68 52 52 56 67 140
Colombia 253 359 386 498 667 714
Congo 3 4 - - - -
Costa Rica 36 32 27 51 69 58
Côte d'Ivoire 2 2 3 3 3 -
Ecuador 92 98 106 116 126 137
Egypt 15 15 22 39 29 80
El Salvador 2 3 3 4 3 4
Ethiopia 28 28 27 14 17 42
Fiji 4 5 5 8 5 6
French Polynesia 7 10 10 9 6 11
Guatemala 5 3 3 9 8 7
Guinea 0 1 - - 1 11
Guinea-Bissau - - - - - -
Guyana - 5 5 5 6 6
Honduras 4 5 6 6 8 10
India - 1194 2013 3443 5572 5434
Indonesia - 184 166 124 107 126
Iraq - - 151 118 27 -
Jamaica 47 30 36 38 33 33
Kenya 2 1 1 2 1 1
Korea, Republic of 261 376 477 4497 5221 6257
Lebanon - - 0 - - 0
New Caledonia 8 11 38 41 56 72
Madagascar 50 19 15 - - -
Malaysia 2922 1899 1855 1431 1996 1177
Mali 0 14 15 16 6 -
Mauritius 14 21 31 34 39 40
Mexico 221 225 275 326 259 227
Mongolia 0 - 0 2 - -
Morocco - - - - - 28
Mozambique 46 0 18 84 82 47
Myanmar 6 3 3 7 - -
Namibia 20 62 46 45 31 44
Netherlands Antilles 3 2 2 2 2 -
Niger 1 0 0 6 0 -
Occupied Palestinian

36 16 18 18 69 -

Pakistan 55 23 51 38 68 91
Panama - - 25 4 - -
Papua New Guinea - 0 0 - - -
Paraguay 7 3 1 0 1 1
Peru - - - - - 16
Philippines 15 15 9 545 39 39
Republic of Moldova 4 9 10 4 6 9
Rwanda - - - 7 3 2
Samoa - 0 1 0 0 -


Senegal 3 3 1 3 3 -
Sierra Leone 1 2 0 1 1 2
Singapore 241 268 279 261 278 312
Solomon Islands 0 0 0 0 - -
South Africa 3 5 8 9 10 10
Sudan 0 - - - 5 4
Swaziland 3 38 27 24 49 -
Syrian Arab Republic - 27 21 32 20 -
Togo - 0 0 0 0 -
Tonga 0 0 0 0 1 -
Tunisia 4 6 6 10 7 11
Turkey 117 186 107 140 158 235
United Republic of

1 0 0 0 2 2

Uruguay 10 7 10 9 10 10
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)

135 266 296 385 461 886


3230 4651 5291 6036 8503 11179

Albania 8 30 107 117 119 82
Armenia 6 7 8 9 10 14
Azerbaijan 5 5 5 6 8 12
Belarus 8 39 61 16 105 123
Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - 4 4 5
Croatia 379 488 537 615 645 737
Georgia 2 2 2 1 13 37
Kazakhstan 709 1354 1616 1326 1772 1856
Kyrgyzstan 5 8 25 41 33 47
Montenegro - - - - - 34
Russian Federation 1752 2232 2444 3296 4908 6840
Serbia - - - - - 367
Tajikistan 0 1 2 0 106 4
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

52 62 73 63 91 114

Ukraine 303 424 413 542 689 906

SOURCE:IMF Balance of Payments Statistics and UNCTAD calculations based on IMF Balance of Payments
NOTES: (1) “All creative services” is composed of the following categories of services: “advertising, market
research and public opinion polling services”; “architectural, engineering and other technical services";" research
and development services”; and "personal, cultural and recreational services". “Audiovisual and related services”
and "other personal, cultural and recreational services" are sub-items of "personal, cultural and recreational
(2) The figures in this table cannot be used for international comparisons or ranking because most countries do not
report all categories of creative services and the reported categories vary with countries. Therefore, the figures
present only the aggregation of reported categories by country.