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The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries - A First Look

Report by Tekeste Biadgleng, Ermias, Maur, Jean-Christophe, 2011

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Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are gaining prominence among trade liberalization efforts. Yet little remains known about the extent to which the intellectual property (IP) provisions of PTAs translate into actual changes in domestic institutions and laws. This paper investigates one important dimension of this question by looking at disciplines covering intellectual property rights (IPRs) and surveying the implementation of agreements negotiated by the European Union and the United States with developing countries. The EU and United States are the two chief proponents of stronger standards and enforcement of IPRs. This work is among the first to look at implementation issues related to IPRs in the PTA context.

By Ermias Tekeste Biadgleng, UNCTAD
Jean-Christophe Maur, World Bank Institute


Issue Paper No. 33


UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable DevelopmentNovember 2011


The Influence of Preferential
Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual
Property Rights in Developing
Countries


A First Look


United Nations




l UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


By Ermias Tekeste Biadgleng, UNCTAD
Jean-Christophe Maur, World Bank Institute


The Influence of Preferential Trade
Agreements on the Implementation
of Intellectual Property Rights in
Developing Countries
A First Look


Issue Paper No. 33


November 2011


United Nations




ii E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


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International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
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Tel: +41 22 917 8492 Fax: +41 22 917 8093
E-mail: ictsd@ictsd.org Internet: www.ictsd.org


Publisher and Director: Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz
Programmes Director: Christophe Bellmann
Senior Programme Manager, Programme on Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Property: Ahmed Abdel Latif
Senior Fellow, Programme on Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Property: Pedro Roffe
Junior Programme Officer, Programme on Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Property: Daniella Allam


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Palais des Nations
8 – 14 avenue de la Paix, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel : +41 22 907 1234 Fax : +41 22 9070043
Email: info@unctad.org Internet: www.unctad.org


Secretary-General: Supachai Panitchpakdi
Director, Division on Investment and Enterprise (DIAE): James Zhan
Officer-In-Charge, Investment Capacity Building Branch, DIAE: Nazha Benabbes Taarji-Aschenbrenner
Legal Officer and Chief, Intellectual Property Unit, Investment Capacity-Building Branch: Kiyoshi Adachi
Legal Expert, Intellectual Property Unit, Investment Capacity-Building Branch: Christoph Spennemann
Legal Expert Intellectual Property Unit Investment Capacity-Building Branch: Ermias Tekeste Biadgleng


Acknowledgments


The paper benefited from significant contributions and comments by Kiyoshi Adachi, Ahmed Abdel Latif and
Pedro Roffe. We would like to thank Carly Huth, Mineko Mohri, and Wei Zhuang for their valuable assistance
during the preparation of the research. Inputs from Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan, Pedros Mavroidis, Sisule
Musungu, Santiago Roca, Maximiliano Santa Cruz, Malcolm Spence, Christoph Spennemann and David Vivas-
Eugui are gratefully acknowledged. The authors also wish to thank participants in the ICSTD-UNCTAD-WBI
workshop on “The Negotiation and Implementation of IPR Provisions in Free Trade Agreements: Experiences
and Lessons for Developing Countries”, held in Geneva on 15 April 2009, and the “CARIS Annual Conference
2009”, held at the University of Sussex on 14-15 September 2009.


Ermias Tekeste Biadgleng is Legal Expert at the UNCTAD Secretariat.


Jean-Christophe Maur is Senior Economist at the World Bank Institute.


For further information, visit: http://ictsd.org/, www.iprsonline.org or www.unctad.org


ICTSD and UNCTAD welcome feedback and comments on this document. These can be sent to Ahmed Abdel Latif
at aabdellatif@ictsd.ch or to Kiyoshi Adachi at Kiyoshi.Adachi@unctad.org


Citation: Biadgleng, Ermias and Maur, Jean Christoph; 2011; The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements
on the Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing countries: A First Look; UNCTAD - ICTSD
Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development; Issue Paper No. 33; International Centre for Trade and Sustainable
Development and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, Switzerland.


The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of ICTSD,
UNCTAD and the World Bank, its Executive Board, member governments, or affiliated organizations.


Copyright © 2011 United Nations. Readers are encouraged to quote this material for educational and non profit
purposes, provided the source is acknowledged.


This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-No-Derivative Works 3.0 License.
To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync- nd/3.0/ or send a letter to
Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.


ISSN 1684-9825




iiiUNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS iv
LIST OF TABLES AND BOXES v
FOREWORD vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY viii
1. SETTING THE SCENE 1
2. PTAS AND IPRS: A POPULAR MATCH 2
2.1 The Pervasiveness of IP Provisions in PTAs 2


2.2 The Role of PTAs in Implementation 3


3. WHAT IS IMPLEMENTATION ABOUT?
METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 6


3.1 How to Follow the Progress of Implementation? 7


4. HAVE PTAS INFLUENCED IP REGIMES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? 9
4.1 Adoption or Modification of IP Laws to Transpose PTA Provisions 9


4.2 Adherence to International Conventions Required by PTAs 11


4.3 Changes in Institutions and Enforcement Practices 13


4.4 PTA Provisions, Institutions and Other Mechanisms Shaping the Domestic
Implementation of IP Policy 14


5. BEYOND COMMITMENTS: THE CHALLENGES FACING IMPLEMENTATION 17
5.1 Implementation and the Margin of Flexibility for Interpretation 17


5.2 Managing the IP Spaghetti Bowl: Specific Hurdles in Adhering
to International Treaties 20


5.3 Compatibility of PTA Implementation with Other International
Agreements and Domestic Laws 22


5.4 Complementary Policies and Safeguards 23


5.5 Administrative and Enforcement Capacity, and Technical Assistance 24


6. CONCLUSIONS 26
ENDNOTES 28
REFERENCES 35




iv E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


Berne Convention Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works


Budapest Treaty Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms
for the Purposes of Patent Procedure


CAFTA/DR-CAFTA US-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement


CAN The Andean Community


EPA Economic Partnership Agreement


EU European Union


FTA Free Trade Agreement


GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade


GIs Geographical Indications


Hague Agreement Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial
Designs


ICTSD International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development


IP Intellectual Property


IPRs Intellectual Property Rights


Madrid Protocol Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International
Registration of Marks


NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement


Nice Agreement Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and
Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks


Paris Convention Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property


PCT Patent Cooperation Treaty


PLT Patent Law Treaty


PTA Preferential Trade Agreement


PTPA US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement


Rome Convention Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms
and Broadcasting Organizations


TLT Trademark Law Treaty


TRIPS Agreement on Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights


UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development


US United States


UPOV International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants


USTR Office of the United States Trade Representative


Washington Treaty Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits


WCT WIPO Copyright Treaty


WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization


WPPT WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty


WTO World Trade Organization




vUNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


LIST OF TABLES AND BOXES


Table 1: TRIPS-plus provisions in the US-Peru and EU-Peru/Colombia FTAs


Box 1: Implementing CAFTA – Changes to the Dominican Republic’s IP laws


Box 2: Australian Patent Law: Limitation to the exclusion of rights of patentee if extension of patent
term is granted




vi E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


As signs of the stalemate in the multilateral trading system become unequivocal, Preferential
Trade Agreements (PTAs) are acquiring an ever-greater importance in trade liberalization and in
shaping the trade obligations of many countries.


In the area of intellectual property (IP), there has been considerable analysis, in recent years, of
the IP provisions in PTAs particularly those between industrialised countries and developing ones.
Such analysis has mostly focused on the nature of these obligations - often labelled ‘TRIPS-plus’ as
they go beyond the requirements of the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual
Property (TRIPS) – and the extent to which they could possibly affect the use of TRIPS flexibilities
aimed at safeguarding certain public interest and development objectives.


However, there has been much less study about the actual implementation of IP obligations in PTAs.
The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the Implementation of Intellectual Property
Rights in Developing Countries: a First Look aims precisely to bridge this research gap. It attempts
to better understand how PTAs have influenced IP regimes in developing countries and then goes
to highlight some of the challenges facing these countries in the implementation process. This is by
no means an easy task. First, little information is available on what countries do after signing these
agreements. Second, the nature of IP commitments under PTAs requires a relatively extensive
review of legislation, regulations and practices.


The paper defines implementation as the steps required to comply with a trade agreement and to
administer its provisions. It also examines a broader notion of implementation as it relates to the
wider set of policies that are required to take full advantage of the trade effects created by the
agreement.


The paper finds that PTAs are clearly drivers of significant reform in developing countries, as
was rightly suspected by those who noted the far reaching nature of the provisions in these
agreements; second, and importantly, the implementation challenge for developing countries is
real and complex. In effect, implementation does not stop with the transposition of international
trade obligations into the domestic legal system. Rather, it continues with the need to modify laws
and enforcement practices. There is also the need to revisit international agreements with third
parties, the interpretation of commitments, reporting requirements, as well as compatibilities
with the domestic legal infrastructure and capacity. The paper thus emphasizes that PTAs become
“live” agreements that must be actively managed over time. It demonstrates the variation in
implementation of often similar obligations among PTA signatories, some adopting more innovative
approaches, while others fail to make adequate use of flexibilities in existing obligations.


The paper does not pretend to be exhaustive in view of the great number of existing PTAs and
the diversity of developing countries parties to them as well as the diversity of IP obligations they
include. Rather it draws on some of the most compelling examples to advance its arguments and
illustrate key findings.


One lesson that emerges from the paper is that countries engaged in negotiations over PTAs should
already bear in mind the possible implementation challenges at the negotiation stage taking into
considerations some of the examples it points out to. After signing the PTAs, the implementation of
the process requires a detailed examination of the nature of obligations contracted and adequate
use of any flexibility available and where necessary further elaboration of concepts and legal
terms.


FOREWORD




viiUNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


In a knowledge-based economy, a better understanding of intellectual property rights is imperative
for informed policy making in virtually all areas of development. This has been the central objective
of the UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on Intellectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development that
was launched in July 2001. The project focuses on ensuring a proper balance between the different
interests at stake in designing appropriate intellectual property regimes that are supportive of
development objectives and compliant with international commitments. An additional central
objective has been to facilitate the emergence of a critical mass of well-informed stakeholders in
developing countries – including decision-makers and negotiators as well as actors in the private
sector and civil society - able to define their own sustainable human development objectives in the
field of intellectual property and effectively advance them at the national and global levels.


We sincerely hope you will find this issue paper a useful contribution to efforts aiming at ensuring
an effective and balanced implementation of IP provisions in PTAs in conformity with obligations
undertaken and taking advantage of available policy space so as to ensure such implementation is
supportive of public policy objectives.


Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz
Chief Executive, ICTSD


Supachai Panitchpakdi
Secretary-General, UNCTAD




viii E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are gaining prominence among trade liberalization efforts.
Yet little remains known about the extent to which the intellectual property (IP) provisions of
PTAs translate into actual changes in domestic institutions and laws. This paper investigates one
important dimension of this question by looking at disciplines covering intellectual property rights
(IPRs) and surveying the implementation of agreements negotiated by the European Union and the
United States with developing countries. The EU and United States are the two chief proponents of
stronger standards and enforcement of IPRs. This work is among the first to look at implementation
issues related to IPRs in the PTA context.


Intellectual property rules in PTAs create actual and substantial implementation obligations
for developing country partners. Implementation of PTA obligations often requires changes in
legislation, adaptation on the part of domestic institutions, and modification of national procedures
to implement new policies.


Importantly, implementation does not stop with the transposition of international trade obligations
into the domestic legal system. Rather, it continues with the need to modify enforcement, and
frequently involves a de jure or de facto right of oversight from the trade partner. This suggests
therefore that PTAs become “live” agreements that must be actively managed over time.


The study also shows that implementation efforts – arguably to be expected when signing a trade
agreement – also create specific (and perhaps unexpected) challenges for developing countries.
These include the need to revisit international agreements with third parties, disagreements over
the interpretation of commitments, precise reporting requirements, possible incompatibilities
with the domestic legal infrastructure and capacity limitations.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY




1UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


Linkages between trade policy and intellectual
property rights (IPRs) have been actively
pursued over the past 15 years. This takes
its source from the increasing frustration of
exporters of strong intellectual property (IP)
content industries, and the United States’ (US)
lead in using trade instruments to enforce IPRs,
first unilaterally (under Section 301 and the
Generalized System of Preferences) and then
in the context of regional and multilateral
trade agreements.1


In 1994, the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) became the first bilateral
regional trade agreement to contain extensive
IP provisions. This coincided with parallel
negotiations under the Uruguay Round of
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT). Under the aegis of members such
as the US, the European Union (EU) and
Switzerland, the 1994 GATT Agreement for
the first time included a broad coverage of
trade-related IPRs. The Agreement on Trade
Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS) linked IP norm setting to international
trade disciplines. The adoption of TRIPS has
not, however, spelled the end of resorting
to preferential trade agreements (PTAs)2 to
advance higher IP standards. All EU and US PTAs
continue to include extensive IPR provisions.
Many of these agreements are “TRIPS-plus”, in
the sense that they are adopted to enhance the
protection required by the TRIPS Agreement.3
Bilateral investment treaties have also sought
to protect IPRs.4


Preferential trade agreements provide the
opportunity for both the US and EU to advance
a standard setting agenda that they would
at best only accomplish multilaterally with
considerable effort. The backlash following the
TRIPS Agreement has been considerable, and
developing countries have since found a much
more powerful voice in the WTO. Arguably, also,
another rationale for incorporating IP disciplines
in PTAs is to ensure better enforcement. Since
higher standards of protection are pursued
in PTAs than provided for multilaterally, they
must have been considered as superior either
in that they offer more possibilities to negotiate
new IP standards or that they enable better
implementation and enforcement prospects.
This belief is clearly shared not only by the
promoters of PTAs, but also by other less willing
partners, judging by the strong reaction from
those who perceive themselves as importers
or users of IP intensive goods and services
against the IP provisions of PTAs. However,
the conjecture that PTAs will lead to higher
standards of IPRs in partner states in practice
is yet to be substantiated.


The purpose of this discussion paper is to
provide an examination of the impact of PTAs
on the implementation of new IP policies and
procedures in developing countries. By doing
so, we will attempt to answer the following
questions: to what extent are PTAs changing
the landscape of IP protection and enforcement
in developing countries? If the changes are
significant, what implementation strategies
should developing countries adopt?


1. SETTING THE SCENE




2 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


2. PTAS AND IPRS: A POPULAR MATCH


The world’s two largest economies, the
US and the EU, are the main proponents of
IP rules in regional trade agreements.5 A
very notable fact is that these agreements
pursue the offensive rule-making agenda
initiated with TRIPS, seeking to push higher
standards or limit the flexibilities allowed
under international agreements. The TRIPS-
plus characteristics and potential implications
of these new agreements have been treated
relatively extensively in the literature.6


TRIPS-plus measures arise in most forms of IP
protection. They frequently reflect evolutions
in the design of IP protection motivated by
technological and economic changes. For


instance, TRIPS-plus measures may require
partners to adopt new conventions not included
in other (older) trade agreements, or cover new
forms of IP that are becoming economically
more important and for which protection
has only been recently designed (such as the
patenting of life forms or copyright applying
to electronic content). The pervasiveness and
sophistication of TRIPS-plus measures indicate
the relative importance of IP protection as an
offensive agenda for its proponents. TRIPS-plus
measures are not solely restricted to codifying
IP protection rules, but in some instances also
concern enforcement measures (see Table 1).
The language used in PTAs shows that, despite
being a relatively new area, the sections on IPRs
are among those with the highest proportion of
provisions using legally binding language.7


2.1 The Pervasiveness of IP Provisions
in PTAs


Table 1. TRIPS-plus provisions in the US-Peru and EU-Peru/Colombia FTAs


US-Peru FTA EU-Peru/Colombia FTA
Ratification of various WIPO Treaties and
UPOV 1991


Ratification of various WIPO Treaties


Geographical Indications (GIs) and trademarks
• No visual perceptibility requirement for
trademark registration


• May adopt visual perceptibility requirement
for trademark registration


• Provisions on GI application procedures • Definition of GIs and list of established GIs
• GI protection refusal: when likely to cause
confusion with a trademark


• Protection Refusal: when likely to mislead in
light of a well-know trademark


• No mandatory registration of trademark
license


Copyright
• WCT and WPPT standards • WCT and WPPT standards
• Not less than 70 years of protection • 70 years of protection
• Encrypted Satellite Signals • Limitations of liabilities of internet service


providers
• Limitations of liabilities of internet service
providers




3UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


Table 1: Continued


Source: UNCTAD and ICTSD (2011).


The evidence on TRIPS-plus provisions advan-
ced by the US and EU is suggestive of their
desire to use PTAs as a lever for stricter IP
rules. Obviously, using negotiating capital
without the prospect of implementing and
enforcing these rules at the domestic level
would make little sense. Recent provisions
covering domestic enforcement mechanisms
applicable to traded goods and services
are further evidence of the desire to
influence implementation.


While there is an overall tendency to negotiate
TRIPS-plus provisions in most EU and US
Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), the level
of ambition varies depending on the period
when the agreements are negotiated and
trading partner. Since May 2007, under the
influence of a Democratic Party-dominated
Congress, the US has voted for a revision of
the negotiating mandate in PTAs and adopted a
more flexible framework, effectively stepping
back from some of the most ambitious TRIPS-
plus provisions adopted so far.8 On the EU
side, however, there is a recent tendency to
negotiate far-reaching provisions, notably on
enforcement and protection of pharmaceutical
and agro-chemical test data. An example of this
is the EU’s Economic Partnership Agreement
(EPA) with the Caribbean countries (members


of the Caribbean Forum, CARIFORUM) and
the agreements with Colombia and Peru. The
agreements thus contain variations in their
level of ambition. Time factors and country
specific factors will contribute to determining
the extent to which the enforcement of PTA
provisions is sought.


How can we explain the success of PTAs in
helping to secure the implementation of
IP standards and compliance by trading
partners? In this section, we suggest several
possible mechanisms where PTAs may offer
comparative value added. When trying to
answer this question, we should indeed
bear in mind the other available alternatives
provided by multilateral trade and IP-specific
agreements, ad hoc bilateral agreements,
investment treaties, private remedies, etc.


1. Innovation: PTAs, as a negotiating forum,
offer more possibilities to develop new
approaches than multilateral agreements
do, in providing scope for the inclusion of
recent regulatory advances. Because of their
bilateral nature, PTAs may offer prospects for
future amendments or later additions through


US-Peru FTA EU-Peru/Colombia FTA
Patents and undisclosed information


• Standards on novelty and grace period,
inventiveness and industrial application
• Amendment of patent application
• Grounds for revocation
• Extend terms of patent, other than
pharmaceutical patent


• May provide for patent term extension for
pharmaceutical patents


• 10 years for agricultural test data exclusivity • 10 years for agricultural test data exclusivity
• Normally 5 years for pharmaceutical
test data


• Normally 5 years for pharmaceutical test data


Enforcement
• Damage, discovery and evidence • Damage, discovery (right of information) and


evidence
• Ex officio border measures with respect to
goods in transit


• Border measures by both right holders and ex
officio authority to include goods in transit


2.2 The Role of PTAs in Implementation




4 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


the regular bilateral meetings of institutions
created to manage the agreement.


2. Asymmetry (in some cases) and low
number of signatories: Another aspect linked
with negotiation is the asymmetric and bilateral
nature of deal making. The negotiations allow
developed countries advance their regulatory
preferences in developing countries. A clear
example is the case of Geographical Indications
(GIs). An important sector for the EU, the
GI agenda is not making any consequential
progress in the WTO Doha Round negotiations.
GIs rules are more effectively pushed through
bilateral means. Additionally, for developed
countries intent on exporting their own
norms, PTAs allow them to pick and choose
trading partners and influence the shaping
of the world trading system along these
norms. The negotiating dynamics around IPRs
in PTAs are different from those related to
preferences. Concessions given on IP rules can
only be given to a partner on an MFN basis
because applying different IP regimes by
country of origin would be both impracticable
and does not make sense economically.9 The
MFN implications of concession on IP rights
under PTAs should have provided developing
countries an incentive to negotiate IP rights
at multilateral level, for example, at the
WTO. Concessions at WTO are the results
of multilateral negotiations and developing
countries could secure trade concessions from
developed countries far better than they can
under PTAs. On the other hand, it provides an
incentive for exporters of specific norms to
bargain at the bilateral level, as there will be
a first mover advantage if coordination at the
multilateral level to gain wider acceptance of
a given rule proves difficult.


Another dimension of the asymmetry is the
recent interest of large trading partners, such
as the EU and the US, to seek greater control
of how the developing country partners
transpose and enforce PTA provisions.10 In
the case of the US, this has taken the form
of the “certification” process, by which
the US executive branch asserts whether
the implementation of the agreement is


satisfactory before it can enter into force.11
Developing countries that signed PTAs with
United States had to amend some of their
domestic legislation to meet the changes
requested during the certification process.
Similarly, more emphasis on enforcement,
and on the procedures that countries adopt to
ensure compliance with domestic legislation,
is being sought in relation to IP.


3. Bargaining trade-offs: As they cover the
liberalization of many goods and sectors,
trade agreements generally offer interesting
bargaining prospects, allowing for the trading
of concessions in different sectors of interest
to each party. For developing countries
in the Uruguay Round, there was a clear
bargain between accepting TRIPS rules as
part of a package offering further market
access in agriculture and labour-intensive
goods.12 Likewise, IP rules in PTAs can be
exchanged for preferential market access and
other concessions (including the provision of
technical assistance).


4. Withdrawal of concessions threat: A
corollary to this is that trade agreements
offer the possibility to nullify concessions in
the case of non-enforcement and, sometimes,
recourse to alternative dispute settlement
mechanisms. Schiff and Winters (1998) argue
that bilateral agreements may actually
be better suited for locking-in domestic
policies because enforcement threats are
more credible.13 Regional and bilateral
agreements limit the possibility of free riding
and coordination problems that may arise in
multilateral forums. There is also more scope
for retaliation as concessions may go beyond
just tariffs. It is not obvious, however, that the
possibility of retaliation is such an important
motive. First, the advantage of retaliation
within an agreement over other forms of
unilateral action, e.g. under the Generalized
System of Preferences or the Special 30114 for
the US, which also enables the withdrawal of
trade concessions, is not clear. Neither is the
efficacy of such retaliation measures. Indeed,
Deere (2009) argues that Special 301 measures
have not deterred countries from using TRIPS




5UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


flexibilities.15 Chile, for instance, is resisting
calls to meet claimed implementation require-
ments for its FTA with the US despite being
put on the 301 Priority Watch List.16 The fact
that PTAs have been used to promote higher
IP standards when the 301 legislation was
already in force may also suggest that the US
was not managing to achieve its objectives
with unilateral pressure alone.


5. Dispute settlement mechanisms: PTAs
differ from multilateral agreements under the
WTO in terms of the IPRs they cover. They also
offer a variety of options regarding dispute
settlement procedures from judicially based
ones (for instance using standing tribunals such
as the Andean Tribunal of Justice) to diplomatic
and less formal approaches. They may allow
for different remedies such as authorizing
non-violation and situation complaint, unlike
TRIPS that suspended the application of
such complaint on disputes concerning the
protection of IPRs. Such differences may go
either way and render PTAs relatively more or
less attractive than WTO agreements.


6. The use of soft law: Some PTAs include
a large amount of non-binding language
reflecting best-endeavour efforts. EU agree-


ments contain a large share of what is called
“legal inflation”.17 PTAs that take a “soft law”
approach may provide mechanisms that do not
share the prescriptive nature of “hard law” but
nevertheless contribute to implementation and
enforcement. “Soft law” provisions offer more
flexibility and may be used to lead to further
regulatory cooperation between parties,18
providing a mandate for experts to find areas
of cooperation. Arguably, IP provisions are less
subject to the use of non-binding language than
other fields, as shown by Horn et al. (2009).19
However, one type of “soft law” provision in
PTAs that may help adoption of standards by
parties is the flexibility to establish dedicated
institutions (working parties, committees, etc.)
between partners (which is more difficult to
achieve in the WTO). While parties may be
bound to establish such institutions, their role
is generally broad and loosely specified, hence
the characterization as “soft law” instruments.
The merits of such committees vary, promoting
cooperation in areas such as notifications to
other members, monitoring of enforcement,
information exchange, consultations and
provisions for positive and negative comity.20
IP committees are, for instance, established
in agreements signed by Japan with Chile,
Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.




6 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


3 WHAT IS IMPLEMENTATION ABOUT? METHODOLOGICAL CON-
SIDERATIONS


First, a word of clarification about what we
consider to be the implementation question.
The purpose of this paper is not to assess
the economic impact of taking commitments
on higher IP standards in PTAs. The focus
is narrower: to check whether PTAs lead to
actual changes in domestic IP protection, or
in other words to see whether countries fulfil
their obligations and, more interestingly, what
fulfilling these obligations precisely entails.
This assessment is made regardless of the
final economic implications of reforms, which
must be left to other studies.


Much of the discussion on recent PTAs has
been about the nature of IP commitments.
There has been less attention directed to
how commitments have been implemented by
partner countries. This is a less trivial question
that it would seem for at least two reasons.
First, little information is available on what
countries do after signing agreements and the
binding nature of agreements depends on how
credibly trade partners can retaliate in case of
violation of the agreement. A second reason
is that the nature of IP commitments under
PTAs requires a relatively extensive review
of legislation, regulations and practices.
This complexity can also be a source of
“mis-implementation”. Finally, while some
commitments are very precise, others are
vaguer, and it is not clear exactly how they are
to be implemented. For instance, the Morocco-
EU Association Agreement (1996) mentions
IP protection according to the “highest
international standards”, whereas the EU-Egypt
Agreement cites the “prevailing international
standard”. What such broadly stated provisions
mean in practice is far from clear.


This paper refers to the question of
implementation as the steps required to
comply with the agreement and to administer
the new provisions. We also briefly consider a
relevant broader notion of implementation as
it relates to the wider set of policies that are
required to take full advantage of the trade


effects created by the agreement (see section
4 below).21


Implementing the provisions of an agreement
requires different levels of intervention.
First, institutional changes may be needed, as
implementation of new areas of policy may call
for setting up new regulatory agencies. More
frequently, existing administrative institutions
must be reorganized to accommodate the
need to strengthen their capacity to face new
demands (such as new IPRs and increased
demand for IP protection).


Second, regulatory reforms – the drafting of
new IP laws – will be required if PTAs impose
new forms of protection that do not yet exist
in domestic law. The nature of domestic legal
systems, and whether international treaties
are considered to be of direct effect (as in
civil law systems) or not (as in common law
systems), will have an impact on the need to
rewrite domestic legislation. However, given
how general the provisions of PTAs are, some
degree of legislation will be needed to clarify
the nature of the international obligations
and make them “useable” for domestic
enforcement. Therefore we would expect
that if PTAs are creating new obligations and
are enforced, this would be visible in the
legislative corpus.


The third dimension of implementation consists
of the administrative and operational changes
required to comply with the agreement.
Staff and system resources may have to be
reallocated or created to implement the
agreement, especially when compliance
with new regulations is required. This also
includes the management of the agreement
itself, including transparency and monitoring
requirements.


Fourth, enforcement of the newly adopted
regulations needs to be considered. This also
relates to the allocation of staff and resources
to guarantee that the law is applied. “Quality”
of enforcement considerations also apply.




7UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


Fifth, administrative and judicial systems may
also require additional expertise and staffing
to deal with the legal challenges brought
about by the implementation of highly specia-
lized regulations.


Lastly, in some instances PTAs may not
require any changes to domestic regulation
and procedures when they are already in
existence. This does not mean PTAs have no
impact on implementation: they also affect
the policy conduct of signatory countries by
providing an external policy anchor, enabling
governments to conduct reforms for which
they have weak political support at home.


Institutional and regulatory changes are highly
visible. Therefore, a first step in assessing the
influence of PTAs on domestic IPR protection
is to identify whether legislative changes have
been made to comply with the provisions of
PTAs. This requires compiling an inventory of
IP laws and IP commitments and comparing
the two.


An example of legal change subsequent to the
signing of a PTA is Nicaragua’s amendment of
several laws to specifically comply with the
US-Dominican Republic-Central America Free
Trade Agreement (CAFTA) signed in April
2006. The text of the amendments refers
directly to the obligations under the PTA and
the provisions concerned.22


The text of IP provisions contained in PTAs
can easily be consulted on various publicly
accessible databases. Turning to changes in
domestic legislations, institutions overseeing
the agreements may provide some form of
monitoring. For instance, the WTO provides
periodical country Trade Policy Reviews (TPRs)
that are prepared separately by the Member
State and the WTO Secretariat. The TPRs
provide information on steps taken by countries
on their IP regime and reforms due to PTA
commitments. The World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO) also maintains registers of


national IP laws.23 Monitoring efforts under PTAs
do not seem to be performed systematically or
made publicly available.24


Finally, mention must be made of unilateral
monitoring efforts. Several of these occur at
the initiative of major trading partners (e.g.
the US, EU, Canada, Japan and Australia), who
periodically review what they perceive to be
trade barriers in foreign markets.25 Focusing
specifically on IP protection, the Office of the
United States Trade Representative (USTR)
conducts an annual review of the global state of
IP protection and enforcement in the context of
its “Special 301” legislation. The reviews often
refer to commitments in US FTAs. Private interest
groups, such as the International Intellectual
Property Alliance (IIPA) and Pharmaceutical
Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)
contribute to the review by making their own
submissions. Overall, unilateral monitoring
cannot be expected to reflect an objective
assessment of implementation – and often
tend to overstate the case for implementation.
Nevertheless, they provide indications of where
trading partners expect change and compliance
to take place.


A key issue is determining causality between
PTA commitments and national reform deci-
sions. First, other sources of international
pressure may have caused countries to
change their policies. In particular, when PTA
commitments are repeating those under TRIPS,
it is difficult to distinguish the contribution
of bilateral agreements in ensuring that WTO
commitments are met. It is also hard to deny
that PTAs may not have any influence as well.
TRIPS-plus provisions therefore provide a specific
interest in this respect. Bilateral investment
treaties (BITs) also offer a venue to push for
high IPR standards in order to avoid investors’
disputes.26 The role of BITs in this regard requires
further study.27 Unilateral pressure from either
other governments or foreign private sector
lobbies also contributes to the adoption of
higher standards.28


Arguably, information on enforcement is much
harder to gather since it is not quantifiable by


3.1 How to Follow the Progress of
Implementation?




8 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


one easy summary indicator, such as whether a
law has been passed or not. Further information
should be gathered through the institutional
arrangements contained in the various PTAs,
for instance through reporting obligations,
monitoring instruments, notes of committee
meetings and dispute settlement reports.
However, it is unclear whether much of this
actually exists and is publicly available.


Country-level case studies can complement
the factual survey by including decisions
affecting the institutions implementing IP
protection and enforcement. These include
the setting up of new, dedicated organizations
and implementing units; the creation of new
branches in the administration; or evidence of
the allocation of personnel resources towards
implementing provisions of an agreement.


Finally, court decisions, including levels of
remedy, and quantities of products seized could
be useful indicators. Likewise, the number
of IPR applications (patents, trademarks,
copyrights, etc.) may provide useful clues as
to changes in the use of a system following the
adoption of new commitments in international
agreements. For instance, patent applications
– a costly process for firms to go through –
could be expected to rise in a system offering
stronger protection. Evidence of the level of
patents filed can also provide an indication
of how capacity levels can be affected by
international obligations. The WIPO Statistics
Database, for instance, maintains a database
of patent applications in its member countries
and WIPO administered international filling
procedures, such as the Patent Cooperation
Treaty (PCT).




9UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


4. HAVE PTAS INFLUENCED IP REGIMES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?


Binding commitments in PTAs create the
expectation that their provisions will alter
and influence partner countries’ domestic
institutions, laws and practices related to IPRs.
The resulting adjustment in terms of national
IP laws and practices will vary depending on
the gap between the PTA obligations on IPRs
and the existing level of IP protection in the
contracting parties. Taking GIs as an example,
the adjustment would vary depending on
whether countries protect GIs as part of their
system of trademark protection or separately
from it, whether they have a long or limited
history and experience in the field of GIs
protection, and whether they are seeking to
advance GIs protection or not.


In this section, we review several categories
of existing changes in national institutions,
laws and practices, and adaptation measures
illustrating the influence of PTAs on the dome-
stic implementation of IPRs. Then, looking
beyond the effect of PTAs on domestic
changes in the IPR infrastructure, we discuss
specific challenges for the implementation of
IP provisions of PTAs by developing country
partners.


Implementation of IP provisions in PTAs may
require the adoption of new legislation, regu-
lations and procedures, as well as accession
to international conventions. Practices on
administration and enforcement of IPRs can
change with the adoption of new laws or the
modification of existing ones. In the case
of PTAs with the US, changes to national
legislation to comply with the PTA’s IP


provisions are a pre-requisite of full entry into
force (the so-called “certification process”).
We provide several examples below.


Recent PTAs have generally resulted in very
substantial legal implementation efforts.
The EU and US PTAs have, however, quite
different implications, since US FTAs insist on
defining substantive legal obligations, while EU
agreements tend to focus, at least until recently,
on adhesion to international conventions.


Among recent agreements, Costa Rica amended
several major domestic IP laws in order
to comply with CAFTA.29 The amendments
cover, among others, the laws on patents,
designs, industrial designs and utility models,
trademarks and other distinctive signs,
copyright and related rights, undisclosed
information, and enforcement. In March
2006, Nicaragua approved laws reforming the
protection of copyright and related rights,
programme-carrying satellite signals, patents,
utility models and industrial designs, and
trademarks and other distinctive signs.30
Peru too had to take on a large legal reform
agenda to implement the US-Peru Trade
Promotion Agreement (PTPA).31 The Domi-
nican Republic has reported its legislative
reforms for compliance with CAFTA to the WTO
(see Box 1). Older agreements have also led to
modifications in national legislation. Chile and
Morocco introduced a number of important
changes to their IP legislative frameworks
in order to comply with their PTAs with the
US, signed in 2003 and 2004 respectively.32 A
recent study on the implementation of PTAs
details very extensive domestic legislative
reforms for the protection of IPRs triggered
by these agreements.33


4.1 Adoption or Modification of IP Laws
to Transpose PTA Provisions




10 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


Unlike their US equivalents, most of the EU
PTAs with developing countries did not, until
recently, incorporate substantive provisions
relating to IP legislation. They instead focus
mainly on reiterating commitments to TRIPS,
the adherence to a set of international IP
agreements and conformity with the prevailing
or highest international standards.34


One exception relates to the protection of
GIs. The EU has agreements on the protection
of GIs with Chile, Mexico and South Africa.
The agreements demand the phasing out or
de-registering of trademarks that conflict
with terms describing European GIs, in
exchange for tariff free export to the EU
market. In addition, a new development in the
EU’s approach to PTAs has seen substantive
provisions on IPRs and enforcement included
in the recent EPA agreement with CARIFORUM,
although it contains a longer transition period
for implementation. The EU also entered into
association agreements with Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua


and Panama, and trade agreements with
Colombia and Peru. These agreements are still
in the process of ratification and formalization
and are not yet relevant for analysis of
implementation. These agreements started to
incorporate IP issues with greater detail.


Have European provisions on GIs led to
changes? Should this be the case, we ought to
witness the adoption of laws relating to the
de-registration of trademarks that are agreed
to constitute European GIs. South Africa has
not changed its approach to the protection
of GIs as a form of trademark, and has not
adopted specific legislation on the protection
of GIs. It continues to rely on laws related to
trademark (1993), the registration of liquor
products (1989) and agricultural product
standards (1990).35 Although the agreement on
wine and spirits entered into force provisionally
in January 2000, South Africa has still not
ratified the agreement and insists on further
negotiations.36 Chile has, on the other hand,
implemented its commitments on GIs and


Box 1: Implementing CAFTA – changes to the Dominican Republic’s IP laws


[…]. During the period under review, the Dominican Republic amended its intellectual property
legislation in order to bring it up to date and adapt it to its international commitments,
mainly those under the DR-CAFTA. These changes were made by means of Law No. 424-06
of 20 November 2006, which in turn was amended by Law No. 93-06 of 22 December 2006
and by Law No. 2-07 of 8 January 2007. On 6 December 2006, the Law on the Protection of
Plant Breeders' Rights (No. 450-06) was enacted. Notification of these laws to the WTO is
still pending.


[…]. Among the changes introduced by Law No. 424-06 in the industrial property sphere are
the extension of the term of a patent when a delay is attributable to the authority, a term
of protection for information submitted for approval of new pharmaceuticals (five years)
and agricultural chemicals (ten years), the introduction of olfactory and sound marks for
odours and sounds and new provisions on border measures, including an obligation on the
DGA to act automatically to withhold the clearance of counterfeit goods.


[…]. In the area of copyright, the main changes include the extension of the term of rights
from 50 to 70 years, clarification of the rights of performers and producers of phonograms,
and reinforced civil, criminal and administrative proceedings against infringements of
copyright, including giving competent judges the power to seize infringing goods and
destroy the equipment used to manufacture them. The new Law also includes provisions on
prohibitions relating to technological measures, information on management of rights and
codified programme-carrying signals transmitted by satellite. In this respect, Law No. 424-
06 goes beyond the obligations in the TRIPS Agreement.


Source: WTO (2008a), Trade Policy Review, Report by the Dominican Republic, p.71.




11UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


secured elimination of customs duties on its
wines and spirits exports to the EU market.37


Finally, there is a need for a separate evaluation
of the implications of PTAs on domestic IP
legislation in the case of developing countries
that are not yet members of the WTO. Algeria
and Lebanon agreed that they will ensure
accession to the TRIPS Agreement and its
effective implementation within five years
from the entry into force of their agreement
with the EU. Indeed, Lebanon has taken steps
to reform its IP laws by releasing drafts of a
number of key legislative acts on trademarks,
copyright, industrial designs and GIs.38


The amendments to numerous laws covering
a broad scope of IPRs are suggestive of the
implications of the ambition contained in
PTAs. However, the true extent of these
changes can only be measured by comparing
– before and after PTA implementation
–standards for the availability, protection and
enforcement of IPRs. Ultimately, the changes
in domestic law implementing PTA obligations
imply changes in the rights and obligations of
various economic actors.


An important component of the provisions of
EU and US PTAs is the promotion of adhesion
to a second generation of multilateral treaties
developed in WIPO around and after the
adoption of TRIPS. Both EU and US PTAs call
for partner countries to ratify international
IP conventions, particularly WIPO treaties
and the International Convention for the
Protection of New Varieties of Plants 1991
(UPOV 1991). This is in stark contrast to TRIPS,
which only requires compliance with provisions
concerning the standards of protection under
the Paris Convention for the Protection of
Industrial Property (Paris Convention), the
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary
and Artistic Works (Berne Convention) and the
Washington Treaty on Intellectual Property in
Respect of Integrated Circuits (Washington
Treaty). With respect to the Rome Convention


for the Protection of Performers, Producers of
Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations
(Rome Convention) the requirement under
TRIPS is limited to general principles, such
as national treatment and standards on
limitations and exceptions.


However, not all PTAs impose ratification of
WIPO treaties and UPOV 1991 as a mandatory
obligation.39 Many include a mix of mandatory
and best endeavour clauses for accession. When
doing so, PTAs both repeat similar obligations
taken under TRIPS and push for partners’
accession to new categories of international IP
agreements not contained in TRIPS. In addition,
the South Africa-EU Trade, Development and
Cooperation agreement does not include binding
obligations to ratify treaties (Article 46).


Requirements for the ratification of treaties
could be complicated for countries that
signed PTAs with different countries. The
US-Chile FTA, for example, simply requires
Chile to undertake reasonable efforts to
ratify or accede to the Patent Law Treaty
(PLT, 2000), the Hague Agreement Concerning
the International Registration of Industrial
Designs (Hague Agreement, 1999) and the
Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement
Concerning the International Registration of
Marks (Madrid Protocol, 1989) in a manner
consistent with its domestic law.40 Chile is
also merely encouraged to classify goods and
services according to the classification of the
Nice Agreement Concerning the International
Classification of Goods and Services for the
Purposes of the Registration of Marks (Nice
Agreement, 1979). However, Chile committed
under its agreement with the EU to ratify the
PLT and Nice Agreement by 2009. On the other
hand, accession to the Hague Agreement and
the Madrid Protocol remains optional, as in
the US agreement.41 Chile is committed to
ratifying the Patent Cooperation Treaty under
both PTAs with the US and EU.


4.2.1 Ratification of WIPO treaties


Developing countries that have signed PTAs
assume commitments to accede and implement
multilateral IP treaties. The Budapest Treaty


4.2 Adherence to International Conven-
tions Required by PTAs




12 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


on the International Recognition of the
Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes
of Patent Procedure (Budapest Treaty) and
the PCT are the two instruments that most
frequently appear in PTAs. The PCT has so far
achieved a higher degree of adherence than
the Budapest Treaty. Apart from Algeria, all
countries with PTA obligations for accession
to the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and WIPO
Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT)
have complied with their obligations. Finally,
in October 2008, after several years of delay,
the Chilean legislature approved a law that
will allow the government to sign the PCT, a
requirement under its FTA with both the US
and the EU.42 Chile became a member of the
PCT in June 2009.


In some instances, accession to WIPO treaties
is not due to the PTA provisions, even when
there are mandatory requirements to do so.
Morocco was a member of the Madrid Protocol
prior to its FTA with the US, although the FTA
lists accession to the Protocol as one of its
commitments. In another example, Article 14.2
(9)(a) of the US-Bahrain FTA requires the use
of the Nice classification of goods and services
for trademark registration without mentioning
accession to the agreement. However, Bahrain
acceded to the Nice Agreement independent
of its commitment under the FTA with the US.
Finally, the US-Jordan FTA imposes obligations
to implement the WCT, WPPT, UPOV 1991
and the Joint Recommendation Concerning
Provisions on the Protection of Well-Known
Marks (1999) without imposing obligations to
accede to the instruments (Article 4 (1) of the
US-Jordan FTA, 2000). Jordan has complied
with its obligations both by making changes
to domestic law and through the ratification
of treaties. The 2008 amendment of the
Jordanian Trademark Law added the WIPO
Joint Recommendation on well-know marks.43
Jordan has ratified the WCT and WPPT.


Based on the status of notification of treaties
under the WIPO website, the study has
identified variations in level of implementing
the PAT obligation for the WIPO treaties.
Bahrain, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras,


Nicaragua, Oman and Peru are the most PTA
complaint countries in terms of ratification
of WIPO treaties. At the time of writing this
paper, Dominican Republic has yet to accede
to the Budapest Treaty as required under
CAFTA. Egypt has yet to ratify the Budapest
Treaty and Rome Convention as required
under its PTA with the EU. Algeria has
adhered to only one WIPO treaty among the
six treaties it committed to ratify under its
agreement with the EU. Chile had not ratified
the Nice Agreement, the Locarno Agreement
establishing an International Classification
for Industrial Designs, or the Strasbourg
Agreement Concerning the International
Patent Classification, as demanded by its
agreement with the EU. Finally, Jordan had
not ratified the Madrid Protocol, PCT and TLT
that it committed under its agreement with
the EU.44 Lebanon and CARIFORUM States still
enjoy a transition period to accede to treaties
under their PTAs with the EU.45


4.2.2 Accession to UPOV 1991


Several EU and the US PTAs require accession
to UPOV 1991, with a mixed record of
implementation among partners. Among the
countries obliged to accede to UPOV 1991
that have done so are Morocco (under the
agreements with both the US and EU),46 Jordan
and Tunisia (in 2004 and 2009 respectively,
under their agreements with the EU), and
Oman (in 2003, under its agreement with the
US). Among CAFTA members, Costa Rica and
the Dominican Republic have acceded to UPOV
1991.


On the other hand, Chile, Nicaragua and
Panama, members of UPOV 1978, are expected
to accede to UPOV 1991 under their FTA with
the US, but none have yet done so. Neither
Peru nor Bahrain has yet acceded to UPOV
1991, as demanded by their agreements with
the US.47 All these countries can, however,
still accede to UPOV 1991 after completing
the internal process of ratification and with
their acceptance by UPOV members.


Among the EU agreements, Algeria has agreed
to ratify UPOV 1991 after an implementation




13UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


period of five years, or alternatively to
comply with its obligations by implementing
an adequate and effective sui generis system
of plant variety protection if both parties
agree. To date, Algeria has not acceded to
UPOV 1991 and there is no evidence that
the EU has accepted Algeria’s regime for the
protection of plant varieties. Finally, Egypt
has not acceded to the UPOV 1991, for reasons
explained in detail below in Section 5.2.


The implementation by developing countries
of IP provisions mandated by PTAs can
result in several institutional changes in the
administration of IPRs. For example, the
EU-Morocco Association Agreement requires
Morocco to provide suitable and effective
protection of intellectual, industrial and
commercial property rights, in line with the
highest international standards. As a result,
the 2005 EU-Morocco Action Plan48 required
Morocco to ensure a level of protection similar
to that of the EU, and to implement measures
to improve monitoring (administrative and
judicial) structures for the registration and
granting of rights as well as rights management.
This included an opposition system for
trademarks and preliminary examination
for patents. In response, Moroccan Law No.
31-05 established a system for opposing
trademarks and GI registration, modernized
the procedure for filing IP applications, and
introduced electronic filing of applications for
the registration of trademarks.


The Guatemalan legal reforms for the
implementation of CAFTA (Decree No. 11
2006) reinforced the National Intellectual
Property Committee, incorporating additional
government agencies, and expanded the
coverage of enforcement to include customs
inspection. There is no direct commitment
under CAFTA that stipulates how to coordinate
and organize government efforts for the
enforcement of IPRs. However, under Article
15.11 (2) it states that parties “understand


that the decisions that a party makes on the
distribution of enforcement resources shall
not excuse that Party from complying with
the IPRs Chapter”.49 Considering the extensive
provisions on enforcement, CAFTA countries
have to improve their institutional coordination
for the enforcement of IPRs.


Peru’s agreement with the US, the PTPA,
requires a system of registration of trademarks
that includes an opportunity for the applicant
to respond to communications from the
trademark authorities, contest an initial
refusal, and appeal to the judiciary any final
refusal for registration. It also requires an
opportunity for interested parties to oppose a
trademark application or to seek cancellation
of a registered trademark. In implementing
this obligation, Peru’s Legislative Decree No.
1073 re-organized Indecopi (Peruvian IP office)
and upgraded the existing Trademark Office to
a new Trademark Department and Trademark
Commission. The Trademark Commission has ju-
risdiction to decide on oppositions to trade-
mark applications, nullities and cancellations,
and first instance jurisdiction over proceedings
regarding infringements of trademark rights.
The Commission also has the authority to
elaborate policies, manuals and regulations.
The Trademark Department acquired
first instance jurisdiction to decide on
administrative proceedings that are not under
the jurisdiction of the Commission. There are
also similar changes to the administration
of patents.50


On the enforcement of IPRs, PTAs often call for
stronger measures than those expected under
TRIPS. Among recent agreements illustrating
this, US FTAs and the EU-CARIFORUM EPA
contain detailed substantive obligations on
the procedures for IPR enforcement, which
include implied changes in legislation. For
instance, Chilean Law 19,914 increased the
penalty for criminal infringement in order
to implement the provisions of its PTA with
the US. Morocco passed a new set of customs
regulations reinforcing border measures
at the beginning of 2006.51 Guatemala has
reported that it has reinforced the Special


4.3 Changes in Institutions and Enfor-
cement Practices




14 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


Prosecutor’s Office for Intellectual Property
Offences, resulting in more offenders being
successfully pursued and convicted. The same
office also undertook the training of staff to
enhance the implementation and monitoring
of Guatemala’s international agreements,
including CAFTA.52 Institutional changes may
also follow: in Morocco, the National Industrial
Property and Anti Counterfeiting Committee
(CONPIAC, under its French acronym) started
to operate in April 2008, bringing together
different government agencies and the
private sector,53 in order to increase efforts to
combat counterfeiting.54


The examples above point clearly to changes
in enforcement arrangements to meet PTA
obligations. However, these changes in laws
and regulations are only part of the story. A
more challenging aspect in assessing whether
PTAs indeed affect enforcement relates to
whether the right holders make use of the new
provisions to enforce their rights; and whether
the number of court proceedings and rulings,
as well as damages awarded, have increased.
The question is important since in civil matters
the primary responsibility for enforcing IPRs,
as private rights, rests with the right holders.
Reports on IPR enforcement by governments,
business associations and right holders’
advocacy groups, and the USTR, as well as
TPR reports by the WTO Secretariat, largely
focus on measures taken by the government
and much less so on civil legal actions.


As outlined in the first section, PTAs also
contain monitoring mechanisms. These include
transparency and reporting requirements
(prevalent in US PTAs), consultations with expert
committees or other bodies (more prevalent in
EU PTAs), and dispute settlement mechanisms.


Agreements stipulate the formation of joint
committees or councils for the overall imple-
mentation of the agreement, as well as sector
specific committees and working groups. If


consultations held or recommendations made
by the monitoring organs cannot resolve a
particular dispute, both US and EU PTAs provide
for an arbitration panel that can rule on the
dispute. Once a panel decides on a particular
case, and compliance is not achieved or agreed
otherwise, the PTAs provide for procedures to
allow the complaining party to suspend trade
concessions.55 To our knowledge, no dispute
settlement proceedings have arisen from a
failure to implement or comply with the IPR
provisions of a PTA.


There is, however, evidence of continued
influence shaping the IP agenda of developing
countries following PTA negotiations. This
has occurred in a variety of ways: through
the certification of compliance process (a US
procedure), unilateral trade reviews and the
joint activities of monitoring organs.


The certification of compliance is the process
that takes place after the negotiations
through which the US Congress requires the
USTR to check whether the trade partner has
implemented all of its obligations before the
agreement can enter into force.56 Certification
of compliance on IPR obligations has been a
particular issue for the entry into force of
US PTAs with Morocco and Australia, and in
CAFTA. The certification process in the case
of CAFTA required up to 11 months of work on
implementation, demonstrating the intensity
of the process.57


In the case of the US-Chile FTA (one of the
early FTAs), the certification process was
not as thorough. Chile implemented the IP
provisions of the agreement under the new
Industrial Property Law no. 19,914, adopted
on 19 November 2003. The agreement entered
into force on November 2004.58 Chile was later
criticized for failing to meet its obligations
under the FTA in the annual US Special Section
301 review. In January 2006, the US indicated
its concerns over the adequacy of test data
protection, insufficient coordination between
health and patent authorities, and failure to
fully implement legislation to comply with
the FTA upon the expiry of the transition
period for the implementation of the PTA in


4.4 PTA Provisions, Institutions and Other
Mechanisms Shaping the Domestic
Implementation of IP Policy




15UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


several areas, including copyright and patent
term extension.59


Chile introduced a new law (no. 20,160) in
January 2007 modifying the previous law on the
protection granted for patents and trademarks,
including the possibility of extending the
patent period of pharmaceutical products as
a result of delays in the granting of marketing
approval (a specific request contained in
the FTA).60 However, the US continued to
challenge Chile on the adequacy of test data
protection and other provisions in its 2007
and 2008 Special Section 301 review reports.
Chile initiated a new bill on copyright. Once
again, the 2009 Special Section 301 review
expressed concerns in relation to the bill.61
The US also acknowledged the implementation
steps taken by Chile, offering a glimpse of the
efforts needed to meet the requirements of US
FTAs.62 In 2010, Chile was still on the Section
301 Priority Watch List, although it enacted a
new copyright law in May 2010.


The case of Chile and the US demonstrates
that the unilateral trade review mechanism
leads to a continuous dialogue between
PTA partners. The 2009 Special Section
301 review also expressed concern about
the weak enforcement of IP laws in several
other FTA partners, such as Guatemala, the
Dominican Republic and Costa Rica (especially
related to copyright piracy and trademark
counterfeiting), while acknowledging the
legislative reforms taken to implement their
commitments under CAFTA.


Transparency requirements are closely asso-
ciated with the monitoring of implementation.
The US PTAs specifically mention transparency
in the context of IP,63 with requests for
information and statistics on efforts to enforce
IP.64 A revealing example is the side letter
agreed with the Dominican Republic under
CAFTA, entitled “Letter on IPR Procedures”.
It imposes rigorous reporting requirements
related to enforcement. The Dominican
Republic is required to provide written
quarterly reports on progress in pursuing
television broadcasting piracy, including
specific criminal, administrative and civil


investigations and actions. The US has since
credited the Dominican Republic for complying
with the reporting requirements, which
included reports on the seizure of equipment
from six television operators and legal
proceedings against several broadcasters.65


Turning now to the EU, we also see an active
post-negotiation agenda. The EU has devised
periodical action plans with its PTA partners
to implement the agreements’ IP provisions.
For instance, the 2007 EU-Egypt Action Plan
agreed by the Association Agreement Council
commits Egypt to:


• Accede to and apply the standards stated
in the conventions within the stipulated
timeframe;


• Strengthen the enforcement of IPRs within
TRIPS requirements, and reinforce the fight
against piracy and counterfeiting, increase
awareness and encourage the establishment
and effective functioning of associations of
rights holders and consumers;


• Initiate a policy dialogue covering all
aspects of IPRs, including further legal/
administrative improvements, etc.66


The action plans with the rest of the EU’s
Mediterranean partners reveal similar ele-
ments. Those with Lebanon and Morocco go
even further and make reference to ensuring
a level of IP protection similar to that of the
EU and to strengthening enforcement. For this
purpose, Lebanon is expected to introduce
new legislation (notably on trademarks
and GIs), ensure conformity with TRIPS
requirements and strengthen its administrative
capacity for enforcement.67 Although these
action plans are written in very general
terms, they are implemented effectively,
as noted above in the case of Morocco with
the establishment of a system for opposing
trademark and GI registration and modernized
procedures for filing IP applications and
registering trademarks.


As the impact of the process for certification of
implementation discussed above demonstrates,




16 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


the signing and implementation of PTAs by
developing countries does not necessary
end further demands to modify domestic IP
laws. The above exploration shows that post-
PTA negotiations and bilateral consultations,


as well as unilateral monitoring mechanisms
by developed country PTA partners, form a
driving force behind the implementation of
changes to domestic IP policies by developing
country partner.




17UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


5. BEYOND COMMITMENTS: THE CHALLENGES FACING IMPLEMENTATION


The implementation obligations on partners to
EU and US PTAs are substantial. An important
question to consider, then, is whether various
policy challenges and institutional capacity
limitations in those partner countries impede
implementation. Policy challenges vary, from
the margin of flexibility for interpretation
when transposing PTA obligations into national
law, to compatibility with domestic law and
other international agreements. Institutional
challenges relate to the effective distribution
of responsibilities, availability of resources and
capacity to administer and enforce IPRs.


Two types of difficulties arise in implementation.
First, the problems can be technical, implying
unforeseen legal difficulties or capacity
limits. Second, on the other hand, there can
be a gap between what has been politically
negotiated and what can be politically imple-
mented: changes of governments are parti-
cularly illustrative in this regard. In a way, they
might reflect some degree of misjudgement
on the part of negotiators as to the interest
of their constituencies in carrying out the
required changes. Thus, implementation prob-
lems can reveal the overall preference of
the majority for a particular rule, more than
being an actual practical implementation
issue. That said, however, political issues at
the implementation stage may also reflect
the lack of “policy space”, or flexibility in
transposing the internationally agreed rule
into domestic law.


The first policy challenge rests with the margin
of flexibility for interpretation available for
countries when transposing PTA commitments
into domestic law. The transfer of international
obligations into a domestic legal framework
is indeed subject to some interpretation,
something that some countries have used to
their advantage, while others have not been
able to.


Secondly, the administrative capacity of
countries to meet their obligations matters


particularly for developing countries, in terms
of personnel and expertise needs. In some
instances, this involves the capacity to set
up new institutions; the ability to establish
new procedures; and the ability to mobilize
budget resources. In PTAs involving the EU and
the US, the question of capacity is to some
extent recognized with transition periods to
implement new requirements. However, there
seems to be a tendency to provide less and less
space for capacity constraints in US PTAs.68 This
has taken the form of shorter implementation
periods and in several agreements the explicit
mention that capacity should not be invoked
as a reason for the lack of enforcement of
IP laws, such as in agreements with Bahrain,
Chile, Morocco, Oman, Singapore and DR-
CAFTA countries.69


Another aspect of implementation challenges
is the compatibility of new commitments with
other commitments countries may have entered
into, as this is not always fully taken into account
when agreements are negotiated. A broad
approach would also include their compatibility
with other policy objectives being pursued by
national governments, given the linkages that
may exist between IPRs and other sectors.


Provisions of US PTAs on IP protection have
been expanding over time so that they now
require detailed obligations. Generally, EU
PTAs with developing country partners do
not contain substantive provisions on IPRs,
except for the general principle of adhering
to the highest standards of protection and
ratification of WIPO treaties and UPOV 1991.
The EU approach to the inclusion of IPRs under
PTAs has changed recently, with provisions on
IPRs under the CARIFORUM, CAFTA, Peru and
Colombia PTAs. However, our examination of
the margin of flexibility for interpretation in


5.1 Implementation and the Margin of
Flexibility for Interpretation




18 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


implementing PTA provisions is limited to US
PTAs for the purposes of this enquiry, since
many of the EU PTA obligations on IPRs are
under transition periods or are yet to be
implemented.


5.1.1 The case of extension of patent duration
to compensate delays during marketing
approval


A first interesting case is that of Australia.
When implementing its obligations under
its FTA with the US relating to patent term
extension, Australia was able to limit the
use of patent extension to certain categories
of products. Australian patent law imposes
additional substantive conditions for the
extension of patent duration for “pharmace-
utical substances”. Accordingly, the extension
of the patent term is possible if three conditions
are met: i) the patent claim contains at least
one “pharmaceutical substance per se”;70 ii)
that the product is included in the Australian
Register of Therapeutic Goods; and iii) marketing
approval was issued less than five years after
the filing of the patent. Australian patent law
also includes specific procedures for opposition
to patent term extension.71 In addition, the US-
Australia agreement explicitly provides, in a
footnote, that the notion of “pharmaceutical
substance” – the term used in Australian patent
law – is treated as synonymous with the concept
of “pharmaceutical product” used in the text
of the FTA. The footnote allows Australia to
preserve its rules on eligibility for extension of
patent terms to compensate for delays in the
marketing authorization process.


The Australian Patent Office has rejected
requests to extend the duration of patent
protection in cases where it found that the
innovation in the patent claim does not
concern the pharmaceutical substance per se.
These cases include when the patent claim
was primarily related to the arrangement of


pharmaceutical substances; a new method of
delivery of a known substance; or to the use or
method of producing a substance.72


The US FTAs with Bahrain, Chile, Jordan,
Morocco, Panama and Singapore, as well as
CAFTA, have similar provisions regarding the
extension of patent terms for “pharmaceutical
products”. However, these agreements do not
include any footnote similar to that of the
US-Australian FTA regarding what constitutes
a “pharmaceutical product”. For example,
Costa Rica under its CAFTA obligations now
extends patent terms for cases of both
delay in processing the patent application
and delay in registering pharmaceutical
products.73 For patent extension eligibility,
Costa Rican law does not seem to provide any
further substantive conditions or additional
definitions other than that of “pharmaceutical
product”. Thus, the law extends patents
to all pharmaceutical products covered by
patents, including when the product has been
registered abroad, and when the scope of the
patent does not mainly concern the substance
(neither of which would be permitted under
Australian law).


Australian law also imposes additional limi-
tations on patent rights during the extended
period of protection (see Box 2 below). Recent
FTAs, such as the US-Korea FTA, eliminate this
possibility.74 On the other hand, signatories
of earlier FTAs could follow the Australian
approach by setting additional limitations to
the rights conferred by the patent extension.
This possibility does not seem to have been
seized: e.g. Costa Rican law does not foresee
any such additional limitations. This is despite
CAFTA remaining silent about any equivalence
between rights in the extended patent
period and rights in the original period of the
patent, thus leaving a margin of flexibility for
interpretation towards more limited rights
under patent extension.




19UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


Box 2. Australian Patent Law: Limitation to the exclusion of rights of patentee if extension
of patent term is granted


If the Commissioner grants an extension of the term of a standard patent, the exclusive
rights of the patentee during the term of the extension are not infringed:


(a) by a person exploiting:


a pharmaceutical substance per se that is in substance disclosed in the complete
specification of the patent and in substance falls within the scope of the claim or claims of
that specification; or


a pharmaceutical substance when produced by a process that involves the use of recombinant
DNA technology, that is in substance disclosed in the complete specification of the patent
and in substance falls within the scope of the claim or claims of that specification;


for a purpose other than therapeutic use; or


(b) by a person exploiting any form of the invention other than:


a pharmaceutical substance per se that is in substance disclosed in the complete
specification of the patent and in substance falls within the scope of the claim or claims of
that specification; or


a pharmaceutical substance when produced by a process that involves the use of recombinant
DNA technology, that is in substance disclosed in the complete specification of the patent
and in substance falls within the scope of the claim or claims of that specification.


Source: Australia Patent Act 1990, SECT 78.


CAFTA members could arguably follow
the Australian approach to impose further
substantive eligibility requirements for patent
extension and limitation of patent rights
during the extended period. This is a solution
that at least one CAFTA member, Costa Rica,
does not seem to have adopted.


5.1.2 The case of pharmaceutical data
exclusivity


Although all US FTAs with developing
country partners require data exclusivity for
pharmaceuticals and agro-chemicals, the scope
of protection has gradually expanded over the
years. Two exceptions, however, are in CAFTA
and PTPA, where the signatories are given the
flexibility to set the same start date for the
period of exclusivity with that of the start date
of the same data in the US.75 CAFTA and PTPA
require the availability of protection for all
new pharmaceutical products data containing
any chemical entity not previously approved in
its territory that requires considerable effort
to generate. The protection should normally


be five years from the date on which approval
was granted to market the product, taking
into account the nature of the data and the
efforts and expenditures to produce them.


Peru’s Legislative Decree No. 1072 on
pharmaceutical data protection implemented
this flexibility by broadly repeating the
language contained in the provisions of the
PTPA with the US. Peru provided a definition
of the concept of “new chemical entities” in
greater detail, which depending on its practical
implications could provide more regulatory
space.76 However, a better mechanism for
the operation of the implementing legislative
decrees would be required to address the public
health aspect of data protection.77 In particular,
in relation to the five-year normal protection
period for data exclusivity, Peruvian law does
not further define what is considered as being
“normal”, thus not seizing the opportunity to
define protection periods of less than five years.
Neither does the Decree specify the practical
considerations involved in determining what
constitutes a “considerable effort” to generate




20 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


data.78 The task of evaluating this is left to
“health authorities” without giving any specific
guidelines or principles. The Decree also
further recognizes the possibility for the five-
year term of protection to start concurrently
from the date the product is approved in
countries with higher sanitary vigilance
(mainly Western European countries, Japan,
Australia and the US). In the future, Peru may
provide a better implementation mechanism
through its regulations implementing the
legislative decree.


A further example of implementation language
clarifying the scope of PTA obligations is found
in other agreements, such as the one with
Chile, which limits the availability of data
protection to pharmaceutical products that
have been marketed in the national territory
in the year after the grant of marketing
approval.79 If the grant of marketing approval
is based on the pharmaceutical test data
but the pharmaceutical product has not
been marketed within a year, the test data
submitted for approval purposes will not be
protected. There are also indications that El
Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala,
Honduras and Nicaragua have introduced
similar legislation. The practice of making data
protection dependent on the registration and
marketing of the product within the domestic
market within a specific time period would
encourage early registration of drugs after
first registration abroad, so that the period
of protection for the pharmaceutical test data
starts early.80


These examples of implementation of patent
term extension and data exclusivity obligations
demonstrate the need for a detailed
examination of implementing legislation, in
order to determine the adequate use of any
flexibility available, and whether further
elaboration of concepts and legal terms
is desirable.81


However, negotiated flexibility in implemen-
tation is not the sole explanation for differences
in the transposition of PTA provisions into
domestic legislation. There may be various
reasons why implementing legislation fails to


consider optimal alternatives that could carve
out small but important domestic regulatory
space. First among them, the pressure for
early entry into force of PTAs may not leave
time for adequate expert scrutiny of and
public debate on the implementing legislation.
For instance, the government of Peru had
to secure special executive power from the
legislature, delegating the legislative power
to government for 180 days. After six months,
the government issued 99 executive decrees,
which facilitated the early entry into force
of the agreement with the US, but without
any broad public debate on the legislative
policy issues.82


The certification process for entry into
force of US PTAs regulates implementation
efforts by partner countries and can thus
restrict the options available to countries
when implementing domestic legislation.
Although a possibility, there is as yet no
clear-cut evidence that the US government
has rejected any domestic legislation that
is technically consistent with the agreement
on the premise that it had recourse to a
certain interpretation of the language of
the agreement. This is however likely to be
a question of interpretation, as there is a
precedent that countries, such as Peru, have
had to revise legislation passed to implement
the agreement (presumably because it was
not consistent with the agreement).


Finally, technical assistance/capacity building
related to IP from developed country PTA
partners may focus on ensuring the entry into
force of the agreement and its implementation,
rather than using options for interpretation
that may be available in PTAs.


Accession to some international treaties
involves the express agreement of existing
members, or addressing relationships with other
agreements, including regional agreements.
For instance, the TRIPS Agreement, the Rome
Convention and the WPPT address the question


5.2 Managing the IP Spaghetti Bowl:
Specific Hurdles in Adhering to Inter-
national Treaties




21UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


of remuneration rights of performers and
producers of phonograms with slight differences
and alternative options. Countries that have
agreements with the EU, such as Egypt and
Chile, have committed to ensure accession to
or implementation of the Rome Convention.
Chile is also required in its agreement with
the EU to accede to the WPPT, and many other
developing countries that signed PTAs with the
EU. The remuneration rights of performers
and producers of phonograms over the use
of phonograms published for commercial
purposes is subject to various conditions and
limitations that countries may impose under
the TRIPS Agreement (Articles 3(1) and 14(4)),
the Rome Convention (Articles 12 and 16)
and the WPPT (Articles 4(2), 15 and 16). The
obligation to provide national treatment with
respect to remuneration rights is limited to
the extent of protection available under these
agreements. Countries can also exclude the
remuneration right altogether or restrict the
rights based on means of communication, such
as broadcasting by wire or wireless means.


The US is not a member of the Rome Convention
(that Chile must implement under its
agreement with the EU). It implements Article
15(1) of the WPPT on equitable remuneration
of rights only “in respect of certain acts
of broadcasting and communication to the
public by digital means, for which a direct
or indirect fee is charged for reception, as
provided under the US law”.83 On the other
hand, Chile implements the Rome Convention
on remuneration rights of performers and
producers of phonograms to any direct use for
broadcasting or for any communication to the
public (i.e. without reservation of the mode
of transmission).


Therefore, Chile registered its reservation
to Article 15 of the WPPT in May 2003 to the
treaty so as to ensure that it does not provide
higher protection (benefits) to nationals
of countries that do not implement the full
extent of rights under the Rome Convention
or under the WPPT. The notification indicates
that Chile applies the remuneration right to
the extent provided by the Rome Convention,
or under its laws and on a reciprocal basis.84


Australia and Costa Rica have also registered
their reservations under Article 15 of the
WPPT.85 On the other hand, neither Bahrain,
the Dominican Republic, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Nicaragua,
Oman, Panama nor Peru have notified their
position on the scope of remuneration rights
or any condition of reciprocity. This failure
to notify a reservation under Article 15 of
the WPPT created the possibility for better
protection for US performers and producers
of phonograms in their territory to the full
extent provided by the WPPT, while their
own performers and producers would receive
lesser protection in the US as declared by
the latter.


Accession is sometimes not automatic upon
ratification. Accession to UPOV 1991 requires
the consent of the existing member states
that examine the conformity of the national
legislations to the provisions of UPOV 1991.
Guatemala has reported the ratification
of UPOV 1991 and two WIPO treaties (the
Budapest Treaty and the PCT) to comply
with its obligations under CAFTA.86 However,
Guatemala was requested by the Council
of UPOV to make changes and amend the
provision on exceptions to plant breeder’s
right under its national legislation in order
to “give effect” to the provisions of UPOV
1991.87 Guatemala needs to approve the
implementing legislation with the requested
changes in order to become a member of the
UPOV. Interestingly, the Dominican Republic
was not requested to make any changes to its
laws when it was accepted as a member of
UPOV 1991 in June 2007.88


In a related example, Egypt has not acceded
to UPOV 1991 although it committed to do
so in its Association Agreement with the EU.
The main obstacle seems to be a provision
in the plant variety chapter of Egypt’s IP
law (2002) that requires applicants for plant
breeder’s right to disclose the source of the
plant genetic resource relied on in developing
the new plant variety, and whether the
plant genetic resource was acquired through
legitimate means. This requirement for
disclosure seems to have been interpreted




22 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


by UPOV as an additional criterion for the
granting of plant breeder’s right; hence Egypt
has to change its law in order to accede to
UPOV 1991.89 The fact that discussions leading
to the adoption of the Egyptian IP law in 2002
occurred concomitantly to the negotiations
of the Association Agreement reflects the
importance of ensuring close coordination
between domestic legislative processes and
negotiation of IP obligations in PTAs.


There is finally the question of the compatibility
of PTAs with regional IP systems. A particular
aspect of regional integration is cooperation
among developing countries. Regional arrange-
ments have played an important role in helping
implement international obligations by taking
into account the specific circumstances of
those countries, especially when they had
to implement the TRIPS Agreement.90 In
the Andean countries, the process of TRIPS
implementation has been carried out through
the Andean Community (CAN, under its Spanish
acronym) under CAN Decision 486.


The Eurasian Patent Organization, the CAN and
the Cooperation Council for the Arab States
of the Gulf have a regional standard on IPRs.
Although not related to regional economic and
political cooperation, the African Intellectual
Property Organization (OAPI) also maintains
substantive standards on IPRs for its members
in West and Central Africa. There are also
regional organizations, such as the African
Regional Intellectual Property Organization
(ARIPO) that administer procedures and
processes for the granting of IPRs.


In the context of TRIPS implementation,
Andean countries could have chosen to take
a national approach rather than a collective
one. It can be presumed that besides the
political economy advantage, the sharing
of deep expertise in domains that are fairly
complex could have supported the regional
approach. Given that Andean countries had
similar policy objectives relating to IPRs,
harmonization guarantees the case for the
adoption of IP systems that accommodate
development priorities, including the use of
flexibilities available under TRIPS.


In the case of the CAN, the IP standards
negotiated in US FTAs derogate from those
established by the Andean Community itself.
Peru had to request an authorization from
other CAN members to opt out of community
law and adopt its own IP law implementing its
PTPA obligations with the US. Failing this, the
alternative for Peru was considered by some to
include leaving the Community.91 This reflects
how the implementation of PTA commitments
can influence regional integration efforts that
have been underway for many decades, in this
case the CAN’s common IP regime.


Some PTAs contain provisions affirming the
rights and obligations of the partners under
the TRIPS Agreement.92 The TRIPS-plus stan-
dards of protection promoted under PTAs
go much further than the TRIPS Agreement
and, as such, there are potential areas where
compatibility becomes an issue.


For instance, the renewal of trademarks
should be available indefinitely according
to Article 18 of the TRIPS Agreement. Thus,
EU PTAs that demand the de-registration of
domestic trademarks in conflict with GIs may
be challenged under the TRIPS Agreement.
TRIPS does not deal with the voluntary
abandonment of IPRs: the EU and its partners
can only be presumed to implement the de-
registration obligations with the consent of
the trademark owners in order not to breach
their TRIPS obligations. One way around this
is to compensate trademark owners. De-
registration of trademarks is costly, in terms
of the loss of brand marketing awareness and
the need to re-brand products.93 In the case
of the EU’s agreement with South Africa and
Chile, the quid pro quo during negotiations
seemed to have been preferential access to
the European market in exchange for de-
registration. However, the implementation
of the obligation is facing challenges in South
Africa due to demand for compensation
from affected companies.94 Finally, this also


5.3 Compatibility of PTA Implementation
with Other International Agreements
and Domestic Laws




23UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


illustrates the potential compatibility issues
between commitments in PTAs and domestic
laws, especially constitutional norms. There
are indeed claims that the trademark de-
registration requirement under the EU-South
African agreement on wines and spirits
contravenes the South Africa’s constitutional
norms against the expropriation of property
without prompt compensation.95


Another potential area of conflict with the
TRIPS Agreement relates to the application
of border measures against goods in transit
suspected of infringing IPRs.96 CAFTA, for
example, provides that:


Each Party shall provide that its competent
authorities may initiate border measures ex
officio, with respect to imported, exported,
or in-transit merchandise suspected of
infringing an intellectual property right,
without the need for a formal complaint
from a private party or right holder. (CAFTA
Article 15.11 Para. 23)


Likewise, the CARIFORUM EPA enables right
holders to request the suspension of the
release of goods during “entry or exit of the
customs territory” (Article 163). Both CAFTA
and the CARIFORUM EPA cover goods that are
purely in transit.97


The issue of border measures against goods
in transit has become contentious in the
WTO General Council and the TRIPS Council.
Developing countries, citing cases of border
seizure of generic pharmaceuticals in transit
in European ports, asserted that the practice
violates the freedom of transit under Article
V of the GATT and amounts to extraterritorial
enforcement of patent rights. They also
asserted that the practice contradicts the
Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health
and undermines the Paragraph 6 system of
the Declaration establishing the procedures
for the production of pharmaceuticals under
compulsory license for export to countries
with limited or no manufacturing capacity.98
The European Commission, however, asserted
that TRIPS permits the application of border
measures to goods in transit, and the measures


by EU customs officials do not apply to IPRs in
third countries – hence, no extraterritoriality.99
Later, during bilateral negotiations with
India, the European Commission signalled
the possibility of modifying the relevant
legislation to mandate the seizure of goods
in transit “to the extent necessary to clarify
the procedures relating to medicines in
transit”.100 The Commission launched a public
consultation to review the legislation on
customs enforcement of IP in March 2010.101
India and Brazil initiated consultations with the
EU – a procedure mandatory before launching
dispute settlement proceedings in the WTO –
in a bid to challenge the WTO consistency of
the EU’s laws and practices.102


Beyond the strict implementation of the
provisions of agreements, countries also have
the possibility to implement complementary
policies and devise safeguards that can be
applied in relation to IPRs.


Perhaps nowhere is this question more
important than in the context of the protection
of public health. PTAs routinely recognize the
need for safeguards with provisions or side
letters recognizing the freedom of countries
to take appropriate measures as recognized
by the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public
Health. However, countries implementing PTA
obligations should make sure that there is
indeed compatibility between TRIPS safeguards
and PTA obligations.


The implementation of new PTA provisions can
undermine TRIPS flexibilities. For instance,
data exclusivity required by some PTAs
could prevent market approval of a medicine
produced under a compulsory license, and in
some PTAs there are restrictions on the parallel
importation of drugs.103 There is evidence
indicating that at least Chile recognized the
implications of the data exclusivity provisions
and as a consequence adopted legislation
providing grounds for the suspension/
revocation of data exclusivity when the drug


5.4 Complementary Policies and Safe-
guards




24 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


is subject to a compulsory license – one of the
key tools supported by the Doha Declaration
on TRIPS and Public Health.104


Beyond legal measures that effectively allow
for generic competition, the affordability of
medicine can be ensured with arrangements
for bulk purchase arrangements that reduce
costs. Regional cooperation is one option.
Latin American and Caribbean countries have
joined forces in order to reduce the price
of ARVs and HIV diagnostic tests by reaching
agreements with both originator and generic
manufacturers.105 However, prices are still
higher than those for generics in other non-PTA
countries, such as India.106


In this context, assessing the impact of IP
provisions in PTAs on the prices of medicines
can be a useful undertaking. In effect, such
impact assessment can provide indicative
guidance about future levels of health and social
insurance spending given the likely increase in
the prices of medicines. Several national case
studies have been carried out in this area and
in particular those of Costa Rica and Dominican
Republic provide a useful reference point.107


Among the important complementary policies to
consider when implementing IP legislation, the
regulation of anti-competitive practices has an
important role to play in addressing IP-related
abuses of dominant market positions. Some
PTAs contain declarations to the effect that
the provisions on IPRs do not prevent partner
states from adopting measures necessary to
prevent anticompetitive practices that may
result from the abuse of IPRs.108


Even before considering how competition law
can interact with IPRs, the design of IPRs
themselves will determine to what extent
exclusivity (and, by implication, competition
in the absence of exclusivity) is allowed. IP
provisions of PTAs prescribe the patentability
criteria, rights conferred by patents, conditions
on regulatory exceptions, and comparable
issues on other categories of IPRs.109 Some US
PTAs already rule out parallel importation in
the case of patents,110 but many other PTAs
remain silent as to the grounds for issuing


compulsory licenses. Chile’s Law No. 19,914,
which modified copyright law to implement the
provisions of its PTA with the US, provides one
example of interpretation allowing for some
relaxation of the rules. The law established
that the first sale, or another transfer of
property, in Chile or abroad, exhausts the
right to national and international distribution
with respect to the original or copy. Moreover,
Chile adopted in May 2010 a new copyright
law that will provide for exceptions to
the rights of the copyright holder for the
adaptation of works for accessibility by visually
impaired persons.


Although many PTA partner developing countries
can be credited with having competition
regulations and authorities, there is no evidence
that competition policy tools have indeed been
used to fight abusive business conduct related
to the use of IPRs.


Provisions in PTAs on IPRs require extensive
institutional and technical capacity for the
administration and enforcement of IPRs,
especially as they go beyond the obligations of
the TRIPS Agreement. In recent agreements,
there has been more focus on IP-specific
technical assistance,111 although provisions on
technical assistance remain very general.


For example, in the US-Chile FTA, Article
17.1 (14) defines means by which the Parties
will cooperate in order to strengthen the
development and protection of IP, including
through education and dissemination projects
and training courses. Examples of these trade-
related capacity building activities include a
2007 Foreign Criminal Enforcement Training
and a 2008 technical assistance and orientation
visit to familiarize Chilean government officials
with pharmaceutical regulatory policies.112
Under CAFTA, the provision is seemingly
reinforced by a link with commitments related
to trade capacity building in general. The
EU’s agreements also cover areas of technical
cooperation with respect to IPRs, including


5.5 Administrative and Enforcement
Capacity, and Technical Assistance




25UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


legislative advice and personnel training to the
other party. Collaboration is also emphasized
in the EU’s PTAs in the cooperation provisions,
particularly with respect to the fields of science
and technology.


The approaches taken under EU and US PTAs are
converging in favour of support for upgrading
the IP infrastructure and enforcement.
However, the EU is found to be more open to
the needs of developing countries.113


The quality of technical assistance, in
negotiating and implementing PTAs, is an
important element in addressing the policy
challenges of domestic implementation.
Although countries have reformed their
institutional set ups for the administration
and enforcement of IPRs in their domestic
legislation, there is no clear evidence
pointing to the provision of technical and
infrastructural capacity building from PTA
partner countries.




26 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


6. CONCLUSION


This paper began by pointing out the need
to investigate the implementation of the IP
provisions of Preferential Trade Agreements
and their influence on domestic policies in
developing countries. It provided a review of
reforms undertaken by developing countries
that can be directly linked to the signing of
PTAs. It also looked at disparities between
international commitments and actual domestic
implementation, as well as levels of accession
to international treaties. The main conclusions
from this research are two-fold: first, PTAs
are clearly drivers of significant reform in
countries, as was rightly suspected by those
who noted the ambition of the provisions in
these agreements; second, and importantly,
the implementation challenge for developing
countries is real and complex.


The tasks facing countries implementing the IP
provisions of their agreements with developed
countries are in many respects considerable as
they relate to the administration of IPRs:


• Often a near complete overhaul of the IP
legislative framework is required, as in
the case of Chile, and this work can span
several years.114 For instance, Chile – a
country with good administrative capacity –
is still implementing some aspects of its PTA
with the US signed in 2003. Likewise, it took
more than 10 years for Morocco to make the
major legal changes needed.


• Beyond legal changes at home, this
research also demonstrates that important
administrative capacity building efforts
are required with the establishment of
new bodies, such as structures for the
registration and granting of rights as well as
rights management.


• Judicial capacity building must also
accompany such efforts in order to provide
for rights to administrative appeal (such as
in the case of Peru and the creation of the
Trademark Commission) and the necessary
expertise to rule on them.


• Implementation also concerns enhanced
enforcement efforts and stricter future
compliance with PTA provisions. Enhanced
enforcement arguably implies devoting
more resources to tackle IPRs infringement.
In Morocco, for instance, this translated
into the creation of a new agency. It also
implies, in some instances, a change in the
type of penalties employed, as some FTAs
require criminal proceedings, which also
has an impact on the judicial system.


• Finally, compliance with international con-
ventions and treaties is an important
dimension of the PTAs we reviewed. While
this may look relatively innocuous on paper,
accession to treaties and international norms
is not always a pain-free process either.


The list above paints a picture of high comple-
xity, arising not only because of the higher
standards of IP protection but also because
of the narrow scope for interpretation and
legal innovation when transposing these
obligations into domestic law. Adopting new
IP standards requires making the IP system
compatible with the legal practices of the
implementing country and a useful tool for
domestic constituencies. In practice, this
paper uncovered several instances where
the implementation stage has revealed
unexpected issues:


• In some instance, it created unforeseen and
serious challenges for developing countries.
Notably these included legal compatibility
between domestic and international law,
which are either still unresolved (e.g., in
the case of Egypt’s effort for accession to
UPOV 1991 and South Africa’s difficulty
of implementing obligations on GIs) or
were resolved at by opting out from other
commitments (e.g., in the case of Peru’s
opting out from its obligations under the
CAN community rules);


• More generally, it seems that developing
countries may not have entirely assessed




27UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


the precise meaning of the commitments
they were entering into. They may in
some cases also have failed to make use of
available flexibilities for the interpretation
of international legal obligations into
domestic law (Chile being the counter-
example). Arguable, the extent developing
countries can use flexibilities provided under
PTAs can be influenced by the extent their
developed country partners accommodates
their need to use the flexibilities. However,
there is also evidence that some countries,
such as Australia and Chile, have taken a
proactive approach to this issue.


The implementation itself, whether through
literal transposition of the law or through
adaptation, leads to different outcome
depending on the implementing country’s legal
system and how stakeholders respond to the
changes. Implementation does not stop with
transposition into the domestic legal system.
Rather, it continues with significant changes
in enforcement and, potentially, reviews and
interactions with the trade partner. This
suggests therefore that PTAs become “live”
agreements that must be actively managed
over time.


The research also reveals gaps in assessing the
challenges related to institutional capacity for the
administration, registration and enforcement of
IPRs, including legal proceedings. There are also
gaps in assessing the actual changes brought about
by PTA implementation. These might include,
for example the number of legal proceedings,
judgments and orders; and empirical indicators
as to changes in the payment of royalties related
to IPRs and in the patterns and quantities of
licenses traded between PTA partners (we refer
to these gaps as the ‘operational’ aspect of
PTA implementation). IP laws affect in the first
instance private sector operators and therefore
surveys of the costs and challenges they face
consequent to PTA implementation should be
conducted. Equally, further research is required
to provide country-specific recommendations
for ways to manage the implementation and
transposition of PTA standards into domestic law,
and evaluate the financial and administrative
cost of implementation and additional legislative
measures required. Finally, the implementation
by developed country partners of the provisions
that might be beneficial to developing countries,
such as the technology transfer provisions in
the EU-CARIFORUM agreement, also require
further assessment.




28 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


ENDNOTES


1 Mercurio, (2006), p. 215.


2 For the purpose of this Issue Paper, ‘preferential trade agreements (PTA)’ includes all bilateral
agreements with the main theme of trade, including association agreements, and economic
partnership agreements of European Union, as well as free trade and trade promotion
agreements of the United States.


3 For instance, Mercurio (2006, p. 219) defines TRIPS-plus as: (a) inclusion of new areas of IPRs;
or (b) implementation of more extensive levels or standards of IP protection than is required
by TRIPS; or (c) elimination of an option or flexibility available under TRIPS. Note that in some
cases (a) is also called “WTO-Extra”.


4 UNCTAD, (2007).


5 Counting the agreements with EFTA countries as one, and removing the agreements signed
with countries that have since entered the EU. The EU also has a number of agreements with
non-WTO members, among them Lebanon, Algeria, Syria and the Palestinian Authorities.


6 Vivas-Eugui, (2003); Roffe, (2004); Vivas-Eugui and Spennemann, (2006); Santa Cruz, (2007);
Abbott, (2006).


7 Of 14 agreements, 12 use binding language, in the areas of Customs Administration, Export
Taxes, Antidumping, Countervailing Measures, State Aid, and TRIPs. Horn et al., (2009), p. 13.


8 United States Congress, 2007, A new Trade Policy for America.


9 Article 4 of the TRIPS Agreement make MFN an obligation for WTO Members and exceptions
to the MFN principle with respect to substantive standards are not foreseen.


10 Gonzàles, (2009).


11 See for example, Congress (2005), with respect to conditions for the entry into force of
CAFTA, which includes verification by the Executive of the compliance measures taken by
CAFTA partners.


12 WTO accession is used in a similar way, as acceding countries are often requested by the US
and EU to adopt TRIPS-plus standards. Braga and Cataneo, (2009).


13 Schiff and Winters, (1998), p. 177-195.


14 Special 301 Report is the report prepared by the Office of the United States Trade Representative
on the protection of IPRs in foreign countries. The report identifies ‘those foreign countries
that (A) deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or (B) deny
fair and equitable markets access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property
protection, and (2) those foreign countries … that are determined by the Trade Representative
to be priority foreign countries’ (United States, Trade Act of 1974, as amended by s amended by
the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act).


15 Of course, the flexibilities are legal under the WTO. However, the US has favored a narrow
interpretation of these when developing countries have advocated for the opposite view.
Unilateral pressure from the US could therefore have been used to limit recourse to flexibilities.
Deere, (2009), p. 164-167.


16 Chile remained among the countries under the priority watch list under the USTR, Special
Section 301 Report of 2011.




29UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


17 Legal inflation is a reference to provisions of PTAs that are not legally enforceable. A good
example of legal inflation can be found in the development-related provisions of the European
PTAs. Horn et al., (2009), p.5. For example, the EU-CARIFORUM PTA provides under Article
135 that the parties recognize “that the promotion of creativity and innovation is essential for
the development of entrepreneurship and competitiveness and the achievement of the overall
objectives of this Agreement.” However, Article 143 of the same PTA state that ‘the EC Party
and the Signatory CARIFORUM States shall comply with (a) the World Intellectual Property
Organsiation (WIPO) Copyright Treaty (Geneva, 1996)” Article 135 is a legal inflation, since it
does not create enforceable obligation compared to Article 143.


18 Dawar and Holmes, (2010).


19 Horn et al., (2009), p. 13.


20 Dawar and Holmes, (2010). Under the concept of positive comity, cases involving anti-
competitive practices originating in one country but affecting another can be referred to
the competition agency of the country where such practices originated for appropriate
action. Principles of negative comity mean that countries (Parties) would take into account
the important and clearly stated trade interests of other countries before action is taken in
particular cases.


21 See also Gonzàles (2009).


22 This is only one illustrative example. All countries that have signed agreements with the
US, starting with Chile, have gone through a massive process of legislative and regulatory
changes, as is implied by other examples in the remainder of the text. Nicaragua, (2006),
Article 2 of the amendment to Law 354 on Patents.


23 WIPO, Collection of Laws for Electronic Access (CLEA).


24 NAFTA has a Secretariat of its Free Trade Commission unlike other United States PTAs while
CAFTA don’t provide for Secretariat serving the its Free Trade Commission. See Article 2201
& 2202 of NAFTA and Article 19 of CAFTA.


25 US National Trade Estimate: http://tcc.export.gov/Country_Market_Research/National_Trade_
Estimates/index.asp/; EU Market Access Database: http://madb.europa.eu/madb_barriers/
barriers_select.htm/; Japan’s report on compliance of trade partners with WTO and PTAs:
http://www.meti.go.jp/english/report/index_report.html/; Canada CIMAR Database of Trade
Barriers: http://w01.international.gc.ca/CIMAR-RCAMI/index.aspx/.


26 Correa, (2004).


27 Castro, (2006); Correa, (2004); and Biadgleng, (2006).


28 We have already mentioned the “Special 301” legislation in use in the US.


29 Cost Rica (2008), Law No. 8686.


30 Nicaragua, laws on copyright and related rights (Law No. 577), protection of programme-
carrying satellite signals (Law No. 578), patents, utility models and industrial designs (Law No.
579), and trademarks and other distinctive signs (Law No. 580). All Available WIPO, Collection
of Laws for Electronic Access (CLEA).


31 These include the Legislative Decree No. 1075, approving the Supplementary Provisions
to Decision 486 of the Andean Community (CAN) Commission that establishes a Common
Industrial Property System, of 28 June 2008; the Legislative Decree No. 1074, approving




30 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


the Rule on Protection of Safety and Efficiency Information in the Marketing Authorization
Procedure of Chemical Pesticides for Agriculture Use, of 7 June 2008; the Legislative Decree
No. 1072, regarding the Pharmaceutical Test Data Protection and other undisclosed data of
pharmaceutical products, of 27 June 2008; the Legislative Decree 1092, approving Border
Measures for the protection of copyrights or related rights and trademark rights, of 27 June
2008; and the Legislative Decree 1076 on Copyright of 28 June 2008. All Available WIPO,
Collection of Laws for Electronic Access (CLEA).


32 WTO, (2009a); Economist Intelligence Unit, (2009), p. 2. The terms of protection of broadcasting
organizations remain 50 years from the year of broadcast. Chile introduced a new law (No.
20,160) that came into force in January 2007 modifying the law on the protection for patents
and trademarks (Leon, 2007).


33 Roffe and Genovesi (2010).


34 Santa Cruz, (2007), p. 10-11.


35 Van der Merwe, (2009), p. 189. South Africa has not ratified its agreements with the EU on
wines and spirits due to a failure to negotiate with local trademark owners to phase out the
use of terms claimed as European GIs in the bilateral agreement. See Ronnie, (2006a) and
(2006b).


36 USDA, (2009), p. 5.


37 See Chile’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Decree 233 (2006), and European Communities, Decision
No.1/2006.


38 European Commission. (2005). EU-Lebanon Action Plan 2005.


39 See European Commission, Treaty Office Database, EU-South Africa Agreement on Trade,
Development and Cooperation (1999), Article 46.


40 See USTR, Trade Agreements, US-Chile FTA (2003).


41 See European Commission, Treaty Office Database, EU-Chile (2004), Article 170 (d).


42 Economist Intelligence Unit, (2009), p. 30. The PCT establishes an international patent filing
system, whereas the PLT establishes rules of procedures for the granting and administration
of patent applications. The US requires Chile to accept the PCT but not the PLT. However, the
EU obliges Chile to accept the PLT.


43 Nabulsi, (2009), p. 17.


44 Please see further at WIPO, Treaties and Contracting Parties.


45 See European Commission, Treaty Office Database, EU-Lebanon Association Agreement (2005),
Annex 6, Article 1 and 2; and EU-Algeria Association Agreement (2005), Annex 6, Article 1.


46 WTO, (2009a), para. 152.


47 This is despite the certification process by the US prior to ratification of the agreement.


48 Note that nine years elapsed between the agreement and the action plan. In the interim no
one really could interpret what “highest international standards” and other legally vague
provisions in the agreement actually meant.


49 This is a standard provision in all US FTAs.




31UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


50 Peru, 20, New Organizational Law of Indecopi, Legislative Decree No. 1073, 2008.


51 WTO, (2009a).


52 WTO, (2008b).


53 These are: Ministry of Industry, Trade and New Technology; Ministry of Justice (Civil Affairs
Directorate); Ministry of the Economy and Finance (ADII); Ministry of the Interior (Economic
Affairs Coordination Directorate and Directorate General of National Security); Royal Police
Force; Ministry of Agriculture (Plant Protection, Technical Control and Suppression of Fraud
Directorate); Ministry of Tourism and Handicrafts (Directorate for Protection of the National
Heritage, Innovation and Promotion); and the OMPIC.


54 WTO, (2009a).


55 See, for example, European Commission, Treaty Office Database, EU-Chile PTA, Article 188.


56 USTR, (2007).


57 Ibid., p. 2.


58 Economist Intelligence Unit, (2009), p. 15.


59 USTR (2006), Special 301 Report.


60 Ibid., p. 29.


61 Noting in particular that: “While Chile is considering legislation to implement various provisions
of the FTA regarding Internet service provider liability, limitations and exceptions to copyright
protection, and enforcement and penalties against copyright infringement, modification of
these laws is needed in order to bring it into line with multilateral and bilateral commitments”.
USTR, (2009), Special 301 Report, Summary.


62 Ibid. Implementation progress noted includes:


- Creation of a specialized brigade within the Chilean police force to handle IPR crimes;


- The establishment of National Institute for Industrial Property to oversee administrative
actions related to industrial property;


- Accession to the Patent Cooperation Treaty fulfilling a commitment under the US-Chile
FTA;


- Several pending bills to implement provisions of the FTA and pending processes for the
ratification of UPOV and TLT.


63 See, for example, USTR, Trade Agreements, US-Chile FTA, Article 17.4.


64 USTR, Trade Agreements, CAFTA, Article 15.11 (4).


65 US State Department, (2009a).


66 European Commission, (2007a), Recommendation 2.4 (c).


67 European Commission, (2007b), European Neighborhood Policy and (2005), EU-Lebanon Action
Plan, p.15.


68 Fink (2011).




32 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


69 Fink, (2011).


70 The definition of “pharmaceutical substance per se” excludes patent claims such as those
relative to the use of a substance, a method of preparing a substance, or a method of
administrating and delivering a drug, etc.


71 Australian Legal Information Institute, Patent Act 1990, Article 70 and 75.


72 Tadgell, (2009), p. 3. The Australian court rejected the request for extension of the duration of
the patent protection in one case concerning a container provided with a nozzle for delivering
the substance by nasal administration, since the substance only formed a part of a method or
process for the delivery of a drug. See Tadgell (2009) for a list of recent decisions on patent
term extension.


73 Acuna, (2009).


74 The US FTA with Korea provides that any restoration of patent term shall confer all of the
exclusive rights of a patent subject to the same limitations and exceptions applicable to the
original patent. USTR, Trade Agreements, Korea-US FTA, Article 18.8.6 (b). Although Peru and
Colombia are not obliged to provide patent term extension for pharmaceutical products, if
they chose to do so, they are obliged to confer all of the exclusive rights of a patent during
the extended term of protection.


75 USTR, Trade Agreements, US-Peru FTA, Article 16.9 (6)(c).


76 Peru (2008) Legislative Decree No. 1072.


77 Ibid.


78 Delion and Rodrigues, (2009).


79 See Chile’s Law No. 19,996 (2005) amending Law No. 19.039, Article 91.


80 Cullen, (2007), fn. 41.


81 Limitations in domestic implementing legislation for PTAs are not unique to developing country
partners. Australia’s implementing legislation for its PTA with the US was also criticized. See
Varghese (2004):


In several areas, the proposed implementation either goes further than AUSFTA requires or
fails to take advantage of exceptions and limitations that AUSFTA allows. More generally, the
Bill introduces no new mechanisms to counter-balance the more protective copyright regime,
such as a broad ‘fair use’ exemption or stronger competition laws. The result is that, in several
respects, this Bill would give Australia a more protective copyright regime than the US.


82 Roca, (2009).


83 WIPO, (1999b).


84 WIPO, (2003).


85 WIPO, (2009); and WIPO, (2007).


86 WTO, (2009d), p.118.


87 UPOV, (2006a), para. 23; and UPOV, (2006b), para. 12.


88 UPOV, (2007), para. 3. Another CAFTA country, Nicaragua, is a member of UPOV 1978.




33UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


89 Abdel Latif, (2009), slide no. 8.


90 Deere, (2009), p. 217-220.


91 Bilaterals.org, (2008). Other members of the CAN are also said to have threatened to
withdraw.


92 See USTR, Trade Agreements, CAFTA, Article 15.1 (7), which states: “the Parties affirm
their existing rights and obligations under the TRIPS Agreement and intellectual property
agreements concluded or administered under the auspices of the World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO) and to which they are party”.


93 Kerr, (2006), p. 10. Australia, a developed country, earmarked finance for rebranding and
labeling support. It also indicates legislation is necessary to implement the obligations with
respect to GIs. See Commonwealth of Australia, (2009), p. 13. See also the South African Port
Producers Association’s efforts to rebrand wines using the word ‘Port’, which is required to be
phased out under the agreement between South Africa and the EU; available at: http://www.
sappa.co.za/.


94 Ronnie, (2007).


95 USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, (2009), p. 5.


96 For a more extensive treatment of the issues, see Seuba (2009).


97 Other than those goods in transit but involve repackaging, re-exportation transactions,
or placement in warehouses for sale or offer-to sale to third country importers and other
transactions that would infringe on the domestic rights of the IP rights holder.


98 See WTO, (2009b), para. 122-191; and WTO, (2009c), para. 72-97.


99 WTO, (2009c), para. 72-97.


100 ICTSD, (2010), p. 9.


101 European Commission, (2010).


102 WTO, (2010a); and WTO, (2010b).


103 Baker, (2009).


104 Spennemann, (2007).


105 UK All Party Parliamentary Group on AIDS, (2009), p. 32.


106 Enemark et al., (2004), p. 29.


107 Hernandez-Gonzales and Valverde (2009); and Rathe et al., (2009),


108 USTR, Trade Agreements, CAFTA, Article 15.1 (15) and US-Chile FTA, Article 17.1 (13).


109 USTR, Trade Agreements, CAFTA, Article 15.9 (5); US-Chile FTA, Article 17.9 (4); and US-
Morocco FTA, Article 15.9 (6).


110 USTR, Trade Agreements, US-Morocco FTA provides at Article 15.9 (4) that:


“Each Party shall provide that the exclusive right of the patent owner to prevent importation
of a patented product, or a product that results from patented process, without the consent
of the patent owner shall not be limited by the sale or distribution of that product outside its
territory […]




34 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


[footnote 9] [fn. 9 – A Party may limit application of this paragraph to cases where the patent
owner has placed restrictions on import by contract or other means.]”


See also, USTR, Trade Agreements, US-Australia FTA, Article 17.9 (4).


111 Roffe et al., (2007), p. 9.


112 USAID, (2009).


113 Roffe et al, (2007), p. 14.


114 Roffe, (forthcoming).




35UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


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37UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


Horn, H., Mavroidis, P. and Sapir, J. (2009). “Beyond the WTO? An Anatomy of EU and US
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38 E. T. Biadgleng, J.-C. Maur - The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the
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Santa Cruz, M. (2007). “Intellectual Property Provisions in European Agreements: Implications
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Seuba, X. (2009). “Free Trade of Pharmaceutical Products: The Limits of Intellectual Property
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39UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


UPOV. (2006a). “Examination of the Conformity of the Draft Law on the Protection of New Varieties
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Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look


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TPR/S/217. Geneva: World Trade Organization.




41UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development


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Organization. Available at: http://rtais.wto.org/UI/PublicMaintainRTAHome.aspx/.




SELECTES ICTSD ISSUE PAPERS
Agriculture Trade and Sustainable Development
The Impact of US Biofuel Policies on Agricultural Price Levels and Volatility. By Bruce Babcock. Issue Paper No. 35, 2011.
Risk Management in Agriculture and the Future of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. By Stefan Tangermann. Issue Paper No. 34, 2011.
Policy Solutions To Agricultural Market Volatility: A Synthesis. By Stefan Tangermann. Issue Paper No. 33, 2011.
Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from the United States. By Eric Wailes. Issue Paper No. 32, 2011.
Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Thailand. By T. Dechachete. Issue Paper No. 31, 2011.
Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Poultry from Brazil. By H. L. Burnquist, C. C. da Costa, M. J. P. de Souza, L. M. Fassarella. Issue
Paper No. 30, 2011.
How Might the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy Affect Trade and Development After 2013? By A. Matthews. Issue Paper No. 29, 2010.
Food Security, Price Volatility and Trade: Some Reflections for Developing Countries. By Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla and Juan Francisco Ron. Issue Paper No.
28, 2010.
Composite Index of Market Access for the Export of Rice from Uruguay. By Carlos Perez Del Castillo and Daniela Alfaro. Issue Paper No. 27, 2010.
How Would A Trade Deal On Cotton Affect Exporting And Importing Countries? By Mario Jales. Issue Paper No. 26, 2010.
Simulations on the Special Safeguard Mechanism: A Look at the December Draft Agriculture Modalities. By Raul Montemayor. Issue Paper No. 25, 2010.


Competitiveness and Sustainable Development
The Role of International Trade, Technology and Structural Change in Shifting Labour Demands in South Africa. By H. Bhorat, C. van der Westhuizen
and S.Goga. Issue Paper No. 17, 2010.
Trade Integration and Labour Market Trends in India: an Unresolved Unemployment Problem. By C.P. Chandrasekhar. Issue Paper No. 16, 2010.
The Impact of Trade Liberalization and the Global Economic Crisis on the Productive Sectors, Employment and Incomes in Mexico. By A. Puyana. Issue
Paper No. 15, 2010.
Globalization in Chile: A Positive Sum of Winners and Losers. By V. E. Tokman. Issue Paper No. 14, 2010.
Practical Aspects of Border Carbon Adjustment Measures – Using a Trade Facilitation Perspective to Assess Trade Costs. By Sofia Persson. Issue Paper
No.13, 2010.
Trade, Economic Vulnerability, Resilience and the Implications of Climate Change in Small Island and Littoral Developing Economies. By Robert Read.
Issue Paper No.12, 2010.
The Potential Role of Non Traditional Donors ‘Aid in Africa. By Peter Kragelund. Issue Paper No.11, 2010.
Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms: Best Practices and Lessons Learned for LDCs and SVEs in Africa. By Vinaye Dey Ancharaz.
Issue Paper No.10, 2010.
Resilience Amidst Rising Tides: An Issue Paper on Trade, Climate Change and Competitiveness in the Tourism Sector in the Caribbean. By Keron Niles.
Issue Paper No. 9, 2010.


Dispute Settlement and Legal Aspects of International Trade
Conflicting Rules and Clashing Courts. The Case of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Free Trade Agreements and the WTO. By Pieter Jan Kuijper. Issue
Paper No.10, 2010.
Burden of Proof in WTO Dispute Settlement: Contemplating Preponderance of the Evidence. By James Headen Pfitzer and Sheila Sabune. Issue Paper No. 9, 2009.
Suspension of Concessions in the Services Sector: Legal, Technical and Economic Problems. By Arthur E. Appleton. Issue Paper No. 7, 2009.
Trading Profiles and Developing Country Participation in the WTO Dispute Settlement System. By Henrik Horn, Joseph Francois and Niklas Kaunitz. Issue Paper
No. 6, 2009.


Fisheries, International Trade and Sustainable Development
The Importance of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Fisheries Negotiations in Economic Partnership Agreements. By Martin Doherty. Issue Paper
No. 7, 2008.
Fisheries, Aspects of ACP-EU Interim Economic Partnership Agreements: Trade and Sustainable Development Implications. By Liam Campling. Issue
Paper No. 6, 2008.
Fisheries, International Trade and Sustainable Development. By ICTSD. Policy Discussion Paper, 2006.


Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Property
Intellectual Property Rights and International Technology Transfer to Address Climate Change: Risks, Opportunities and Policy Options. By K. E.
Maskus and R. L. Okediji. Issue Paper No. 32, 2010
Intellectual Property Training and Education: A Development Perspective. By Jeremy de Beer and Chidi Oguamanam. Issue Paper No. 31, 2010.
An International Legal Framework for the Sharing of Pathogens: Issues and Challenges. By Frederick M. Abbott. Issue Paper No. 30, 2010.
Sustainable Development In International Intellectual Property Law – New Approaches From EU Economic Partnership Agreements? By Henning Grosse
Ruse – Khan. Issue Paper No. 29, 2010.


Trade in Services and Sustainable Development
Facilitating Temporary Labour Mobility in African Least-Developed Countries: Addressing Mode 4 Supply-Side Constraints. By Sabrina Varma. Issue
Paper No.10, 2009.
Advancing Services Export Interests of Least-Developed Countries: Towards GATS Commitments on the Temporary Movement of natural Persons for
the Supply of Low-Skilled and Semi-Skilled Services. By Daniel Crosby, Issue Paper No. 9, 2009.
Maritime Transport and Related Logistics Services in Egypt. By Ahmed F. Ghoneim, and Omneia A. Helmy. Issue Paper No. 8, 2007.


Environmental Goods and Services Programme
Harmonising Energy Efficiency Requirements – Building Foundations for Co-operative Action. By Rod Janssen. Issue Paper No. 14, 2010
Climate-related single-use environmental goods. By Rene Vossenaar. Issue Paper No.13, 2010.
Technology Mapping of the Renewable Energy, Buildings, and transport Sectors: Policy Drivers and International Trade Aspects: An ICTSD Synthesis
Paper. By Renee Vossenaar and Veena Jha. Issue Paper No.12, 2010.


Trade and Sustainable Energy
International Transport, Climate Change and Trade: What are the Options for Regulating Emissions from Aviation and Shipping and what will be their
Impact on Trade? By Joachim Monkelbaan. Background Paper, 2010.
Climate Change and Trade on the Road to Copenhagen. Policy Discussion Paper, 2009.
Trade, Climate Change and Global Competitiveness: Opportunities and Challenge for Sustainable Development in China and Beyond. By ICTSD.
Selected Issue Briefs No. 3, 2008.
Intellectual Property and Access to Clean Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: An Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic, Biofuel and Wind
Technologies. By John H. Barton. Issue Paper No. 2, 2007.


Regionalism and EPAs
Questions Juridiques et Systémiques Dans les Accords de Partenariat économique : Quelle Voie Suivre à Présent ? By Cosmas Milton Obote Ochieng.
Issue Paper No. 8, 2010.
Rules of Origin in EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements. By Eckart Naumann. Issue Paper No. 7, 2010
SPS and TBT in the EPAs between the EU and the ACP Countries. By Denise Prévost. Issue Paper No. 6, 2010.
Los acuerdos comerciales y su relación con las normas laborales: Estado actual del arte. By Pablo Lazo Grandi. Issue Paper No. 5, 2010.
Revisiting Regional Trade Agreements and their Impact on Services and Trade. By Mario Marconini. Issue Paper No. 4, 2010.
Trade Agreements and their Relation to Labour Standards: The Current Situation. By Pablo Lazo Grandi. Issue Paper No. 3, 2009.


Global Economic Policy and Institutions
The Microcosm of Climate Change Negotiations: What Can the World Learn from the European Union? By Håkan Nordström, Issue Paper No. 1, 2009.


These and other ICTSD resources are available at http://www.ictsd.org




ICTSD has been active in the field of intellectual property since 1997, among other things
through its programme on on Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Property (IP), which since
2001 has been implemented jointly with UNCTAD. One central objective of the programme
has been to facilitate the emergence of a critical mass of well-informed stakeholders in
developing countries that includes decision-makers and negotiators, as well as representatives
from the private sector and civil society, who will be able to define their own sustainable
human development objectives in the field of IP and advance these effectively at the national
and international level. The programme has generated an issue paper series on Intellectual
Property Rights and Sustainable Development with the intention of offering a clear, jargon-free
synthesis of the main issues to help policy makers, stakeholders and the public in developing
and developed countries to understand the varying perspectives surrounding different IPRs,
their known or possible impact on sustainable livelihoods and development, and different
policy positions over the TRIPS Agreement and other relevant international intellectual property
arrangements. This issue paper series is the consequence of a participatory process involving
trade negotiators, national policy makers, as well as eminent experts in the field, the media,
NGOs, international organizations, and institutions in the North and the South dealing with
IPRs and development.


Previous publications under this Series include:


• Intellectual Property Rights and International Technology Transfer to Address Climate
Change: Risks, Opportunities and Policy Options. Issue Paper No. 32 by Keith E. Maskus and
Ruth L. Okediji, 2010.


• Intellectual Property Training and Education: A Development Perspective. Issue Paper No.
31 by Jeremy de Beer and Chidi Oguamanam, 2010.


• An International Legal Framework for the Sharing of Pathogens: Issues and Challenges.
Issue Paper No. 30 by Frederick M. Abbott, 2010.


• Sustainable Development in International Intellectual Property Law – New Approaches
From EU Economic Partnership Agreements? Issue Paper No. 29 by Henning Grosse Ruse –
Khan, 2010.


• The Technical Assistance Principles of the WIPO Development Agenda and their Practical
Implementation. Issue Paper No. 28 by C. Deere-Birkbeck and R. Marchant, 2010.


• Free Trade of Pharmaceutical Products: The Limits of Intellectual Property Enforcement at
the Border. Issue Paper No. 27 by Xavier Seuba, 2010.


ABOUT ICTSD


Founded in 1996, the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) is an
independent non-profit and non-governmental organisation based in Geneva. By empowering
stakeholders in trade policy through information, networking, dialogue, well targeted research
and capacity building, the Centre aims to influence the international trade system such that it
advances the goal of sustainable development.


For further information, visit www.ictsd.org


ABOUT UNCTAD


Established in 1964, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is the
focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade, development and
interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology and investment. UNCTAD seeks to promote
the integration of developing countries into the world economy by providing a forum for
intergovernmental deliberations, research and policy analysis, and related technical assistance.
UNCTAD’s programme on the development dimensions of IPRs seeks to help developing countries
participate effectively in international discussions on IPRs and – at the national level – to help
ensure that their IP policies are consonant with development objectives.


www.ictsd.org




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