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Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development - in Zambia

Report by UNCTAD, 2011

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The main purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Zambia in articulating a development strategy that can optimize the economic potential of the creative sector for job creation, trade expansion and social inclusion. In addition to reviewing current policy in these areas, the report proposes a plan of action to be conducted with the support of relevant United Nations agencies, and an institutional mechanism to facilitate concerted policy actions and interministerial decisions.

Strengthening the Creative Industries
in Five Selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries


through Employment and Trade Expansion


MulTI-AgEnCy PIloT ProjECT: ACP/EC/Ilo/unCTAD/unESCo


Strengthening the
Creative induStrieS


FOr deveLOPMent
in Zambia


U N I T E D N A T I O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N T R A D E A N D D E V E L O P M E N T
I N C O L L A b O R A T I O N w I T h


T h E G O V E R N M E N T O F T h E R E P U b L I C O F Z A M b I A




Strengthening the
Creative induStrieS


FOr deveLOPMent
in Zambia


Strengthening the Creative Industries
in Five Selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries


through Employment and Trade Expansion


new york and geneva, 2010


MulTI-AgEnCy PIloT ProjECT: ACP/EC/Ilo/unCTAD/unESCo


U N I T E D N A T I O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N T R A D E A N D D E V E L O P M E N T
I N C O L L A b O R A T I O N w I T h


T h E G O V E R N M E N T O F T h E R E P U b L I C O F Z A M b I A




ii STRENGTHENING THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN ZAMBIA








Note










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Creative Industries Country Studies Series:
No. 1: Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development in Zambia
No. 2: Strengthening the Creative Industries for Development in Mozambique


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Material in this publication maybe freely quoted or reprinted as long as acknowledgement is provided
with a reference to the source. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be
sent to the UNCTAD secretariat, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.






http://www.unctad.org/Creative-Programme














































Copyright © United Nations, 2011


All rights reserved


UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2009/1




FOREWORD iii




FOREWORD


At UNCTAD's XI Ministerial Conference, held in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2004, more than 150 UN
Member States agreed to introduce the topic of creative industries into the international economic and
development agenda. Since then, UNCTAD has been shaping a number of international and national
policy initiatives in the area of the creative economy and its development dimension.


This policy-oriented country report is the first prepared as part of UNCTAD’s involvement in a pilot
project on "Strengthening the Creative Industries in Five African, Caribbean and Pacific countries,
through employment and trade expansion ". This multi-agency undertaking is a component of the
ACP-EU Support Programme to Cultural Industries in ACP countries, being jointly implemented by
ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO during 2008-2011.


The main purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Zambia in articulating a development
strategy that can optimize the economic potential of the creative sector for job creation, trade
expansion and social inclusion. In addition to reviewing current policy in these areas, the report
proposes a plan of action to be conducted with the support of relevant United Nations agencies, and
an institutional mechanism to facilitate concerted policy actions and interministerial decisions.


The report responds to the specific objectives of the project, which operates within the framework of
national priorities to meet two core objectives: (a) providing policy recommendations at enhancing
the institutional and regulatory environment in the county; and (b) fostering the development of
productive creative capacities, cultural entrepreneurial skills and trade opportunities. Ultimately, the
aim is to boost the number and quality of jobs, generate income, increase trade in creative products
while promoting cultural diversity and development. Among the expected results are the creation of a
participatory methodology, the identification of key creative sectors, and the development of
institutional mechanisms and creative capacity1.


UNCTAD will continue to assist governments to foster their creative economy. In line with the three
pillars of its work: (a) consensus-building, by providing a platform for intergovernmental debates; (b)
policy-oriented analysis, by identifying key issues underlying the creative economy and the dynamics
of creative industries in world markets; and (c) technical cooperation, by helping developing
countries to enhance their creative economies for trade and development gains.


UNCTAD renews its commitment to join the European Commission and the ACP Group of States in
this endeavour by recommending concrete measures to take better advantage of the creative potential
and cultural richness of ACP countries to foster development.






Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi
Secretary-General of UNCTAD






1
See annex I-1: Logical Framework, from the Project proposal entitled "Strengthening the creative industries in


five selected ACP countries through employment and trade".





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This report was undertaken under the overall guidance of UNCTAD’s Project Coordinator and Chief
of the Creative Economy Programme, Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg, co-author of this country study
jointly with Dr. Teresa Hoefert de Turégano, UNCTAD international consultant. Together, they
carried out a fact-finding mission in Zambia in July 2008, holding consultations with government
officials, and meetings and interviews with stakeholders, visiting relevant institutions, and collecting
documentation and factual information. From the UNCTAD secretariat, Carolina Quintana provided
research and statistical assistance, Daniel Sanderson provided editorial support and Sophie Combette
was in charge of the cover of the publication. Experts from ILO and UNESCO involved in the project
were invited to provide comments.


Many people and institutions contributed to this study with their ideas and information, and UNCTAD
is greatly indebted to them all. Our special thanks to the representatives of the European Commission
in Brussels and Lusaka, in particular, Mr. Jose Valente and Ms. Cesaltina Bastos, as well as to the
officials of the ACP Secretariat, in particular Ms. Aya Kasasa, for their institutional and financial
support, which was paramount to move ahead this project.
First and foremost, our gratitude goes to the Ministry of Community Development and Social
Services, in particular to Mr. Wesley Kaonga, Director of Cultural Affairs and an artist himself, for his
committed effort to place creative industries at the centre of the development and economic debate,
and for his eagerness to implement the project in Zambia.
Other line ministries that provided insightful comments and support include the Ministry of
Commerce, Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources, the
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational
Training, the Ministry of Finance and National Planning, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry
of Labour, as did officials from the Department of Culture and the Department of Tourism of
Livingstone.


The large number of institutions engaged in the promotion and dissemination of creative industries
includes the Zambia National Arts Council, in particular its Chair, Ms. Mulenga Chafihusa, as well as
representatives from the National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia, the Zambia National Visual
Arts Council, the National Media Arts Association, the Zambia Folk Dance and Music Society, the
Zambia Women Writers’ Association, the Zambia Association of Musicians, the Zambia Popular
Theatre Alliance, the Zambian Association of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, the Zambia
Development Agency, the Zambian Federation of Trade Unions, the National Museum, Arts Acres
Africa, the University of Zambia, the Zambian Open University, the Lusaka Theatre Club, Southern
Africa Communications for Development, the women’s organizations WEDAZ and ZFAWIB, the
Youth Organization, Muvi Television and Kabwata Cultural Village.


UNCTAD also wishes to thank artists and intellectuals alike, for their creativity and insights which
made this exercise a participatory process reflecting the aspirations of the artistic and creative
communities and the civil society in general. We thank Mr. William Bwalya Miko, artist/curator/arts
and culture consultant, Ms. Norah Mumba, writer/arts adjudicator, Mr. Maik Zulu, musician, Mr Brian
Chengala Shakarongo, musician, Mr. Edy Moto, musician/band manager and Mr. Victor Mweetwa,
performing artist.


We acknowledge the efforts of Mr. Abdon Yezi, from Yezi Arts Promotions and Productions, for
leading an advocacy role through the media and for his efforts to mobilize artists’ contributions to
include the creative industries in the Sixth National Development Plan of the Government of Zambia.
Our gratitude also goes to Mr. Stanley Wayanika Jnr. of Stanwood Productions, who kindly video-
recorded the events of the High-level Policy Dialogue in Zambia held in July 2009.




vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS




Finally, UNCTAD wishes to convey its gratitude to the United Nations Resident Coordinator and the
offices of the United Nations Development Programme, the International Labour Organization and
other relevant international organizations based in Zambia, for their support and cooperation in the
context of the implementation of this project.
To everyone who contributed in various ways to the preparation of this policy-oriented study, and to the
achievement of the objectives of the Multi-Agency Project for Strengthening the Creative Industries in
Zambia through employment and trade expansion, we express our gratitude. We look forward to their
continued engagement for a successful implementation of the actions proposed and for the sustainability
of a creative economy strategy in the long term to ensure development gains.




TABLE OF CONTENTS vii




TABLE OF CONTENTS


FOREWORD____________________________________________________________________III
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS _____________________________________________________________ V
TABLE OF CONTENTS ____________________________________________________________ VII
LIST OF FIGURES, CHARTS AND TABLES_______________________________________________ IX
LIST OF ABREVIATIONS ____________________________________________________________ XI
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ___________________________________________________________ XV


PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________1


1.1 COUNTRY INFORMATION_________________________________________________________2
1.2 POLITICAL STRUCTURE__________________________________________________________3
1.3 ECONOMIC BACKGROUND________________________________________________________4


PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT _____________________________________________________7


2.1 THE PROJECT BACKGROUND ______________________________________________________7
2.2 THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS)______________________________________9
2.3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE GREEN ECONOMY _____________________________10
2.4 ZAMBIA'S SIXTH NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2015 _________________________10


PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW _______________________________13


3.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE CREATIVE ECONOMY ______________________14
3.1.1 CULTURAL POLICY ____________________________________________________________18
3.1.2 FINANCING __________________________________________________________________22
3.1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL SECTOR _____________________________________23
3.2 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND LEGISLATION _____________________________________25
3.2.1 COMPETITION POLICY _________________________________________________________26
3.2.2 EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS _____________________________________________________26
3.3 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS _______________________________________________27
3.3.1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN ZAMBIA ______________________________________28
3.4 FISCAL POLICY________________________________________________________________30
3.5 INVESTMENT _________________________________________________________________31
3.6 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISES ________________32
3.6.1 A SUCCESSFUL CASE OF CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN AFRICA _____________________________35
3.7 TRADE_______________________________________________________________________36
3.7.1 SOUTH-SOUTH TRADE _________________________________________________________37
3.7.2 REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION _____________________________________38
3.7.3 EXPORT PROMOTION __________________________________________________________40
3.8 SERVICES SECTOR _____________________________________________________________41
3.8.1 TOURISM: INTER-SECTORAL LINKAGES ____________________________________________42
3.8.2 AUDIOVISUAL SERVICES _______________________________________________________43
3.9 TECHNOLOGY AND CONNECTIVITY _______________________________________________43
3.10 EDUCATION AND TRAINING_____________________________________________________44
3.11 CREATIVITY AND BIODIVERSITY ________________________________________________46
3.12 DATA COLLECTION ___________________________________________________________47


PART 4. SECTOR-SPECIFIC OVERVIEW _________________________________________49




viii TABLE OF CONTENTS




4.1 PERFORMING ARTS ____________________________________________________________49
4.1.1 CULTURAL VILLAGES __________________________________________________________50
4.2 MUSIC _______________________________________________________________________51
4.3 AUDIOVISUAL AND NEW MEDIA __________________________________________________52
4.4 PUBLISHING AND THE BOOK SECTOR ______________________________________________54
4.5 OTHER SECTORS WITH POTENTIAL _______________________________________________55
4.5.1 VISUAL ARTS ________________________________________________________________55
4.5.2 ART CRAFTS _________________________________________________________________56
4.5.3 DESIGN _____________________________________________________________________58


PART 5. CONCLUSIONS _________________________________________________________61


5.1 RESULTS OF MEETINGS WITH THE GOVERNMENT AND STAKEHOLDERS__________________61
5.2 SECTOR EVALUATION __________________________________________________________61
5.3 COMMUNICATION, NETWORKING, AND STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ________________________62
5.4 TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY __________________________63


PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION ______________________________________________________65


LIST OF CONTACTS _______________________________________________________________73
REFERENCES ____________________________________________________________________75


PART 7. COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS ___________________________________80


7.1 ZAMBIA COUNTRY PROFILE: ECONOMIC INDICATORS AND STATISTICS__________________80
7.2 CREATIVE INDUSTRIES TRADE PERFORMANCE ______________________________________82
7.3 WORLD TRADE STATISTICS OF CREATIVE GOODS AND SERVICES _______________________86
7.3.1. CREATIVE GOODS: WORLD EXPORTS BY ECONOMIC GROUP AND COUNTRY, 2003-2008 ______86
7.3.2. CREATIVE GOODS: WORLD IMPORTS BY ECONOMIC GROUP AND COUNTRY, 2003-2008 ______91
7.3.3. EXPORTS OF ALL CREATIVE SERVICES (1) BY COUNTRY/TERRITORY 2003-2008 ____________96
7.3.4. IMPORTS OF ALL CREATIVE SERVICES (1) BY COUNTRY/TERRITORY, 2003-2008 ____________99
7.4 ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS_____________________________________________102
7.4.1. ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS, 2003-2008___________________________________102
7.4.2. ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS WITH SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY
(SADC), BY PRODUCT GROUPS, 2003-2008 ____________________________________________102
7.4.3 ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS TO THE COMMON MARKET FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN
AFRICA (COMESA), BY PRODUCT GROUPS, 2003-2008___________________________________103
7.4.4 ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS WITH THE AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN AND PACIFIC GROUP OF
STATES (ACP), BY PRODUCT GROUPS, 2003-2008 _______________________________________104
7.4.5. ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS TO SOUTH AFRICA, BY PRODUCT GROUPS, __________104
7.4.6. ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS TO AFRICA (EXCLUDING SOUTH AFRICA), BY PRODUCT
GROUPS, 2003-2008 ______________________________________________________________105
7.4.7. ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION, (EU 27), 2003-2008 ______105
7.4.8. ZAMBIA TRADE BALANCE OF CREATIVE GOODS, 2003-2008 __________________________105







LIST OF FIGURES, CHARTS AND TABLES ix




LIST OF FIGURES, CHARTS AND TABLES




LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1. UNCTAD High-Level Policy-Dialogue on Creative Industries, July 2008, Lusaka,
Zambia.


Figure 2. Signing of the study validation.
Figure 3. Country map
Figure 4: Photo of visual arts: masks and sculptures
Figure 5. Photo of a typical creative product from Zambia
Figure 6. UNCTAD classification of creative industries
Figure 7 The development dimension of the creative economy
Figure 8. The creative nexus: C-ITET model
Figure 9. The creative industry value chain
Figure 10. Photo of contemporary sculpture made with recyclable materials
Figure 11. Photo of traditional dance
Figure 12. Photo of Kabwata cultural village
Figure 13. Photo of traditional music playing
Figure 14. Paintings
Figure 15. Design products
Figure 16. Design art craft




LIST OF CHARTS


Chart 1. Zambia Creative Industry Trade Performance, 2003-2008
Chart 2. South-South Trade all creative goods, 2003 - 2008
Chart 3: Zambia main destinations of creative exports, 2008
Chart 4: Top 10 creative goods exporters from COMESA countries, 2008
Chart 5: Top 10 creative goods importers in COMESA countries, 2008
Chart 6. Zambia exports from the publishing sector, 2003-2008
Chart 7: Zambia exports from the visual arts sector, 2003-2008
Chart 8: Zambia exports from the Arts Crafts goods, 2003-2008
Chart 9: Zambia exports from the design sector, 2003-2008




x LIST OF TABLES






LIST OF TABLES


Table 7. Country profile and statistics
Table 7.1 Zambia country profile: economic indicators and statistics, 2003-2008
Table 7.2 Zambia creative industries trade performance, 2003-2008
Table 7.3 World trade statistics of creative goods and services, 2003-2008
Table 7.3.1. Creative goods: world exports, by economic group and country/territory, 2003-2008
Table 7.3.2 Creative goods: world imports, by economic group and country/territory, 2003-2008
Table 7.3.3. Exports of all creative services (1) by country/territory 2003-2008
Table 7.3.4. Imports of all creative services (1) by country/territory, 2003-2008
Table 7.4 Zambia trades of creative goods, 2003-2008
Table 7.4.1. Zambia trade of creative goods, 2003-2008
Table 7.4.2. Zambia trade of creative goods with SADC countries, by product groups, 2003-2008
Table 7.4.3 Zambia trade of creative goods to COMESA countries, by product groups, 2003-2008
Table 7.4.4 Zambia trade of creative goods with ACP countries, by product groups, 2003-2008
Table 7.4.5. Zambia trade of creative goods to South Africa, by product groups, 2003 -2008
Table 7.4.6. Zambia trade of creative goods to Africa (excluding South Africa), 2003-2008
Table 7.4.7. Zambia trade of creative goods to EU25, 2003-2008
Table 7.4.8. Zambia trade balance of creative goods, 2003-2008




LIST OF ABREVIATIONS xi


LIST OF ABREVIATIONS




ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
AGOA African Growth and Opportunity Act
ARIPO African Regional Intellectual Property Organization
ASSITEJ Association of Theatre for Children and Young People in Zambia
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
CSO Central Statistical Office
DCA Department of Cultural Affairs
EBZ Export Board of Zambia
EPA Economic Partnership Agreement
EU European Union
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services
GDP Gross Domestic Product
ILO International Labour Organization
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IT Information Technology
ICT Information and Communications Technology
LDC Least developed countries
LLDC Landlocked developing country
MCDSS Ministry of Community Development and Social Services
MFNP Ministry of Finance and National Planning
MTENR Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources
NAC National Arts Council
NAMA National Media Arts Association
NATAAZ National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia
NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NGO Non-governmental organization
NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
ODA Official Development Assistance
PAAC Provincial Arts Advisory Committee
PPP Public–private partnership
SACOD Southern Africa Communications for Development
SADC Southern African Development Community
SEED Small Enterprise Development
SMEs Small and medium-sized enterprises
SWVSE Structurally Weak, Vulnerable and Small Economy
TNC Transnational corporation
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
VAC Zambia National Visual Arts Council
VAT Value added tax
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WTO World Trade Organization
ZAFODAMUS Zambia Folk Dance and Music Society
ZAM Zambia Association of Musicians
ZAMCOPS Zambia Music Copyright Protection Society
ZAP Zambia Adjudicators’ Panel
ZAPOTA Zambia Popular Theatre Alliance
ZAWWA Zambia Women Writers’ Association
ZDA Zambia Development Agency




STRENGTHENING THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN ZAMBIA xiii




Strengthening the Creative Industries in
Zambia
































































































This report was prepared under the multi-agency project “Strengthening the creative industries in
five ACP [African, Caribbean and Pacific] countries through employment and trade expansion”.
This ACP pilot project is funded by the Ninth European Development Fund of the European
Commission, as a component of the Support Programme to ACP Cultural Industries with the
institutional support of the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group and has been
jointly implemented by ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO, during the period 2008–2011. The idea
of this project emerged during the First Meeting of the ACP Ministers of Culture held in Dakar
in June 2003, and a project proposal was presented and endorsed at the Second Meeting of ACP
Ministers of Culture held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, in October, 2006.


This policy-oriented report addresses the objectives set out for the implementation of phase I of
the project with a view to identify needs and priorities and recommend policies to foster
employment, enhancing creative capacities, trade expansion and the linkages between culture
and development. The purpose is to make an analytical assessment and a policy review of the
current status of the creative industries in Zambia to identify key issues and formulate policy
proposals for a strategic plan of action.


The ACP-EU Support Programme to cultural industries in ACP countries is funded by the
European Commission, managed and monitored by the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and
Pacific Group of States (ACP). The Programme is open to the 79 African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) Group of States and the European Union Member States that are signatories to the 9th
European Development Fund (EDF). It aims at reinforcing the capacities of policy and decision
makers, cultural operators and certain domains of culture and cultural industries in the ACP
countries, and it is structured around three complementary components:
(i) the establishment of an ACP Cultural Observatory as a mechanism for providing technical
advice and information in order to improve the policy, legal and institutional frameworks of the
sector; (2) a multi-agency pilot project to strengthen the creative industries in 5 selected ACP
countries (Fiji, Mozambique, Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago and Zambia), jointly implemented
by ILO UNCTAD and UNESCO, and (3) a grant scheme seeking to reinforce the technical,
financial and managerial capacities of ACP cultural operators and cultural industries.


The European Union remains the world’s leading donor for technical cooperation projects. In
2008, the year this project has started, the European Commission and its Member States
collectively provided 60% of total development assistance for developing countries. For ACP
countries a budget of 23 billion euros has been allocated under the 10th European Development
Fund for the period 2008-2013, nearly the double of the amount allocated under the 9th EDF.
Furthermore, the EU Commissioner for Development and Humanitarian Aid, in collaboration
with the EU Commissioner for Education, Culture and Youth, in the context of the EU-ACP
policy and economic relations, organized an important EU-ACP colloquium on the topic
"Culture and Creativity, Vectors for Development" held in Brussels in April 2009. The event
gathered about 800 participants from 65 African, Caribbean, Pacific and EU countries, including
policymakers, development professionals, artists, creators and the civil society. The innovative
aspect of the colloquium was that the "Brussels Declaration" was prepared by artists and cultural
and development professionals setting three types of objectives at policy, economic and cultural
levels. The growing importance of the creative industries to foster development was recognized
by both the European and ACP partners.





EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xv


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


This report was prepared with the purpose to make an assessment and a policy review of the current
status of creative industries in Zambia with a view to identify key issues and formulate policy
recommendations to assist the government to shape a strategic plan of action aiming at building a solid
basis for enhancing its creative economy for employment, trade and development gains.


Part I of the study provides a general introduction to Zambia's economic, political and social
environment. Throughout each of the chapters of the study, concrete action steps are proposed with the
aim to promote and strengthen the creative industries in Zambia.


Part II describes the project context and the efforts undertaken at local level to develop the creative
industries. The Government of Zambia is aware that the creative industries are a fast-growing
economic sector that holds great potential for developing countries, which often have rich traditions of
art, music, dance, literature, film, and other forms of creative assets, as well as a vast cultural heritage
and traditional knowledge.


Part III, provides an overview of macroeconomic issues and cross-cutting factors that have an impact
in the development of the creative industries. The institutional framework and the current
organizational structure for the administration of cultural policy are examined. Particular attention is
given to the vision presented at the Fifth National Development Plan as regards arts and culture, and to
the objectives set by the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services, whose goal is to
provide an enabling environment for safeguarding and promoting Zambian tangible and intangible
heritage and to ensure the development and promotion of cultural industries. The chapter reviews the
institutional mechanisms already in place to support the creative sector and gives an overview of the
organization of the cultural sector in the country, identifying the main stakeholders, and needed
actions. It also examines the current regulatory framework and relevant legislation. Issues related to
employment conditions are pointed out since most artists and creative professionals are self-employed
or work in the informal sector, thus, they do not benefit from the usual rights and obligations
prescribed by the Industrial and Labour Relations Act. The report stresses the need of better awareness
at country level about issues related to intellectual property rights, emphasizing that the international
legislation on current copyright and related rights needs to address the concerns of developing
countries, in the context of the proposals and deliberations being negotiated under the WIPO
Development Agenda. In the same way, countries can stimulate their creative industries by providing
special fiscal regimes as an incentive to artists and cultural producers. Investments and access to
capital remains a key issue for unleashing the creative potential of developing countries. UNCTAD
proposes the "creative nexus" model as a way to stimulate private investment, attracting new
technologies, promoting entrepreneurship and setting the basis for a an export-led strategy for the
creative industries. The report notes that the creative entrepreneurs are mostly micro and small
enterprises often at the top of the supply chain at the creation stage.


Part III highlights that creative industries are among the most dynamic sectors of world trade.
According to the Creative Economy Report 2010, world exports of creative goods and services are
expanding fast and reached $592 billion in 2008 with an annual growth rate of 14 per cent during the
2002-2008 period. South-South trade of creative goods amounted to nearly $60 billion. Zambia's total
trade on creative goods amounted to $2.3 million in 2008; however no data is available for the creative
services. Services are of critical importance for most economies in Africa. Therefore, two main
sectors are briefly examined, the tourism and the audiovisual sectors, due to their close linkages with
the local creative economy. Technology and connectivity, education and training as well as the
linkages between the creative economy and the ecology are discussed as key components for a
national strategy to reinforce entrepreneurial and creative capacities. Collection of reliable data for the
creative industries remains imperative for a clear picture of the country situation and for policy
formulation. On the basis of the UNCTAD Global database on creative economy, a country profile for
Zambia was created to analyze the trade performance of the creative industries in the country.




xvi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY






Part IV, focus on a sector specific overview, describing the performance of pre-designated creative
industries, including performing arts, music, audiovisuals, new media and the publishing sector. In the
views of UNCTAD, in the short-medium terms, the creative sectors with better potential for
development are: art crafts, visuals arts and design.


In Part V conclusions and policy actions are integrated into the analysis. A plan of action jointly
prepared by UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO and validated by the Government of Zambia is presented in
Part VI of this study. Some policy actions proposed in this study are now reflected in the Sixth
National Development Plan of Zambia presently under implementation.


In Part VII, to finalize, a comprehensive compilation of economic indicators brings evidence on the
potential of the creative industries to foster inclusive and sustainable development. UNCTAD presents
a country profile highlighting the trade performance of the Zambian creative industries, as a tool to
formulate a strategy to enhance creative capacity and trade opportunities in the future.











PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1




PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
This project is a contribution to the objectives set by the Dakar Declaration and Plan of Action for the
Promotion of ACP Culture and Cultural Industries (2003) and by the Santo Domingo Resolution
(2006), adopted by the ACP ministers of culture. Zambia was the first beneficiary country visited. This
study is the UNCTAD contribution for the first phase of the project implemented in Zambia.
In the scope of the project, UNCTAD is focusing on the economic aspects of a development strategy,
offering policy advice, technical assistance and capacity-building activities intended to enhance: (a)
public policies; (b) supply capacities; and (c) trade and investment related to the creative industries.
The work of the International Labour Organization (ILO) is oriented towards the social aspects, by
promoting employment, decent work and entrepreneurship in the creative sectors. The United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is setting standards in the cultural field,
aiming at safeguarding cultural diversity, and enhancing linkages between culture and development.


Initially, various methodological questions were set out in the project document,2 including the
rationale for selecting the five countries and the target creative sectors. Three subsectors were
designated as preferential for project activities, depending, of course, on the results of the policy
analysis, the priorities, and the creative potential in each country. The initially designated sectors are:
(a) performing arts,3 (b) audiovisual and new media,4 and (c) publishing and aspects of the “book
chain.”5 Within the broader context of these subsectors, a tailor-made selection will be made
depending on the specificity of each pilot country.


The analysis in this report is the result of research based on primary and secondary material. The
research process included one fact-finding mission, and extensive collaboration with local
stakeholders, including government officials, professionals from the all creative industries, and civil
society. Feedback on the main findings of this analysis was provided by the Government and by
stakeholders, including discussions about the priorities for a national policy agenda to enhance the
creative economy.
























2
ACP secretariat, ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO. Summary Joint Programme Document for Strengthening the


Creative Industries in five selected African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries through Employment and Trade
Expansion. Geneva. February 2007.
3
Performing arts refers to: music recordings, musical instruments, musical compositions and publications etc.;


festivals, concerts, plays and artistic performances, dance, songs, other performing arts; performing arts venues;
music and performing arts production, dissemination, operation and promotion services.
4
Audiovisual and new media refers to: film, video recording, radio and television programmes, Internet


creativity sites etc.
5
Publishing and other elements of the “book chain” refers to: bookshops, libraries, initiatives to support the


development of reading (such as public readings).


Figure 1. UNCTAD High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries
July 2008, Lusaka, Zambia




Chair person: Vice-Minister of Community Development and Social Services




2 PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION




As part of the methodology, UNCTAD organized the High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative
Industries in Zambia, which was held from 2 to 4 July 2009 in Lusaka.6 The purpose was to submit the
final draft of this policy-oriented study for discussion and validation by the Government and
stakeholders. In order to prepare for the session, UNCTAD worked in close collaboration with the
Director of the Department of Cultural Affairs from the Ministry of Community Development and
Social Services. The session was opened by the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Zambia. The
Deputy Minister chaired the debates and stressed the commitment of his Government to ensuring an
effective implementation of the project and to provide full support for UNCTAD’s activities.
UNCTAD made a comprehensive presentation of the study, identifying key issues and proposing a
number of policy actions. The session was fruitful, as evidenced by the lively debates and the large
number of participants from all segments of the creative industries. On behalf of the Zambian
Government, the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Community Development signed a document
endorsing the study and approving the plan of action.


The policy dialogue was followed by the official signing and validation statements by high-level
officials from seven line ministries, who agreed to form the Creative Economy Inter-Ministerial
Committee, as proposed in chapter 1.7 The study was praised by the officials, who congratulated
UNCTAD on its well-researched study and its pragmatic proposals. The stakeholders and
professionals from the creative industries, artists, and relevant institutions voiced their hope for
concrete results. UNCTAD thanked the Zambian Government for its strong engagement, and agreed to
include the comments received into this final version.




















1.1 COUNTRY INFORMATION


Zambia is a landlocked country with an estimated population of approximately 12.5 million.8 The
country has 73 ethnic groups, with a small percentage of European, Asian and other immigrant
communities. There are seven national languages: Bemba, Kaonde, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja and
Tonga. The official language is English. The majority of the population originates from Bantu-
speaking groups.9 The country is administratively divided into nine provinces: Central, Copperbelt,
Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern and Western. The country has vast




6
See: UNCTAD Creative Programme e-newsletter no. 10. Geneva. September 2009.


7
For more details, see section 3.1: Institutional framework around the creative economy.


8Projected mid-year population 2000–2008. CSO Populations Projection Report. http://www.zamstats.gov.zm
9
Republic of Zambia (2008). Ministry of Community Development and Social Services. National cultural policy


(draft). June: 9.


Figure 2. Signing of the study validation




Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Community
Development and Social Services, Director of Cultural


Affairs, and Chief of the Creative Economy Programme,
UNCTAD




PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3


mineral resources including copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, gold, silver and various gemstones. In
addition, the country has hydroelectric power and good agricultural potential.


According to the United Nations, Zambia is among the world’s 49 least developed countries (LDCs),
based on the three criteria of low income, human resource weakness and economic vulnerability.10
About 36 per cent of Zambia’s total population is considered non-poor, while the remaining 64 per
cent of the population are categorized as living under either extreme or moderate poverty.11 As a
landlocked country, Zambia shares borders with eight countries. The capital is Lusaka. Zambia is one
of Africa’s most urbanized countries; approximately 30 per cent of the population lives in urban areas.
The rate of illiteracy is about 27 per cent. The dropout rate at schools is very high.12 Zambia is
nonetheless known for the political and social stability that prevails in the country.


1.2 POLITICAL STRUCTURE


Zambia gained independence in 1964 and Kenneth Kaunda became the first president. The country
was ruled as a one-party State until general elections were held in October 1991. Since then, Zambia
has been a multi-party parliamentary democracy. Its legislature is the National Assembly of Zambia,
which has a total of 160 members.13 Zambia has universal adult suffrage. The constitution calls for
separation of powers between the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The president is elected
for a term of five years by direct vote. In 2008, Rupiah Banda was elected the fourth president of the
country.




Figure 3. Country Map








10
See the annual issues of the Least Developed Countries Report published by UNCTAD.


11
Socio-demographic data. http://www.zamstats.gov.zm


12
http://www.zambiatourism.com


13
http://www.parliament.gov.zm/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=74&Itemid=45





4 PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION




1.3 ECONOMIC BACKGROUND


Once a middle-income country, Zambia faced a long degradation of economic conditions in the
1970's, with a decline in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita between the 1960's and the 1990s,
driven by a decline in copper prices on the world market and decrease in domestic production. In
2009, the resource-endowed country ranked 164th out of 182 countries on the Human Development
Index and a large percentage of the population lives below the poverty line. Zambia was granted LDC
status in 1991. Zambia's economy started growing in the late 1990s, thanks to the economic and
public-sector reforms initiated in 1991. Key milestones included privatization of the mining sector,
promotion of the private sector, infrastructures development, and fiscal management and debt
reduction initiatives in the mid-2000s14.


Economic and social indicators


Economic and social indicators


2008


Population (millions)
Gross national income per capita ($, current prices)
Poverty (% of population below national poverty line)
Urban population (% of total population)
Life expectancy at birth (years)
Literacy (% of population age 15+)
Agriculture (% of GDP)
Industry (% of GDP)
Manufacturing (% of GDP)
Copper products export (% of total exports)


12.6
1,053
68
35
45
71
21.2
46.3
11.6
64.3


Sources: World Bank, Comtrade, TAC


About 65 per cent of Zambia’s export earnings come from mining – mainly copper and cobalt. Other
exported commodities are sugar, cereals and tobacco. The main imports are machinery and
petroleum.15 Zambia’s main trading partners are European countries, in particular Germany and the
United Kingdom, and also Japan, India, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Thailand. Its main trading partners in
Africa are South Africa, Malawi, Zimbabwe, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo.16


Zambia economic growth has shown some resilience to the global crisis (+6.3 per cent for real GDP in
2009), thanks to the increase in copper production and a salient agricultural production. In parallel,
while decreasing international food and commodities prices had an adverse impact on revenue
collections, domestic prices' dynamics eased significantly and the current account deficit narrowed.
The Zambian Kwacha depreciated by more than 80 per cent after the burst of global financial turmoil
in 2008-2009, in parallel, the banking system was subject to the global restriction on access to foreign
capital. The Special Drawing Rights allocation by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in
September 2009 has boosted international reserves and the banking sector's confidence; the exchange
rate has thus recently strengthened and stabilized, supported by the recovery in copper prices.




14
UNCTAD Trade and Development Board, Geneva, 6-8 September 2010. In-depth evaluation of UNCTAD's


Technical cooperation activities dedicated to least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small
island developing States and other structurally weak, vulnerable and small economies- Case study on Zambia.
TD/B/WP/224
15


Zambia exports for the period 2005–2007 and Zambia imports for the period 2005–2007.
http://www.zamstats.gov.zm
16


SADC. The Official SADC Trade, Industry and Investment Review 2007/2008. Zambia: 265.




PART 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 5


Zambia was officially included in the list of LDCs in 199117. The LDC status currently provides
special support measures which differ among the various development partners, but they primarily
relate to trade preference (for example, Zambia is a beneficiary of the Generalized System of
Preferences) and official development assistance, including development financing and technical
cooperation. In addition, LDCs receive support under the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) to
develop the necessary capacities in the area of trade, including improving upon their supply response
to trade opportunities and better integrating into the multilateral trading system.


The 2009, UNCTAD's Least Developed Countries Report indicated that Zambia belongs to different
groups of countries: mineral exporters in export specialization, net food exporters and net exporter of
agricultural raw material in net agricultural trade. In addition, with distances from the nearest seacoast
of more than 2,000 km and surrounded by eight neighboring countries, Zambia is classified as an
LLDC18. Zambia also belongs to the unofficial category of SWVSEs19, based on smallness and
vulnerability factors.


Dedicated programmes of actions have to be implemented, in Zambia in particular, to reduce
transportation constraints and poverty resulting from their remoteness and isolation from world
markets. Transit time for goods from or to Zambia is extremely long because of substantial distance
and often inefficient transit transport conditions in the country and the surrounding transit developing
countries. The distance is highly correlated with transport costs (the Zambian Ministry of Commerce,
Trade and Industry estimates that 70 per cent of the cost, insurance and freight price of internationally
traded goods in or from Zambia is related to transport cost), so Zambian competitiveness on the world
market is eroded. As dominant exports are commodities and as such exports are transit-intensive,
higher payments of transport and insurance services imply an equivalent reduction in export earnings.
Higher transport costs borne by Zambia can be considered as a major restrictive barrier to trade, thus
lowering Zambia integration in the multilateral trading system.


Recent FDI inflows have contributed modestly to the much-needed diversification of the economic
base and exports. There is some evidence indicating that FDI has contributed to skills and technology
transfer. Zambia can achieve its potential, but needs to work hard on bringing its investment policy
framework, its macroeconomic policies, its infrastructure and the costs of doing business to levels that
make the country’s producers and creators more competitive regionally and globally.


Tourism represents a major potential growth industry for Zambia. The country has vast wilderness
areas, and if properly used, they could help attract considerable amounts of FDI. Tourism contributed
3.4 per cent to the GDP of the region and was directly responsible for 1.75 million jobs in 200620.The
creative industries have a close link with the tourism industry. The creative industries are a sector with
growing economic potential (see chapter 3), with art crafts, performing arts, and the publishing and
design industries standing out as the sectors with the best prospects of contributing to employment,
exports and GDP. In addition, the creative industries can have a positive impact on enhancing gender
equality, as they offer numerous possibilities to women to be active in the creative sectors. They also
contribute to social inclusion because of their attractiveness to young people, including those from
rural communities.






17
General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/206 adopted at its forty-sixth session


18
Landlocked developing country


19
Structurally weak, vulnerable and small economy


20
Ibid.




PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT 7




PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT
2.1 THE PROJECT BACKGROUND


This project to enhance the economic potential of the creative industries in five Africa, Caribbean and
Pacific countries embodies a new approach to this fast-growing sector, and has been designed and
agreed upon between three United Nations agencies, the ACP Group of States and the European
Commission. By nurturing and building upon cultural assets already existing in a set of countries, the
project is intended to develop the music, film, performing arts, publishing and other related creative
industries, through a variety of targeted activities spread over four years. It is intended to respond to
needs expressed by ACP countries, by offering effective policy guidance and developing capacity-
building materials to assist transform local talent into a catalyst for dynamic creative industries that
can foster sustainable employment, encourage economic growth and enhance trade capacity. Project
activities will aim at providing support to policy-makers responsible for promoting the creative
economy, creative industries workers, agents/managers and practicing artist-entrepreneurs. The project
will be centered on local people's needs and expectations, with a view to preserving its traditions and
encouraging its creativity and thereby contributing to the promotion of cultural diversity while
fostering an inclusive and sustainable development.


Creative industries comprise the creation, production, marketing and distribution of products and
services resulting from human creativity. According to UNCTAD, the creative industries deal with the
interplay of various knowledge-based economic activities comprising tangible products and intangible
intellectual assests, with economic and culture value, creative content and market objectives. They
include the performing arts, the motion picture and recording industries, book, journal and newspaper
publishing; and the computer software and games industry, music and theatre production,
photography, commercial art, advertising, radio, television and cable broadcasting industry. The
prominent role of creativity in shaping the direction and volume of trade flows has important
implications for both development and socio-economic growth, especially in developing countries. In
developed countries, the creative economy is becoming a platform for promoting innovation,
enhancing services and reducing unemployment. The strengths of this creative economy rely on its
capacity to improve competitiveness and to help countries to diversify their economies. While the
range of skills and specific cultural features of a country are preconditions for successful expansion of
the creative economy, creativity is becoming crucial to articulate development strategies. Creativity is
a strategic asset that can offer a comparative advantage in the globalizing world and help maintain a
country's cultural identity.


In many developing countries, the performance and competitiveness of the creative industries have
suffered from weak institutional and political support, low levels of entrepreneurial capability, low
added value, over-dependence on foreign firms and massive copyright infringement. Earnings,
working conditions and employment could be enhanced if the industries were more effectively
organized: if capacities for cultural entrepreneurship were strengthened and if new market
opportunities were identified and exploited more fully. Challenges posed by globalization can be dealt
with expanding the economic and trade potential of local talents, through cultural traditions and
expertise. Understanding and responding to the influences shaping the creative industries is a
precondition for defining effective intervention strategies21.


Noteworthy policies and project activities have been undertaken in support of the creative industries in
some developing countries, but few could be identified as models for systematic and strategic support
to build and strengthen their competitiveness. The potential for boosting sustainable socio-economic


21
Strengthening the Creative Industries in five selected African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, project


document, Annex 1, description of action.




8 PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT




growth and employment through the creative industries in developing countries remains mostly
untapped. Although creative industries currently contribute significantly to employment, this is often a
precarious source of income, characterized by unstable work contracts, poor working conditions and
lack of social protection.


Creative industries could promote new ways of integration with the global economy, through regional
cooperation. They could thus become a more important economic sector recognized for its substantial
contribution to GDP. With appropriate strategic policy support at both national and international levels
and strengthening of the capacities of creative industry practitioners and entrepreneurs, the creative
economy represents new opportunities for developing countries to create new products, open up access
to global markets and leap-frog into new areas of wealth creation.22


Creative industries have impressive growth and economic performance in many countries in
comparison to other more traditional sectors. The complex global value chain of creative industries
offers many opportunities for developing countries to link up with international productions networks.
Special attention should be paid to ways of increasing the participation of developing countries in
international trade. Each country needs to choose its own "model", based on its realities and
specificities, because there are no "one size fits all" models of development for creative industries
suitable to all countries.


This project is building on ongoing work of the three implementing agencies. In the case of UNCTAD,
the project takes into account the progress made in the intergovernmental debate in the area of the
creative industries and the emerging creative economy. Particularly, in the context of mandates from
UNCTAD XI (2004) and UNCTAD XII (2008), UNCTAD has been playing a key role in sensitizing
governments about the potential of the creative economy to foster trade and development gains,
promoting policy initiatives and enhancing cooperation with countries, institutions and the
international community. UNESCO has been promoting the implementation of the Convention on the
Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions as well as its Global Alliance for
Cultural Diversity that creates synergies among public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The project
also links up with related work in the area of culture, promoting demand for cultural goods, sustaining
local initiatives and businesses, encouraging investment by the state or local structures and engaging
other partners from the culture sector, especially those involved in publishing, recording and live
performance.


In most advanced countries, the creative industries have already become a strategic priority. For
example, some governments have carried out analysis and mapping exercises, and consciously defined
and planned national policies for each sector. Unfortunately, this is not happening in most developing
countries, where the lack of attention given to producers of cultural goods and services translates into
weak support in specific accompanying measures (legislation and regulation, institutional support,
access to credit and funding, etc.). In this environment, policy guidelines can assist in supporting the
creative industries to develop and flourish. Governments can play a key role in the design of the policy
framework for enhancing their creative economy.


The economic importance of culture in the development of ACP countries was clearly stressed in the
Cotonou Agreement, in particular in Article 2723. The Agreement urges ACP governments to
undertake action aimed at promoting and implementing ACP cultural projects and programmes. It
highlights the importance of culture in terms of identity, cultural dialogue and cultural industries. The
Nadi Declaration of Heads of State of ACP countries (July 2002) underscored the contribution of
culture to the economic and democratic development of ACP countries. The First Conference of ACP
Ministers of Culture in Dakar, June 2003 clearly acknowledged the importance of cultural industries in




22
UNCTAD, "Creative industries and development"(Eleventh Session, Sao Paulo, 13-18 June, 2004).


TD(XI/BP/13 4 June 2004, p.7.
23


European Commission DG-Development - Cotonou Agreement.
http//europa.eu.int/comm./development/body/cotonou/agreement_en.html




PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT 9


development processes in the Dakar Declaration on the Promotion of ACP Cultures and Cultural
Industries and its Plan of Action. The ACP Ministers of Culture recognized "the potential of
enterprises involved in culture and their contribution to sustainable economic development and the
fight against poverty". The Dakar Plan of Action identifies, among others, as objectives: the
development or the creation of several mechanisms to improve the ACP cultural institutions (capacity-
building); the development of human capital (artists, designers, managers, etc.), the development of
cultural products, businesses and industries, and, the development of ACP cultural markets for better
integration in global markets.


The transition from cultural to creative industries is not a straightforward or automatic process and
requires nurturing and specific policy initiatives. The First Conference of ACP Ministers of Culture in
Dakar recognized the specific role that ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO can play in this field and this
was endorsed by the Declaration on the Promotion of ACP Cultures and Cultural Industries. The ACP
group confirmed their commitment "to work with the private sector and specialized agencies, such as
the International Labour Organization (ILO), to promote the creation and development of Small and
Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship in the cultural sector" (Clause 58). The Declaration
also recognized "the work by UNCTAD on the development potential of cultural industries and
requests UNCTAD and other relevant international organizations to carry out studies in evaluating the
impact of the current trade regime on domestic cultural policies" (Clause 58). It also supports
"facilitating partnerships between the public sector, private sector and civil society, in particular within
the framework of UNESCO'S Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity" (Clause 54).


Furthermore, within the framework of Regional Strategy Papers24 between the ACP region and the
European Community, complementary actions to regional economic integration and trade are to be
considered. The cultural sector is of growing significance throughout the region and can be used as a
unifying factor to cement regional ties. The development of creative industries can be part of the ACP-
EU policy agenda with its potential impact on integration processes, intra-ACP and international trade,
institutional capacity building, regional cooperation and integration, conflict prevention and dialogue
between nations.


2.2 THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS)
This policy-oriented study was also carried out in the context of the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) since they represent the international policy environment within which national strategies for
advancing the creative economy in developing countries are being implemented. The MDGs express
the international community's commitment to the global development agenda. There are eight goals
with specific targets to be reached by 2015 namely to: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2)
achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce
child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7)
ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development. The
MDGs address development challenges as an inherent part of the global economy and the life of
societies.


The creative industries sectors of the developing economies have significant potential to contribute
towards the achievement of 5 out of the 8 MDGs. The creative economy has a multitude of dimensions
and it contributes to economic, social, cultural and sustainable development in a number of ways.
From the economic perspective; it promotes economic diversification, revenues, trade and innovation.
According to UNCTAD, world trade in creative industries products continues to increase; trade in
creative goods and services grew on average 14 per cent annually during the period 2002-2008. A




24
Regional Strategy Papers and Regional Indicative Programmes for 2002-2007 for: 1. Southern African


Development Community/European Community; 2. West Africa/European Community; 3. Region of Eastern
and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean/European Community; 4. Central African Region /European
Community; 5. Pacific ACP/European Community; 6. Caribbean Forum of the ACP States/European
Community.




10 PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT




major social impact of the creative industries is their contribution to employment, particularly for
women and the youth. Another important social aspect of the creative industries relates to their role in
fostering social inclusion. At the grass-root level, the creative economy includes cultural activities that
can be important in linking social groups in communities and contributing to social cohesion. Finally,
the manifestations of a people's culture - customs, rituals, artifacts, music and so on - permeate the
daily lives of men, women and children and constitute a significant element in providing for their
education, culture, happiness and well-being25.




2.3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE GREEN ECONOMY


The creative industries also contribute to sustainable development. It is becoming increasingly
recognized that the concept of "sustainability" has a larger scope beyond its application to the
environment. The tangible and intangible cultural capital of a community, a nation or a region of the
world is something that must be preserved for future generations just as natural resources and
ecosystems need to be safeguarded to ensure continuation of human life on the planet.


Cultural sustainability implies a development process that maintains all types of cultural assets, from
minority languages and traditional rituals to artworks, artifacts and heritage buildings and sites. The
contributions that artistic and cultural production, dissemination and participation make to economic
empowerment, cultural enrichment and social cohesion in the community, in order to promote major
social progress, are the main reasons to support the principles of cultural sustainable development.


Creative industries built on cultural capital and heritage often have deep roots in the natural
environment. The traditional knowledge that makes the creative industries so unique evolved over
centuries through observation and use of the natural environment. From the study and use of plants
came our first systems of medicine and the basis of the natural health and cosmetics industry.
Indigenous knowledge of the natural environment has created lucrative markets for visual arts, eco-
fashion and ecotourism.


The primary input for creative activities is creativity, a natural resource in abundance in the world. The
creative industries production is usually less dependent on heavy industrial infrastructure and can be
easily compatible with environmental protection and preservation. There is a recent trend towards
ethical consumerism. Both producers and consumers of creative products increasingly question the
true cultural, economic and environmental value of what they create, buy and sell. In this spirit,
creativity and biodiversity are well matched and should be seen as a win-win solution to promote
responsible use of the world's biodiversity, while promoting the development dimension of the
creative economy26.


2.4 ZAMBIA'S SIXTH NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2015


The Zambia Government has approved in January 2011, it's Sixth National Development Plan 2011-
2015 whose theme is "Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction". Tourism and its linkages
with arts and culture through the creative industries is one of the priority sectors for development and
potentially a major contributor to advance socio-economic development in Zambia. The new National
Development Plan foresees Zambia as a major tourism destination with unique features, a thriving




25
Creative Economy Report 2010: A feasible development option. UNCTAD/UNDP, 2010. For further


information on the MDGs please refer to page 33. http://www.unctad.org/creative-programme
26


Creative Economy Report 2010: a feasible development option. UNCTAD/UNDP, 2010. See also UNCTAD
Creative Economy E-News No.12, April, 2010.




PART 2. PROJECT CONTEXT 11


national cultural heritage and creative industries which contribute to sustainable economic growth and
poverty reduction by 203027.
Arts and culture will also focus on the provision of requisite infrastructure and skills for the promotion
of the creative industries and for the preservation of cultural heritage, promotion of creative industries,
integrating climate change concerns in the development of the tourism industry and the preservation of
and promotion of Zambia's cultural heritage practices and expressions for posterity28.




27
The Sixth National Development Plan 2011-2015- Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in


Zambia. Executive Summary, Ministry of Finance and National Planning, Lusaka, January 2011.
28


Zambia Media News Summary, 8 February 2011, Daily Mail, SNDP to boost tourism sector, distributed by
UNDP office in Lusaka.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 13




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW
This section looks at macroeconomic issues and cross-cutting factors that have an impact on the
development of the creative industries at national level and policy formulation at international level.
Throughout this report, recommendations are made in each subsection for possible policy
interventions that could be taken for strengthening the creative industries for development gains.


Now-a-days it is widely recognized that in our globalized world, it is important to understand the
interface between creativity, economics, culture and technology, for an appropriate design and
articulation of the development strategies for the twenty-first century. Moreover, in a world
increasingly dominated by images, sounds, texts and symbols, the so-called creative economy is
leading growth, employment, innovation and social cohesion in many advanced countries. Therefore,
the creative economy can also be a feasible development option to diversify the economies of
developing countries, if effective public policies are in place. At the heart of the creative economy are
the creative industries.29






















The creative industries are a fast-growing economic sector that holds great potential for developing
countries, which often have rich traditions of art, music, dance, literature, film, and other forms of
creative talent, as well as vast cultural heritage and profound traditional knowledge. As per UNCTAD,
throughtout this decade the creative industries became one of the most dynamic sectors in the world
economy and in international trade. However, the large majority of developing countries are not yet
able to harness the potential of their creative economies to create jobs, revenues and export earnings.30
The Creative Economy Report 2008, provides empirical evidence that the creative industries had an
average growth rate of 8.7 per cent during the period 2000–2005. More recently, worldwide trade in
creative goods and services reached $592 billion in 2008.31 Africa, however, it is not yet benefiting
from its creative economy to accelerate development.




29
UNCTAD (2006). Creative economy: a feasible development option. Article by E. dos Santos.


30
UNCTAD (2008). Secretary-General’s high-level panel on the creative economy and industries for


development. Background paper. TD(XII)BP/4. January.
31


UNCTAD and UNDP (2010). Creative Economy Report 2010. The Creative Economy, A feasible development
option. UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2010/3. New York and Geneva.


Figure 4. Photo of visual arts
Masks and wood sculptures




Photos by Edna dos Santos, 2008




14 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




For the moment, despite the abundance of talents, the creative industries in Africa are relatively small
and very fragmented. According to available official statistics, Zambia’s exports of creative goods
totaled $2.3 million in 2008. The trade aspect of the creative industries will be further elaborated in
subsequent sections.


Chart 1. Zambia Creative Industry Trade Performance, 2003-2008


Zambia Creative Industry Trade Performance 2003-2008


0.00


10.00


20.00


30.00


40.00


50.00


60.00


70.00


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in
m


ill
io


n
o


f U
S$


)


Exports
Imports




Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy


3.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE CREATIVE ECONOMY


Zambia’s first president established the Department of Cultural Services and gave it the mandate of
managing and coordinating official cultural activities. Over the years, the Department has been shifted
from one ministry to another. There is no specific ministry of culture within the current government
structure. Currently, there is the Department of Cultural Affairs (DCA) housed within the Ministry of
Community Development and Social Services (MCDSS), which has responsibilities in the cultural
sectors.


The objective of the MCDSS is to contribute to the socio-economic recovery programme and to
improve the welfare of the Zambian people. It is mandated to contribute to the reduction of poverty, to
improve the standard of living of the most vulnerable members of society, to protect children, and to
preserve, develop and promote Zambia’s cultural heritage and identity. With respect to culture, the
MCDSS oversees the National Arts Council (NAC) and is responsible for the national cultural policy,
promoting folk culture, and supporting the arts and the cultural industry programme.32 In its strategic
plan, the MCDSS states its objective of furthering policy for the effective participation of the private
sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations with respect to
folklore and culture.


The DCA has a strong focus on intangible heritage, in particular dance and music and other aspects of
folk culture such as art crafts. It is also directly responsible for the development of the national cultural
policy. The DCA participated in the creation of the Copyright Society, which is under the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting Services. Responsibilities for the performing and visual arts were
transferred from the DCA to the National Arts Council when it became operational. The DCA is active




32
Republic of Zambia (2007). Ministry of Community Development and Social Services. Strategic Plan for the


Ministry of Community Development and Social Services 2007–2011, September.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 15


Figure 5. Photo of visual arts- a typical
creative product from Zambia




Photo by Edna dos Santos


in capacity-building among community theatre groups and cultural organizations, and it is involved in
the training of district cultural officers. It is also active in developing cultural and art crafts villages
throughout Zambia, as well as theatres and art galleries. The DCA is active in promoting and
documenting traditional ceremonies, and providing cultural news and literature including an anthology
of Zambian poetry. The DCA also organizes entertainment during state and public functions.


The role of the DCA is to improve the quality and standards of cultural production, to safeguard
cultural heritage, and to promote the integration of culture into the mainstream of development.33




















Administration of the culture sector also cuts across various other ministries, including the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting Services, which oversees the Zambia Music Copyright Protection
Society and the film and cinema administration; the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural
Resources, which oversees the National Museum Board and the National Heritage Conservation
Commission; the Ministry of Local Government and Housing, which oversees Chiefs’ Affairs; the
Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, which oversees the training of artists in
colleges; the Ministry of Home Affairs, which oversees the National Archives; the Ministry of
Education, which oversees book policy; and the Ministry of Commerce, which deals with intellectual
property.


Action: The current organizational structure for the administration of cultural policy – and its impact
on creative sectors – appears, to a certain extent, to be fragmented, making the design of more
concerted strategic policies difficult for the short and long term. It could be useful to reinforce one
single entity that would encompass the multiple aspects related to culture and the creative sectors, for
example, through the establishment of an empowered ministerial body devoted to culture and the
creative economy. In the short term, the establishment of an inter-ministerial committee for the
creative economy could be considered, or a Zambian creative economy agency, as a centralized
coordinating body and institutional mechanism to facilitate policy formulation and to play a key role
in shaping inter-ministerial decisions. This would involve government officials from all the relevant
ministries and institutions, as well as key stakeholders from professional associations in the creative
sector, to develop and put in place appropriate and more effective strategies to enhance the creative
industries as a strategic component of Zambia’s economic development policy agenda. The
implementation of this action is likely to reinforce the current institutional mechanism and facilitate
more effective policy actions.




33
Ibid.




16 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




In its strategic plan, the MCDSS has included two objectives which are of particular relevance for
developing the creative industries:


Objective 3: To develop and promote viable creative/cultural industries for sustainable development.


Strategies: To develop and implement a programme to conduct periodic surveys on creative/cultural
industries; to develop and implement a programme to promote viable creative/cultural industries; and
to promote the establishment of cooperatives among cultural associations and industry.


Performance indicators: Number of viable creative/cultural industries identified annually; number of
creative/cultural industries promoted annually; number of jobs created in the creative/cultural
industries; percentage increase in the contribution by creative/cultural industries to GDP.34


Objective 4: To preserve, protect and promote folklore and intangible heritage for cultural enrichment
and national identity.


Strategies: To facilitate and develop a comprehensive legal framework on folklore and intangible
heritage; to enforce the legal framework on folklore and intangible heritage in collaboration with law
enforcement agencies and stakeholders; to collaborate with international communities on the
legislation and enforcement of folklore and intangible heritage enacted; to develop and implement a
programme for collecting, documenting and disseminating folklore and intangible heritage to the
public for increased awareness; to develop and disseminate catalogues and calendars on local, regional
and international fairs and exhibitions.


Performance indicators: Inventory of folklore and intangible heritage likely to be established and
maintained annually; legal framework for the protection of folklore and intangible heritage expected to
be in place by 2010; reduction in the incidence of theft and piracy of folklore and intangible heritage;
number of traditional, cultural ceremonies promoted and provided annually; number of Zambian
artists participating in private and public, state/national functions annually; number of international
fairs participated in annually by local artists and creative/cultural groups.35


Action: Objective 3 is particularly crucial for strengthening creative industries. Concrete steps to
effectively implement this objective should be put in place as soon as possible, if the required human
and financial resources are available. As regards Objective 4, encouraging links between
entrepreneurial development and folklore and heritage-related activities would be useful.


Along with the Department of Cultural Affairs, the National Arts Council is a crucial institution in the
Zambian cultural scene. The National Arts Council of Zambia is a statutory body established under
Act no. 31 of 1994 of the Laws of Zambia. It became operational in 1996. Its overall objective is to
advise the Government on policy towards visual, performing, media and literary arts in the country. Its
aim is also to encourage artistic excellence on both amateur and professional levels in the country and
to promote the arts as an integral part of the lives of people in Zambia.36


The National Arts Council comprises nine arts associations representing performing, literary, media
and fine arts: the National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia (NATAAZ); the National Media Arts
Association (NAMA); the Zambia Folk Dance and Music Society (ZAFODAMUS); the Zambia
Women Writers’ Association (ZAWWA); the Zambia Popular Theatre Alliance (ZAPOTA); the
Zambia Association of Musicians (ZAM); the Zambia Adjudicators’ Panel (ZAP); the Zambia
National Visual Arts Council (VAC); the Association of Theatre for Children and Young People in
Zambia (ASSITEJ).






34
Ibid.


35
Ibid.


36
http://www.nationalartscouncil.org.zm




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 17


The functions of the NAC are to provide policy input at the national level with respect to all forms of
cultural expression in the country. The NAC also develops, promotes, regulates and encourages all
forms of amateur and professional arts on a national basis in conjunction with the associations and the
Government. It assists the formation of associations or organizations, encourages them to register as
national arts associations, and encourages their affiliation to the appropriate international
organizations. The National Arts Council also assists, financially or otherwise, any group or individual
representing Zambia in any artistic activity within or outside Zambia. It issues arts permits. It also
assists Zambians in obtaining relevant training within or outside Zambia. It ensures that arts groups at
all levels maintain proper accounts, and if necessary, it supervises the accounts. It regulates and
provides modalities for the award of national honors for artistic merit. The NAC regulates and
monitors all national arts programmes presented in Zambia, and it promotes the development and
organization of the arts.


The National Arts Council is comprised of the leaders of the associations that are affiliated with the
NAC. Two members of the MCDSS are also on the NAC council, as well as the director of the DCA,
and one member each appointed from the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Information and
Broadcasting Services, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, and the Ministry
of Tourism. The Ministry of Commerce was recently asked to appoint a member to be part of the NAC
Council.37


In order to move forward, the NAC has established eight goals, each of which is accompanied by one
or more strategic objectives:
Goal 1: Ensure the sustainability of NAC operations.


Strategic objectives: Increase sources of funding; secure increased funding from government.


Goal 2: Build the institutional capacity of the NAC.


Strategic objective: Provide space for operations related to the arts.


Goal 3: Improve the management capacity of the NAC.


Strategic objectives: Provide communication; build the information management capacity of the NAC;
decentralize the operations of the NAC; improve NAC staff efficiency; strengthen the institutional
capacity of the affiliates.


Goal 4: Promote gender awareness and commitment in the arts.


Strategic objective: Mainstream gender in all arts programmes.


Goal 5: Ensure legislation and legislative procedures to support the objectives of the NAC.
Strategic objective: Periodically review the NAC Act.


Goal 6: Promote the commitment to fight HIV/AIDS.


Strategic objective: Mainstream HIV/AIDS issues in all arts programmes.


Goal 7: Promote lifelong learning and education in the arts.


Strategic objective: Lobby for the establishment of arts education in schools and tertiary education
curricula.




37
Discussion with the Chair of the NAC. Lusaka. 28 July 2008.




18 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




Goal 8: Nurture and promote the arts as an integral part of the lives of people in Zambia.


Strategic objective: Promote growth of the arts sector into a major contributor to the GDP of the
country.


Actions: Consider reinforcing the institutional structure, provide a higher level of budgetary funds,
and broaden the mandates of the National Arts Council to cover not only the arts but also other more
technology-intensive and service-oriented creative industries, such as new media, design and creative
services (advertising, web services etc.). The UNCTAD classification of creative industries, as shown
in figure 6, which has a broader scope than the more traditional cultural industries, is a model that the
Government may wish to take into consideration.


Consider a more inclusive policy to ensure that artists who are not yet members of a specific arts
association are able to join, in order to have equal opportunities. A mechanism and an information
campaign could be used to attract independent artists and creators to be affiliated. This would facilitate
the move from the informal to the formal sector.


3.1.1 Cultural policy
The Fifth National Development Plan has a specific chapter on arts and culture. An official National
Cultural Policy was published in 2003, recognizing that culture is one of the fundamental dimensions
of development. The MCDSS–DCA is in the process of revising that policy, and a first draft of the
new policy was prepared in June 2008.38 The new national cultural policy is being designed to
conform to the Fifth National Development Plan and to the Strategic Plan of the MCDSS. Among the
guiding principles of the new cultural policy is the complementarily between culture and economic
and sustainable development, which is an initial step recognizing the contribution of the creative
sectors to the economic development of the country.39


The draft national cultural policy includes five main objectives:
(1) Cultural research: To undertake and facilitate cultural research in order to preserve, develop,
promote and disseminate information and knowledge on cultural heritage for sustainable development.


The following measures are planned: (a) preparation of registers and inventories of Zambia’s cultural
heritage; (b) creation of a national cultural research fund; (c) strengthening institutions for capacity-
building in cultural research; (d) establishing botanic gardens for research in indigenous knowledge
and genetic resources; (e) developing a national cultural research agenda; (f) establishing centres of
excellence for cultural products and services; (g) ensuring that cultural institutions are properly
funded; and (h) providing appropriate cultural research information for curriculum development.


(2) Advocacy and public awareness: Increase knowledge and appreciation of Zambian culture.


The following measures are planned: (a) organizing cultural festivals; (b) promoting special cultural
celebrations; (c) establishing a national cultural week; (d) publicity campaigns; (e) the establishment
of ethnotourism villages; (f) increases in support for cultural activities in schools and community-
based youth organizations; (g) establishing partnerships with media institutions to disseminate and
market cultural activities; and (h) ensuring that cultural infrastructures are accessible to all.


(3) Indigenous knowledge systems (IKS): To provide means for the sustainable use of IKS in national
development programmes.




38
Republic of Zambia. Ministry of Community Development and Social Services. National cultural policy


(draft). June 2008.
39


Ibid.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 19


The following measures are planned: (a) establishing a legal framework for the protection of IKS; (b)
incorporating IKS in the school curriculum (primary, secondary and tertiary); (c) developing
comprehensive documentation centres for indigenous knowledge databases; (d) providing incentives
for entities that commercialize indigenous knowledge; (e) creating means to reward holders of
indigenous knowledge through the use of benefit-sharing principles; (f) promoting research, training
and skills development; (g) disseminating information on the importance of IKS; and (h) promoting
research and development in IKS.


(4) Indigenous designs and cultural industries: To promote Zambian indigenous designs and features
in construction and in cultural industries, and to ensure the protection of copyright and intellectual
property rights in cultural industries.


The following measures are planned: (a) establishing apprenticeship programmes for indigenous
designs and cultural industries; (b) integrating indigenous design into the curricula of tertiary
institutions offering arts and design; (c) promoting innovation in indigenous designs through scientific
fairs; (d) integrating indigenous designs in trade fairs and commercial shows; (e) partnering with the
media to promote knowledge and appreciation of indigenous designs; (f) establishing a cultural
development fund for microfinancing for indigenous designs and cultural industries; and (g)
cooperating with the Patents Office with respect to the protection of copyright and intellectual
property rights (IPR) in indigenous design and cultural industries.


(5) Preservation and promotion of tangible and intangible heritage: To promote, conserve and
manage movable and immovable heritage.


The following measures are planned: (a) conducting a heritage identification and diversification
survey; (b) surveying cultural heritage sites and objects; (c) encouraging traditional methods and
knowledge in the preservation of cultural objects; (d) implementing site development for tourism; (e)
maintaining the status of cultural heritage sites and objects; and (f) nominating cultural heritage sites.40
The vision of the Fifth National Development Plan 2006–2010 in Arts and Culture is a thriving
national cultural heritage and cultural sector industry by 2030. The goal is to provide an enabling
environment for safeguarding and promoting Zambian tangible and intangible heritage and to ensure
the development and promotion of cultural industries.41


Action: The draft cultural policy could be revisited with respect to the creative industries, giving it a
clearer role in the overall policy towards the creative economy. For example, the current draft links
indigenous design and cultural industries, and while this is clearly an important connection that can be
made, the development of the creative industries could be included in a more comprehensive manner,
emphasizing not only its cultural aspects but also its economic, social and technological dimensions.


The creative industries can be catalyst to support government efforts to further integrate Zambia into
the world economy by increasing the competitiveness of its creative goods and services in global
markets, while at same time promoting job creation, cultural diversity and social inclusion. According
to UNCTAD, the creative economy deals with a set of knowledge-based economic activities with a
development dimension and cross-cutting linkages at macro and micro levels with the overall
economy.


The creative industries have significant potential for wider-scale development, since they produce
tangible goods or intangible services able to generate revenues through trade and intellectual property
rights. The sector encompasses the cycles of creation, production and distribution, of goods and
services that have creative content, cultural and economic value and market objectives. In this regard,


40
Republic of Zambia. Ministry of Community Development and Social Services. National cultural policy


(draft). June 2008: 22–26.
41


Fifth National Development Plan 2006–2010 on Arts and Culture.




20 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




the creative industries have been classified by UNCTAD as including creative goods and services
related to cultural heritage, to the arts, to the media and to functional creations, with subsectors
identified in each of these categories,42 as shown in figure 6 below.


Figure 6. UNCTAD Classification of the Creative Industries






Action: The new national cultural policy could be finalized along the lines indicated above, and
adopted. A clear implementation mechanism, indicating the time frame and the allocation of resources,
should accompany the new policy, or possibly a broader creative economy strategy.


According to the draft national cultural policy, two of the MCDSS objectives with respect to culture
are particularly relevant for the development of the creative industries. Notably, the MCDSS is
responsible for helping develop, promote and market cultural goods and services, and is responsible
for ensuring the relevant legislation. Eleven ministries, including the MCDSS, are cited in the national
cultural policy as having responsibilities in the domain of culture.


If the policy recognizes the need for innovative multi-disciplinary policy responses to strengthen the
creative industries, several line ministries should be involved in the process of policymaking: the
Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, which is responsible for innovation, for
information and communication technologies (ICTs) and for scientific innovation; the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting Services, which is responsible for the administration and protection of
copyright; the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources, which is responsible for
stimulating tourism and environmental protection; the Ministry of Local Government, which is
responsible for Chiefs’ Affairs; the Ministry of Education, which is responsible for arts education; the
Ministry of responsible for youth policy; the Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry, which is
which is responsible for the international trade of creative goods and services; the Ministry of Justice,
which is responsible for the regulatory framework and competition policies; the Ministry of Sport,
Youth and Child Development, the Ministry of Finance and the National Planning, which is
responsible for fiscal and budgetary policies. As noted above, the MCDSS has, nonetheless, the task of




42
Reference is made to the UNCTAD definition and classification of the creative industries and the creative


economy, elaborated in 2006 by the Creative Economy Programme. This classification is also presented on page
14 of the Creative Economy Report 2008 (UNCTAD/DITC/2008/2).




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 21




coordinating and implementing cultural policy. However, it should be noted that cultural policy is just
one element to be considered in the overall strategy for the creative economy. It calls for concerted
multi-disciplinary policy responses and inter-ministerial action.


Action: Initially, the Government could set up a creative economy inter-ministerial committee or
advisory board, with a representative from each relevant ministry and from key institutions. This
institutional mechanism could evolve and set the basis for establishing a Zambian Creative Economy
Agency. Each ministry would be member of the board, and should be responsible for policies in its
respective area, such as fiscal and budgetary policies, trade and investment policies, IPR and
competition policies, financing mechanisms, tourism, labour and SME issues, cultural and educational
policies, social and rural integration, technology and ICT tools etc. UNCTAD is willing to continue
providing policy advice in this regard.


A first step would be to organize a high-level conference to present and debate this report, as a forum
to engage in a dialogue with all the stakeholders, harmonize views, and increase awareness on the
subject. This action, indeed took place in July 2009, and as indicated earlier in this report, was
followed by a commitment for the implementation of this plan of action and the setting-up of the
Creative Economy Inter-ministerial Committee or advisory board.


Moreover, in order to be effective, the process should be participatory, involving stakeholders not only
from government but also from the private sector, professional associations, the non-profit sector and
civil society, and artists.43 Figure 7 below underlines the key characteristics of the creative economy.
As stated in the Creative Economy Report 2008, the creative economy extends to almost all areas of
government policy, calling for an integrated cross-cutting approach.


An awareness-raising campaign could be initiated. The national cultural policy already calls for the
establishment of a national culture week, and the campaign around the creative economy could fit into
such a platform.


Figure 7. The development dimension of the Creative Economy44
































43
Creative Economy Report 2008. Chapter 10. Lessons learned and policy options: 203.


44
This refers to the multifaceted aspects of the creative economy and its complex interactions with culture,


labour, trade, technology, tourism, etc.




22 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW






3.1.2 Financing
As in the great majority of countries, the cultural and creative industries are heavily dependent on
public funds and incentives, mainly because traditionally they have been seen predominantly from a
cultural rather than a commercial point of view. The time has come to change this misperception. The
creative industry is a multi-billion-dollar business, and it should be seen not only from a cultural
perspective but also as a profitable economic activity responsible for creating jobs and generating
revenue and export earnings. The creative economy fulfils a dual role – as a tool for socio-economic
growth on the one hand, and for cultural and human well-being on the other.


Many small and micro creative enterprises do not have access to credit facilities or to loans and
investment which would make their business viable, and from which artists and creators would be able
to make a living exclusively from their creative or artistic works, like any other professional. A major
obstacle for local medium-sized businesses – particularly in non-traditional sectors such as the creative
industries – has been the high real cost of domestic borrowing from local financial institutions, both
for investments and working capital. Although this situation has improved recently, it still affects the
creation of linkages between foreign and local firms, particularly in audiovisual-related areas, which
require greater investment in equipment and technology. High inflation also makes business planning
difficult.


Action: Financing should come from various sources: public funding, private investments,
commercial loans, public–private partnerships, joint ventures, and international cooperation projects.
There is very little public funding available for the creative industries in Zambia. The primary source
of funding is the National Arts Council, which allocates funds to its affiliated associations, which in
turn disburse funds to their members.45 All arts associations must have an audit made of their accounts
before they receive any financing from the NAC.46


The NAC has set up an Arts Development Fund which benefits individual artists and arts associations
with small projects, new associations, and other specific arts projects e.g. the recording and production
of music. In the future, scholarship requests from individual artists will also be handled from this
fund.47


Action: To consider expanding the funds and the scope of the National Arts Fund. It could incorporate
sector-specific funds, i.e. a film and audiovisual fund, a fine arts fund, a design and innovation fund
etc. The fund could be financed by a combination of public and private funding sources, including
monies from industry transfers such as small taxes on DVD sales and/or tickets sold, or a percentage
of broadcasters’ receipts etc. Agreements could also be made with the private sector in terms of
sponsorship, publicity as well as social and environmental responsibility, as a way of matching funds.


The NAC also organizes the annual Ngoma Awards, which are held to honour artists in the different
creative sectors. Each winner receives 1,500,000 kwacha (approximately: $320). In 2007, there were
eight categories of awards: visual arts, drama, children’s theatre, popular theatre, media arts, creative
writing, contemporary and gospel music, and traditional music and dance.


Action: Additional or alternative categories, which take into account artistic and entrepreneurial work
in the creative sectors, could be considered in this award process. For example, one could consider
design awards (e.g. for jewellery, fashion, furniture, graphic design), as well as creative services
awards (e.g. for architecture, advertising, web services). Alternatively, the current media award could




45
Discussion with Chair of the NAC. Lusaka. 28 July 2008.


46
http://www.nationalartscouncil.org.zm


47
http://www.nationalartscouncil.org.zm




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 23


be expanded to include, for example, video films, video clips for music, animated films and television
programmes etc.


Action: The Ngoma Awards are only given to people who are members of an association. These
awards could be opened up so that they attract potential creative talent such as students, and
independent artists, whether or not they are members of a registered association – this would
encourage the winner to join. Efforts to facilitate joining by non-member artists should be made, too.
In summary, support mechanisms for the creative industries could include actions such as: (a) direct
subsidies; (b) tax relief on income to promote investment; (c) granting preferential credit; (d) financial
guarantees to help cover risks; (e) financial transfers (as mentioned above, industry transfer organized
through public authorities); and (f) microcredit for independent artists, and for artists and artisans from
rural communities.


3.1.3 Organization of the professional sector
The NAC is the overall coordinating body for artistic activities in the country. An associative structure
clearly characterizes the organization of professionals active in the various arts sectors. The
associations listed below are members of the NAC:


(a) National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia (NATAAZ)


NATAAZ was established in 1986 as a result of a merger between TAZ and ZANTAA. (TAZ and
ZANTAA operated as promoters of theatre in the country.) NATAAZ currently runs theatre
programmes for schoolchildren and in smaller theatres all along the railway line. Membership:
approximately 3,500 actors and performing arts professionals.


(b) Zambia Association of Musicians (ZAM)


ZAM came about from the Zambia Union of Musicians (ZUM) that was registered in 1979. ZAM has
operated with stakeholders, such as record companies, and is the only association currently working
with the Zambia Music Copyright Protection Society (ZAMCOPS). Membership: approximately 900
musicians.


(c) Zambia National Visual Arts Council (VAC)


This association was officially registered in 1989, although it had been active as an association prior to
that date. The VAC is based in the Henry Tayali Centre. It has full-time staff who manages the general
membership and the satellite centres in other provinces. VAC membership includes all types of visual
and fine artists in the country; VAC also undertakes programmes for training and setting up material
production centres. Membership: approximately 1,000 artists.


(d) Zambia Folk Dance and Music Society (ZAFODAMUS)


ZAFODAMUS is an association of folk dance practitioners. It was formed in 1996. It has been
actively engaged in the introduction of group membership nationwide. Membership: approximately
1,900 artists.


(e) Zambia Women Writers’ Association (ZAWWA)


ZAWWA was formed in 1994 to promote women authors. It is now open to all writers and is not
gender-specific. ZAWWA’s annual calendar includes publications, organizing writing and reading
clinics, and attending book fairs.


(f) Zambia Popular Theatre Alliance (ZAPOTA)




24 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




This alliance was formed in 1990 and is active throughout the country. Its activities are focused on
theatre for development. It carries out advocacy and awareness-raising campaigns sponsored by
numerous NGOs and government departments. Its annual contribution to the NAC involves honouring
groups that have excelled in theatrical methodologies and artistry. Membership: approximately 1,500
members.


(g) Zambia Adjudicators’ Panel (ZAP)
The Zambia Adjudicators’ Panel is a guild founded in 1990. It is comprised mainly of the more
experienced and distinguished practitioners and academics. ZAP aims at providing quality
adjudication at all levels of artistic competition in the country.


(h) National Media Arts Association (NAMA)


The NAMA was launched in 2000. Its aim is to stimulate and promote a vibrant media culture in the
country.


(i) Association of Theatre for Children and Young People in Zambia (ASSITEJ)


The Zambian chapter of the Association of Theatre for Children and Young People was founded in
1999 and registered in 2001. Its main objective is to develop an interest in the theatre in primary
school children.


Based on comments made by members of the associations mentioned above, some observations can be
made. Almost all the associations noted the lack of professional training possibilities available to
them, and emphasized the strong need for capacity-building, for example in terms of managerial skills.
They pointed out the serious infrastructural limitations and the lack of access to materials and current
information in each of their sectors of activity. The associations are generally run by volunteers, rather
than by a full-time trained professional. The administrators themselves stated that they need to be
more professionalized, so that they can offer a real service to their members.48 For example, they do
not have a secretariat, internet access, basic facilities etc. It should be pointed out that not all artists
belong to an association. Indeed, the ZAM, which was clearly one of the most dynamic associations,
noted that given its infrastructural, monetary and functional limitations, it has little to offer to
musicians for the time being.49


Action: The NAC could organize capacity-building for associations in the fields of managerial skills
and creative entrepreneurship; as well as specific training for the effective use of new technologies, in
particular ICT tools, both for the creation of “creative digitalized content” such as for new media,
videos, music and images, and also for the marketing, promotion and sale of all sorts of creative
products via the web. The association could also provide training and assistance to establish websites
with information and marketing strategies for artists.
At the provincial level, the NAC has established provincial arts advisory committees (PAACs) in all
nine provinces to coordinate and reactivate the various artistic activities. Each PAAC is made up of
the leaders of arts associations at the provincial level, the provincial cultural officer, representatives of
government ministries and other institutions, and members of the general public who are interested in
the promotion of the arts, as stipulated in the Act.


The PAAC has multiple roles, namely to promote and coordinate artistic activities in the various
provinces in cooperation with the provincial cultural officers; to keep an inventory of artists, art
organizations and promoters in the provinces; to monitor all the artistic activities taking place in the
provinces; to monitor the activities of art associations in the provinces; to maintain financial
accountability for the funds received from the NAC and from their own initiatives; to advise and assist


48
Meeting with stakeholders. Lusaka. 29 July 2008.


49
ZAM representative. Lusaka. 29 July 2008.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 25


the NAC in the development and promotion of the arts in the provinces; to collect information on the
arts and on artists and art organizations in the provinces for inclusion in the arts directory; to facilitate
the NAC’s research programmes in the provinces; to organize multi-disciplinary art festivals in the
provinces; and to participate in provincial events of national interest, for example Independence Day
celebrations and Labour Day celebrations50.
Action: The NAC could also offer the services of a legal adviser who specializes in IPR issues and
contractual arrangements. Such advisory services would guide and assist artists in negotiating
contractual arrangements, and in particular, with regard to offering their services in international
markets. Another important function could be to set a national database to collect, analyze and share
relevant sectoral data and information with the associations. This would also facilitate networking and
the sharing of best practices with other associations, both in Africa and elsewhere.


3.2 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND LEGISLATION


Regulation in creative industries is a complex issue. National legislation cannot be drafted in isolation,
but has to be aligned with commitments already made under multilateral processes and global
instruments, such as World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO) regulations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) conventions, and other similar international legal instruments. Furthermore, national
legislation has to be compatible with regional cooperation treaties and integration agreements, such as
those of the African Union and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and with
EU–ACP economic partnership agreements etc. Therefore, developing countries have very limited
autonomy or policy space to review national policies in areas related to the creative industries,
particularly in sensitive areas such as audiovisual and other creative services.


Nowadays, there are growing tensions between international integration and national policy autonomy,
mainly due to two factors: (a) the policy agenda pursued by most developing countries over the last
two decades has not resulted in the desired acceleration of economic development; and (b) the
globalization and internationalization of markets have, in most cases, weakened the effectiveness of
domestic policies. This debate remains unsettled.51


The following are the most important pieces of legislation for the creative industries in Zambia:


(a) As has already been mentioned, the National Arts Council of Zambia was established under
Act No. 31 of 1994 of the Laws of Zambia, and became operational in 1996;


(b) the Zambia Independent Broadcasting Authority Act 2002;


(c) the Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (Amendment) Act 2002; and


(d) the Media Law and Media Policy Act 1996.


Action: The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services states among its objectives the
updating of these laws to ensure compliance with other updated laws. If possible, despite the external
constraints, efforts should also be made to update its objectives in terms of encouraging the film,
audiovisual and media industries.52 UNESCO may wish to provide technical assistance in this regard.


Action: A film law and implementation policy should be established. Issues related to national quotas,
tax incentives and other types of preferential treatment should be duly examined, taking into account


50
http://www.nationalartscouncil.org.zm


51
See: UNCTAD (2008). Policy space: What, for what and where? Discussion paper 191, by Jörg Mayer.


Geneva. October.
52


Republic of Zambia. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services. Strategic Plan for the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting Services 2006–2010: 20.




26 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




some built-in flexibilities for LDCs in the context of the General Agreement on Trade in Services
(GATS) under negotiation at the WTO Doha Round and the implementation of the UNESCO
Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. UNESCO
technical assistance may be required.


Action: To strengthen the legal and regulatory framework for the creation of cooperatives for cultural
and creative enterprises, including the registration of such entities, their constitutions, and their labour
policies. ILO may provide technical advice on these issues.


3.2.1 Competition policy
The competition policy is governed by the Competition and Fair Trading Act, which aims to
encourage competition by prohibiting anti-competitive business practices and by regulating
monopolies and the concentration of economic power. The Act protects consumer welfare and
strengthens the efficiency of production and distribution of goods and services. The Zambia
Competition Commission was established under the Act, to guard against anti-competitive
business/trade practices and to protect the interests of the consumer.53 It also prevents predatory
behavior, discriminatory pricing, and restrictions on distribution. The Commission also plays an
important role since it must authorize all mergers and acquisitions before they are completed.


As is the case in most creative industries, distribution channels for creative products in Zambia are
dominated by large multinationals. Therefore, it is important to have competition policies in place,
with a view to safeguarding the interests of local creative enterprises and artists in the domestic and
the global market.


Action: The reinforcement of competition policy is of great relevance to the creative industries,
particularly to allow fair competition between national and highly concentrated foreign companies
with leading positions in value-added products such as audiovisuals, new media and creative services.
UNCTAD could provide further assistance in this regard, if required.


3.2.2 Employment conditions
In general, employment conditions in Zambia are covered by the Employment Act, which is under
review. This is the fundamental law providing the basic parameters for employment conditions, such
as the minimum contractual age, the establishment of employment contracts, dispute settlement, and
the appointment of labour officers. It also provides for certain conditions of employment, such as
ordinary leave, sick leave and maternity leave etc.54 However, as most artists and creative
professionals are self-employed or work in the informal sector, they do not benefit from the usual
rights and obligations prescribed by the Industrial and Labour Relations Act of 1993.


Social and economic security for artistic workers and creative professionals is essential to change the
traditional misperception that creative activities are transitory activities, or recreation or hobbies.
Comprehensive national legislation is required to regulate the relationship between workers in the
creative industries and employers, in order to set up a social and economic security scheme for these
workers. Why is this important? Many artistic workers have to become entrepreneurs out of necessity;
they are the first to set up small enterprises, and the first to look for clients and contracts, thereby
creating job and income opportunities.
This is a fundamental issue to address, because although the law is advanced in terms of rights, it does
not cover artistic or intellectual activities. Therefore, it is crucial to address this issue so that artists
(composers, actors, audiovisual creators, audio assistants etc.) can be covered by a wider framework of
social and economic protection, offering these workers a sense of security.




53
http://zamcom.smetoolkit.org/zambia/en/


54
For further information, see UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Review of Zambia.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 27


The DCA and the NAC apply wage standards when they employ local artists, and they are working
towards the implementation of national wage standards for the creative sectors. In addition, the
Government is putting in place a programme to facilitate the integration of disabled artists into the job
market.


It is widely recognized that employment conditions for artists are often very precarious in most
countries. Artists’ contractual obligations are usually project-based, with long periods of
unemployment between engagements. Most artists, particularly in the performing arts, work on an
irregular, part-time or self-employed basis, and their coverage by pension and medical schemes is
limited or non-existent.55


Action: A social security scheme for artists is in the process of being put in place. Professionals active
in the creative economy – such as Yezi Arts Promotions and Productions – have been central in
pushing forward the necessity for such legislation.56 During the implementation of this project, ILO
could provide technical assistance and support for the adoption of a social security scheme for workers
in the creative industries.


As in the majority of developing countries, there are a large number of artists in the informal sector.
This makes it difficult for governments to formulate labour policies and to measure the employment
generated by the creative industries. Zambia already has a good structure of professional organizations
in place, as described in section 3.1.3; a large number of creative workers are registered in their
respective associations. This provides a good basis for categorization by size of sector, type of activity,
and numbers employed in creative enterprises, as a first step for the mapping of the creative industries
at national level. In this regard, the classification of occupational categories for the cultural and
creative sectors is an important issue.


Action: To strengthen the role of the NAC and/or to create complementary institutional mechanisms
with the mandate to set up a computerized database to compile, assemble, analyze and disseminate
quantitative and qualitative economic, social and cultural indicators for each creative industry.
Initially, surveys could be sent to the professional associations and to the provincial arts advisory
committees, as the starting point of a process that would be evolving and continuous. ILO is
developing the framework for all occupational categories in the cultural sector, and certainly will be
willing to provide technical advice in this area during the implementation of this multi-agency project.


3.3 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS


The evolution of the Internet and the digital technology has created an open market for the distribution
and sharing of intellectual properties. The protection of intellectual property rights has become one of
the most difficult challenges for creative industries, affecting governments, artists, creators, analysts
and agencies alike. The most significant challenge is how legal and policy frameworks can keep up
with the constant change.


While copyright remains the fundamental guarantor of the rights of authorship, the Creative Commons
movement is wining favour among artist, creators and educators looking to protect their intellectual
property rights. Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit corporation dedicated to making it easier to
share creative works within the rules of copyright57. CC licenses are not an alternative to copyright but
are a permissive tool for facilitating the release and waiver of rights, primarily for works of low
immediate commercial value. There are now more than 250 million CC-licensed items on the Internet.




55
Creative Economy Report 2008: 118.


56
Times of Zambia (2007). Artistes’ social security scheme long overdue. 15 September.


http://allafrica.com/stories/printable/200709150151.html
57


Based on an article by Ahrash Bissle, Executive Director, CC Learn, Creative Commons, published by the
International Trade Forum ITC, Issue 3/2009. For more information about Creative Commons visit
www.creativecommons.org.




28 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW






3.3.1 Intellectual Property Rights in Zambia
Zambia has a long intellectual property rights (IPR) tradition. It signed the 1883 Paris Convention, on
protecting industrial property, and the 1886 Berne Convention, protecting literary and artistic works.
The Patent Act, the Trademark Act, the Registered Design Act and the Copyright and Performance
Rights Act of 199458 are the instruments that provide the legal framework for the protection of
intellectual property rights in Zambia.


As a member of WTO and an LDC, Zambia signed the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
Rights (TRIPS) agreement in 2005. Zambia is also a member of WIPO, and of the African Regional
Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO).


Copyright is the IPR law that provides protection to original works of authorship such as paintings,
sculptures, music, novels, poems, plays, dance, architecture and software. This legislation provides
protection for 50 years (copyright) and 5 years (registered design). It is important that Zambian artists
be able to derive the benefit from their works. Today, in a growing number of countries, procedures to
register became simpler and creators and artists can easily register their artistic creations through
internet by clicking "copyrights".


In Zambia, issues of IPR are vested in two Ministries namely the Ministry of Commerce, Trade and
Industry (MCTI) and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The Patents and Companies
Registration Office (PACRO), which is an executive Agency of the MCTI, administers the Industry
Property aspect of Intellectual Property Rights and Neighboring Rights. The Government of Zambia
has mandated PACRO to administer IP issues through three acts. These are the Trademarks, Patents
and Industrial Designs. However, these Acts do not specifically provide for the protection of
traditional knowledge, expressions of folklore and genetic resources. The TRIPs Agreement makes
provisions to protect these resources either as patents or under a sui generis system. Zambia has until
2013 to make its laws in IP compliant with the TRIPs Agreement.


Many countries in the region of southern Africa do not have intellectual property policies. However,
Zambia has completed formulation of the policy document which has since been submitted to
Government for approval. It was observed that Zambia has not utilized the full potential of Intellectual
Property as a tool for social and economic development although intellectual property legislation has
been in existing dating back to the pre-independence days. Despite having an abundance of Genetic
Resources, Traditional Knowledge whose intellectual Property can significantly contribute to the
social and economic development of the country if properly and effectively harnessed. The
formulation of this policy is therefore aimed at encouraging investors, innovators and creators to work
hard so as to reap the benefits of intellectual property rights for example, through payment of royalties.
The ethical basis of this policy, in principle with regards to appropriate intellectual property protection
was to promote policy objectives that are consistent with widely ethical norms and values. In this
regard, the policy will endeavor to reflect and promote an inherent entitlement for reward and
recognition of one's intellectual and creative contributions on one hand while on the other, promote a
strong utilitarian flavor to Intellectual Property law and policy, as a conscious tool to promote social
welfare.59


Copyright administration is the responsibility of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
Services. In 2002, the Copyright Office established a copyright taskforce to advise the Government.
As a requirement of the Copyright Act, the Copyright Office established the Zambia Music Copyright
Protection Society, in 1994. It deals with the financial aspects of collective management of rights, and
is registered with the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.




58
http://www.aripo.org


59
Policies, measure and experiences regarding intellectual property and generic resources: submission by


Zambia to the World Intellectual Property Organization, February 19, 2010.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 29


It attempts to regulate the copyright law with respect to public performance and broadcasting of music
for its 500 members. The Society has collected 25 per cent of copyright royalties annually since 1996,
which it apparently distributes to members once a year. The society collects from broadcasting
stations, such as the Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation, and from various radio stations.60


Action: Create, for example, a Zambian copyright society that has a broader approach – one that is not
only restricted to the music sector. Or, encourage the creation of a national federation of collecting
societies that joins together the different creative sectors in a type of loose affiliation. A focus on the
adoption of the legislation and regulatory measures is needed. UNESCO and WIPO have expertise in
this field and could provide technical assistance in this area in the course of the implementation of the
project.
According to stakeholders, very few people in the country actually have knowledge of IPR issues, and
there are no institutions in place to obtain information, for example, on how to deal with copyright
abuses. Indeed, very few artists are able to collect any revenues at all.61 In this regard, the Ministry of
Broadcasting has reiterated its willingness to put in place a more user-friendly system for copyright
administration. This will be very helpful for all artists – not only those from the big cities, but also
those living in the provinces.


Some artists sell their rights outright, according to the buyout concept. Usually, the rights for an
artistic work are sold for a specific territory and for a specific time period and in a specific medium. In
concrete terms, that would mean – for example – selling the rights to a film to be shown in cinemas (or
on DVD or video on demand (VOD), in Zambia (as opposed to another country or region), and for a
period of five years, for a specific sum of money. Some artists end up selling all the rights to their film
or their music without being able to negotiate any of the details, because they have little leverage to do
so. Associations and unions can help individual artists or managers to be more aware of their options
and can help them to negotiate better deals, in a fair manner, so that they can earn income from their
creative works.


Action: Capacity-building training and awareness of rights issues for professionals in the creative
industries and for civil society is a priority issue. The Government can also officially request technical
assistance from the WIPO secretariat, taking into account the projects currently being carried out in
the framework of WIPO’s Development Agenda.


Due to Zambia’s rich cultural and ethnic heritage and the large number of indigenous communities,
issues related to indigenous design are of crucial importance. Better understanding of the international
legislation and of the conditions that apply to issues such as the certification of origin, and labeling, is
essential. Making traditional cultural expressions publicly available does not necessarily place them in
the “public domain”.


Action: It would be useful to refer to the legal mechanisms and practical tools for the protection of
traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions (folklore) against misappropriation and
misuse, and the intellectual property aspects of access to and benefit-sharing in genetic resources.62
Many indigenous organizations, museums, archives and researchers have called for guidance in the
process of recording and digitalization of indigenous knowledge for the WIPO Creative Heritage
Project.
Action: The current “copyright and related rights” international legislation needs revision, in order to
address the needs and concerns of developing countries. Zambia and other African countries should be




60
Times of Zambia (2005). ZAMCOPS poised to lessen piracy in Zambia.


http://www.times.co.zm/news/viewnews.cgi?category=8&id=1100088761
61


Stakeholders’ meeting with artists and associations. Lusaka. 29 July 2008.
62


Useful information can be found at: http://www.wipo.int/tk/en




30 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




involved in the process and defend the interests of its artists and creators in the context of the
proposals and deliberations being negotiated under the WIPO Development Agenda.


Zambia has a rich variety of traditional cultural expressions and indigenous knowledge, such as
traditional dance and music, indigenous design and performances, which embody cultural identity and
heritage. This traditional knowledge should be protected and promoted.


Action: The Government could request the assistance of WIPO’s Creative Heritage Project to provide
information technology (IT) support on the recording, digitalization and dissemination of cultural
materials by indigenous communities.


Attention should also be paid to the linkages between copyrights and new technologies and internet
use for selling digitalized creative content, including issues related to collective management. The
current IPR legislation has great lacunae and should be revisited, taking into account the specific needs
of developing countries – in particular the LDCs – with a view to ensuring that actions are consistent
with national objectives and development goals. The priorities identified by the stakeholders in the
area of intellectual property were: (a) funding; (b) awareness and understanding of the regulations; (c)
the necessity of going into the field to do training on a broad scale; and (d) technical and legal advice
for artists to protect their rights.


At a regional scale, although there have not been many regional policies dealing with IP, Common
Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) came up with a regional policy which has a
bearing on intellectual property vis-à-vis traditional knowledge. Currently, there is a policy formulated
by COMESA which deals with IP and Trade. This policy has also encompassed the protection of
traditional knowledge and IP. The recent development in biotechnological sciences and rise in patents
in the field of biotechnology have put tremendous pressure on the Traditional Knowledge located in
developing countries including for COMESA member states. The policy recognizes that a lot of
money is raised from genetic resources; however, there is rampant bio-piracy in the region and this has
raised a lot of concern.


In conclusion, protection of Traditional Knowledge, Genetic Resources and Folklore has not been
given prominent attention in much legislation available. This has resulted in very limited protection
for these very important resources. Many countries in the region either do not have policies on IP or
are just beginning to prepare them. Furthermore, IP laws are outdated and have no provision for the
protection of TK, FR and Folklore. It is only recently that organizations like COMESA and ARIPO
have taken initiatives to include the protection of TK, GR and Folklore in their policies and protocols.
This is a step in the right direction.63


3.4 FISCAL POLICY


The Income Tax Act, the Customs and Excise Act and the Value Added Tax Act are the basic laws
that cover Zambia’s tax system. The general corporate tax rate is 35 per cent. However, there have
been a number of preferential rates and generous allowances for sectors that the Government has
wished to promote. Value added tax of 17.5 per cent was introduced in 1995.64


At present, there are no specific fiscal incentives in place to benefit and encourage the creative
industries in Zambia. On the contrary, as in most developing countries, creative products such as
music, films and audiovisuals are classified as “luxury items”, and tariff structures are usually
unfavorable to domestic creators; in the case of imports of musical instruments and audiovisual and
new media equipment, for instance, Zambia has very high import duties.




63
Conclusion of the document submitted by the Government of Zambia to the Intergovernmental Committee on


Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore of the World Intellectual
Property Organization at its Sixteenth Session , Geneva, May 2010.
64


UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Review of Zambia.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 31


Action: The Government is encouraged to provide tax exemptions and reductions in duties and levies
for the import of equipment used by creative enterprises to produce local creative content. In this
regard, the involvement of the Ministry of Finance in the Creative Economy Inter-Ministerial
Committee is crucial. The Government seems open to examining proposals for tax exemptions from
the creative sector.65


A special fiscal regime was granted to the tourism industry, in particular for hotel development, to
promote Livingstone as a point of access for tourists visiting the Victoria Falls. Similar arrangements
could be made for the construction of a large multi-purpose concert hall/theatre facility, which would
provide the infrastructure to organize festivals and big performances, show movies etc. Incentives
provided to foreign investors could also be extended to national investors, at least for the initial years.


Action: The Government is encouraged to enact legislation to provide fiscal incentives to artists,
cultural producers and the corporate sector to encourage the organization of big cultural performances
for tourists and for the local population.


Action: The Government could consider revising the tax breaks for the corporate sponsorship of the
arts and culture, with a view to greater and sustainable benefit for the local creative sectors.


Action: The Government is encouraged to establish a system of tax rebates for investment in the
creative sectors. For example, in Germany, a 20 per cent tax rebate in the film sector is available;
however the rebate depends on fulfillment of specific conditions. For example, a German cinema
distribution deal must be confirmed with a minimum number of copies for release, a certain amount of
the overall spending must be in the country, etc. By linking the rebate to specific conditions, is the
only way to ensure that the local sectors can benefit.


3.5 INVESTMENT


Investments in Zambia – foreign or domestic – are required to make an application under the Zambia
Development Agency (ZDA) Act 2006. The company undergoes a screening process in order to get
approval to invest. Some guarantees for foreigners are contained in the bilateral investment treaties.


A scheme to promote investment in the high-growth and more value-added sectors of the creative
economy could greatly contribute to supporting the Government’s goal of accelerating the National
Economic Diversification Programme, and be a way to enhance creative supply capacities in the
country. For instance, Zambia has an abundance of precious and semi-precious gemstones. These
include emeralds, tourmalines, aquamarine and amethyst (Africa’s largest deposit). Why not target the
creative jewellery sector and attract investors and jewellery creators to the production of high-quality
jewellery in Zambia, instead of exporting all the gemstones as a raw commodity? Provisions to
encourage private sector investment in this area could be explored.


The same applies to textiles, as Zambia has a comparative advantage of availability of cotton and
polycotton yarn, which could be used for the textile industry to produce distinctive ethnic designs and
branded garments with high quality standards. Zambia has unlimited duty-free and quota-free access
to the large United States market, under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).


In this regard, UNCTAD proposes the “creative nexus” model as a way to stimulate private
investment, attracting new technologies, promoting entrepreneurship and setting the basis for an
export-led strategy for the creative industries. In this scheme, effective public policies would bring
about a virtuous circle, as shown in figure 8.




65
At the UNCTAD High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries, held in Lusaka on 2 July 2009, a high


official from the Ministry of Finance invited the artists to submit proposals for tax exemptions up to 17 July
2009. Proposals can be submitted every year.




32 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




Figure 8: The Creative Nexus: C-ITET model66






















Moreover, the Zambian Government has committed itself to “create a vibrant private sector that would
be exposed to competitive best practices at the international level”. As part of this strategy, a private
sector development investment promotion programme has been elaborated, with the assistance of
UNCTAD and funding from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. UNCTAD’s Blue Book on
Best Practice in Investment Promotion and Facilitation: Zambia67 proposes investment promotion
activities and minor legislative or regulatory changes to improve the investment climate in the country;
its recommendations have already started having a very positive impact. Zambia’s FDI flows have
registered a sharp increase in recent years, growing from $357 million in 2005 to $984 million in
2007.68


Action: A strategy could be put in place to attract foreign and domestic investment, in more
technology-intensive creative sectors with greater competitive advantage in world markets. Joint
ventures and public–private partnerships could be forged, allowing for strategic business alliances,
particularly in the areas of design, new media and creative services. Further assistance from UNCTAD
could be envisaged.


3.6 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTREPRISES


The Industry Division of the Department of Commerce, Trade and Industry is in the process of
developing a programme to benefit small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).69


The encouragement of SMEs is crucial to the development of the creative industries in developing
countries. As is emphasized in the Creative Economy Report 2008, most SMEs are micro or sole
trader businesses, which predominantly populate the various stages of the supply chains of creative
products in many countries, from the initial ideas, creation, production and distribution up to the




66
Creative Economy Report 2008, The challenge of assessing the creative economy: toward informed


policymaking: 41.
67


http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=4396&lang=1
68


UNCTAD (2008). World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure
Challenge.
69


Department of Commerce, Trade and Industry. Meeting with National Trade Experts. Lusaka. 31 July 2008.





PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 33


consumer in world markets.70 Micro and small enterprises are especially evident at the top of the
supply chain (at the creation stage).


Figure 9. The Creative Industry Value Chain




Source: UNCTAD


Action: Create an SME development policy that incorporates creative enterprises, based on a tailor-
made microenterprise development plan. To provide services and facilitate the establishment of SMEs,
by speeding up the registration process, facilitating licenses, avoiding redundancies etc. This initiative
could certainly be a catalytic tool for effective social inclusion measures, helping to bring the informal
sector into existing organizational structures, such as professional associations.


There is currently a project under way involving the International Finance Corporation, ELIF Business
Solutions, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), entitled the SME
Toolkit Zambia. The SME Toolkit offers free business management information and training to SMEs
on accounting and finance, business planning, human resources, marketing and sales, operations and
IT. It offers a wide range of how-to articles, business forms, free business software, online training,
self-assessment exercises, quizzes and resources to help entrepreneurs, business owners and managers
in emerging markets and developing countries to start up, finance, formalize and grow their
businesses.71


Moreover, in the context of this multi-agency project, ILO has developed a specific business skills and
training module for artists and creators, with a view to assisting creative entrepreneurs in setting up
and promoting their business activities. This activity will be the most important contribution by ILO to
this project.
Action: The SME Toolkit Zambia website could be enhanced to include a special section for the
development of creative industries. Furthermore, ILO will provide training on cultural and creative
entrepreneurship for trainers, professional associations and relevant educational institutions.


Another important aspect to consider is business linkages between transnational corporations (TNCs)
and SMEs. This is potentially one of the fastest and most effective ways of upgrading domestic
enterprises; facilitating the transfer of technology, knowledge and skills; improving business and
management practices; and facilitating access to finance and markets. Strong linkages can also
promote production efficiency, productivity growth, technological and managerial capabilities, and
market diversification, in local firms.


Action: Discuss with stakeholders, linkage promoters and foreign affiliates, to establish more and
deeper sustainable linkages.72 Establish a linkages programme to identify and upgrade local enterprises
that have the potential to supply to and to learn from foreign affiliates (large firms) and subsequently




70
On this point, see pages 69 and 183 of Creative Economy Report 2008. The challenge of assessing the creative


economy: towards informed policymaking. UNCTAD/DITC/2008/2.
71


http://zamcom.smetoolkit.org/zambia/en
72


UNCTAD (2006). Business Linkages Programme Guidelines. UNCTAD/ITE/TEB/2005/11.




34 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




become exporters in their own right. Such programmes have been successful in a number of emerging
economies.73 UNCTAD has already provided the elements for a pilot project for Zambia.
Considering the large number of TNCs operating in the mining field, the Government – as well as
creative entrepreneurs – could propose target contractual arrangements to facilitate TNC–SME
business linkages to support the creative industries. Advantage should be taken of the fact that many
TNCs have a social responsibility policy, which in many cases could be oriented towards supporting
cultural and artistic activities.


Sponsorship by TNCs should also be explored, to promote a more vibrant cultural life in the country,
particularly in terms of involving TNCs with the building of infrastructure facilities for the theatre,
cinema and concerts etc. One example could be to create a group of TNCs to finance the renovation of
the Lusaka National Theatre (which is very old and in a very precarious condition); concerts, theatre
and dance would benefit from a suitable facility.


Many of the skills and professions related to the creative industries are not well perceived in business
terms, which make access to funding and/or credit extremely difficult, particularly for SMEs. The
possibility of microcredit schemes should be explored, given that there have been some successful
cases in other developing countries.


The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services oversees the Micro Bankers Trust.


Action: Given that the Department of Cultural Affairs and the Micro Bankers Trust are both housed
within the same ministry, their natural proximity could be better tied up by establishing a special
programme for microloans for the creative industries.


Public–private schemes can be especially useful in this area. The measures to facilitate such a process
can include public guarantees for loans that can be combined with a lending credit line from a local
bank. In addition, entrepreneurs can be made more “bankable” by lowering transaction costs and
streamlining the credit risk assessment procedure. Another strategy is to screen business proposals in
order to minimize the risk of default.


Action: Establish microfinance schemes to encourage the development of creative enterprises, in
particular through public–private cooperation. ILO has expertise in this area and could provide
technical advice to stakeholders in this project.




















73
UNCTAD (2006). Investment Policy Review of Zambia: Strategic Perspectives on FDI and Diversification.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 35


3.6.1 A successful case of creative industries in Africa










The Biennale of Contemporary African Art of Dakar: A Contribution to Economic
and Cultural Development in Africa


For several years Africa has proposed a variety of events for the promotion of different forms of
artistic expression. The Biennale of Contemporary African Art of Dakar undoubtedly makes a
critical contribution to ensuring the promotion of artists and the diffusion of contemporary creative
works within and beyond the continent.


The Biennale of Contemporary African Art was born from the desire of the Government of Senegal
to position Dakar as a place of encounters and cultural exchange for the entire African continent.
The event started as a Biennale of Arts and Literature in 1990, with literature occupying a
predominant place. Dak'Art was organized for the first time in 1992, and since then, the visual arts
component has moved to the forefront. Nowadays, 289 artists from 34 African countries, with 16
representing the African Diaspora and 123 from the rest of the world participate. Among the
countries with the highest rates of participation in the Dak'Art exhibitions are Cameroon, the
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa.
Furthermore, in 1996, the Biennale started to incorporate the Salon of Design, which showcases the
work of talented designers from Africa: 92 creators were selected to represent 15 countries from
the African continent during the period 1996-2006.


Dak'Art 2006 also was attended by 63 art critics, 25 specialized press agents, 19 African
journalists, 32 representatives from galleries and museums, 13 organizers of 7 Biennales a the
international level and a dozen of art collectors. Several important events were scheduled for 2008;
the first one is Africa Now, an important programme under the initiative of the World Bank and in
honor of Africa. The second one is the first Foire d'art contemporain African de Tenerife in Spain.
In addition, the Biennales was associated with the UNCTAD secretariat for launching the "Creative
Africa" initiative during the UNCTAD XII Ministerial Conference held in Ghana in 2008. Dak'Art
2010 edition "Retrospective and Perspective" saw the participation of young contemporary
creations with 28 artists that never participated before at the Biennale coming from 16 African
countries.


The economic spillovers of Dak'Art are linked mainly to the sales of important Africa art works.
The event is also beneficial for several economic activities such as international tourism,
international transportation, local transport, the hospitality industry and other services. In brief,
Dak'Art is an illustration of the positive impact of international cultural manifestations for socio-
economic development.




By Ousseynou Wade, Secretary-General of the Biennale of Contemporary African Art, Dakar,
Senegal. Website: www.biennaledakar.org.




36 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW






3.7 TRADE


Africa has a very weak presence in global markets for creative goods and services, mainly due to its
very limited supply capacity. In fact, this observation applies to all the ACP countries – the 78
countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific – whose total exports of creative goods amounted to
only $1.75 billion in 2008, according to UNCTAD figures74. Given their abundance of creative talent,
the creative potential of these countries is undoubtedly extremely underutilized.


According to official data, Zambia exports of creative goods amounted to $8.9 million in 2005 and
dropped sharply to $2.3 million75 in 2008. Nevertheless, this first attempt to analyze the export
performance of the creative industries in Zambia should be seen with caution. It is important to check
and improve the quality of trade figures; particularly for year 2005 since a sharp increase was
observed. Efforts should be made to further enhance creative capacities and improve the export
performance of the most competitive creative sectors.


The issues related to multilateral trade negotiations and market access for cultural and creative goods
and services are very complex. They involve several agreements, such as the General Agreement on
Trade in Services (GATS), the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs); they also involve
competition policies, trade efficiency, and most importantly, special and differentiated treatment for
developing countries. For instance, temporary access for artists from developing countries to supply
services in major markets – the so-called mode 4 at WTO negotiations, or, in other words, the mobility
of artists to provide creative services in global markets – is a key issue for the expansion of trade in
creative services.


In terms of market access, Zambia, in line with other LDCs, has duty-free quota-free access to the
European Union under the Everything But Arms initiative for LDCs, which was introduced in 2001. It
should be noted, however, that Everything But Arms (Generalized System of Preferences Plus
(GSP+)) is a unilateral preferential scheme for LDCs granting market entry under very stringent rules
of origin.


More generally, according to the WTO review of developed country unilateral preferential schemes in
favour of LDCs, on average (weighted), LDCs benefit from preferential duty-free treatment on nearly
84 per cent of the dutiable most favoured nation (MFN) tariff lines. Coverage is 100 per cent, or close
to it, for non-agricultural commodities (raw materials and minerals, including fuels). Over 88 per cent
of manufactured products can potentially benefit from the preferential duty-free treatment.


Creative services are granted market access in all modes of supply in accordance with the existing
GATS commitments and limitations on WTO members.


The EPA between COMESA and SADC may represent new opportunities for achieving market access
on a permanent basis.


Zambia’s main problem – like many other LDCs is its limited supply capacity. At this juncture, the
key issue is developing productive creative capacities, rather than market access. In a simplistic way,
the country first has to create and produce, before looking into trade opportunities and a bigger
presence in world markets. Lack of infrastructure, high transportation costs, and macroeconomic
instability, such as the weakness of exchange rates, are some of the main structural impediments
hampering the export of creative goods from Zambia.




74
Creative Economy Report 2010, UNCTAD and UNDP.


75UNCTAD, Global Database on Creative goods and services. See http://www.unctad.org/creative-programme




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 37


The Department of Commerce, Trade and Industry has indicated that efforts continue to be made to
promote exports, in particular, from the art crafts sector.


Action: Greater advantage should be taken of the available preferential schemes granted by developed
countries – including the AGOA preferences – to expand the export of art crafts to the United States,
through targeted networking, market promotion strategies, and higher-quality exportable products.


Action: Under this project, UNCTAD envisages to provide trade- and investment-related capacity-
building with respect to the creative industries for policymakers and relevant professional associations.
Issues related to multilateral trade negotiations, regional agreements and market access would be
addressed and better understood.


3.7.1 South-South Trade
In recent years, UNCTAD trade analysis has provided evidence of new market opportunities in the
South. The region's emerging trading and economic dynamism has created a new set of relationships
among North and South economies, Between 2002 and 2008, the South's exports of all goods to the
world rose from $1.4 trillion dollars to $6.1 trillion dollars. South export to the South, increased from
$828 billion to $3 trillion during this period. Exports from South to South have increased faster than
exports from South to North, revealing further opportunities for developing countries to engage in
trading relationships with one another.


South-South trade of creative goods reached nearly $60 billion in 2008, tripling in six years. This
represents an astonishing rate of 20 per cent annually; while South exports to the North has been
growing at an impressive, but relatively slower, annual rate of 10.5 per cent.


For developing countries, art crafts are the most important creative goods, accounting for 65 per cent
of these countries' share in the world market for creative industries.


Zambia could benefit from the trade links it has with partners in the South such as Asia-Pacific, Latin
America and the Caribbean and within Africa. It should also take advantage of the numerous
cooperation agreements established while strengthening the creative sectors by tailoring policies to
enhance their creative industries and the competitiveness of their products in regional and international
markets.


Chart 2. South-South Trade all Creative Goods, 2003-2008


South-South Trade all Creative Goods


0


10,000


20,000


30,000


40,000


50,000


60,000


70,000


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n


s
o


f U
S$


)


All Creatives Goods




Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy




38 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW






3.7.2 Regional and international cooperation
Africa has a long tradition of regional cooperation, its trade and monetary integration schemes being
the oldest in the developing world. With the transformation of the Organization of African Unity into
the African Union, and the launching of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) in
2001, the idea of a common monetary union has been revived. In terms of regional trade agreements,
Zambia is a signatory both to the COMESA Free Trade Area, and to the SADC Trade Protocol whose
goals were zero tariffs on 85 per cent of intraregional trade by 2008 and a customs union in 2010.
Zambia appears to be a positive force within the SADC, and there is active cooperation, including in
cultural spheres.


Zambia is a member of international bodies such as the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations,
the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. It has negotiated bilateral agreements with
countries such as Belgium, Botswana, China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Malawi,
Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Slovakia, Sudan, Ukraine, the United Republic of Tanzania, and
Zimbabwe (some of these are still under negotiation)


Chart 3: Zambia main destinations of creative goods exports, 2008


Zambia main destinations of creative goods exports, 2008


0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


Denmark


Germany


Uganda


France


Norway


Spain


United Kingdom


Democratic Republic of the Congo


United States of America


South Africa


(in million US$)


Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy




Zambia was a signatory to the Cotonou Agreement, which expired in 2007. Under the Cotonou tariff
preferences, about 97 per cent of ACP exports used to enter the European Union free of duty.
Moreover, as has already been mentioned, Zambia, as an LDC, is a beneficiary of the EU’s Everything
But Arms facility, and has been granted total duty-free quota-free access to the European market (i.e.
to the 27 EU member countries).


At present, negotiations are under way to conclude a comprehensive regional economic partnership
agreement (EPA) between the European Commission and the different regions of the ACP Group of
States. An interim agreement between eastern and southern African States – including Zambia – was
supposed to be concluded in 2008, but it is still under negotiation. During the first half of 2009 there




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 39


was a stalemate, resulting in serious discussion among SADC countries about the pros and cons of the
EPAs.76


In this regard, it should be noted that an important precedent was reached in 2008 with the conclusion
of negotiations on an EPA between the 27 members of the European Union and the 15 members of
CARIFORUM,77 with the inclusion of a protocol for cultural cooperation with special provisions for
the cultural sector. This marked a breakthrough which aims to liberalize trade and investments in
cultural goods and services between these two important markets. The EPA replaces and extends the
coverage of the trade provisions of the Cotonou Agreement, which had governed the political dialogue
between the European Union and the ACP Group of States since 2000, aiming at expediting the
economic, cultural and social development of ACP States but with more focus on cooperation rather
than on market access issues. For the first time, European countries granted market access to all
entertainment services,78 except audiovisuals. This had never been granted before.79


Zambia is also one of the qualifying countries under the African Growth and Opportunity Act passed
by the United States.80


Action: As Zambia is a member of both SADC and COMESA, a political decision has to be made to
choose only one customs union. The interim agreements are, by definition, only a first stage.
Negotiations for a full regional EPA are ongoing. In the context of this project, UNCTAD can provide
further policy advice on this matter, if required.


Chart 4: Top 10 creative goods exporters from COMESA countries, 2008


Top 10 exporters from COMESA countries, 2008


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Rwanda


Zambia


Ethiopia


Malawi


Uganda


Madagascar


Kenya


Zimbabwe


Mauritius


Egypt


(in millions of US$)


2008




Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy






76
See: UNCTAD (2008). Regional cooperation and integration in sub-Saharan Africa. Discussion paper 189, by


Martina Metzger.
77


CARICOM member states plus the Dominican Republic.
78


Entertainment services, as defined by the Central Product Classification (CPC) five-digit item codes.
79


International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (2009). Expanding trade flows of
cultural goods and services. Article by E. dos Santos-Duisenberg. Published in Trade Negotiations Insights.
Issue 1, vol. 8. February.
80


WTO (2002). Trade Policy Review: Zambia.




40 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




3.7.3 Export promotion
The Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) was established under the ZDA Act No. 11 2006, which
came into effect in July 2006. It is a merger of the Zambia Privatization Agency, the Zambia
Investment Centre, the Export Board of Zambia, the Zambia Export Processing Zones Authority and
the Small Enterprises Development Board.81 It is responsible for fostering economic growth and
development in Zambia by promoting trade and investment based on an efficient, coordinated
economic development strategy led by the private sector. The ZDA is meant to develop an
internationally competitive Zambian economy through innovation that promotes a high level of skills,
productive investment, and increased trade.


The role of the ZDA is to provide the following services on behalf of Government: (a) promotion of
local and foreign investment; (b) provision of the business support necessary for the growth and
development of SMEs; (c) promotion of exports and internationalism; (d) implementation of measures
to improve efficiency in state-owned enterprises; (e) acting as a vehicle for consultations with the
private sector, and recommending coherent trade and industry development strategies; (f) developing
and facilitating multi-facility economic zones and industrial estates; and (g) providing assistance in
securing services necessary for investment, such as land, immigration, registration and licenses.


The objectives of the ZDA are to: (a) increase the level and quality of direct investment in the
Zambian economy and priority sectors; (b) increase the contribution of SMEs to the economy; (c)
increase market access opportunities for the export of Zambian goods and services; (d) identify and
promote the development of projects that are economically viable, in partnership with the private
sector; (e) initiate and facilitate the establishment of competitive and sustainable industrial
infrastructure in key economic sectors, with the overall objective of spearheading growth; (f)
contribute to building skills, technology and infrastructure platforms from which enterprises can
benefit; and (g) develop a clear policy and operational environment for state-owned enterprises, to
ensure increased levels of operational efficiency and cost-effective service provision.82


In spite of the consolidation of different interests into the ZDA, it does not appear that the new ZDA
Act, as yet, effectively facilitates the investment process or allows for incentives for small- and
medium-scale investors.83 All businesses engaging in trade are required to register with the Patents and
Companies Registration Office. Exporters must complete an export declaration form, mainly for
statistical purposes. Zambia has no export taxes, charges or levies.


Action: Government is encouraged to redress the weaknesses of the ZDA with respect to small-scale
investors. Furthermore, the ZDA should envisage the creation of a specific programme to foster the
expansion of creative industries.


Action: Encourage the development of a strategy for export development in which the creative sectors
are taken into account.


Furthermore, opportunities exist for collaboration with the Aid for Trade initiative, whose aim is to
strengthen the trade capacity of developing countries in order to allow better participation in and
benefit from international trade. Aid for Trade is fundamentally about strengthening developing
countries’ productive capacities and tackling their supply-side constraints. A large part of Aid for
Trade is aimed towards strengthening domestic production and internal trade, such as creating an
enabling business environment for enterprises, or building economic infrastructure. Aid for Trade can
be classified into five categories: (a) trade policy and regulations; (b) trade development; (c) economic
infrastructure; (d) productive capacity; and (e) adjustment costs. During a workshop held in Zambia on
December 2008 in collaboration with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, a proposal was made
to include issues related to culture, the creative industries and the “creative economy”, as part of the


81
http://www.zda.org.zm/zda/default.aspx


82
http://www.zda.org.zm/zda/default.aspx


83
UNCTAD (2006). Investment Policy Review of Zambia: 34.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 41


Aid for Trade programme. The seminar served as an important step in the implementation of Finland’s
Aid for Trade Action Plan (2008–2011).84


Action: As a follow-up on Finland’s proposal on Aid for Trade. UNCTAD is willing to support this
process of providing trade/investment capacity-building activities for developing countries in the area
of the creative economy, in the context of the Aid for Trade initiative.


Chart 5: Top 10 creative goods importers in COMESA countries, 2008


Top 10 creative goods importers in COMESA countries, 2008


0 100 200 300 400 500 600


Seychelles


Malawi


Zambia


Uganda


Ethiopia


Sudan


Madagascar


Kenya


Mauritius


Egypt


(in millions of US$)


2008




Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy




3.8 SERVICES SECTOR


Services are of critical importance of most economies in the SADC region85. They provide the bulk of
employment and income and are major contributors to GDP and trade. In 2006, the services sector
contributed on average 50 per cent to the region's GDP. In Zambia, services make a large direct
contribution to national income, thus the performance of this sector is vital for economic growth and
poverty reduction. Currently, services account for nearly 64 percent of Zambia's GDP86.


In the area of communication services, which is crucial for the ICT related creative sectors, postal
services are still a preserve of the Zambia Postal Services. The mobile sector has performed very well
and has facilitated the participation of small and medium entrepreneurs, thus creating employment.
The construction industry, which includes architecture an important creative sector, is currently the
fastest growth sector in the world economy, with an average growth rate of 17.5 per cent per year for
the last seven years87 The Government has committed itself to Vision 2030, in which it plans to
construct more socio-economic infrastructure88. Regarding energy, Zambia is endowed with fuel,
hydropower, coal and renewable energy sources. In line with Vision 2030, the government plans to


84
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finland (2008). Aid for Trade seminar report. Lusaka, Zambia. December 9–10.


85
Zambia is a member country of SADC.


86
UNCTAD, Role of Services in SADC and negotiation approaches, pag.3. Towards SADC Services Liberation:


Balancing Multiple Imperatives
87


This is mainly attributed to the 10-year Road Sector Investment Programme costing 1.6 billion on Zambia's
road network.
88


Under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) almost all Zambia's foreign debt-amounting to
about $7.3 billion - has been written off. The attainment of HIPC means that the government has now more
resources at its disposal to carry out socio-economic activities in the local economy.




42 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




increase access to electricity from 48 per cent to 90 per cent in urban areas and from 3.1 per cent to 60
per cent in rural areas. The financial services sector has so far provided services mainly to a limited
number of individuals in the economy. The contribution to the GDP by the banking subsector is 33 per
cent in the last three years and employs close to 5,000 individuals. By December 2005, there were 14
listed and 12 quoted companies in the Lusaka Stock Exchange. Market capitalization as a percentage
of GDP stood at 28.65 per cent of the overall economy.


Zambia has made commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) only in
the construction and tourism sectors.


In the case of trade in services, specific infrastructure such as telecommunications, finance, logistics or
professional services but also adequate investment policies and trade-supportive regulations are
needed for the development of intraregional trade89. Trade agreements per se are not sufficient to
promote increased trade among the parties. Many other factors related to the supply and demand
structure of members' economies play a crucial role. For the purpose of this study, two main services
sector are highlighted, tourism and, construction including architecture and audiovisuals, since they
are considered closely linked to the creative industries.


3.8.1 Tourism: inter-sectoral linkages
The sector is of strategic importance to almost all SADC countries considering its high contribution to
GDP, trade, foreign currency receipts and employment. However, development in the tourism sector
is constrained by lack of capacity and inefficiency in the supporting services sectors, such as
telecommunications, finance and transport.90 Tourism contributed 3.4 per cent to the GDP of the
region and was directly responsible for 1.75 million jobs in 200691.
The tourism industry directly and indirectly provides significant employment and income
opportunities for Zambians. There is a multiplier effect that creates more jobs indirectly, as a result of
spending by tourists on tourism-related products such as cultural activities and creative industries
products. Given that many of the tourism resources are located in rural areas, the tourism sector,
together with the creative industries, is pivotal in bringing about development in rural areas.


Zambia’s attractiveness as a tourist destination relies primarily on its reputation for wildlife and
natural scenery, and for rich natural and cultural heritage sites, including the world-famous Victoria
Falls located within its borders. The Government is committed to diversification, which will be
encouraged both in the wildlife sector and for other new areas such as culture and heritage, traditional
ceremonies, domestic tourism, community-based tourism, ecotourism and recreation tourism.92 The
tourism industry is a powerful instrument for sustaining demand for creative industries.


Actions: To facilitate and foster the active participation of local creative entrepreneurs in the tourism
value chain, so that they can play a full role in the development of the industry.


Actions: To encourage and support entrepreneurs in the creative industries to operate their businesses
in a way that is mindful of the environment, and according to appropriate quality standards and ethics.




89
UNCTAD (2009). Strengthening Regional Economic Integration for Africa's Development: Economic


Development in Africa Report 2009. United Nations publication. New York and Geneva.
90


Towards SADC Services Liberation: Balancing Multiple Imperatives, Tourism Sector, pag.66. UNCTAD,
2010.
91


Mfune F (2008). Tourism Development in Southern Africa. The Official SADC Trade, Industry and
Investment Review 2007/08, SADC.
92


Ministry of Tourism. Tourism policy of Zambia.




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 43


Actions: To support an organizational scheme for creative entrepreneurs to organize their activities in
the framework of cooperatives or professional associations, in order to empower their negotiating
position when offering their services to hotels and tourists.


The Ministry of Tourism recognizes the need to work in closer collaboration with the Department of
Culture and Social Affairs in order to achieve more articulated actions, in particular with regard to the
marketing strategies of cultural villages, and the selling of visual arts, crafts, souvenirs, jewellery etc.93
The support of the Ministry of Tourism is also vital to assisting performing artists (e.g. dance groups,
musicians, singers) to better negotiate their contractual arrangements with big hotels.


Action: Encourage and facilitate the setting up of private and public partnerships between tourism and
creative industry stakeholders.


3.8.2 Audiovisual Services
The audiovisual sector is or particular interest to developing countries because it generates jobs and it
also is a vehicle of expression of cultural identities. Therefore, countries feel compelled to protect the
audiovisual sector and are reluctant to conduct negotiations or take on specific liberalization
commitments within the framework of the WTO. This trend is reflected at the regional level within
SADC, as audiovisual services have not been addressed in the SADC Protocol on Transport,
Communications and Meteorology.


Even where commitments are made, it is mostly in motion picture projection services and motion
picture and videotape production and distribution services. Licenses have to be acquired in order to
provide audiovisual services. In Zambia, the new entrant does not have to prove that majority
ownership is domestic, nor does it have to meet any minimum capital requirements94.


3.9 TECHNOLOGY AND CONNECTIVITY


Technology and innovation – as well as knowledge and skills transfer – are the long-term drivers of
economic growth. For the creative industries, connectivity and ICT tools have two important roles: (a)
as creative products themselves, due to their use and application to create products such as video clips,
video games, animations etc.; and (b) as an enabling tool for the marketing and distribution of other
creative products, such as music, film, advertising, e-books etc.


For developing countries, these innovations provide new opportunities to facilitate networks and to
increase the exchange of information both locally and globally. Moreover, in recent years, the cost of
access to ICTs has been considerably reduced, which has allowed a democratization of ICT use by
poorer people to support their livelihoods, and has also facilitated the adoption of ICT in poverty-
reduction programmes.95


The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services has the responsibility for ICT policy in the
country.96 The Zambian national ICT policy was launched in March 2007. There seems to be both
political will and a clear understanding of the importance of bridging the digital divide and promoting
the use of ICT in Zambia.


Action: The ICT policy should be accompanied by an implementation strategy with a time frame and
an allocation of human and budgetary resources. The ICT policy should also be applied to support the
work of artists and those involved in the creative industries.


93
Statement by a high-level official from the Ministry of Tourism at the UNCTAD High-Level Policy Dialogue


on Creative Industries. Lusaka. July 2009.
94


Towards SADC Services Liberalization: Balancing Multiple Imperatives. Audiovisual services, pag 48,
UNCTAD, 2010.
95


See: UNCTAD (2007). Information Economy Report 2007–2008.
96


http://www.mibs.gov.zm




44 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




Action: ICT requires skills, education and continuous training, and an effective mechanism should be
put in place to ensure this process. UNESCO is proposing the creation of a cybercafé in Zambia, as a
tool to support concrete actions and capacity-building in this area, during the implementation of this
project.
The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) and the Zambia Telecommunications Company
(ZAMTEL) are working to build the fiber-optic “backbone” of the country. However, at present, the
costs of computers, telecommunications equipment, the taxation of ICT equipment, and commercial
rates for internet access are prohibitive.97


Action: In order to encourage the production of local content, clear actions are needed from the
Government in order to support the use of the Internet. Taxation on ICT equipment and services could
be reduced, and lower licensing costs could be implemented.


The use of mobile phones in Africa is expanding at an extraordinary rate and shows no signs of
slowing down, according to a recent special report on telecommunications in Africa.98 There are more
mobile phones in use than fixed lines. Just as internet use is increasingly being combined with
telephony in developed countries, it seems reasonable to assume that internet access through
telephones may have a future in Africa. Today, mobile phones have become the main tool for the
circulation of creative sounds, texts and images, particularly among young people. However, for the
time being, radio remains the prime source of information for the majority of the Zambian population.
In Zambia, the number of mobile phone subscribers increased from 735,000 in 2005 to 949,600 in
2006, showing a 29 per cent growth rate.99 Internet connectivity is very low in Zambia, and is
concentrated in urban areas and to some extent along the railway line that traverses Zambia. It is
estimated that there are about 500,000 internet users in the country, and about 16,500 internet
subscribers from the 10 internet service providers that the country has.100 Even though at this point in
time internet access in Zambia may not be very significant, it is likely to grow rapidly, and therefore
the creation of local content is strategically important.


Action: In terms of medium-term strategies, it is clear that local creative content for the internet that is
of interest to Zambians and Africans should be a priority. Digital content and new media therefore
have a potential market, with the growing number of users. The linkages between ICT tools and the
development of creative content are becoming more and more apparent, particularly for film,
audiovisual and new media creations.


Action: Continuous learning in the field of ICT is essential. Special programmes could be envisaged,
involving the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of
Science with the university and with other educational centres, to ensure training and capacity-
building in this essential field.


3.10 EDUCATION AND TRAINING


There are three institutions that undertake some teaching in the arts sectors in Zambia. The University
of Zambia has courses in drama and film within their Literature and Languages Department and Mass
Communications Department. However, according to practitioners in the arts and the creative




97
Ngombe T. Zambia still lagging in local content production. http://www.iconnect-


online.org/Documents/ZambiaLocalContent2007ICT4DiConnectEng.pdf
98


Ford N (2008). Telecoms in Africa – moving to the next stage. African Business. 345: 34. August/September.
99


The UNCTAD calculations are based on the ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database, 2007.
Statistical annex, table 1.11: Mobile phone subscribers: economies by level of development and region.
Information Economy Report 2007–2008.
100


Ngombe T. Zambia still lagging in local content production. http://www.iconnect-
online.org/Documents/ZambiaLocalContent2007ICT4DiConnectEng.pdf




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 45


industries, the courses are not ideal for professionals who really want to work exclusively in these
sectors. In 1983, the University of Zambia established a Centre for the Arts; however it was closed in
accordance with the 1994–1998 Strategic Plan.


The Evelyn Hone College of Applied Arts and Commerce is based in Lusaka. The college offers
education and professional training in various disciplines, including, among others, business and
management, information technology and communications, art and music, and communication skills.
The Media Studies Department offers courses in journalism and print technology. The Education
Department has courses that lead to art teacher and music teacher diplomas. Under normal
circumstances, the college also offers art and music diplomas and a certificate in fashion and design;
however, these departments have not always been operational.101 According to stakeholders, one of the
big drawbacks is that there is no location in Zambia where graduates who have obtained teaching
diplomas in the arts can actually teach.


There is currently a project proposal to support a new Department at Evelyn Hone College for the
establishment and development of a Creative Media Academy, a Projects Bureau and a Centre for
Living Culture. In the Creative Media Academy, bachelor curricula will be developed aimed at
providing the creative industries with competent, creative and innovative professionals. The regional
Creative Media Academy will feed upon the Butala Project102. The Projects Bureau will facilitate the
liaise with the industries. It will manage core activities relevant to the relationship between education
and the professional working field. The Bureau will cater for educational project assignments,
industrial placement and improved linkages between the College and the creative industries. The
Centre for Living Culture will stimulate local content creation and production and it will develop and
maintain digital on-line database of cultural material for reuse. This proposal103 is a joint effort by the
Utrecht School of Arts, Evelyn Hone College, UNCTAD and the Department of Cultural Affairs of
the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services of Zambia. This project is currently
under the consideration of the Government of the Netherlands to receive support for its
implementation. The purpose is to develop bachelor degrees in Media Design and in Music Design.
This project is aimed at giving a boost to the development of the private sector in the creative
industries in Zambia; with the entrepreneurial orientation of the Creative Media bachelor, their
competence-based and project-based curricula, the interdependent operation of a Projects Bureau to
liaise with the industries and of a Centre promoting local content creation and production while both
Bureau and Centre will train entrepreneurial and creative skills stakeholders. As is necessary when
dealing with creative industries, the plan does not only cater for the economical, entrepreneurial side
but also for the relation between entrepreneurships and creativity and for local content creation.


Action: Supporting university-level programmes in the arts and creative sectors is crucial for
strengthening the creative industries in the country. The Evelyn Hone College can play an important
role in terms of continuing education and acquiring additional skills, including management skills, in
the arts and creative sectors. Arts and culture education should also be integrated into the public
school curriculum at all levels. Efforts should also be made to reopen the University of Zambia’s
School of Arts.


Action: UNCTAD and the Zambia government should enhance its collaboration with the Utrecht
School of Arts in order to provide greater support to the Project Proposal on Supporting the


101
http://www.evelynhone.edu.zm


102
The Butala project is a co-operation between the Serenje Distric Commission and the Creative Design


Research Group of Utrecht School of the Arts led by Prof. Jan IJzermans. In this project farmers are trained to
make local digital media and music products and learn how to earn money with these products. Until now the
project has trained two pairs and a composers/sound designer and coached them in the making of some forty
products. Local distribution possibilities have been studied and have led to a distribution plan that will come into
effect this year.
103


Project Proposal on Supporting the Establishment and Development of a Creative Media Academy, a Projects
Bureau and a Centre for Living Culture. Utrecht School of Arts, Professor Marjanne Paardekooper, 23 April,
2010.




46 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




Establishment and Development of a Creative Media Academy, A projects Bureau and a Centre for
Living Culture.


Action: In the context of this project, several education and training activities have been envisaged.
UNCTAD is committed to provide capacity-building in trade policies and investment promotion, in
order to assist the Government with policy formulation and to enhance the creative economy. ILO has
been providing training in cultural and creative entrepreneurship to develop business skills for artists
and creators. UNESCO is likely to focus on specific vocational training to upgrade artists’ and
creators’ knowledge in the areas of their competence.


The Zambian Open University is currently in the process of establishing a School of Media,
Performing and Fine Arts. This would be the first school in the country to offer degree programmes
(bachelor’s and masters) in media, performing and fine arts.104


Discussions with stakeholders have indicated that there are various needs in the domain of education
and training. These can be broken down as follows: (a) arts education from primary level to university
level; (b) capacity-building in terms of vocational training for artists who would like to improve their
trade business skills; (c) capacity-building in terms of entrepreneurial skills; and (d) capacity-building
in terms of institution-building, policy development and implementation.


3.11 CREATIVITY AND BIODIVERSITY


Developing countries are often endowed with rich biodiversity but they face the big challenge of
finding the right balance between the sustainable use and the conservation of their biodiversity. In
recent years, a positive trend towards ethical consumerism and eco-ethical fashion is emerging. Both
consumers and producers of creative products increasingly question the true cultural and
environmental value of what they create, buy and sell.






















The fashion industry, for instance, can play an increasingly important role in preserving natural
heritage, encouraging sustainable consumption patterns and shaping a new consumer culture. The
fashion industry provides an opportunity for developing countries to shift up economic ladder by using
their creative talents in harmony with the best use of the nature, including the use of natural fibers and




104
Dickson M (2008). The Zambian Open University: Proposal for a school of media, performing and fine arts


studies. Executive summary. Stakeholders’ meeting held in Lusaka.


Figure 10. Contemporary sculpture made with recyclable materials
(Unknown artist)






Photo by Edna dos Santos




PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW 47


environmentally-friendly processes. Many businesses are embracing innovative approaches in dealing
with global supply chains, worker’s rights and environmental issues.


Action: Responsible business initiatives are needed by both SMEs and multinational companies. It is
important to use processes that consume less water and energy to avoid the abusive use of animal
species for the use of skins.


Action: Efforts should be made to promote the use of biodegradable, the use of organic products,
natural fibres and use of local material. The use of pesticides and insecticides should be avoided as
well as chemical processes that harm the fauna and flora.


Creative industry products are not only cultural ambassadors; every product represents a specific
attitude towards our planet and environment. Artists and cultural operators have a chance to play a role
by promoting products as a vehicle for social, cultural, and economic transformation. The main
challenge remains in bridging awareness between designers and product managers, producers and co-
producers, consumers and citizens. Each one has a part of responsibility in preserving the environment
and biodiversity. The eco-ethical fashion and natural cosmetics are booming sectors which contribute
to employment creation and export revenues providing jobs and export revenue from the sustainable
use of biodiversity.


Action: A constructive dialogue is needed to engage business and consumers to come together with
the aim to conserve biodiversity. Throughout supply chains, partnerships among farmers, NGOs, and
government are needed at a global scale.


3.12 DATA COLLECTION


The necessity of reliable statistics is an ever-present issue in all discussions about the creative
industries. It is almost redundant to say that effective and reliable data collection is an imperative for
any type of assessment and policy formulation. The importance of data collection to support the
development of the creative industries cannot be overstated, as emphasized by UNCTAD in the
Creative Economy Reports of 2008 and 2010.105


Zambia has a Central Statistical Office (CSO).106 The main mission of the CSO is to provide a
comprehensive national statistical database, with relevant statistical information for the Government,
the private sector, and the wider national and international community. The CSO is also responsible
for promoting the increased use of statistical information for effective decision-making and informed
debate on the economy by all major stakeholders. Its headquarters is in Lusaka, and it has offices in all
the nine provincial capitals of Zambia, and in selected districts within each province. The provincial
offices are mainly responsible for data collection, editing and data entry.


ZambiaInfo is a national database to monitor the implementation of the Fifth National Development
Plan 2006–2010 and the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2007–2010.
ZambiaInfo also incorporates the Millennium Development Goals. There is a task force for
ZambiaInfo that is comprised of several relevant United Nations agencies.


Based on official sources, UNCTAD has compiled statistics from Zambia on trade in creative goods;
these are presented in several charts, and in the statistical annex at the end of this report. Nevertheless,
this first attempt at analyzing the export performance of the creative industries in Zambia should be
viewed cautiously.




105
UNCTAD and UNDP (2008). Creative Economy Report 2008. The challenge of assessing the creative


economy: towards informed policymaking. UNCTAD/DITC/2008/2.
106


http://www.zamstats.gov.zm




48 PART 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY REVIEW




Within the strategic plan of the MCDSS, objective 2 specifically emphasizes the necessity of
developing a database and improving the dissemination of information in the cultural sector. The
mapping of the creative sector is a costly and time-consuming exercise that should be done gradually,
but it is important to start the process.


Action: The Department of Cultural Affairs, the National Arts Council and the Central Statistical
Office could benefit from a consolidation of forces in terms of collecting statistics and information on
the creative sectors.


Action: Efforts should be made to improve the quality and coverage of data related to the creative
industries, not only on trade, but also for some important economic and social indicators.


Action: Priorities need to be identified regarding the data to be collected – both quantitative and
qualitative. At this stage, there is insufficient reliable data that could be relevant to policymaking and
to an effective assessment of the domestic and international market for Zambian creative goods and
services. As the central organizing entity, the CSO could expand its coverage and include data
collection for the creative industries, on its regular work.




PART 4. SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW 49




PART 4. SECTOR-SPECIFIC OVERVIEW
As mentioned in the introduction, the ACP/ILO/UNCTAD/UNESCO project initially pointed out three
possible sectors for action: (a) performing arts; (b) audiovisual and new media; and (c) books and
publishing. The extent to which these pre-identified sectors become the focus of the project’s activities
depends on the results of phase I and the identification of needs and priorities. They must be consistent
with the aim of providing optimal possibilities of enhancing the creative industries in the country in
the short, medium and long term.


This section looks at the current situation in three pre-designated sectors, and provides comments on
additional sectors considered to be of relevance to the creative industries in Zambia. It is notable,
however, that some export potential seems to be in the art crafts, visual arts and publishing sectors,
according to official figures. The potential of the audiovisual, new media, design and music should not
be overlooked and deserve greater attention.


Based on official sources, UNCTAD has compiled statistics from Zambia on trade in creative goods;
these are presented in several charts and in the statistical annex at the end of the report. However, as
mentioned earlier, these figures should be checked and improved as data inconsistencies were
observed. Special attention should be given to data collection and reporting.


4.1 PERFORMING ARTS


Traditional dance performance is a vital part of Zambian cultural heritage. Numerous traditional
ceremonies are performed throughout the country, and each ceremony has its own corresponding
dances. Traditional dance troupes are called upon to perform at many official government events, and
at private venues such as hotels and restaurants, which also hire dance troupes to perform. The
Government also sponsors a national dance troupe which performs at official events.


Nonetheless, in spite of the central role that these performances play in Zambian society, performers
find it difficult to make a living from their profession, according to ZAFODAMUS and other local
stakeholders. For a start, the creative disciplines are not taken seriously enough, and are not considered
as being – or potentially being – a real profession. Gender issues are a concern, and this is apparently
reflected in pay scales; musicians and managers are often men, and women are generally dancers in
the troupes and earn less. They receive little or no recognition for their work, either in monetary or in
social terms. The manager of the group usually negotiates the price and then distributes the money
after the performance. There is little job security, in that the performers are only paid if there is a
request for their work. There is no social security system for the performers, nor are there any pension
schemes.


Figure 11. Traditional dance






Launching of the project, Lusaka, July, 2001
Photo by Edna dos Santos




50 PART 4.SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW




Action: Reinforce the importance of artistic work and creation, by means of a creative industries
awareness campaign. It should be borne in mind, however, that the performing arts are only one sector
of the creative industries, and that a creative industries campaign should be broad and all-
encompassing.


Action: Legislation is recommended covering performers’ rights. As has already been mentioned,
social security and pension systems need to include performers from the creative economy.


Action: Given the talent that exists in the dance sector, one might consider enhancing the training and
education possibilities available, for example by creating a school of the performing arts, or by
reinforcing existing structures such as the Evelyn Hone College. This could help in professionalizing
those working in the sector, and it could also serve as a catalyst for developing new dance languages.


4.1.1 Cultural villages
Zambia is working to develop an infrastructure of cultural villages. These are locations that bring
together a range of different elements from traditional cultural practices, generally including the
performing arts, crafts, and souvenir making. The Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of the
Environment and Natural Resources are also supportive of the policy to develop cultural villages in
the country.


The cultural villages take different forms. In Lusaka, for example, there is the Kabwata cultural
village, where approximately 12 artists and their families (60 people) live and work, making wood
sculptures, baskets, and various other crafts and souvenirs. The village also includes a performance
space used for traditional dances (this venue is currently undergoing renovation). Workers in the
village return 15 per cent of their sales to the village association. While there is some mutual solidarity
among the members of the village, it was noted that when there are no sales there, the workers do not
receive any support from the village. Many tourists to Lusaka visit this cultural village and purchase
crafts and souvenirs. The traditional dances (which were performed in the village before renovations
began) were frequently attended by both locals and tourists.107


The MCDSS and the DCA are actively working to develop a network of cultural villages throughout
the country. The plan is to have one village serve as a type of training centre, which the other villages
could use as a resource base.108


Figure 12. Kabwata cultural village






107
Discussions with members of the Kabwata cultural village. Lusaka. 28 July 2008.


108
Minister of Community Development and Social Services. Lusaka. 28 July 2008.




Photo by Edna dos Santos




PART 4. SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW 51


An ambitious project is currently being undertaken in Livingstone to construct the Maramba cultural
village. This is a cooperative project between the MCDSS, the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry of
the Environment, the Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry, and the South African chain of Sun
Hotels. The Maramba cultural village will house 19 members of the national dance troupe, who will
live in the village in accordance with traditional ways. There will be regular dance performances in the
village. Small shops/stands are part of the village construction, so that crafts and souvenirs can be
sold, in addition to traditional food and traditionally prepared beverages.


This is an interesting public–private partnership initiative, which is modeled on the South African
example. The village association will receive 10–25 per cent of all the sales; the national dance troupe
will pay rent at preferential rates. The Sun Hotel and the MCDSS and DCA will be responsible for the
maintenance of the village. The Zambian Government has been careful to avoid too much dominance
by the Sun Hotel over Maramba village, and to encourage varied ownership of enterprises in the new
village. There is also a clear objective of applying quality control to the products that are sold there,
and to implement and integrate high quality and traditional standards.109


Action: These villages fit within the defined tourism policy. They are complementary to the
development of trade in the creative industries, and synergies should be developed in this sense. For
example, the quality of art crafts is crucial and can perhaps lead to high-quality art crafts boutiques,
which can be venues for attracting investment and export interest.


Action: The notion of clusters could be applied and developed to improve the functioning and
efficiency of the cultural villages. Either through the creation of specialized locations throughout the
country which supply the villages and/or the indigenous cultural communities with the inputs need for
their creative products, and also as a specialized centre for sharing knowledge and information,
improving productivity, providing training and motivating artisans to work more efficiently while
preserving the traditional techniques and transferring traditional knowledge to the new generations as
way of promoting and preserving cultural diversity and heritage values.


4.2 MUSIC


In terms of the contemporary music sector, in Zambia, as in most of the countries in the southern
African region, the local market is dominated by South Africa. While there is a vibrant music culture
that permeates Zambian society, the contemporary music scene seems to suffer from considerable
constraints linked to technical know-how, and to a serious lack of equipment and of quality facilities,
which do not meet any minimum required standards.110 This sector has paralleled the vagaries of the
Zambian economy, with various records labels closing down during the economic downturn.


With funding from NORAD, the Zambia Association of Musicians has been quite active in terms of
restructuring itself, trying to attain a level of professionalism, and negotiating with the Government to
improve working conditions. The complications in terms of the rights and benefits of creative
professionals are impediments to improving the current situation.


Traditional music seems to be mostly used for live performances at ceremonies, official events, and
commercial venues such as hotels and restaurants. In this sense, considering its potential for
development, the sector seems really to be at an early stage. Giving attention to the traditional music
sector could certainly be beneficial, in the sense that it can provide both inspiration and possibilities
for fusion in the contemporary music scene. One of the difficulties with the African music market is
that there are already countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Senegal and South
Africa which have comparatively strong music industries established in both African and international
markets.




109
Livingstone cultural affairs officer. Southern province. 2 August 2008.


110
Stakeholders’ meeting. Lusaka. 29 July 2008.




52 PART 4.SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW




Figure 13: Traditional music




Actions: Institution-building support and tailor-made capacity-building are essential. In particular, the
ZAM could benefit from training in two areas: Firstly, to strengthen the organization so that it can
work better to protect and promote the interests of musicians. For example, a ZAM website could help
disseminate information about the musicians and their music. Secondly, the musicians themselves
could benefit from capacity-building. Nowadays most musicians have no choice other than to produce
their own works and to be their own agents. Training in entrepreneurial skills and intellectual property
rights issues seems to be crucial. Thirdly, encourage the performance and recording of traditional
music, building synergies between contemporary and traditional cultural expression through common
vocational training capacity-building programmes.


4.3 AUDIOVISUAL AND NEW MEDIA


The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services has the responsibility for overseeing and
implementing the information and media policy; the theatre and cinema policy; broadcasting and
television services; dissemination and gathering of information; and issuing radio and television
licenses, in addition to the ICT and copyright administration mentioned earlier.111


Objective 1: Provide a legal and policy framework, and monitor and evaluate its implementation, in
order to guide the operations of the media industry and ensure compliance.112


The NAC has undertaken targeted actions to support activities in this sector by supporting the NAMA
in various activities, such as providing financing to attend film festivals and training initiatives,
encouraging the Government to establish legislation in the sector, and creating tax exemptions for
materials and equipment. It has helped to bring together all those who are active in the sector to write
and submit a proposal to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services on a policy for the
sector.113 The NAC states clearly that the sector needs financial support in order to flourish.




111
Republic of Zambia. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services. Strategic Plan for the Ministry of


Information and Broadcasting Services 2006–2010: 3.
112


Republic of Zambia. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services. Strategic Plan for the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting Services 2006–2010: 20.
113


National Arts Council of Zambia. The role of the National Arts Council of Zambia in the production of local
films: 4.




Photo by Edna dos Santos




PART 4. SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW 53


The Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation is the state broadcaster. There are a number of other
broadcasters, including Copperbelt TV System (Ndola), the Central Broadcasting Corporation, and
Trinity Broadcasting (religious, from the United States), as well as a private broadcaster, Muvi TV
(Lusaka), which is extremely popular with the public. There are also three pay channels, namely
Multichoice/DSTV (South African), MyTV (Zambian) and GTV (British).


According to the director of Muvi TV, there is an extreme lack of infrastructure in the country, with
nowhere to buy equipment or materials, and a lack of clarity in terms of structuring the sector. For
example, the process of obtaining licenses is extremely arduous and can take years. On a positive note,
it is significant that one of the conditions for obtaining a license is that a quota of approximately 70
per cent of Zambian programming must be achieved. Nevertheless, in spite of the lack of facilities,
Muvi TV has been producing local television series, and in July 2008, a film produced by Muvi TV
was shown in cinemas in Lusaka.114 Muvi TV has approximately 150 employees. There have been
comments from the public, however, on the lack of quality of the production. Nonetheless, local
initiatives, such as that of Muvi TV, are encouraging, and will likely lead to improvements in quality.


Yezi Arts Promotions and Productions is another local enterprise which is active in theatre, film and
television. The director of the company also chairs Southern Africa Communications for Development
(SACOD) for film. He has four employees. In addition to making his own digital film productions, he
has also created a theatre festival in the country. In terms of developing the creative sectors in Zambia,
Yezi points to the clear need to implement sustainable support programmes that have clearly defined
implementation strategies.115


This sector could be considered as a medium- and long-term development sector, although Zambia
does not have a film culture or history, compared to some of its neighboring countries. Nonetheless,
there is an enormous desire for Zambian content at cinemas and on television. The audiovisual and
media sector have great potential but need supporting policies. The Government of Zambia needs to be
attentive in order to avoid missing the link to stimulate local content creation and production.


Currently, there are insufficient training and educational facilities, and it will take some time for the
process of education, training, and then the development of an industry to take hold. Long-term
possibilities exist, in terms of the growing need for creative content in all the media, as indicated in
chapter 3. .There is potential for development, both in terms of the national market and a targeted
international market.


Action: Legislation for the film and audiovisual sector is encouraged. Follow-up on the suggestions
that have already been submitted by the industry and the NAC; for example, the Zambia National
Broadcasting Corporation could establish a quota for local or African content. This must also be
accompanied by concrete investments in kind in the production of local films.


Action: Encourage local productions. The suggestions mentioned in section 3.1.2 on financing
mechanisms can be tailored specifically to this sector. For example, funding mechanisms for the film
and audiovisual sector should be established. Such a fund could largely be supplied from industry
transfers within the film, audiovisual and media sectors themselves. Contributions could come, for
example, from a percentage on broadcasters’ overall advertising earnings, a tax on DVD sales, a tax
on blank DVDs. A contribution could be considered from internet service providers or telephone
companies that are or soon will be interested in providing creative content through their services.


Action: Government could consider creating a Zambian film commission to promote the country as a
film location. This should be simultaneously accompanied by some conditions and controls on filming
within the country so as to ensure that there is some return to the local film industry, either in terms of
training, the use of local technical services and auxiliary staff as available, and/or in investments.




114
Discussion with Steve Nyirenda, Managing Director of Muvi TV. Lusaka. 1 August 2008.


115
Discussion with Abdon Yezi, Director of Yezi Arts Productions. Lusaka. 4 August 2008.




54 PART 4.SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW




Action: Encourage the exposure of film professionals to neighboring-country and international
festivals and film and audiovisual venues. Encourage cooperation with regional structures such as the
Pan-African Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou (FESPACO) to build networks within and
across the film industry. Possibilities are to better integrate this project with the other component of
the ACP Support Programme for the Cultural Industries. The ACP-EU Support Programme for the
ACP Cinema and Audiovisual Sector Film is helping to support the development of the film and
audiovisual industries in Africa.


4.4 PUBLISHING AND THE BOOK SECTOR


The publishing market in Africa has structural problems, as in almost all countries. The high prices of
imported inputs, such as ink, paper and machinery, are recurrent problems. Moreover, the oligopolistic
structure of the market, which is comprised of a small number of large editorial groups based in
Europe, means that most literary works by Africans are published and marketed by European
companies. According to stakeholders, the publishing sector in Zambia is almost non-existent;
principally, books are published on easy and commercially oriented subjects, with the main goal of
earning a profit.116


Chart 6. Zambian exports from the publishing sector, 2003-2008


Zambia exports from the Publishing sector, 2003-2008


0


100


200


300


400


500


600


700


800


900


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in
th


ou
sa


n
ds



o


f U
S$


)


Publishing




Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy




A glance through bookshops in Lusaka indicates domination by a very limited number of foreign
publishing firms, with quite a restricted range of publications. The chart below presents statistics on
publishing and printed materials, such as books, magazines, newspapers, calendars, posters, postcards,
greetings cards etc.


At present, there is no book policy in Zambia. A proposal for a specific policy for the book sector has
been drafted and is under examination by the Government. It would be interesting for Zambia to look
at measures taken by other countries, such as Mozambique, which has decided that a certain
percentage of books should be published in Mozambique.


Action: Policies should be put in place to deal with the bottlenecks in the publishing and printing
sector, particularly in the case of books for educational purposes. Efforts should be concentrated on
promoting the works of local literary writers inside the country, since the sector apparently does not




116
Stakeholders’ meeting. Lusaka. 29 July 2008.




PART 4. SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW 55


have great appeal for exports. Trade data shows a sharp decrease in the level of exports from the
publishing sector in 2008 as compared to 2005, as shown in chart 6 above.117


4.5 OTHER SECTORS WITH POTENTIAL


In addition to the sectors noted above, there is noteworthy potential for creative industries in other
areas, such as the visual arts, art crafts, and some areas of design.


4.5.1 Visual arts
The visual arts sector in Zambia appears to have high potential for development in the medium term.
As shown in Chart 7 below, the value of exports gradually increased in recent years.


Chart 7: Zambia exports from the visual arts sector, 2003-2008


Zambia exports from the Visual Arts sector, 2003-2008


0


0.2


0.4


0.6


0.8


1


1.2


1.4


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n


US
$)


Visual Arts




Source: UNCTAD Database on Creative Economy


There are already a few internationally known painters, sculptors and plastic artists who circulate in
international art venues. The target market for consumption in this domain is largely a higher-income,
global, urban market – primarily external, but also upscale internal.


The increased global visibility in this area will also have a spillover effect on the crafts sector. The
visual arts sector comprises antiques, paintings, sculpture and photography, as well as “other visual
arts”, consisting of collages, engravings, carvings, lithographs and other ornaments, as per the
classification used by UNCTAD for trade statistics.


Action: Specific funding opportunities should be developed for local artists, for example to support
studio spaces. The current structure and facilities of the Visual Arts Council could be expanded to
provide services as a cluster for the visual arts.


Action: The national art museum or a national art gallery could be a form of investment in local artists
on a regular basis, by exhibiting their work. This would also be a form of exposure for local artists,
and a means of investing in the local art industry. Art works of local artists could also be used for
decoration and promotion in public buildings, hotels, national parks etc.




117
UNCTAD hopes to establish closer contact with Zambia’s Central Statistical Office, with a view to checking


the figures and improving the quality of the data on the export and import of creative goods and services.




56 PART 4.SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW




Action: The mobility of talented artists should be encouraged, through travel to international art
biennales, particularly those in the cities of developing countries, such as Cairo, Dakar and Havana.
Contacts with promoters of international auctions and fairs could also be fruitful.


Action: Assist the Visual Arts Council in creating an internet art gallery. Provide capacity-building in
terms of managerial and entrepreneurial skills for the Visual Arts Council, which would transfer these
skills to groups of artists – at least two sessions a year, based on the ILO model. Visual artists should
also learn the fundamentals of intellectual property rights, in order to protect their works from illegal
reproduction.


Action: Encourage tax exemptions for materials and supplies used in the visual arts sector


Figure 14. Paintings by Zambian artists


There are a number of private art galleries already established
throughout the country. These range from galleries run privately by
locally established entrepreneurs who invest in art, to smaller galleries
owned and run by individuals. The Henry Tayali118 gallery is a local
venue and meeting point for many artists, as well as being the
headquarters of the Visual Arts Council. It has received crucial support
for its activities from NORAD.








Henry Tayali




An interesting project has been initiated by William Miko, a local
artist who also works as a curator, in conjunction with the Hotel
Intercontinental. Miko rents part of the lobby at the hotel, and exhibits
works by local artists. This is an optimal way of promoting Zambian
art, on account of the international visitors who pass through the
hotel. It is also through this kind of visibility that international
investors can be found. Miko has also undertaken a project in
cooperation with local corporations, to facilitate the exhibit of local
Zambian art in their office buildings.


William Miko




4.5.2 Art crafts
Art crafts are the only sector of the creative industries where developing countries have a strong
participation in world markets. Exports from developing countries increased from $9.2 billion in 2002
to $20.7 billion in 2008119. This is not a negligible market, but regrettably, it is usually disregarded and
disconnected from public policies. Art crafts are not only vectors for jobs and export earnings, but also
a tool for poverty reduction, the transfer of community-based skills, and cultural diversity.120




118
Henry Tayali played a very influential role in the cultural and artistic development of Zambia.


119
Creative Economy Report 2010: The Creative Economy: A feasible development option. UNCTAD and


UNDP, 2010.
120


See: Creative Economy Report 2008: 114–117.







PART 4. SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW 57


Figure 14: Art Crafts from Cultural Villages




Art crafts have distinctive features; they can be utilitarian, aesthetic, creative, decorative, functional,
traditional, religiously symbolic, socially symbolic etc. As the art crafts creative sector is very broad,
UNCTAD has subdivided it into six main categories: (a) carpets; (b) celebration articles; (c)
paperware works; (d) wickerware articles; (e) yarn items; and (f) other miscellaneous crafts. These are
the indicative products covered in chart 8.


In Lusaka, and throughout the country particularly in the Livingstone area, there are crafts markets,
villages, stands and vendors to be found. The crafts sector in Zambia has potential for growth, both in
the domestic and the export market, despite the fierce competition in this domain inside the African
continent. The development of this sector can go hand in hand with the development of the cultural
villages which is already established in government policies. However, there are challenges to be
addressed.


A key issue is the question of quality and standards, which must be addressed for the art crafts work to
be more competitive in domestically and internationally. In addition, various products that are
specifically identifiable as Zambian should be clearly designated, with labels indicating the origin and
the name of the community that produces it.


Chart 8: Zambia exports from the Arts Crafts goods, 2003-2008


Zambia exports from Art Crafts goods, 2003 and 2008


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


400


450


500


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in
th


o
u


s
a


n
ds



o


f U
S$


)


Art Crafts




In certain cases, even a small sentence explaining the indigenous heritage and the number of hours
spent to produce the craft would bring value-added to the product. Handmade crafts could be signed
by the artist/artisan who created the piece. This would not only encourage the artist to improve the
artistic quality of the product, but it would also promote his/her name as a brand. For the tourists, this




(Unknown artist)




58 PART 4.SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW




would mean higher standards of quality, which would qualify for higher prices. This process would
also help to raise interest in and respect for the cultural heritage of the country, bringing greater
recognition to the work of its artisans.


As far as the process of selling crafts is concerned, the items are generally laid out on the ground or a
table, creating a mass of products for which no distinction is made with regard to quality of work. In
addition, there tends to be a significant repetition of the products available. Efforts should be made to
improve the display of works; fewer pieces may mean more exclusivity and therefore higher prices.


The fast expansion of exports of art crafts from Zambia over the last years is noticeable. According to
the chart 8 and the statistics presented in the annex to this study, exports of crafts increased strongly
from a level of less than $40,000 in 2005 to $475,000 in 2008, nearly ten times more in three years.
This is evidence that the global crafts market is growing. This creative sector should not be neglected
although the figures remain low compared to other sectors.


Action: An expert on market strategy could be hired by the National Arts Council to prepare and
implement an export promotion strategy for art crafts, taking advantage of duty-free arrangements in
major markets. This professional would provide technical advice and quality control, and would
monitor the displaying of art crafts offered at the cultural villages.
Action: Encourage capacity-building in terms of technical skills training, in order for crafts workers to
improve the quality of the products.


Action: Encourage capacity-building in terms of entrepreneurial training, managerial skills and
marketing skills for people selling crafts.


In this regard, a meeting was held by the National Handicrafts Association in September 2009,
attended by a number of stakeholders, including the Government, United Nations agencies, the
National Arts Council and the World Bank, with a view to discussing how the Association could be
supported by the European Union’s capacity-building programmes. As result, the European
Commission committed to fund certain programmes falling within its conditions for the National
Handicrafts Association. It was pointed out, however, that these programmes should be harmonized
with the actions under way as part of the UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO Creative Industries Project. In
addition, the Finnish Government agreed to fund entrepreneurship training for the Association,
beginning with one training in each province. This training will provide artists – particularly members
of the National Handicrafts Association – with entrepreneurship skills, using the ILO manuals on how
to start and run an artistic business. The plan is to ensure that more than 200 artists benefit from this
support, across all nine provinces. They will use the trainers already trained under the ILO component
of this project.
4.5.3 Design
As mentioned in section 3.5, with regard to investment and trade opportunities for potential sectors in
the future, the Government may wish to look into some design products and put in place some policies
to enhance creative capacities and stimulate selected export-led sectors, particularly to take advantage
of duty-free quota-free preferences in major markets. Special attention could be given to: (a) jewellery,
in connection with the existence of gemstones, silver, gold and other metals in the country; (b)
innovative ethnic textile design, garments making use of natural cotton, and promoting an
environmentally and socially friendly brand; and (c) furniture, using local metalworking and a mix of
contemporary and traditional African design. In order for such products to be competitive, they would
have to combine elements of uniqueness and functionality, even if they are to be produced on an
industrial scale.


Chart 9: Zambia exports from the design sector, 2003-2008




PART 4. SECTOR SPECIFIC-OVERVIEW 59


Zambia exports from the Design sector, 2003-2008


0


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in
m


ill
io


n
U


S$
)


Design




Source: UNCTAD Global database on creative economy




Figure 15. Modern and traditional design chairs




(Unknown artist)


















Photos by Edna dos Santos, 2009




Action: A pre-feasibility study could be commissioned from the university and the Chamber of
Commerce to analyze the economic prospect of these sectors in terms of productive capacity, the
investments required, and a market strategy. The study should analyze potential demand, and supply
and trade aspects, taking into account the situation of the existing enterprises active in creation and
production of interior design products.







PART 5. CONCLUSIONS 61




PART 5. CONCLUSIONS
Recommendations for actions to be taken are indicated throughout this entire document, and are thus
integrated into the analysis. Instead of reiterating all these points, the conclusions below are of a more
general nature. The first part of this section summarizes the main results of the meetings with
stakeholders and relevant government ministries. The second part notes the areas in the creative
sectors that have high potential for growth. Finally, some concluding remarks are made and a Plan of
Action proposed as a tool for the formulation of a comprehensive creative industries policy.


5.1 RESULTS OF MEETINGS WITH THE GOVERNMENT AND STAKEHOLDERS


The results of the meetings with stakeholders and with relevant government ministries made it clear
that there is a strong consensus on the priority issues that need to be addressed during the
implementation of this project, to ensure that the measures taken will have sustainability in the future.
The main results from stakeholder meetings were:


(a) The need for institution-building;


(b) The need for capacity-building for professional and entrepreneurial skills;


(c) The need for financing structures and a framework for investment.


The main results from the government-level meetings were:


(a) The need to reinforce policy procedures and adoption;


(b) The need to implement the policies through regulations and strategies;


(c) The need for inter-ministerial policy actions and communication;


(d) The need for capacity-building for policymaking.


There are two broad consensus issues which cut across both groups:


(a) Reinforcing institutional capacities; and


(b) Capacity-building in general.


5.2 SECTOR EVALUATION


A differentiation can be made between the sectors that have good development potential for the
national market, and those that are more suitable for export. Another differentiation can be made in
terms of the markets targeted; for example, mass-produced creative products for popular consumption
versus products with better quality standards, labeling and packaging that are more suitable for high-
income international customers. A further differentiation can be made in terms of short, medium and
long-term goals.


Two groups in the creative sector stand out as having a high level of development potential. The first
is actually a multi-sector strategy that links the visual arts, crafts and publishing. Work on developing
each of these sectors can function as a process that benefits all of them. This combination approach is
a response to the short- medium- and long-term strategies to enhance the creative industries for
development gains. The second group with good development potential is design. Zambia has two




62 PART 5. CONCLUSIONS




types of natural resources that could be complemented through design skills. First, the country has
gemstones, which can be used for making jewelry. Discussions with the Ministry of Science have
revealed that it has instituted some programmes in jewelry creation in the Copperbelt region. In the
same way, the tradition of metalworking could be a source of new and innovative designs and creative
production. Finally, as cotton is a natural resource, one could imagine that there could be potential for
development in the area of innovative textile design and garments. With respect to these design-related
sectors, such as jewelry, for example, one could distinguish between products directed at a larger
mass-oriented export market, and products directed at a more elite clientele both nationally and
internationally.


In the short term, the crafts sector can be strengthened through professionalization, capacity-building
to raise the quality of the work, and capacity-building to improve entrepreneurial and marketing skills.
Strengthening the crafts sector fits with the government strategy of developing cultural villages
throughout the country. A clear distinction should be made, however, between producing crafts,
sculptures and souvenirs for sale in cultural villages, fairs, and export markets in a mass consumption
manner, and the creativity employed by an artist in making unique pieces of work.


In this respect, the growth of the visual arts sector can be seen as a medium-term goal for the creative
industries. There is already a basis with which to work, in particular with artists who are already
circulating internationally. Improving their working conditions – through favorable government policy
directly in favour of the arts, but also in terms of targeted fiscal and export policies, improved
investment facilitation and increased networking – are ways of moving this sector forward.


Working to develop both the crafts and the visual arts sectors can be beneficial for both. It is clear that
in some cases artists start producing crafts because they are unable to make a living from their own
artistic production. The financial necessity of turning to duplication work should not be confused with
creativity, and it should be clear that there is a serious need to support artists. Development of the
creative industries sector requires both. In some cases, outstanding producers of crafts might shift
towards more creative production, if they see the visual arts sector flourish. The Government could
also create specific programmes to provide awards – for example, access to arts education – for a
particularly skilled worker from the cultural villages.


The audiovisual and media sector can be considered in medium to long-term strategies for developing
the creative industries. This sector needs time to develop in Zambia, and it will first need to develop in
the national market. However, there may be some trade potential, in particular, in audiovisual
production based on existing activities in the sector. Strengthening this domain can go hand in hand
with nurturing new media and graphic design.


The performing arts sector seems to have most potential in terms of the national market, and as such, it
should be considered for its contribution to the creation of employment. However, this sector is less of
a potential target for global markets. The book publishing sector – like the performing arts sector – is
not a high-potential target for increased export and trade development. Again, it seems to have most
potential for growth at the national level. Finally, given the strong competition from neighboring
countries on the continent, the music sector is not in an advantageous position for the moment. This is
also a sector where finding a space in the internal, national market may be the first step forward.
Valuing local musical traditions and finding ways of giving them a place in contemporary society, not
only as a recovery of heritage, but also as part of an enriching and vibrant contemporary scene may be
a step in that direction.


5.3 COMMUNICATION, NETWORKING, AND STRATEGIC ALLIANCES


Firstly, a communication strategy to improve understanding and awareness of the growing importance
of the creative economy inside Zambia is imperative. The fact that this report was submitted to high-
level government officials, and was discussed and validated in a conference with a large audience, was
an important step forward. The proposals put forward in this study were therefore legitimated and




PART 5. CONCLUSIONS 63


supported by the Government and by stakeholders. This gives ownership to the artists and the media
sector to join the Government in this endeavor.
UNCTAD has welcomed recent initiatives, which started in September 2009, to put in place a
communication and networking campaign for advocacy and to sensitize public opinion and the
Government on the importance of strengthening the creative economy as part of an overall
development strategy. Some television programmes and the weekly radio programme Arts in
Perspective provide a platform for discussion on issues relating to the development of Zambia’s
creative industries. The weekly Zambia media news summary is a positive communication tool to
promote debate on cultural and creative economy matters. Issues such as the new culture policy and
the budget allocation for arts and culture have already been discussed, in the context of the ongoing
debate on the importance of the creative economy to fostering socio-economic and inclusive
development in Zambia.


Secondly, enabling arts professionals to network abroad, attend fairs and build alliances is crucial for
opening up markets.


Thirdly, the creation of festivals and large events can be extremely beneficial to the development of
the creative sectors. Creating an area of specialization and expertise attracts people and fosters
exchanges and learning within a specific sector. Furthermore, events such as the EU–ACP festival
could be used as an international platform to increase not only the visibility of the creative industries,
but also to attract interest and investment with a view to enhancing the creative industries.


As pointed out by the Ministry of Community Development and Social Service, the cinema and
audiovisual sector in Zambia can become an optimal channel for disseminating culture, through films,
documentaries, television and radio programmes, soap operas, music, videos and other materials.121


5.4 TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY


With the objective of working towards a comprehensive creative industries policy, the
recommendations made by this multiagency project are structured around three components, which
span the two phases of the project:


(a) Reinforcing the institutional structures and policy framework;
(b) Providing capacity-building activities at various levels; and
(c) A communications strategy and awareness-building for the creative industries.


One essential priority was the mobilization of the pertinent government ministries to agree and
implement an inter-ministerial policy to foster the development of the creative economy. It is
important to get the Creative Economy Inter-Ministerial Committee up and running, in order to ensure
that the different ministries are willing to take the required policy actions within their respective
spheres. On the occasion of the UNCTAD High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative Industries held in
July 2009 in Lusaka to discuss and validate this study and the plan of action for this project, under the
leadership of the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services, seven line ministries
agreed in principle and expressed their commitment to constitute the Creative Economy Inter-
Ministerial Committee. This was a very positive outcome for the session, and a basic requirement not
only for the successful implementation of this multi-agency pilot project, but also to ensure the
sustainability of a comprehensive and long-term development strategy for the creative industries in the
country.




121
Ministry of Community Development and Social Services. Department of Cultural Affairs. Project proposal


for an intra-African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP) programme of the ninth European Development
Fund in the area of culture.




64 PART 5. CONCLUSIONS




Moreover, the Government has expressed its willingness in setting up a Creative Economy Centre to
foster the sector by providing the facilities for its operations. This is certainly a positive move towards
strengthening creative capacities and the competitiveness of Zambian creative products at the national
and international level. Eventually, this initial body can evolve into a Zambian Creative Economy
Commission Agency. This institutional mechanism could also include an advisory group of
professionals from various creative sectors.


Finally, this report has pointed out issues at both, macro and micro level, together with a multi-sectoral
series of actions that can be taken within the specific areas. This would help to enhance the creative
industries in Zambia as a concrete way to promote trade, to improve supply capacities and to attract
investments.


In summary, with this report, UNCTAD – jointly with the other four international agencies involved in
this pilot project – is giving its contribution to supporting the Government in its overall efforts towards
sustained socio-economic growth and the achievement of the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals. As is made clear in UNCTAD’s Least Developed Counties Report 2008,
sustained growth in LDCs cannot be built on the commodity boom alone but requires diversification.
UNCTAD urges the development partners of LDCs to actively support country leadership in the
design and implementation of national development strategies to promote home-grown development
solutions.122 The proposed strategy for the creative economy presented in this study follows this
approach.


It is important to bear in mind that the main object of this study is to strengthen the creative industries
in Zambia and to enhance their contribution to development and poverty reduction – through the
promotion of culture, creativity, entrepreneurship, decent employment and cultural diversity – and to
support the potential of the creative industries for trade growth.




122
See the agreed conclusions of Committee I of the UNCTAD Trade and Development Board, on the item


“Review of progress in the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for
the Decade 2001–2010”. Geneva. September 2008.




PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION 65




PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION
In order to support the Government in executing the required policies and taking the necessary steps to
strengthen its creative industries, the implementing agencies have jointly prepared a Plan of Action,
which is presented in the following pages. It lists a series of activities that are expected to be
undertaken during the second phase of implementation of this multi-agency project, covering the
period 2009–2011 depending on the availability of funds.


The Government of Zambia is highly committed to the implementation of the project, whose
objectives are in conformity with the goals of the National Development Plan. Therefore, the
Government is also allocating funds and human resources to implement some joint activities, in
particular those related to improved infrastructure, the development of creative clusters, and the skills
of creative professionals.


Given the budgetary constraints, the number of activities is relatively limited. However, they are
targeted and expected to have a far-reaching positive impact on harnessing the creative sector in
Zambia, particularly because other complementary measures are being taken by other ongoing
international cooperation projects.
In phase I of the project, UNCTAD activities are centered on policy advice to the Government through
the elaboration of this country study and a plan of action prepared jointly with ILO and UNESCO. In
phase II of the project, UNCTAD activities are focused on institution-building and capacity-building
for government officials, including on the cross-cutting issues and on trade and investment matters
which are crucial to the development of the creative economy and the creative industries. These
activities will cover the topics addressed under sections 3 and 4 of this report. Policy advice and
technical assistance will also be provided to relevant institutions and professional associations, with
the aim of promoting concrete initiatives, strategic alliances and partnerships. UNCTAD will promote
targeted activities to improve the visibility of the most competitive creative sectors and to facilitate
North–South and South–South cooperation and business opportunities between artists, creators and
creative enterprises.


ILO will focus on vocational training and managerial and entrepreneurial skills. Policy advice will be
given on issues related to job creation and social security. ILO will also explore linkages with other
projects being carried out, particularly on issues related to women artists and ICT tools.
UNESCO will assist the Government in the reinforcement of some artistic and professional
associations, as well as on matters related to cultural heritage and cultural diversity. UNESCO will
also set up a cybercafé to facilitate networking among artists, the sharing of information, and the
marketing of cultural products domestically and in global markets.


This report provides the analysis and the arguments in support of the proposed activities, which have
already been duly validated, both by the donors of this project, namely the European Commission and
the ACP secretariat, and by the beneficiaries, i.e. the Government and all the stakeholders from the
creative industries, in particular the Zambia’s artistic and creative communities.


In this context, and on request from UNCTAD, the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Zambia,
jointly with the Zambian Government, convened the High-Level Policy Dialogue on Creative
Industries, which was held on 2 July 2009 in Lusaka. The meeting brought together government
authorities, associations, and stakeholders from the creative sectors, with the aim of presenting
UNCTAD’s “Strengthening the Creative Industries in Zambia” study and the “Plan of Action for the
Multi-Agency Project for 2008–2011”. The main outcomes were (a) the recognition that the project is
in line with government priorities and therefore will benefit from the full support of the United
Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office in Zambia and (b) a declaration statement for the endorsement




66 PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION




and validation of the UNCTAD study and the multi-agency plan of action from the main stakeholders,
including the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services, the Ministry of Finance and
National Planning, the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of
Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, and the
Ministry of Science and Technology. Other stakeholders from the creative and artistic community
welcome the study, which is considered an important contribution to increasing the profile of the
creative economy as a driver for growth and development in the country.


The validated plan of action is presented below. As the Government of Zambia has decided to reflect
some of the policy actions proposed in this study in its Sixth National Development Plan, the activities
proposed can be integrated into the Government's national development strategy as a common major
goal.




PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION 67


Plan of Action for Strengthening the Creative Industries
Prepared in collaboration with the Government of Zambia


Output 1: Reinforced institutional mechanisms and policy formulation for an enabling environment for creative industries
Activity 2008 TF/YR1 2009 TF/YR2 2010 TF/YR3 2011 UN Agency Partners


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


1.1 Coordination meeting in
Brussels


x All EU/ACP


1.2 Preparation for the
launching of the project in
Zambia


x x All All relevant
ministries and
institutions


1.3 Fact-finding
mission/stakeholder
consultations in Zambia


x All All relevant
ministries and
institutions and
stakeholders


1.4 Preparation of plan of
action


x x All


1.5 Policy framework and
institutional mechanisms for
creative policies


x x x x x x x x x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions


1.6 Set up coordination
facility for inter-ministerial


action
- set up advisory group on
creative industries with
public/private stakeholders


x






x


x






x




UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions and
stakeholders public
and private sector


1.7 Regular meetings of
advisory group and
coordination facility (video-
conference)


x x x x x x x x UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO Public and private
sector stakeholders


1.8 Reporting
implementation plan of
action /public policies


x UNCTAD/ILO/UNESCO Govt. of Zambia


1.9 Policy advise to Zambia
National Arts Council to
reinforce new media


x x x x x x x UNCTAD National Arts Council




68 PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION






Output 2. Policy review on creative industries: identifying key issues and policy recommendations


Activity 2008 TF-YR1 2009 TF-YR1 2010 TF-YR1 2011 UN Agencies Partners




Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4




2.1 Preparation of Zambia
creative industries policy
review study


x x x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions


2.2 Preparation and
convening of High-level
Policy Dialogue to present
the study to local authorities


x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions


2.3 Consultation/validation
plan of action


x All All relevant
ministries and
institutions


2.4 Printing and distribution
of the study


x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions


2.5 Articulation creative
economy strategy


x x x x All






Output 3. Developed advocacy, visibility and networking in the country


Activity 2008 TF-YR1 2009 TF-YR1 2010 TF-YR1 2011 UN Agency Partners




Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


3.1 Develop web content x x x x x x x x x x x x All Project Steering
Committee


3.2 Update and maintain
website


x x x x x x x x All


3.3 Feasibility study,
development of the concept
of the Book Café


x x x x UNESCO All relevant
ministries and
institutions


3.4 Creation of a network of
artists and institutions that
collaborate with Book Café


x UNESCO All relevant
ministries and
institutions




PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION 69






2008 2009 2010 2011




Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


3.5 Creating framework for
setting up Book Café in
Lusaka with team from
Book Café Harare –


Business development
plan, systems and training
requirements


x x x x x UNESCO All relevant
ministries and
institutions


3.6 Creation of arts
programme for Book Café
Lusaka with Book Café
Harare, network of artists
and institutions


x x x x UNESCO All relevant
ministries and
institutions


3.7 Launch of the Book
Café Lusaka


x x UNESCO All relevant
ministries and
institutions




Output 4. Strengthened capacities on trade and investment related issues for policy-makers and institutional stakeholders




Activity 2008 2009 2010 2011 UN Agencies Partners


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


4.1 Preparation of
UNCTAD's capacity- building


module on trade
negotiations: market access,
EU/ACP cooperation, export
promotion, investment and
ICT tools


x x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions


4.2 Testing and publishing
training materials and
UNCTAD module


x x UNCTAD


4.3 Capacity-building
workshop UNCTAD


x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions





70 PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION






Output 5: Developed capacity of institutions and skilled artists in business management
Activity 2008 2009 2010 2011 UN Agencies Partners


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


5.1 Preparation of
publications, workshops,
training activities


x x x x ILO UNESCO/UNCTAD


5.2 TOT workshops x x x x ILO V. Mthetwa, A.
Menyani, J Bailyn


5.3 Follow up trainers
support


x x x x x x x x ILO V. Mthetwa,


5.4 Training of artists ILO All relevant
ministries and
institutions


5.5 Training of microfinance
institutions


x x x x ILO MFI network


5.6 Adaptation of training
materials, organization of
workshops for policy-makers


and targeted follow-up


x x UNESCO All relevant
ministries and
institutions


5.7 Strategy to develop
political momentum,
stockholder’s support and


sharing of similar
experiences in other
countries


x x UNESCO


5.8 Prepare and test
modules of Development
Training Programme at Book
Café targeting the youth,
women and artists in
residence focusing on artists
collection, arts journalism,
specific disciplines


x x x UNESCO Pamberi Trust,
public and private
stockholder


5.9 Develop the artists-in-
residence
programme Book Café


x x UNESCO Pamberi Trust,
public and private
stockholder




PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION 71




5.10 First session of the
Development Training
Programme


x x UNESCO Pamberi Trust,
public and private
stockholder


5.11 First intake of artists-in-
residence


x x


5.12 Tertiary Course review x x x x ILO
GRZ


TEVETA, TAMCOM,
Evelyn Hone,
University of
Zambia, Zambia
Open University


5.13 Support to course
design


x x x ILO
GRZ


TEVETA, TAMCOM,
Evelyn Hone,
University of
Zambia, Zambia
Open University


5.14 Staff development x x x x x x x x x ILO
GTZ


TEVETA, TAMCOM,
Evelyn Hone,
University of
Zambia, Zambia
Open University




Output 6. Strengthened synergies and collaboration with other institutions
Activity 2008 2009 2010 2011 UN Agency Partners


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


6.1 Promote North/South
and South/South
cooperation on selected
creative sectors


x x x x x x x x x x UNCTAD All relevant
ministries and
institutions


6.2 Promote and develop
Africa-to-Africa cooperation
through adapting the
concept of a Book Café in
other countries (ex.
Johannesburg, Dakar)


x x x x UNESCO Pamberi Trust,
public and private
stockholder


6.3 Support the export the
products of those artists


x x x x x x x UNESCO Pamberi Trust,
public and private




72 PART 6. PLAN OF ACTION




producing at the Book Café
through internet


stockholder




Output 7. Developed working space and infrastructure
Activity 2008 2009 2010 2011 UN Agency Partners


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


7.1 Support to the
completion of provincial
cultural villages


x x x x x x x x x UNESCO
GRZ


Department of
Cultural Affairs


7.2 Support to the
rehabilitation of Theatre
houses


x x x x x x x x UNESCO
GRZ


National Arts Council


7.3 Training for Cultural and
Arts officers to manage
villages and theatres


x x x x ILO
GRZ


Training institutions,
Department and
Provincial
administration


7.4 Sensitization workshops
with communities on their
involvement with the cultural
villages and theatres


x x x UNCTAD
GRZ


Department of
Cultural Affairs and
National Arts Council




Output 8. Improved access to arts material and equipment
Activity 2008 2009 2010 2011 UN Agency Partners


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


8.1 Consultation on the
Creative Industries
Development Fund


x x x x x UNCTAD
GTZ


Department of
Culture, National
Arts Council


8.2 Equipping cultural
villages and theatre with
basic equipment


x x x UNESCO Department of
Culture, National
Arts Council


Output 9. Completed monitoring and evaluation in the country


Activity 2008 2009 2010 2011


Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


9.1 Monitoring and
evaluation


x x x All All stakeholders




LIST OF CONTACTS 73


LIST OF CONTACTS




Akakandelwa, Hon. Mwendoi. Deputy Minister, Ministry of Community Development and Social Services.


Banda, Benne Erastor. Project Coordinator Zambia, British Council. Arts Acres Afrika/Mafumu Kollektiv.
National Media Arts Association.


Bwalya, Lillian Saili. Chief Economist, Department of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce, Trade and
Industry.


Chafilwa, Mulenga. National Chair, Zambia National Visual Arts Council.


Chembo, Frazer. Musician/band manager.


Chibbamubbam, Susan. Craft worker. Kabwata Cultural Village.


Chinyanta, John. Deputy Minister, Ministry of Community Development and Social Services.


Chipindi, Adrian Maanka. Assistant Director, Performing and Literary Arts, Zambia National Arts Council.


Chirwa, Ubert. Chair, Zambia Popular Theatre Alliance.


Christopher Mapani, Senior Examiner, Patents and Companies Registration Office (PACRO).


Hamuzungani, Dorothy. Treasurer, National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia.


IJzermans Jan. Prof of the Creative Design Research Group of Utrecht School of the Arts, the Netherlands


Jachirwa, Jacob. Actor.


Kaonga, Wesley. Director, Department of Cultural Affairs, Ministry of Development and Social Services.


Kapwepwe, Mulenga M. Chair, Zambia National Arts Council.


Kashoki, Mubanga E. Institute of Economic and Social Research, University of Zambia.


Kasonso, Teddy J. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Community Development and Social Services.


Lilanda, Maureen Lupo. Artistic consultant/vocalist/artist. Zambia Association of Musicians. Chair.


Lutelo, Emmanuel. Ministry of Science and Technology.


Makashi, Victor. Director, Zambia National Arts Council.


Maseko, Cephas. Musician, Secretary-General, Zambia Folk Dance and Music Society.


Miko, William Bwalya. Artist/curator/arts and culture consultant. Twaya Art – Zambia. Art Gallery, Hotel
InterContinental Lusaka.


Moto, Edy. Musician/engineer.


Mthetwa, Vivian. ILO Lusaka.


Mukuni, Joseph. Director of Vocational Training, Ministry of Science and Technology.




74 LIST OF CONTACTS






Mumba, Norah. Writer/arts adjudicator (theatre arts).


Mwando, Sylvia. Department of Culture, District Officer, Livingstone, Southern Province. Painter.


Mwansa, Dickson M. Vice-Chancellor, Zambian Open University.


Mweetwa, Victor. Performing artist. National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia.


Naluonde Priscah Chera. Zambian Women Writers’ Association.


Ndopu, David. Director, Economic and Technical Cooperation Department, Ministry of Finance and
National Planning.


Ngenda, Kayes. Secretary, Kabwata Cultural Village.


Ngoma, Irene. Treasurer, Zambia Folk Dance and Music Society.


Nsupila, Maybin. National Trade Expert, Integrated Framework for LDCs, Department of Foreign Trade,
Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry.


Nyirenda, Steve. Managing Director, Muvi Television.


Paardekooper Marjanne, Professor at Utrecht School of the Arts, The Netherland


Sampa, Felix. Department of Cultural Affairs, Ministry of Development and Social Services.


Shakarongo, Brian Chengala. Musician.


Sitamu, Dominic Rodgers. Stage director, Lusaka Theatre Club.


Tembo, Eddie. Director of Production and Research, National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia.


Tembo, Mike. Publicity Secretary, National Theatre Arts Association of Zambia.


Wake, Justina C. Director of Tourism, Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources.


Yezi, Abdon. Chair, Southern Africa Communications for Development and senior partner of Yezi Arts
Promotions and Productions.


Zimba, James. Department of Cultural Affairs. Provincial Cultural Affairs Officer, Southern Province.


Zulu, Maiku. Musician.




REFERENCES 75






REFERENCES




ACP secretariat, ILO, UNCTAD and UNESCO (2007). Summary joint programme document for
strengthening the creative industries in five selected African, Caribbean and Pacific countries
through employment and trade expansion. Brussels, Paris and Geneva. February.




Addendum to the Second PRSP Implementation Progress Report 2004. Planning and Economic Management
Department, Ministry of Finance and National Planning. February 2005.




African Media Development Initiative: Zambia Context
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/pdf/AMDI/zambia/amdi_zambia3_media.pdf




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COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 79






COUNTRY PROFILE


AND


STATISTICS


Part 7. Country profile and statistics




7.1.Zambia Country profile: Economic indicators and statistics, 2003-2008 .......................... 80


7.2.Zambia Creative Industries Trade Performance, 2003-2008............................................... 82


7.3.World Trade Statistics of creative goods and services, 2002-2008 ...................................... 86


7.3.1 Creative goods: world exports, by economic group and country, 2003-2008 ............. 86


7.3.2 Creative goods: world imports by economic group and country, 2003-2008 ............... 91


7.3.3 Exports of all creative services (1) by country, 2003-2008 ........................................... 96


7.3.4 Imports of all creative services (1) by country, 2003-2008 ........................................... 99


7.4 Zambia trade of creative goods............................................................................................... 102


7.4.1 Zambia trade of creative goods, by product groups, 2003-2008.................................. 102


7.4.2 Zambia trade of creative goods with SADC countries, by product groups, 2003-2008 102


7.4.3 Zambia trade of creative goods to COMESA countries, by product groups, 2003-2008 103


7.4.4 Zambia trade of creative goods with ACP countries, by product groups, 2003-2008 104


7.4.5 Zambia trade of creative goods to South Africa, by product groups, 2003-2008....... 104


7.4.6 Zambia trade of creative goods to Africa (excluding South Africa), 2003-2008 ........ 105


7.4.7 Zambia trade of creative goods to EU 27, 2003-2008.................................................... 105


7.4.8 Zambia trade balance of creative goods, 2003-2008 ..................................................... 105




Note: All statistical data presented in this annex is extracted from the UNCTAD Database on creative
economy. http://www.unctad.org/creative-programme




80 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




PART 7. COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS


7.1 ZAMBIA COUNTRY PROFILE: ECONOMIC INDICATORS AND STATISTICS




2000 2005 2008
Population in thousands 10,467 11,738 12,620
GDP in millions US$ 3,239 7,272 14,441
GDP per capita in US$ 309 619 1,144


Gross domestic product by economic activity in 2008- Zambia


GDP by economic activity in %


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


Agriculture Industry Services


%
o


f G
DP


Zambia




Annual average gross domestic product growth rate in %


2000 - 2005 2005 2008
Zambia 4.72 5.22 6.30
Developing economies 5.47 6.77 5.47
Economies in transition 6.15 6.41 5.40
Developed economies 1.95 2.37 0.86




Current account balance as % of GDP




Current account balance as of % of GDP


-20.00


-15.00


-10.00


-5.00


0.00


5.00


10.00


2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


%
o


f G
D


P


Zambia


Developing economies
Developed economies





COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 81


Financial flows to country in US$ million - Zambia




Financial flows : inward and outward flows in US$ million


0


200


400


600


800


1000


1200


1400


2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


$US Million


Direct investment in reporting
economy (FDI Inward)
Direct investment abroad
(FDI Outward)






Total international trade in million US$ - Zambia




2000 2005 2008
Exports of merchandise 892 1,810 5,099
Exports of services 115 273 297
Imports of merchandise 888 2,558 5,060
Imports of services 335 471 911




Exports of merchandise by product and partner in 2008 - Zambia




Exports of merchandise by product in 2008


All food items
Agricultural raw materials
Ores and metals
Fuels
Manufactured goods


Top 5 partners in Million US$


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


400


450


500


China South
Africa


Dem.
Rep. of the


Congo


Saudi
Arabia


Korea,
Republic of


2008





82 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS






7.2 CREATIVE INDUSTRIES TRADE PERFORMANCE




Part I. Creative Industries trade performance, 2003 and 2008


(in millions of US$)


ZAMBIA Value 2003 Value 2008
Export Import Balance Export Import Balance
All Creative
Industries 2.92 34.09 -31.17 2.36 54.25 -51.89
Creative
Goods 2.92 34.09 -31.17 2.36 54.25 -51.89




Zambia Creative Industry Trade Performance 2003-2008


0.00


10.00


20.00


30.00


40.00


50.00


60.00


70.00


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n



o


f U
S$


)


Exports
Imports










Creative goods, exports by product groups, 2003 and 2008


0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8


1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8






Art


Cr
aft


s






Au
dio




Vis
ua


ls






De
sig


n






Ne
w


Me
dia






Pe
rfo


rm
ing




Art
s






Pu
blis


hin
g






Vis
ua


l A
rts


(in


m
ill


io
n


s
o


f U
S$


)


2003
2008


Creative goods, imports by product group, 2003 and 2008


0


5


10


15


20


25


30






Ar
t C


ra
fts






Au
dio




Vis
ua


ls






De
sig


n






Ne
w


Me
dia






Pe
rfo


rm
ing




Ar
ts






Pu
blis


hin
g






Vis
ua


l A
rts


(in


m
ill


io
n


s
o


f U
S$


)


2003
2008









COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 83


Zambia exports from the Visual Arts sector, 2003-2008


0


0.2


0.4


0.6


0.8


1


1.2


1.4


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n



U


S$
)


Visual Arts


Zambia exports from Art Crafts goods, 2003 and 2008


0


0.05


0.1


0.15


0.2


0.25


0.3


0.35


0.4


0.45


0.5


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n


s
o


f U
S$


)


Art Crafts








Zambia exports from the Publishing sector, 2003-2008


0


0.1


0.2


0.3


0.4


0.5


0.6


0.7


0.8


0.9


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n


s
o


f U
S$


)


Publishing


Zambia exports from the Design sector, 2003-2008


0


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


(in


m
ill


io
n



US


$)


Design








Top 10 creative goods importers in COMESA countries, 2008


0 100 200 300 400 500 600


Seychelles


Malawi


Zambia


Uganda


Ethiopia


Sudan


Madagascar


Kenya


Mauritius


Egypt


(in millions of US$)


2008


Top 10 creative goods exporters by SADC countries, 2008


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450


Zambia


Mozambique


Malaw i


Namibia


Madagascar


Zimbabw e


United Republic of Tanzania


Mauritius


South Africa


(in millions of US$)


2008






Zambia main destinations of creative goods exports, 2008


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


Denmark


Germany


Uganda


France


Norw ay


Spain


United Kingdom


Democratic Republic of the Congo


United States of America


South Africa


(in million US$)







84 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




Part 2. Zambia Creative Industries Trade Performance by sectors, 2003 and 2008


2003
Value






Share (%)






(in million US$) (% of total products) (% of world)
PRODUCT Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports Exports Imports
All Creative Industries 2.92 34.09 -31.18 100 100 0.00 0.01
Art Crafts 0.05 2.23 -2.18 1.77 6.54 0.00 0.00
Carpets 0.01 0.43 -0.43 0.39 6.63 0.00 0.00
Celebration 0.01 0.12 -0.11 0.50 1.87 0.00 0.00
Other 0.03 0.14 -0.11 1.63 2.09 0.00 0.00
Paperware .. 0.10 1.46 0.00 0.00
Wickerware 0.00 0.01 -0.01 0.02 0.10 0.00 0.00
Yarn 0.01 1.43 -1.43 0.37 21.94 0.00 0.00
Audio Visuals 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Film .. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Design 1.56 13.47 -11.90 53.63 39.50 0.00 0.01
Architecture 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.00
Fashion 0.15 2.03 -1.88 0.28 5.15 0.00 0.00
Glassware 0.00 0.10 -0.10 0.00 0.27 0.00 0.00
Interior 0.30 9.50 -9.20 0.56 24.06 0.00 0.00
Jewellery 1.08 1.07 0.01 2.00 2.70 0.00 0.00
Toys 0.01 0.75 -0.74 0.02 1.90 0.00 0.00
New Media 0.00 0.36 -0.36 0.07 1.07 0.00 0.00
Recorded Media .. 0.19 0.00 17.91 0.00 0.00
Video Games 0.00 0.17 -0.17 2.92 16.18 0.00 0.00
Performing Arts 0.14 0.79 -0.65 4.69 2.31 0.00 0.00
Music (CD, Tapes) 0.14 0.79 -0.65 2.92 34.01 0.00 0.00
Printed Music .. 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00
Publishing 0.29 16.69 -16.40 9.83 48.95 0.00 0.01
Books 0.15 14.50 -14.35 1.48 29.62 0.00 0.01
Newspaper 0.10 1.36 -1.26 1.04 2.78 0.00 0.00
Other Printed Matter 0.04 0.83 -0.79 0.39 1.70 0.00 0.00
Visual Arts 0.88 0.55 0.32 30.01 1.62 0.00 0.00
Antiques 0.01 0.07 -0.06 0.04 4.06 0.00 0.00
Paintings 0.22 0.15 0.07 0.73 9.15 0.00 0.00
Photography .. 0.11 0.00 6.57 0.00 0.00
Sculpture 0.65 0.23 0.41 2.15 14.32 0.00 0.00























COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 85


2008
Value Share (%)






Growth rate


(in million US$) (% of total
products)


(% of world) 2003-2008 (%)


PRODUCT Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports Export Imports Export Import
All Creative
Industries


2.36 54.25 -51.89 100 100 0.00 0.01 -3.20 10.62


Art Crafts 0.48 2.14 -1.67 20.18 3.95 0.00 0.01 28.44 -3.63
Carpets .. 1.37 .. 2.52 .. 0.02 28.33 16.12
Celebration 0.42 0.23 0.19 17.92 0.42 0.01 0.00 28.73 16.96
Other 0.01 0.31 -0.30 0.46 0.56 0.00 0.01 -27.95 20.38
Paperware .. 0.01 .. 0.01 .. 0.00 -33.94 -35.79
Wickerware 0.01 0.03 -0.01 0.52 0.05 0.00 0.00 48.32 28.07
Yarn 0.03 0.21 -0.18 1.29 0.38 0.00 0.00 34.16 -35.32
Audio Visuals .. 0.00 .. 0.01 .. 0.00 .. 8.54
Film .. 0.00 .. 0.01 .. 0.00 .. 8.54
Design 0.30 24.29 -23.98 12.94 44.77 0.00 0.01 -19.33 14.50
Architecture .. 0.01 .. 0.02 .. 0.00 -66.15 28.31
Fashion 0.03 3.16 -3.13 1.27 5.82 0.00 0.00 -35.22 10.61
Glassware 0.00 0.57 -0.57 0.01 1.05 0.00 0.04 65.04 33.55
Interior 0.24 18.71 -18.47 10.23 34.49 0.00 0.02 17.21 16.45
Jewellery 0.03 0.30 -0.27 1.42 0.56 0.00 0.00 -51.20 -14.80
Toys .. 1.54 .. 2.84 .. 0.00 -49.86 13.58
New Media 0.00 0.30 -0.30 0.00 0.55 0.00 0.00 -55.55 -12.28
Recorded
Media


.. .. .. .. .. .. -66.70 -14.08


Video Games 0.00 0.30 -0.30 0.00 0.55 0.00 0.00 -44.89 4.19
Performing
Arts


0.00 0.59 -0.59 0.01 1.09 0.00 0.00 -75.39 -15.56


Music (CD,
Tapes)


0.00 0.59 -0.59 0.01 1.09 0.00 0.00 -75.39 -18.58


Printed Music .. 0.00 .. 0.00 .. 0.00 .. 24.92
Publishing 0.26 26.35 -26.09 11.01 48.57 0.00 0.05 -12.06 10.11
Books 0.22 18.61 -18.39 9.33 34.31 0.00 0.09 -2.42 4.41
Newspaper 0.00 6.36 -6.35 0.21 11.72 0.00 0.03 -60.45 39.61
Other Printed
Matter


0.03 1.38 -1.34 1.47 2.54 0.00 0.01 -6.88 5.53


Visual Arts 1.32 0.57 0.74 55.86 1.06 0.00 0.00 14.94 3.14
Antiques 1.03 0.01 1.02 43.54 0.02 0.03 0.00 115.78 -40.52
Paintings 0.07 0.07 0.00 3.16 0.13 0.00 0.00 -7.77 -2.31
Photography 0.09 0.10 -0.02 3.64 0.19 0.00 0.00 188.96 -2.96
Sculpture 0.13 0.39 -0.26 5.52 0.72 0.00 0.00 -19.98 15.19







86 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




7.3 WORLD TRADE STATISTICS OF CREATIVE GOODS AND SERVICES


7.3.1. Creative goods: world exports by economic group and country, 2003-2008




EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


World 233400 269331 298549 324407 370298 406992 11.53
Developed economies 140884 158144 171023 185895 211515 227103 10.02
Developing economies 91124 109267 125321 136100 156043 176211 13.55
Transition economies 1392 1920 2206 2413 2741 3678 18.76
Developed economies:
America


28774 31557 35221 38841 42012 44215 9.27


Canada 9576 10067 10500 10356 9661 9215 -0.94
Greenland 3 7 8 11 3 - -
United States of America 19195 21483 24713 28475 32348 35000 13.31
Developed economies:
Asia


4055 4611 6122 5480 7045 7574 13.02


Israel 588 623 555 567 612 586 -0.13
Japan 3468 3989 5567 4913 6432 6988 14.74
Developed economies:
Europe


106998 120701 128355 140251 161087 174018 10.16


European Union (EU) 101459 114176 121573 132501 151876 163650 9.99
Austria 4212 4435 4690 5191 5645 6313 8.48
Belgium 6496 7325 7373 7562 8673 9220 6.74
Bulgaria 186 221 228 255 345 377 15.23
Cyprus 32 38 39 30 29 29 -4.27
Czech Republic 1824 2114 2437 3195 4075 4892 22.74
Denmark 2883 3202 3173 3903 4366 4319 9.44
Estonia 237 247 267 294 337 382 10.27
Finland 1083 1078 976 1091 1224 1113 1.80
France 10556 11865 12834 14108 15640 17271 10.16
Germany 17442 19955 22487 25578 30393 34408 14.66
Greece 625 655 701 818 828 944 8.68
Hungary 563 707 761 794 947 1096 12.92
Ireland 2922 2774 2769 2796 2300 2192 -5.53
Italy 17712 19962 20478 22954 26688 27792 9.69
Latvia 133 176 182 207 235 261 13.24
Lithuania 249 338 427 544 730 766 26.30
Luxembourg 227 252 215 199 341 327 7.89
Malta 100 118 112 124 136 131 5.53
Netherlands 5587 6314 6687 7019 7772 10527 11.59
Poland 2565 3170 3440 3732 4723 5250 14.89
Portugal 928 1011 926 987 1206 1248 6.10
Romania 1008 1199 1279 1355 1401 1471 7.13
Slovakia 546 701 814 868 1122 1264 17.59
Slovenia 516 682 728 777 919 977 12.59
Spain 4898 5236 5140 5236 5965 6287 4.85
Sweden 3025 3484 3458 3825 4166 4897 9.09
United Kingdom 14903 16917 18952 19060 21669 19898 6.47




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 87


EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


Other European countries 5539 6525 6782 7750 9211 10367 13.08
Andorra 6 7 10 12 - - -
Faeroe Islands - - - 0 0 0 -
Iceland 13 12 10 9 7 5 -16.36
Norway 319 347 367 364 385 446 5.82
Switzerland 5201 6159 6395 7364 8820 9916 13.54
Developed economies:
Oceania


1057 1275 1325 1323 1371 1297 3.60


Australia 780 959 1005 1015 1072 1022 4.96
New Zealand 277 316 320 308 299 275 -0.68
Developing economies:
Africa


809 889 981 1361 1520 2220 22.09


Developing economies:
Eastern Africa


124 170 182 495 424 364 29.71


Burundi - - - 1 1 0 -
Ethiopia - 1 1 1 40 4 -
Kenya 18 20 26 37 45 58 28.40
Madagascar 24 29 30 33 42 50 14.74
Malawi 1 1 1 6 6 8 52.47
Mauritius 76 75 77 93 82 82 2.24
Mayotte 0 0 0 0 0 0 60.02
Mozambique 1 1 1 1 1 5 27.27
Rwanda - 0 1 0 1 2 -
Seychelles - - - - - 0 -
Uganda 1 1 1 1 8 11 90.89
United Republic of
Tanzania


- - 11 18 25 76 -


Zambia 3 2 9 1 4 2 -3.20
Zimbabwe - 40 23 303 169 65 -
Developing economies:
Middle Africa


- 8 7 2 - - -


Cameroon - - 1 1 - - -
Gabon - 8 6 0 - - -
Developing economies:
Northern Africa


293 304 333 384 447 1185 26.72


Algeria 5 5 5 3 4 3 -10.23
Egypt - - - - - 703 -
Morocco 159 162 178 178 207 217 6.73
Sudan - - - - - 0 -
Tunisia 129 138 150 202 237 262 16.97
Developing economies:
Southern Africa


374 385 406 364 360 443 1.53


Namibia 15 22 21 22 24 35 14.28
South Africa 360 362 385 342 335 408 0.79
Developing economies:
Western Africa


17 21 54 116 289 228 84.85


Benin - - - 0 - - -
Burkina Faso - 2 3 - - - -
Cape Verde - - - - 0 - -




88 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


Côte d'Ivoire 12 11 12 13 14 15 5.83
Ghana - - 27 86 2 4 -
Guinea - - 0 0 0 0 -
Mali - 1 0 1 1 2 -
Niger - 0 0 0 3 1 -
Nigeria - - - 9 259 197 -
Senegal 5 7 8 6 9 9 10.50
Togo - 1 4 - 1 - -
Developing economies:
America


5381 6059 6584 7405 8012 9030 10.66


Developing economies:
Caribbean


26 125 59 645 456 548 85.34


Aruba - - 1 - - - -
Bahamas 4 3 1 4 2 6 9.89
Barbados - - 10 21 4 26 -
Cuba 22 103 16 21 - - -
Dominica - - - 0 0 0 -
Dominican Republic - - - 544 405 481 -
Jamaica - 4 5 8 5 4 -
Montserrat - 0 0 0 0 0 -
Netherlands Antilles - - 9 30 19 15 -
Trinidad and Tobago - 16 17 18 20 17 -
Developing economies:
Central America


3453 3582 3983 4128 4717 5496 9.53


Belize - - 0 1 1 0 -
Costa Rica 82 114 139 129 118 109 4.34
El Salvador 26 20 60 65 78 98 36.41
Guatemala 33 37 104 45 99 105 25.32
Honduras 8 4 3 29 22 - -
Mexico 3298 3402 3672 3853 4390 5167 9.13
Nicaragua 2 2 2 2 2 11 37.51
Panama 5 4 3 4 6 7 9.29
Developing economies:
South America


1902 2351 2542 2633 2840 2986 8.50


Argentina 192 254 294 328 335 295 9.26
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)


67 76 78 90 99 89 6.87


Brazil 895 1159 1200 1175 1211 1222 4.89
Chile 163 194 220 231 214 227 5.92
Colombia 365 406 450 480 654 748 15.62
Ecuador 23 26 25 32 24 47 11.18
Guyana - - 2 1 2 2 -
Paraguay 9 14 13 13 15 24 16.14
Peru 138 176 207 224 239 263 12.77
Uruguay 51 47 52 55 48 52 0.60
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)


- - - 5 - 16 -


Developing economies:
Asia


84923 102299 117733 127313 146484 164933 13.64




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 89


EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


Developing economies:
Eastern Asia


66735 78496 89512 97324 111030 125706 13.04


China 38568 45620 55515 62725 72999 84807 16.92
China, Hong Kong SAR 24210 25885 27237 27552 31080 33254 6.33
China, Macao SAR 76 86 74 93 138 170 17.62
China, Taiwan Province of - 3137 3017 3177 3223 3203 -
Korea, Republic of 3877 3765 3665 3773 3585 4272 1.05
Mongolia 3 3 4 5 5 - -
Developing economies:
Southern Asia


6605 8838 10247 11720 11531 11161 10.69


Afghanistan - - - - - 182 -
Bangladesh 60 126 139 145 180 - -
Bhutan - - 8 - - 1 -
India 4444 6746 7630 9125 9907 9450 15.70
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 783 774 812 843 - - -
Maldives - 0 0 0 0 0 -
Nepal 80 - - - - - -
Pakistan 1059 1013 1495 1434 1282 1349 5.50
Sri Lanka 179 179 162 171 162 179 -0.66
Developing economies:
South-Eastern Asia


8393 10943 11855 13042 14789 17379 14.17


Cambodia - 35 - - - 14 -
Malaysia 1934 2459 2702 3022 3576 3524 12.86
Philippines - - - - 659 580 -
Singapore 3454 3753 3771 4220 3787 5047 5.99
Thailand 3005 3318 3794 3873 4319 5077 10.31
Timor-Leste - 1 1 - - - -
Viet Nam - 1376 1588 1927 2449 3136 -
Developing economies:
Western Asia


3190 4021 6119 5228 9134 10687 26.94


Bahrain 10 14 26 21 32 - -
Jordan 110 156 217 245 203 198 11.61
Kuwait - - - 56 54 - -
Lebanon 125 154 170 188 218 278 15.74
Occupied Palestinian
territory


- - - - 14 19 -


Oman 8 25 36 18 18 45 22.56
Qatar - - 17 9 27 15 -
Saudi Arabia 307 471 311 522 514 - -
Syrian Arab Republic - - 56 263 241 - -
Turkey 2629 3200 3756 3900 4890 5369 14.96
United Arab Emirates - - 1532 - 2915 4760 -
Yemen - - - 6 6 2 -
Developing economies:
Oceania


12 20 22 21 27 27 15.76


Cook Islands - - 0 - - - -
Fiji 11 9 5 5 5 - -
French Polynesia - 9 16 15 20 26 -
Kiribati - - - - - - -




90 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




EXPORTS (f.o.b., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


New Caledonia 1 1 1 1 1 1 5.43
Papua New Guinea 0 0 - - - - -
Vanuatu - - - - 0 - -
Transition economies:
Asia


32 56 77 78 69 54 9.90


Armenia 29 36 37 39 31 27 -2.21
Azerbaijan - 2 5 6 12 11 -
Georgia - - 4 5 3 5 -
Kazakhstan - 12 26 21 18 12 -
Kyrgyzstan 3 5 4 7 5 - -
Turkmenistan - - - - - - -
Transition economies:
Europe


1348 1822 2079 2262 2573 3307 17.37


Albania 8 13 16 19 26 30 27.99
Belarus 247 328 276 303 397 451 11.09
Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 48 66 80 102 129 31.15
Croatia 192 353 367 372 422 412 13.29
Russian Federation 869 1080 1256 1380 1481 1734 13.69
Serbia and Montenegro - - 98 108 145 - -
Ukraine - - - - - 553 -




SOURCE: UNCTAD secretariat calculations based on United Nations Comtrade database data
Data extraction date (31 May 2010)
Note: (1) Annual average growth rate only available for countries that reported consistently in 2003-2008


- Data not available or not separately reported





COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 91




7.3.2. Creative goods: world imports by economic group and country, 2003-2008




IMPORTS (c.i.f., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


World 250160 284624 317175 337506 402452 420783 11.15
Developed economies 205869 230741 250975 266902 306808 317058 9.18
Developing economies 41842 50492 62090 65426 88370 93721 17.90
Transition economies 2448 3391 4110 5178 7274 10003 31.40
Developed economies:
America


79805 86735 94453 100243 109145 104706 6.20


Canada 9162 9846 10940 12015 13602 14736 10.33
Greenland 22 26 26 25 17 - -
United States of America 70621 76862 83488 88203 95525 89971 5.63
Developed economies:
Asia


13810 15399 17095 18073 19484 19736 7.55


Israel 786 872 894 946 1103 1224 8.87
Japan 13025 14526 16202 17128 18381 18512 7.46
Developed economies:
Europe


107686 123069 133393 142370 170815 184353 11.27


European Union (EU) 97541 111718 120901 129456 155144 166750 11.26
Austria 3946 4742 4953 5279 6768 7132 12.40
Belgium 5685 6412 6769 6919 7940 8632 8.18
Bulgaria 258 313 363 430 633 756 24.46
Cyprus 256 295 311 350 433 497 14.01
Czech Republic 1609 1987 2185 2660 3185 3802 18.41
Denmark 2188 2270 2696 3099 3789 4129 14.87
Estonia 181 198 222 277 365 387 18.15
Finland 1089 1251 1343 1490 1691 1918 11.59
France 13339 15105 16141 17035 20428 22791 10.95
Germany 16841 18372 20757 20730 24579 26866 9.60
Greece 1714 1996 2188 2366 2816 3560 14.59
Hungary 1090 1274 1230 1320 1525 1624 7.72
Ireland 1521 1853 2047 2384 2682 2549 11.60
Italy 7337 8738 9523 10657 12231 12597 11.54
Latvia 204 232 269 404 492 466 21.37
Lithuania 175 225 276 376 497 484 24.83
Luxembourg 527 567 541 578 712 717 6.75
Malta 115 132 140 147 163 174 8.14
Netherlands 5366 6074 6339 6920 8042 12082 15.32
Poland 1332 1634 1891 2257 2988 3837 23.11
Portugal 1547 1764 1697 1827 2100 2161 6.70
Romania 809 901 1034 1204 1546 1791 17.83
Slovakia 436 570 637 709 903 1291 21.84
Slovenia 395 493 470 522 671 711 12.01
Spain 5999 7269 8200 8311 10184 10491 11.53
Sweden 2601 3056 3281 3518 4008 4458 10.76




92 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




IMPORTS (c.i.f., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


United Kingdom 20979 23996 25396 27684 33774 30847 9.07
Other European countries 10145 11351 12492 12914 15671 17604 11.33
Andorra 119 130 - - - - -
Faeroe Islands 23 26 27 33 37 37 11.29
Iceland 124 142 192 212 253 195 12.32
Norway 1875 2112 2365 2547 3092 3468 13.05
Switzerland 8003 8941 9907 10122 12289 13904 11.27
Developed economies:
Oceania


4569 5539 6033 6216 7363 8262 11.62


Australia 3747 4566 4931 5146 6103 7040 12.32
New Zealand 822 973 1102 1071 1260 1222 8.11
Developing economies:
Africa


2032 2749 3468 4306 4728 5693 22.12


Developing economies:
Eastern Africa


341 450 542 652 691 857 18.96


Burundi - - - 7 5 9 -
Ethiopia - 51 49 55 82 72 -
Kenya 72 90 115 133 133 135 13.70
Madagascar 35 35 33 42 46 108 21.24
Malawi 22 23 31 32 29 43 12.16
Mauritius 116 117 101 106 113 143 2.87
Mayotte 6 9 9 10 11 13 12.47
Mozambique 23 32 47 43 44 51 14.76
Rwanda - 4 8 20 20 28 -
Seychelles - - - - - 29 -
Uganda 33 38 39 49 77 68 18.51
United Republic of
Tanzania


- - 52 73 69 83 -


Zambia 34 35 36 61 44 54 10.62
Zimbabwe - 15 21 20 17 20 -
Developing economies:
Middle Africa


- 19 79 77 - - -


Cameroon - - 51 52 - - -
Gabon - 19 28 26 - - -
Developing economies:
Northern Africa


943 1118 1277 1350 1754 2381 18.83


Algeria 183 224 306 253 230 295 6.75
Egypt - - - - - 522 -
Morocco 380 435 489 560 796 799 17.55
Sudan - - - - 102 99 -
Tunisia 380 459 482 537 625 667 11.64
Developing economies:
Southern Africa


694 1035 1335 1712 1675 1677 19.06


Namibia 41 80 84 93 111 125 20.67
South Africa 652 955 1251 1619 1565 1552 18.95
Developing economies:
Western Africa


55 127 234 515 607 778 70.86


Benin - - - 13 - - -
Burkina Faso - 22 18 - - - -




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 93


IMPORTS (c.i.f., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


Cape Verde - - - - 12 15 -
Côte d'Ivoire 28 38 34 46 52 63 16.19
Ghana - - 90 76 105 118 -
Guinea - - 8 14 13 18 -
Mali - 17 14 18 41 42 -
Niger - 8 19 10 11 13 -
Nigeria - - - 282 291 435 -
Senegal 27 38 46 56 69 74 22.69
Togo - 5 5 - 13 - -
Developing economies:
America


6683 7437 9140 11522 16862 16007 22.33


Developing economies:
Caribbean


184 413 652 1081 1005 1193 43.05


Aruba - - 21 - - - -
Bahamas 88 106 122 132 151 106 6.06
Barbados - - 94 75 52 84 -
Cuba 95 89 106 110 - - -
Dominica - - - 5 6 5 -
Dominican Republic - - - 392 416 486 -
Jamaica - 141 166 184 192 304 -
Montserrat - 1 1 1 1 1 -
Netherlands Antilles - - 50 71 71 88 -
Trinidad and Tobago - 76 92 112 116 119 -
Developing economies:
Central America


4651 4710 5604 6318 7105 7901 12.12


Belize - - 18 15 16 13 -
Costa Rica 172 183 193 223 269 292 11.96
El Salvador 101 106 210 221 279 265 24.84
Guatemala 200 228 326 289 376 369 13.54
Honduras 75 83 111 130 153 - -
Mexico 3908 4061 4505 5178 5695 6538 11.23
Nicaragua 47 49 55 60 73 69 9.89
Panama 149 - 186 202 245 355 -
Developing economies:
South America


1848 2314 2884 4123 8752 6912 36.71


Argentina 217 350 486 602 793 990 34.08
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)


40 42 40 47 58 77 13.34


Brazil 374 484 647 898 1017 1728 33.87
Chile 387 463 556 692 789 1070 21.81
Colombia 275 315 398 500 603 702 21.67
Ecuador 226 254 287 307 310 427 11.61
Guyana - - 18 18 19 38 -
Paraguay 74 106 112 159 191 356 32.81
Peru 219 247 282 307 4032 - -
Uruguay 37 54 59 76 99 123 26.23
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)


- - - 516 841 1402 -




94 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS






IMPORTS (c.i.f., in millions of $)


Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


Developing economies:
Asia


32975 40072 49286 49413 66597 71834 16.75


Developing economies:
Eastern Asia


24146 28315 30421 33413 39501 43631 12.27


China 3339 3563 3956 4292 5622 6078 13.54
China, Hong Kong SAR 18072 19828 20726 22752 26310 29473 10.16
China, Macao SAR 253 335 366 492 619 674 22.23
China, Taiwan Province of - 2055 2292 2220 2382 2604 -
Korea, Republic of 2472 2524 3062 3633 4549 4802 16.21
Mongolia 9 10 18 25 19 - -
Developing economies:
Southern Asia


2160 2553 3212 3517 3918 3482 11.35


Afghanistan - - - - - 490 -
Bangladesh 270 348 369 265 332 - -
Bhutan - - 3 - - 6 -
India 1313 1621 2016 2548 2913 2273 14.50
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 86 153 259 50 - - -
Maldives 20 27 27 30 32 40 12.64
Nepal 59 - - - - - -
Pakistan 171 139 216 285 292 314 17.18
Sri Lanka 241 266 323 339 348 359 8.50
Developing economies:
South-Eastern Asia


4054 5764 5832 6192 8143 9769 17.00


Cambodia - 376 - - - 215 -
Malaysia 670 874 848 932 1022 1004 7.66
Philippines - - - - 590 500 -
Singapore 2546 2815 3186 3409 4400 5207 15.30
Thailand 837 869 1012 1131 1367 1974 17.88
Timor-Leste - 2 2 - - - -
Viet Nam - 828 785 721 764 870 -
Developing economies:
Western Asia


2616 3439 9820 6291 15035 14953 43.73


Bahrain 108 106 143 121 148 - -
Jordan 160 270 416 455 455 457 21.82
Kuwait - - - 721 873 - -
Lebanon 268 329 305 260 301 389 4.19
Occupied Palestinian
territory


- - - - 40 48 -


Oman 7 150 180 227 304 390 90.57
Qatar - - 360 470 628 636 -
Saudi Arabia 896 1046 1286 1386 1494 - -
Syrian Arab Republic - - 91 61 55 - -
Turkey 1177 1538 2063 2547 3208 3523 25.32
United Arab Emirates - - 4977 - 7467 9442 -
Yemen - - - 42 62 66 -
Developing economies:
Oceania


152 234 197 185 184 187 0.73


Cook Islands - - 3 - - - -




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 95


IMPORTS (c.i.f., in millions of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


Growth
rate (1)


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2003-
2008


Fiji 77 83 57 51 43 - -
French Polynesia - 67 68 67 67 92 -
Kiribati - - 1 - - - -
New Caledonia 55 66 68 66 70 96 8.75
Papua New Guinea 21 18 - - - - -
Vanuatu - - - - 5 - -
Transition economies:
Asia


26 375 512 712 1014 898 82.30


Armenia 15 18 25 38 52 89 43.74
Azerbaijan - 44 52 41 56 61 -
Georgia - - 44 88 126 137 -
Kazakhstan - 300 373 518 738 611 -
Kyrgyzstan 12 13 17 26 41 - -
Turkmenistan - - - - - - -
Transition economies:
Europe


2391 2919 3439 4272 6003 8281 27.82


Albania 43 53 65 76 120 133 26.71
Belarus 145 183 170 254 324 386 22.13
Bosnia and Herzegovina 123 148 210 200 259 327 20.56
Croatia 519 679 758 848 979 962 13.05
Russian Federation 1560 1857 1987 2579 3882 5304 27.82
Serbia and Montenegro - - 249 315 437 - -
Ukraine - - - - - 1170 -




SOURCE: UNCTAD secretariat calculations based on United Nations Comtrade database data
Data extraction date (31 May 2010)
Note: (1) Annual average growth rate only available for countries that reported consistently in 2003-2008
- Data not available or not separately reported





96 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




7.3.3. Exports of all creative services (1) by country/territory 2003-2008


EXPORTS (in million of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


TOTAL - REPORTING
COUNTRIES


72308 86031 99235 147736 164158 185087


DEVELOPED ECONOMIES 61320 73185 81998 125218 138045 153414
Australia 1356 1367 1656 1980 2481 3038
Austria 177 219 236 5226 274 301
Belgium 5224 5609 6075 6482 4550 7167
Bermuda - - - 17 33 31
Bulgaria 66 74 106 204 265 336
Canada 6888 8151 9271 9393 10278 10550
Cyprus 57 101 122 166 226 172
Czech Republic 221 360 842 980 1530 1994
Estonia 67 95 102 131 185 257
Faeroe Islands 1 - - - - -
Finland 784 826 924 24 19 12
France 1864 2298 2158 1743 1963 2240
Germany 14856 19410 23646 26212 31005 36116
Greece 548 1253 433 425 537 583
Hungary 845 1662 1857 1788 2435 2160
Iceland 4 9 16 12 9 12
Ireland 1228 442 824 297 1607 1777
Italy 4511 5085 5434 6471 7484 6328
Japan 140 72 97 140 156 155
Latvia 79 108 142 160 219 284
Lithuania 77 67 69 90 95 110
Luxembourg 162 189 239 331 626 902
Malta 73 174 384 596 698 780
Netherlands 618 771 902 25784 28968 31052
New Zealand 282 393 287 279 346 460
Norway 1272 1367 2201 3321 3327 4427
Poland 350 669 1049 1524 2049 3282
Portugal 478 617 674 905 1237 1499
Romania 264 378 401 559 758 1235
Slovakia 162 121 218 312 516 397
Slovenia 189 305 324 360 38 479
Spain 4389 5386 5763 7476 9651 10533
Sweden 3861 4126 4501 5072 6296 6923
Switzerland 4 4 5 3 2 4
United Kingdom 3086 3928 4082 3932 3759 4220
United States of America 7137 7549 6958 12823 14422 13598
DEVELOPING ECONOMIES 8185 9363 12771 17133 18835 21182
Angola 1 3 5 6 9 13
Argentina 273 369 572 786 955 1263
Bangladesh 21 19 19 22 72 58
Barbados 1 - 0 0 1 -
Benin 0 1 1 1 1 -
Bolivia 1 1 1 1 1 2




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 97


EXPORTS (in million of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


Botswana 5 9 9 17 22 25
Brazil 1664 2171 2962 3403 4659 6331
Cambodia 1 1 1 2 2 2
Cameroon 11 17 18 13 14 23
Cape Verde 0 0 0 0 2 0
Chile 68 58 69 78 84 111
China 2405 890 1210 1582 2229 2620
China, Hong Kong SAR 137 290 270 280 272 265
Colombia 83 117 143 228 209 344
Congo 9 11 - - - -
Costa Rica 3 2 3 2 3 3
Côte d'Ivoire 5 5 5 5 6 -
Ecuador 34 36 39 41 44 47
Egypt 84 82 102 147 163 195
El Salvador 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ethiopia 5 4 2 2 2 8
Fiji 0 2 2 3 2 3
French Polynesia 8 5 4 4 9 18
Guatemala 9 2 2 6 3 4
Guinea - - - - 1 5
Guinea-Bissau 0 - - - - -
Guyana - 6 6 7 7 7
Honduras 0 0 0 0 0 12
India - 1108 3345 5445 5591 4894
Indonesia - 47 57 74 55 77
Iraq - - - - 1 -
Jamaica 20 29 30 31 29 39
Kenya 0 0 0 1 2 2
Korea, Republic of 76 128 268 1248 1643 1838
Lebanon - - 0 - - -
New Caledonia 2 2 1 5 15 6
Madagascar 4 8 2 - - -
Malaysia 1835 1670 1562 863 832 872
Mali 0 1 1 1 1 -
Mauritius 5 4 2 2 4 6
Mexico 293 358 373 383 308 87
Mongolia 0 1 0 - - -
Morocco - - - - - 93
Mozambique 8 0 11 34 36 48
Myanmar 0 - - - - -
Namibia 0 2 0 1 1 3
Netherlands Antilles 5 5 5 8 9 -
Niger 0 - 0 1 1 -
Occupied Palestinian
territory


3 1 5 0 - -


Pakistan 35 38 75 121 66 89
Panama - - 26 1 - -
Papua New Guinea - 0 0 - - -
Paraguay 14 16 19 18 19 20




98 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




EXPORTS (in million of $)
Economic group and
country/territory


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


Peru - - - - - 4
Philippines 9 7 20 789 34 40
Republic of Moldova 2 2 5 8 11 18
Rwanda - - - 1 0 -
Samoa - 0 1 2 4 -
Senegal 2 6 3 3 5 -
Sierra Leone - 0 0 0 0 0
Singapore 154 185 180 203 239 268
Solomon Islands 1 1 1 2 - -
South Africa 60 88 114 103 90 99
Sudan 0 - - 0 5 0
Swaziland 2 22 2 3 4 -
Syrian Arab Republic - 62 85 92 30 -
Togo 0 0 0 0 0 -
Tonga 1 0 1 1 1 -
Tunisia 5 10 4 3 3 6
Turkey 781 1418 1079 998 971 1224
United Republic of
Tanzania


1 0 1 0 1 10


Uruguay 0 1 0 2 0 0
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)


36 42 45 49 51 77


ECONOMIES IN
TRANSITION


2803 3483 4467 5385 7279 10491


Albania 5 8 18 58 141 72
Armenia 2 6 6 7 8 9
Azerbaijan 2 3 3 4 5 8
Belarus 10 31 37 5 99 151
Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - 4 4 5
Croatia 334 413 441 498 595 841
Georgia 0 2 3 6 11 12
Kazakhstan 28 40 60 81 118 210
Kyrgyzstan 7 10 10 15 50 75
Montenegro - - - - - 18
Russian Federation 2183 2628 3384 4015 5191 6994
Serbia - - - - - 584
Tajikistan 0 1 1 1 4 1
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia


34 46 45 56 87 116


Ukraine 198 295 458 636 966 1396
SOURCE: IMF Balance of Payments Statistics and UNCTAD calculations based on IMF Balance of
Payments Statistics
NOTES: (1) “All creative services” is composed of the following categories of services: “advertising,
market research and public opinion polling services”; “architectural, engineering and other technical
services";" research and development services”; and "personal, cultural and recreational services".
“Audiovisual and related services” and "other personal, cultural and recreational services" are sub-items
of "personal, cultural and recreational services".
(2) The figures in this table cannot be used for international comparisons or ranking because most
countries do not report all categories of creative services and the reported categories vary with countries.
Therefore, the figures present only the aggregation of reported categories by country.
- Data not available or not separately reported




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 99






7.3.4. Imports of all creative services (1) by country/territory, 2003-2008


Economic group and IMPORTS (in million of $)
country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
TOTAL - REPORTING
COUNTRIES


76066 82774 92609 122714 154387 168669


DEVELOPED ECONOMIES 62349 69611 77143 100104 124777 134043
Australia 1125 1361 1460 1495 2102 3144
Austria 467 693 728 2927 845 929
Belgium 4393 4896 5165 5329 6136 8317
Bermuda - - - 10 18 17
Bulgaria 172 151 223 343 439 596
Canada 4749 5127 5200 5782 6320 6440
Cyprus 76 135 134 160 196 212
Czech Republic 482 468 841 925 1147 1177
Estonia 41 48 51 69 82 121
Faeroe Islands 1 - - - - -
Finland 2874 3013 3742 27 4742 82
France 2344 2624 2821 2687 3156 3671
Germany 17346 19538 22031 25253 25872 28416
Greece 338 552 415 509 634 836
Hungary 845 1911 2171 1826 2229 2433
Iceland 11 12 13 14 17 10
Ireland 5663 3992 4855 4707 15247 16764
Italy 4444 5449 6155 5669 7228 6636
Japan 946 1081 1115 1299 1318 1215
Latvia 38 70 85 111 161 208
Lithuania 28 41 44 61 69 89
Luxembourg 418 477 333 428 617 820
Malta 8 52 111 211 288 248
Netherlands 746 880 949 18475 19992 21713
New Zealand 256 301 212 322 205 217
Norway 664 832 1338 1651 1743 2136
Poland 831 917 1110 1356 1783 2253
Portugal 612 789 823 1118 1269 1602
Romania 327 350 385 399 447 785
Slovakia 331 112 399 449 541 655
Slovenia 256 314 404 462 99 578
Spain 4527 5593 5635 6487 8014 8115
Sweden 5298 5708 5636 6362 8268 9591
Switzerland 90 95 87 85 94 106
United Kingdom 1396 1619 1515 1577 1907 2033
United States of America 206 409 959 1520 1552 1878
DEVELOPING ECONOMIES 10487 8513 10175 16574 21107 23447
Angola 11 28 45 65 99 121
Argentina 172 242 280 335 440 513
Bangladesh 37 40 69 88 79 75
Barbados 0 1 0 0 1 -
Benin 0 0 0 0 2 -




100 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




Economic group and IMPORTS (in million of $)
country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Bolivia 4 5 6 8 9 10
Botswana 37 44 21 20 36 39
Brazil 1435 1678 2158 2389 3251 4089
Cambodia 3 4 4 5 5 5
Cameroon 4 4 2 9 10 6
Cape Verde 3 3 3 2 6 8
Chile 47 48 53 55 42 47
China 3977 874 869 1076 1491 2195
China, Hong Kong SAR 68 52 52 56 67 140
Colombia 253 359 386 498 667 714
Congo 3 4 - - - -
Costa Rica 36 32 27 51 69 58
Côte d'Ivoire 2 2 3 3 3 -
Ecuador 92 98 106 116 126 137
Egypt 15 15 22 39 29 80
El Salvador 2 3 3 4 3 4
Ethiopia 28 28 27 14 17 42
Fiji 4 5 5 8 5 6
French Polynesia 7 10 10 9 6 11
Guatemala 5 3 3 9 8 7
Guinea 0 1 - - 1 11
Guinea-Bissau - - - - - -
Guyana - 5 5 5 6 6
Honduras 4 5 6 6 8 10
India - 1194 2013 3443 5572 5434
Indonesia - 184 166 124 107 126
Iraq - - 151 118 27 -
Jamaica 47 30 36 38 33 33
Kenya 2 1 1 2 1 1
Korea, Republic of 261 376 477 4497 5221 6257
Lebanon - - 0 - - 0
New Caledonia 8 11 38 41 56 72
Madagascar 50 19 15 - - -
Malaysia 2922 1899 1855 1431 1996 1177
Mali 0 14 15 16 6 -
Mauritius 14 21 31 34 39 40
Mexico 221 225 275 326 259 227
Mongolia 0 - 0 2 - -
Morocco - - - - - 28
Mozambique 46 0 18 84 82 47
Myanmar 6 3 3 7 - -
Namibia 20 62 46 45 31 44
Netherlands Antilles 3 2 2 2 2 -
Niger 1 0 0 6 0 -
Occupied Palestinian
territory


36 16 18 18 69 -


Pakistan 55 23 51 38 68 91
Panama - - 25 4 - -
Paraguay 7 3 1 0 1 1
Papua New Guinea - 0 0 - - -




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 101


Economic group and IMPORTS (in million of $)
country/territory 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Peru - - - - - 16
Philippines 15 15 9 545 39 39
Republic of Moldova 4 9 10 4 6 9
Rwanda - - - 7 3 2
Samoa - 0 1 0 0 -
Senegal 3 3 1 3 3 -
Sierra Leone 1 2 0 1 1 2
Singapore 241 268 279 261 278 312
Solomon Islands 0 0 0 0 - -
South Africa 3 5 8 9 10 10
Sudan 0 - - - 5 4
Swaziland 3 38 27 24 49 -
Syrian Arab Republic - 27 21 32 20 -
Togo - 0 0 0 0 -
Tonga 0 0 0 0 1 -
Tunisia 4 6 6 10 7 11
Turkey 117 186 107 140 158 235
United Republic of
Tanzania


1 0 0 0 2 2


Uruguay 10 7 10 9 10 10
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)


135 266 296 385 461 886


ECONOMIES IN
TRANSITION


3230 4651 5291 6036 8503 11179


Albania 8 30 107 117 119 82
Armenia 6 7 8 9 10 14
Azerbaijan 5 5 5 6 8 12
Belarus 8 39 61 16 105 123
Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - 4 4 5
Croatia 379 488 537 615 645 737
Georgia 2 2 2 1 13 37
Kazakhstan 709 1354 1616 1326 1772 1856
Kyrgyzstan 5 8 25 41 33 47
Montenegro - - - - - 34
Russian Federation 1752 2232 2444 3296 4908 6840
Serbia - - - - - 367
Tajikistan 0 1 2 0 106 4
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia


52 62 73 63 91 114


Ukraine 303 424 413 542 689 906


SOURCE:IMF Balance of Payments Statistics and UNCTAD calculations based on IMF Balance of
Payments Statistic
NOTES: (1) “All creative services” is composed of the following categories of services: “advertising, market
research and public opinion polling services”; “architectural, engineering and other technical services";"
research and development services”; and "personal, cultural and recreational services". “Audiovisual and
related services” and "other personal, cultural and recreational services" are sub-items of "personal, cultural
and recreational services".
(2) The figures in this table cannot be used for international comparisons or ranking because most countries
do not report all categories of creative services and the reported categories vary with countries. Therefore,
the figures present only the aggregation of reported categories by country.
- Data not available or not separately reported




102 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




7.4 ZAMBIA TRADE OF CREATIVE GOODS


7.4.1. Zambia trade of creative goods, 2003-2008


(in thousand of US$)


PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 34,093 34,578 36,399 60,942 43,603 54,246
Exports 2,916 2,115 8,932 1,337 3,887 2,357
Art Crafts Imports 2,230 1,662 1,154 1,239 1,125 2,144
Exports 52 123 37 47 52 476
Audio Visuals Imports 3 6 2 3 10 3
Exports .. .. 1 .. .. ..
Design Imports 13,467 12,045 16,378 18,479 21,015 24,286
Exports 1,564 743 7,089 332 2,566 305
New Media Imports 363 1,111 793 1,171 296 297
Exports 2 48 26 6 .. 0
Performing Arts Imports 788 783 1,191 3,422 123 594
Exports 137 176 8 6 .. 0
Publishing Imports 16,690 18,676 16,446 36,054 20,669 26,348
Exports 287 675 834 140 322 259
Visual Arts Imports 553 296 435 574 364 573
Exports 875 350 937 806 947 1,316
Note: ... Data not available or not separately reported


7.4.2. Zambia trade of creative goods with Southern African development community (SADC),
by product groups, 2003-2008


(in thousand of US$)


PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 21,421 19,561 20,416 42,185 26,830 29,359
Exports 764 991 7,963 428 3,030 1,206
Art Crafts Imports 1,424 857 708 781 715 1,117
Exports 29 69 7 14 20 460
Audio Visuals Imports 1 1 2 2 4 1
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 10,485 6,940 8,533 10,428 12,718 12,762
Exports 461 459 6,827 146 2,529 268
New Media Imports 250 438 326 522 146 241
Exports 2 0 25 6 .. ..
Performing Arts Imports 583 468 445 438 23 342
Exports .. 8 8 0 .. 0
Publishing Imports 8,460 10,669 10,069 29,689 12,950 14,431
Exports 151 425 806 119 316 172
Visual Arts Imports 218 187 334 325 274 465
Exports 121 30 290 143 166 306
Note: ... Data not available or not separately reported
List of SADC countries: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar,
Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of
Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 103




7.4.3 Zambia trade of creative goods to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
(COMESA), by product groups, 2003-2008


(in thousand of US$)


PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 7,077 2,329 3,543 25,965 3,595 4,082
Exports 760 1,020 6,986 101 2,699 462
Art Crafts Imports 231 382 26 181 77 489
Exports 0 7 2 6 14 36
Audio Visuals Imports 0 1 0 0 1 2
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 4,423 1,623 3,185 3,804 2,863 2,852
Exports 276 350 6,695 65 2,477 238
New Media Imports 7 77 2 29 7 1
Exports 2 .. 0 .. .. ..
Performing Arts Imports 27 18 1 3 .. 59
Exports 137 169 6 0 .. 0
Publishing Imports 2,319 218 319 21,904 599 585
Exports 203 490 88 26 187 167
Visual Arts Imports 71 9 11 42 47 95
Exports 142 3 196 3 21 22
Note: ... Data not available or not separately reported
List of COMESA countries: Burundi, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda,
Zambia, Zimbabwe.




104 COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS




7.4.4 Zambia trade of creative goods with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
(ACP), by product groups, 2003-2008


(in thousand of US$)
PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 23,383 19,736 20,707 42,460 27,192 29,768
Exports 1,012 1,364 7,992 437 3,037 1,286
Art Crafts Imports 1,424 858 708 782 718 1,117
Exports 29 76 7 14 20 460
Audio Visuals Imports 1 2 2 3 5 3
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 10,631 6,981 8,558 10,481 12,821 12,945
Exports 461 460 6,827 149 2,530 271
New Media Imports 251 448 329 554 154 241
Exports 2 0 25 6 .. ..
Performing Arts Imports 586 473 448 444 25 400
Exports 137 176 8 0 .. 0
Publishing Imports 10,271 10,783 10,325 29,862 13,194 14,591
Exports 261 621 807 123 316 249
Visual Arts Imports 218 190 336 334 275 471
Exports 122 31 317 145 171 306
Note: ... Data not available or not separately reported
List of ACP countries: Angola, Antigua & Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina
Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo,
Congo, Cook Islands, Ivory Coast, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya,
Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of
Micronesia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, St. Kitts and
Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname. Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


7.4.5. Zambia trade of creative goods to South Africa, by product groups,


(in thousand of US$)
PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 16,141 17,104 17,156 16,631 21,006 25,049
Exports 240 270 241 282 195 746
Art Crafts Imports 1,214 462 604 687 597 989
Exports 26 64 5 .. 4 424
Audio Visuals Imports 1 1 2 2 4 1
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 6,113 5,299 5,490 6,831 9,696 10,644
Exports 138 78 130 78 46 26
New Media Imports 243 362 322 519 145 239
Exports .. .. .. 0 .. ..
Performing Arts Imports 555 452 440 438 22 330
Exports .. 0 0 .. .. ..
Publishing Imports 7,869 10,351 9,979 7,861 10,314 12,472
Exports 39 103 22 64 7 20
Visual Arts Imports 146 177 320 292 228 374
Exports 37 26 85 140 139 276




COUNTRY PROFILE AND STATISTICS 105




7.4.6. Zambia trade of creative goods to Africa (excluding South Africa), by product groups,
2003-2008


(in thousand of US$)


PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 7,348 2,794 3,808 26,253 6,507 5,881
Exports 837 1,096 7,723 162 2,839 543
Art Crafts Imports 296 460 122 253 195 608
Exports 3 11 2 20 17 36
Audio Visuals Imports 0 1 0 0 1 2
Exports .. .. .. .. .. ..
Design Imports 4,538 1,779 3,302 3,915 3,353 2,980
Exports 323 383 6,697 72 2,484 245
New Media Imports 8 86 7 35 9 2
Exports 2 0 25 5 .. ..
Performing Arts Imports 31 21 8 6 2 71
Exports 137 176 8 0 .. 0
Publishing Imports 2,404 433 353 22,001 2,900 2,121
Exports 220 521 786 60 310 229
Visual Arts Imports 72 14 16 43 47 97
Exports 153 5 206 6 29 33
Note: ... Data not available or not separately reported
List of African countries except South Africa: Algeria Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti,
Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic
of the Congo, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland,
Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.




7.4.7. Zambia trade of creative goods to the European Union, (EU 27), 2003-2008


(in thousands of US$)


PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 40.8 69.0 50.5 63.7 47.2 59.9
Exports 4.7 1.7 1.8 2.0 3.6 5.4
List of EU 27 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.




7.4.8. Zambia trade balance of creative goods, 2003-2008


(in thousands of US)


PRODUCT FLOW 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Creative Goods Imports 341 346 364 609 436 542
Exports 29 21 89 13 39 24





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