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How Are the Poor Affected by International Trade in India: An Empirical Approach

Report by UNCTAD, 2013

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This document takes an alternative approach to the issue of impact of international trade on poverty. The framework of the study traces the role played by international trade in influencing the four facts of human development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability.

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U n i t e d n at i o n s C o n f e r e n C e o n t r a d e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t


New York and Geneva, 2013




ii HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







NOTE

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the
legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.

Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of
such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.

Material in this publication maybe freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested. A copy
of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat at: Palais
des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the United Nations Secretariat, nor of the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development,
nor of the Government of India.






































UNCTAD/DITC/TNCD/2010/7






© Copyright United Nations 2013
All Rights reserved




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This report was prepared under the UNCTAD/United Kingdom Department for International
Development/Government of India project entitled “Strategies and preparedness for trade and
globalization in India”. The work was carried out under the supervision of the Division on International
Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities, UNCTAD, by Mina Mashayekhi and Bonapas Onguglo
with support from Mariona Cusi Vidal. The study was prepared by a core team consisting of Abhijit Das
(Deputy Project Coordinator, UNCTAD India Project), Rashmi Banga (Senior Economist, UNCTAD India
Project), Danish Hashim (Vice-President, MCX, Mumbai), Seema Bathla (Associate Professor, Jawaharlal
Nehru University) and Ramaa Sambamurty (Consultant, UNCTAD India Project).

Dani Rodrik, Alan Winters, Suresh D. Tendulkar, K.L. Krishna, B.N. Goldar and Sugata Marjit provided
comments and suggestions on the report. Their insightful comments are gratefully acknowledged.

A draft of this study was presented to the international conference “How are the Poor Affected By Trade”,
held in New Delhi from 14 to 16 October 2008. The comments and suggestions on the draft report
provided by the discussants and participants are gratefully acknowledged.

Sophie Munda carried out the desktop publishing, and the cover page was designed by Nadege
Hadjemian.




















CONTENTS v






CONTENTS

TABLES ..........................................................................................................................................................vii 
FIGURES ........................................................................................................................................................viii 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................................. xi 
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 1 


1.1 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY TRADE: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.......................................1 
1.2 ISSUES EXAMINED IN THE STUDY................................................................................................................2 


CHAPTER II: TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS ................................. 5 
2.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................5 
2.2 TRENDS IN THE VOLUME OF TRADE: CHANGING SIGNIFICANCE........................................................5 


2.2.1 India’s Merchandise Trade .......................................................................................................................5 
2.2.2 India’s Services Trade ...............................................................................................................................6 


2.3 COMPOSITION OF INDIA’S TRADE BASKET ...............................................................................................6 
2.3.1 Composition of Merchandise Trade ........................................................................................................6 
2.3.2 Composition of India’s Services Trade .................................................................................................10 


2.4 DIRECTION OF INDIA’S EXPORTS ...............................................................................................................11 
2.4.1 Direction of India’s Merchandise Exports.............................................................................................11 
2.4.2 Direction of India’s Exports of Services ................................................................................................12 


2.5 TRENDS IN TARIFFS .......................................................................................................................................12 
2.6 TRENDS IN THE TRADE TO GDP RATIO AND THE TRADE RESTRICTIVENESS INDEX ....................13 
2.7 TRENDS IN GROWTH AND POVERTY.........................................................................................................14 


2.7.1 Trends in Growth......................................................................................................................................14 
2.7.2. Trends in Poverty ....................................................................................................................................15 
2.7.3. Trends in Inequality.................................................................................................................................16 


2.8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION....................................................................................................................17 
CHAPTER III: THE TRADE–GROWTH–POVERTY NEXUS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW
OF LITERATURE ............................................................................................................................................ 19 


3.1 THE TRADE–GROWTH–POVERTY NEXUS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ..........................................19 
3.1.1 Trade–Poverty Relationship: Static Framework...................................................................................19 
3.1.2 The Trade–Growth–Poverty Relationship: Dynamic Framework .......................................................21 


3.2 THE TRADE–POVERTY RELATIONSHIP: REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE ................................22 
3.3. REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE ON THE TRADE–GROWTH–POVERTY NEXUS IN INDIA ....23 
3.4. THE IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZED AND UNORGANIZED
SECTOR IN INDIA: EXISTING STUDIES .............................................................................................................24 
3.5 IMPACT OF TRADE ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY: EXISTING LITERATURE .......................................26 
3.6. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGE INEQUALITIES: EXISTING LITERATURE .............................................27 
3.7 GENDER IMPACTS OF TRADE: REVIEW OF LITERATURE......................................................................27 


CHAPTER IV: IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES .................. 31 
4.1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................31 
4.2 IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT ................................................................31 
4.3 IMPACT OF RISE IN EXPORTS IN 2003-04 TO 2007-08 ON INCOMES OF THE POOR.....................34 
4.4. IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL SLOWDOWN ON INDIA’S EXPORTS AND EMPLOYMENT .....................35 
4.5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................38 
ANNEX TO CHAPTER IV........................................................................................................................................39 


CHAPTER V: IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR
OF INDIA ....................................................................................................................................................... 43 


5.1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................43 
5.2. TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT, WAGES AND GROSS VALUE ADDED IN THE UNORGANIZED
MANUFACTURING SECTOR ................................................................................................................................44 
5.3. EMPIRICAL RESULTS: IMPACT OF TRADE ON EMPLOYMENT AND WAGE RATES IN THE
UNORGANIZED SECTOR......................................................................................................................................46 
5.4 EMPIRICAL RESULTS OF THE IMPACT OF THE TRADE ORIENTATION OF STATES ON WAGES
AND EMPLOYMENT ..............................................................................................................................................48 
5.5. STATE-SPECIFIC EMPIRICAL RESULTS ...................................................................................................49 




vi HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







5.6. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS .........................................................................................49 
ANNEX TO CHAPTER V.........................................................................................................................................50 


CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA
....................................................................................................................................................................... 55 


6.1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................55 
6.2. TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE WAGES IN INDIA ..........................................................................................55 
6.3 EMPIRICAL RESULTS: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN THE
AGRICULTURE SECTOR.......................................................................................................................................57 


6.3.1. Results for all Agricultural Products .....................................................................................................57 
6.3.2 Fruits and Nuts .........................................................................................................................................57 
6.3.3 Cereals .......................................................................................................................................................57 
6.3.4 Vegetables.................................................................................................................................................57 


6.4. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS .........................................................................................58 
ANNEX TO CHAPTER VI........................................................................................................................................59 


CHAPTER VII: HAVE UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING BENEFITED FROM
INTERNATIONAL TRADE? ........................................................................................................................... 65 


7.1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................65 
7.2. TRENDS IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING LABOUR MARKETS IN INDIA ......................................66 


7.2.1 Trends in Employment in Organized Labour Markets.........................................................................66 
7.2.2. Trends in Wages in the Organized Manufacturing Sector ................................................................67 


7.3. EMPIRICAL RESULTS: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT OF UNSKILLED
LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING...................................................................................................67 


7.3.1 Impact of Trade on the Wages of Unskilled Labour............................................................................67 
7.3.2 Impact on Employment of Unskilled Labour ........................................................................................68 
7.3.3 Impact of Trade on Labour Productivity ...............................................................................................68 
7.3.4 Impact of Trade on Wage Inequality .....................................................................................................68 


7.4. CONCLUSIONS...............................................................................................................................................69 
ANNEX TO CHAPTER VII.......................................................................................................................................69 


CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN INDIA? ........................................ 73 
8.1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................73 
8.2 TRENDS IN TRADE-RELATED GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ...............................................74 


8.2.1 Trends in the Gender Development Index............................................................................................74 
8.2.2 Gender Literacy Rates in India ...............................................................................................................74 
8.2.3 Trends in Gender Employment in India ................................................................................................75 
8.2.4 Trends in Gender Wage/Salary ..............................................................................................................76 


8.3 GENDER EMPLOYMENT GENERATED BY EXPORTS IN INDIA DURING THE 2003/04 TO 2006/07
PERIOD ....................................................................................................................................................................77 
8.4 EMPIRICAL FINDINGS OF IMPACT OF TRADE ON GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZED
MANUFACTURING .................................................................................................................................................79 
8.5. IDENTIFYING GENDER-SENSITIVE PRODUCTS ......................................................................................80 
8.6 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY DIRECTIONS ..............................................................................................81 
ANNEX TO CHAPTER VIII......................................................................................................................................82 


CHAPTER IX: CONCLUSIONS AND KEY MESSAGES ................................................................................ 83 
9.1 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................83 


REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 87 
APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES........................................................................................ 97 


A.1 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................................97 
A.2. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE
EMPLOYMENT AND THE INCOMES OF THE POOR .......................................................................................97 


A.2.1 Methodology for Estimating the Impact of Exports on Economy-Wide Employment ...................97 
A.2.2 Methodology for Estimating the Impact of an Increase in Exports on Incomes.............................98 


A.3 METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL SLOWDOWN ON
EMPLOYMENT........................................................................................................................................................99 
A.4 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE
UNORGANIZED SECTOR......................................................................................................................................99 
A.5 DERIVATION OF LABOUR DEMAND AND WAGE-RATE EQUATIONS ................................................101 




CONTENTS vii





CES production function and wage rate ......................................................................................................102 
A.6 LABOUR DEMAND EQUATION ESTIMATED FOR THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR............................103 
A.7. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR: METHODOLOGY AND DATA104 
A.8 EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT OF
UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING ..........................................................................105 


A.8.1 Impact on the wages of unskilled labour in the organized manufacturing sector ........................105 
A.8.2 Data Sources and Construction of Variables.....................................................................................105 


A.9 IMPACT OF TRADE ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY .................................................................................106 
A.10 IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGE INEQUALITY .........................................................................................106 
A.11 METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ECONOMY-WIDE GENDER EMPLOYMENT .........................107 
A.12. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS ON GENDER
EMPLOYMENT......................................................................................................................................................107 


Data and variables ...........................................................................................................................................108 
A.13. SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES ......................................................................................................108 


APPENDIX II ................................................................................................................................................ 111 
II.1 THE SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX .........................................................................................................111 
II.2 METHODOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION OF SAM .....................................................................................113 
II.3 UPDATING I-O FOR 2003-04 .......................................................................................................................113 
II.4 PRODUCTION SECTORS .............................................................................................................................113 
II.5 MAKE MATRIX ................................................................................................................................................114 
II.6 FINAL DEMAND..............................................................................................................................................114 
II.7 EXTENSION OF I-O FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF SAM......................................................................115 




TABLES

Table 2. 1 India’s trade as percentage of GDP: 1990-2008 .................................................................................... 5
Table 2.2 Commodity composition of exports ........................................................................................................ 6
Table 2. 3: Change in the composition of India’s export basket (%): 2004-2008 ................................................... 7
Table 2. 4: Commodity composition of imports ...................................................................................................... 8
Table 2. 5: India’s oil imports and rates of growth (%)............................................................................................ 9
Table 2. 6: India’s non-oil imports and rates of growth (%). ................................................................................. 10
Table 2. 7: Composition of India’s exports of services ......................................................................................... 11
Table 2. 8: Share of region/country in India’s exports: 1990-91 to 2007-08 ......................................................... 11
Table 2. 9: Services exports of the United States, and share in global Indian services exports ........................... 12
Table 2. 10: Trade as a proportion of GDP............................................................................................................ 14
Table 2. 11: Average annual growth of GDP and per capita GDP; and the Trade to GDP Ratio .......................... 15
Table 2. 12: Poverty ratios by URP (per cent) ....................................................................................................... 16
Table 2. 13: Trends in the Gini coefficient ............................................................................................................. 16
Table 4. 1: Increase in employment due to increase in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07…………… ………….33
Table 4.2: Increased value added and household-wise increased income due to increase in exports…………… 34
Table 4. 3: Growth in India’s trade (in real terms): 2005-06 to 2007-08………………………………………………. 36
Table 4. 4: Export growth in 2007-08 and 2008-09 in 10 major sectors……………………………………………… 37
Table 4. 5: Impact of the slowdown on employment: 2008-09 to 2010-2011……………………………………… 37
Table IV.1 Exports and increase in output across sectors: 2003-04 to 2006-07………………………………..…...36
Table IV.2 Output and employment multipliers based on input-output matrix of 2003-04………………….……...38
Table 5. 1 Summary chart on key variables in unorganized manufacturing during 2000-01 and 2005-06…….....45
Table V.2 impact of trade on employment in unorganized manufacturing: 2005-06 (OLS estimates)……………..46
Table V.3 Impact of trade on wage rates in unorganized maufacturing during 2005-06 (OLS estimates)……...…46
Table V.4 Impact of trade on wages and employment in the unorganized sector: simultaneous equation model
results………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
Table V.5 Impact of the state orientation towards exports on the wages and employment in the unorganized
sector: Simultaneous equation model results……………………………………………………………………………48
Table V.6 State-wise regression results with emloyment as the dependent variable (continued)………………….49
Table 6.1 Agriculture wage rates state-wise: 1983 to 1999-2000……………………………………………………...52
Table VI.1 Change in real wages for unskilled agricultural workers for selected states……………………………..54
table VI.2 State-wise agricultural minimum wages………………………………………………………………...…….55
Table VI.3 Impact of trade on the wages of unskilled workers in agriculture in India: 1991-92 to 2000-2001.…..58
Table 7.1 Employment and unemployment rates in India……………………………………………………………….60
Table 7.2 Employment in India by sector………………………………………………………………………………….60




viii HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table VII.1 Impact of trade on the wages and employment of unskilled workers in the Indian manufacturing
sector: 1997-98 to 2005-06…………………………………………………………………………………………….......63
Table VII.2 Impact of trade on the labour productivity of skilled and unskilled labour…………………………..….64
Table VII.3 Impact of trade on wage inequality…………………………………………………………………………...64
Table 8. 1: Trends in the Human Development Index and Gender Development Index in India…………………...74
Table 8. 2: Percentage of literacy rates by sex in India…………………………………………………………………. 74
Table 8. 3: Employment by industry:[percentage of employment according to usual status………………………. 75
Table 8. 4: Average wage/salary (in Rs) received per day by regular wage/salaried employees of age 15-59 years
by industry of work, sex, sector, and broad educational level for India…………………………………………….. 76
Table 8. 5: Gender employment generated by increases in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07…………………… 78
Table 8. 6 Average employment of women in India’s organized manufacturing industries………………………… 80
Table 8.7: Industries with a high proportion of women’s employment……………………………………………….. 81
Table VIII.1 Dependent variable is In (Women/Total Employment)…………………………………………………….73
Table VIII.2 Dependent variable is In (Total Employment)………………………………………………………………74
Table A.2.1 Expenditure classes into which PFCE is divided…………………………………………………………..90
Table A.4.1 Comparing export orientation with shares in total exports of states……………………………………93
Table II.7.1 Schematic structure of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM)……………………………………………..109




FIGURES

Figure 2. 1 India’s Exports, Imports and Trade Balance: 2000-01 to 2007-08..............................................9
Figure 2. 2 Composition of India’s Import Basket: 2004-05 to 2008-09......................................................10
Figure 2. 3 India’s Tariff 1990-2007 .............................................................................................................13
Figure 2. 4: Total disbursement for foreign trade and export promotion.....................................................13
Figure 2. 5: Trade Restrictiveness Indices ...................................................................................................14
Figure 2. 6: GDP, Per capita GDP and Trade to GDP ratio..........................................................................15
Figure 2. 7:Percentage of Population below the poverty line ......................................................................16
Figure 4. 1: India’s Export Growth 2005-06 to 2008-09……………………................................................. .36




ABBREVIATIONS ix






ABBREVIATIONS

ASI Annual Survey of Industries
AWI Agricultural Wages in India
CAGR Compounded Annual Growth Rate
DME Directory Manufacturing Establishment
DPD Dynamic Panel Data
expint Export Intensity
GDI Gender Development Index
GLS Generalized Least Squares
GMM Generalized Method Of Moments
GVA Gross Value Added
H-O Hecksher-Oklin
HS Harmonized System
impint Import Intensity
K/L Capital Labour Ratio
lp Labour Productivity
MPL Marginal Product of Labour
MRP Mixed Recall Period
NCEUS National Commission for Enterprises in the


Unorganized Sector
NDME Non-Directory Manufacturing Establishment
NIC National Industrial Classification
NPC Net Protection Coefficient
NSS National Sample Survey
OAME Own Account Manufacturing Enterprise
OLS Ordinary Least Squares
PFCE Private Final Consumption Expenditure
QRs Quantitative Restrictions
SAM Social Accounting Matrix
SDP State Domestic Product
StateDum State Dummy
stateor States’ Export Orientation
URP Uniform Recall Period
WITS World Integrated Trade Solution
wrate Wage Rate
2SLS Two-Stage Least Squares
















EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xi







EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The growing volumes of international trade and lowering of tariff barriers have triggered continuing debate
and analysis on the impact of international trade on poverty. On the one hand, there are scholars,
policymakers and international organizations who argue that international trade provides opportunities to
developing and least developed countries by expanding their markets, infusing new technologies and
improving productivity, which leads to their overall growth. On the other hand, others have pointed out the
complexities involved in the mechanism through which international trade may alleviate poverty. It has
been argued that international trade may not necessarily lead to growth, and even if it does, the trickle-
down effect from growth to poverty reduction is based on the assumption that economic growth is
distribution-neutral, which may not be true in many cases. In the alternative, some argue that the more
inequitable the distribution of incomes, the higher the growth will be. The United Nations has identified
eradication of poverty – especially of extreme poverty – as its number one Millennium Development Goal
(MDG). It has further underlined that global partnership, including through international trade (MDG 8), can
contribute to promoting development and eradicating poverty.

In the context of the existing debate, this study takes an alternative approach to the issue of impact of
international trade on poverty. Instead of estimating the net impact of international trade on poverty, an
attempt has been made to assess how the poor are affected by international trade. The poor constitute the
low-income group. International trade may produce both winners and losers. This approach does not
attempt to arrive at the net impact of international trade on poverty. It may not be desirable to compare the
gains to losses, as losses may occur to relatively poorer sections of society and gains to relatively well-off
sections, or vice versa.

The framework of the study involves tracing the role played by international trade in influencing the four
facets of human development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability. An extensive
exploration is conducted in each of these issues to trace the role played by international trade in the
livelihoods of the poor.

Empowerment


 The study conducts an impact assessment to examine whether trade has empowered the
poor in terms of generating additional employment in the economy whereby more people are
employed. The study estimates the extent of employment generated in 46 subsectors of the
economy due to increase in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07. The study finds that a rise in
exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 increased employment by 26 million person years.
Additional employment of 6 million was generated in agriculture, which has the maximum
number of poor.



 In the unorganized sector, which employs more than 80% of the total Indian workforce, the


study estimates the impact of trade on employment and the wage rates paid by enterprises.
Results show that in the unorganized sector, enterprises belonging to export-oriented
industries employ more people and pay higher wages. However, it is only the relatively bigger
enterprises (i.e. those that employ more than six workers) that gain most from the export
orientation of the industry. Rising import competition is found to have adversely affected
employment in these enterprises. The location of an enterprise, in terms of the state to which
it belongs, has an important bearing on the impact of trade. Irrespective of the export
orientation of the industry, unorganized enterprises in states with higher estimated export
orientation are found to gain more from exports, while the impact of import competition does
not vary across states. Statistically significant results with respect to exports increasing
employment in the unorganized sector are found in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab and Tamil Nadu.



 Focusing on the agriculture sector, the study estimates the impact of exports and imports on


the wages of unskilled labour in agriculture and organized manufacturing. The results show
that exports of agricultural products have not led to increases in the wage rates of unskilled
workers, but imports of agricultural products have led to a lowering of the wage rates of
unskilled workers in agriculture.



 In the organized manufacturing sector, the results indicate that exports have had a favourable


impact on the wages of unskilled labour. Strict labour laws and downward rigidity of wages in




xii HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







India have perhaps prevented rising import competition from displacing unskilled labour or
adversely affecting their wage rates.



 It has been often argued that gains from trade are not gender-neutral and that women tend to


gain less than men. An in-depth analysis has been undertaken to estimate the impact of trade
in gender employment. The results show that the increase in exports in the period 2003-04 to
2006-07 generated 9.38 million employments for women and 16.60 million for men. The share
of females in additional employment generated due to the increase in exports exceeds the
share of females in total employment by nearly 5 percentage points. This suggests that the
increase in exports has reduced the gap between male and female employment in India. This
result is corroborated by the estimations carried out for the organized manufacturing sector,
which show that export intensity has a positive and significant impact on women’s
employment but that imports have not led to any displacement of women’s employment.



Productivity



 An important aspect of trade liberalization is to induce competition to increase productivity


levels. Studies have found that as firms are exposed to international competition (through
exports) and domestic competition (through imports), labour productivity rises. However,
most of the studies have been carried out for the organized manufacturing sector. This study
estimates the impact of trade on labour productivity in both the organized and the
unorganized manufacturing sector. Further, the impact of trade on the labour productivity of
both skilled and unskilled labour is carried out separately.



 The results show that in the unorganized sector, the export intensity of the industry to which


an enterprise belongs has a significant positive impact on its labour productivity, but that
conversely, import intensity reduces labour productivity. However, these effects are mainly
experienced by enterprises with more than six workers. In the organized sector, the study
finds that both export and import competition improves labour productivity. This has an
important implication – competition can have productivity enhancement effects only after an
enterprise achieves a certain threshold scale of production. Higher competition, whether
domestic or international, may in fact lower the productivity levels of very small enterprises.



Equity



 Whether trade-induced growth is accompanied by higher/lower inequality is an important


issue. Most of the earlier studies for India have examined this issue by comparing indicators
of inequality, e.g. Gini coefficients, in the pre- and post-liberalization period. However, this
approach is unable to establish whether trade is the cause for rising/falling inequality. This
issue is approached in this study by comparing the gains from trade across different income
groups and segmented labour markets.



 The study estimates the incomes generated due to increased exports for people in abject


poverty and for those below the poverty line. The results of the study show that the total
income generated by the increase in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 has been of Rs
2,364 billion, equivalent to $55 billion. However, the total income generated for the people in
the lowest income group (i.e. people in abject poverty and those below the poverty line) is
only around 1.6% of the total income generated in the economy by the increase in exports in
the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. The poor have benefited from exports, but the gains have
been unevenly distributed, with 70% of the income generated going to the top two income
groups.



 The results of the study indicate that although exports have increased the wage rates of


unskilled labour, they have led to a faster rise in the wages of skilled labour. This implies that
exports have led to higher wage inequality between skilled and unskilled labour.





EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xiii





Sustainability


 To sustain the gains from trade, it is important that the gains are widespread and affect
different sections of society. The study estimates the impact of trade on gender employment
in the organized manufacturing sector.



 Furthermore, it identifies gender-sensitive products, which may form a practical basis for


gender sensitization of trade policy.

 The study estimates job losses across sectors during the period of the global slowdown (i.e.


2007-08 to 2008-09). This provides important insights for identifying vulnerable sectors and
adopting suitable mitigating strategies.



 It also derives policy implications for making international trade work for poor.


This study is a pioneering study in four major respects. Firstly, earlier studies on the impact of international
trade on employment and wages have been at a disadvantage in terms of lack of trade data at the industry
level. To address this concern, the study constructs a concordance matrix between six-digit product-level
data (2002 Harmonized System of Coding) and three-digit industry-level data (National Industrial
Classification). Using this concordance matrix, the exports and imports of products have been matched to
the respective industries to arrive at industry-level trade data. The industry-level trade data are used for
estimating the impact of exports and imports on different aspects of the labour market.

Secondly, the study looks at the impact of export intensity of industries, and import competition faced by
the industries in the organized sector, on employment, wage rates and the labour productivity of
enterprises in the unorganized sector. This traces an important channel through which the effects of trade
can percolate to the poor.

Thirdly, the study uses similar methodology to estimate the impact of international trade in different
sectors of the economy in the same period. Similar labour demand and wage equations across sectors
have been estimated. This makes comparison of trade-related effects across sectors possible, which may
be extremely useful in cases of trade policy formulation, where it is imperative to understand the
implications of trade policies across sectors.

Finally, the study estimates the extent to which exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 have generated
employment in 46 subsectors of the economy and incomes for people in abject poverty and those below
the poverty line. The employment generated is also disaggregated into employment created for men and
women separately. Further, the impact of the global slowdown on employment has been quantified.

The key messages of the study are the following:


 Exports have generated additional employment and incomes in the economy, but these gains
have not trickled down to the poor. For the poor to benefit from international trade, it is important
to increase their participation in the sectors that are expanding on account of trade. One plausible
way of directly linking the poor to trade could be to identify the products produced by the poor or
those that have greater numbers of poor people involved, and enhance their exports so that the
benefits go directly to the poor.


 The unorganized sector in India acts as a safety valve for absorbing excess employment in the
economy. The impact of trade on wages and employment in the unorganized sector can have far-
reaching implications for how the poor are affected by trade. In order to absorb excess labour
through higher exports and to minimize displacing labour through higher imports, it becomes vital
to develop strong linkages between the organized and unorganized sectors in the economy.


 The pro-poor impact of international trade in terms of higher wages and employment of unskilled
labour is more prominent in the organized manufacturing sector as compared to the unorganized
sector. Minimum wages and rigid firing policies in the organized sector have, to some extent,
enabled unskilled workers to benefit from trade. However, in order to increase the gains of the
poor from trade, it is important to improve their skills and bargaining power. It is also important to
keep a check on increasing wage inequality between white-collar and blue-collar workers.


 For all sections of the economy to benefit equitably from trade, it is important to have gender-
equitable distribution of the gains of trade. Export-oriented policies can be an important
instrument in the hands of policymakers for gender empowerment. However, for this to happen,
gender sensitization of trade policy is required. Gender-sensitive products need to be identified




xiv HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







and a cautious approach should be adopted with respect to promoting exports of these products
and ensuring that imports do not displace domestic production of these products. Higher
education for women, and enhancement of their skills, can help women in gaining a greater share
of trade-generated employment.





CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1







CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

1.1 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY TRADE: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Growing volumes of international trade coupled with a lowering of tariff barriers have triggered continuing
debate on the impact of trade on poverty. On the one hand, there are scholars who argue – using the
conventional theories of trade – that trade provides opportunities by expanding markets, infusing new
technologies, and improving productivity, which leads to overall growth. Further, in labour-abundant
developing countries, higher exports increase demand and wages of low-skilled workers. Since low-skilled
workers are most likely to be in a situation of poverty, higher exports lead to reductions in poverty. Some
have also argued that trade helps in poverty reduction, as developing countries pursuing an export-
promoting strategy will have to maintain macroeconomic stability. This reduces inflation fluctuations, to
which the poor are most vulnerable. Therefore, greater orientation towards trade encourages countries to
adopt macroeconomic policies, which invariably favour the poor.1

On the other hand, scholars have pointed to the complexities involved in the mechanism through which
trade may affect poverty. To trace the impact of trade on poverty, the role of specialization, intra-industry
trade and perfectly elastic supply of labour has been brought to the forefront. It has also been argued that
the trickle-down effect from growth to poverty reduction is based on the assumption that economic growth
is distribution-neutral, if not distribution-improving, which may not be true in many cases. Further, the
debate on the trade–poverty nexus has become more complex due to the methodological issues and data
limitations. UNCTAD – the focal point of the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and
development and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable
development – has examined the linkages between trade, development and poverty alleviation, and how
this has been affected by changing global economic conditions. For example, following the global food,
fuel, financial and economic crises, UNCTAD has analysed the impact on trade and poverty, and has
identified policy changes and adaptations to development strategies to ensure a revival in trade in a
manner that creates jobs, alleviates poverty, and widens access to essential services, especially in
developing countries.2

In the context of the existing debates, this study takes an alternative approach to the issue of the impact of
trade on poverty. Instead of estimating the net impact of trade on poverty, an attempt has been made to
assess how the poor are affected by trade. The poor constitute the low-income group. Trade may produce
both winners and losers; it may not be desirable to compare the gains to losses, as losses may occur to
relatively poorer sections of society and gains to relatively well-off sections, or vice versa. Pursuing this
line of argument, this approach focuses on how the livelihoods of the poor are affected by international
trade.

The framework of the study involves tracing the role played by trade in influencing the four facets of human
development, namely empowerment, productivity, equity and sustainability. An extensive exploration is
conducted in each of these issues to trace the role played by trade.

Empowerment of the Poor



 The study conducts an impact assessment to examine whether trade has empowered the poor in


terms of generating additional employment in the economy. Exports can generate employment
directly because of increases in output in the exportable sector, and indirectly by increasing the
output of sectors, which provide inputs and services to the exportable sectors. The study
estimates the extent of employment generated in 46 subsectors of the economy due to increases
in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07. The study also estimates the decline in employment caused
due to decline in exports during the period of global economic crisis, i.e. 2007-08 to 2009-10 and
estimates the extent to which the employment will be generated if a recovery of exports takes
place according to predictions related to revival of the world economy.



 The unorganized sector in India employs more than 80% of total Indian labour. The study


estimates the impact of trade on employment and wage rates paid by enterprises of different sizes
operating in the unorganized sector. The location of an enterprise, in terms of the state to which it
belongs, has an important bearing on the impact of trade. Irrespective of the export orientation of



1 See Bhagwati and Srinivasan (2002)
2 See UNCTAD (2010).




2 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







the industry, unorganized enterprises in states with higher export orientation may gain more from
exports. The study computes the export orientation of 15 major states of India, and estimates the
significance of the location of the enterprise on the impact that trade has on employment and
wages.



 Higher returns to unskilled labour can be an important tool for alleviating poverty. The study


estimates the impact of trade on the wages and employment of unskilled labour in the agriculture
sector, which has the highest number of poor people, and in the organized and unorganized
manufacturing sectors.



Productivity


 An important aspect of trade liberalization is to induce competition and increase productivity
levels. Studies have found that as firms are exposed to international competition (through exports)
and domestic competition (through imports), labour productivity rises. Most of the studies
examine the productivity-enhancing effects of trade in India for the organized manufacturing
sector. This study estimates the impact of trade on the productivity of unskilled workers in both
the organized and the unorganized manufacturing sector.



 Furthermore, differential impact of trade on the labour productivity of skilled and unskilled labour


is carried out in the organized manufacturing sector.

Equity



 Whether trade-induced growth is accompanied by higher/lower inequality is an important issue.


Most of the earlier studies for India have examined this issue by comparing indicators of
inequality, e.g. Gini coefficients in the pre- and post- liberalization period. However, this approach
is unable to establish whether trade is a cause for rising/falling inequality. The approach used in
this study is to compare gains from trade across different income groups and segmented labour
markets. To assess the gains from exports that percolate down to the poor, the study estimates
the extent to which exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 generated incomes across five
income groups, which include people in abject poverty and those below the poverty line.



 The study also estimates the extent to which trade has led to an increase in the gap between


wages earned by skilled and unskilled labour. The higher the gap, the higher the rise in inequality
in the economy will be.



 It has been often argued that gains from trade are not gender-neutral and that women tend to gain


less than men do. An in-depth analysis has been undertaken to estimate the impact of trade in
gender employment. To gender-sensitize trade policy in India and harness further gains from trade
for women, the study has identified gender-sensitive products for India, which can be used in
trade negotiations.



Sustainability



 Sustainability of gains from trade is an issue of concern. To improve and sustain the gains to the


poor from trade, it is important to arrive at specific policy actions. The study derives policy
directions from the analysis and suggests specific policy actions to increase the gains from trade
to the poor.



1.2 ISSUES EXAMINED IN THE STUDY

To examine how the poor are affected by international trade in India, the study specifically examines the
following issues:


(a) To what extent have exports generated direct and indirect employment in India? What was the
impact of the global slowdown on employment in the year 2008-09?


(b) To what extent are the gains from trade reaching the poor?
(c) How are the wages and employment of workers in the unorganized sector affected by exports and


import competition in the industries?




CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 3





(d) How are the wages and employment of unskilled labour in the agriculture sector affected by
international trade?


(e) How are the wages and employment of unskilled labour affected by trade in the organized
manufacturing sector?


(f) Does higher trade lead to higher labour productivity, thereby leading to higher returns for unskilled
labour?


(g) Is trade associated with greater inequality in wages between skilled and unskilled labour?
(h) To what extent are trade impacts on employment gender-neutral?
(i) Policy directions for improving and sustaining the gains from trade for the poor.


This study is a pioneering study in four major respects. Firstly, earlier studies on the impact of trade on
employment and wages have been at a disadvantage in terms of lack of trade data at the industry level.
Attempts were made to construct industry-level export data by aggregating firm-level exports. However,
many firms may not be listed firms, in which case the firm-level export aggregation may have a downward
bias. In the case of quantifying the import competition faced by an industry, lowering of tariffs has been
used by most of the studies in order to indicate higher imports. However, lowering of tariffs does not
necessarily translate into higher imports, especially when domestic supply is sufficient. To address these
concerns, the study constructs a concordance matrix between six-digit product-level data (2002
Harmonized System of Coding) and three-digit industry-level data (National Industrial Classification). Using
this concordance matrix, the exports and imports of products have been matched to the respective
industries in order to arrive at industry-level trade data. The industry-level trade data are then used to
estimate the impact of exports and imports on different characteristics of the labour market.

Secondly, the study looks at the impact of export intensity of industries, and import competition faced by
the industries in the organized sector, on employment, wage rates and the labour productivity of
enterprises in the unorganized sector. This traces an important channel through which the effects of trade
can percolate to the poor. Furthermore, the study estimates the impact that trade can have on the
employment and wage rate of enterprise in the unorganized sector in different locations.

Thirdly, the study uses similar methodology to estimate the impact of trade in different sectors of the
economy in the same period. The data at the enterprise level are taken from National Sample Survey (NSS)
62nd Round. The estimations for the unorganized manufacturing sector are carried out for around 81,000
enterprises for the year 2005-06. The trade data at the three-digit industry level are matched to the
enterprise-level data using the industrial classification specified for each enterprise in the NSS dataset.
The estimations for the organized manufacturing sector are undertaken using a panel data for 78 industries
for the period 1998-99 to 2004-05. The industry-level data are extracted from the Annual Survey of
Industries (ASI), to which the trade data are matched using the concordance matrix. Similar labour demand
and wage equations across sectors have been estimated. This makes comparison of the trade-related
effects across sectors possible, which may be extremely useful for trade policy formulation, as it is
imperative to understand the implications of trade policies across sectors.

Finally, the study estimates the extent to which exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 generated
employment in 46 sectors of the economy as well as incomes for people below the poverty line and those
in abject poverty. It also estimates the employment loss due to the global slowdown in 10 disaggregated
export sectors. Furthermore, the impact of exports and imports on gender employment in the organized
manufacturing sector has been estimated. The study also makes a pioneering attempt to identify gender-
sensitive products, which may form a practical basis for gender sensitization of trade policy.

The chapter scheme of the study is as follows: Chapter 2 records the trends in trade, growth, and poverty
indicators in India. Chapter 3 briefly reviews the literature on trade and poverty. Chapter 4 estimates the
economy-wide impact of exports on employment. Using input-output tables, it estimates both direct and
indirect employment created by exports of India in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. It also estimates the
economy-wide employment losses due to global slowdown in the year 2008-09. To assess the extent to
which the gains from trade percolate down to the poor, estimates are undertaken of the distribution of
income generated by exports across five income groups, which include the poor and those in abject
poverty.

Chapter 5 estimates the impact of trade on labour markets in the unorganized sector. The impact of export
intensity and import competition faced by the industry to which the enterprise belongs, on wages and
employment, has been estimated. Further, an attempt has been made to estimate the impact of the trade
orientation of states on labour markets in the unorganized sector. Chapter 6 quantifies the effects of trade
on the wages of unskilled labour in agriculture. The impact is estimated at the aggregate level, and also for
selected agricultural products. Chapter 7 estimates the extent to which trade has affected the wages of




4 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







unskilled labour in the organized manufacturing sector. It also assesses the extent to which trade has
affected inequality in the wages of skilled and unskilled labour, and has differentially affected their labour
productivities. Chapter 8 undertakes a detailed analysis of the gender effects of trade, by identifying
gender-sensitive products and by estimating the impact of exports and imports on gender employment in
the organized manufacturing sector. Chapter 9 summarizes and provides policy directions for improving
and sustaining gains from trade for the poor.







CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 5







CHAPTER II: TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND
POVERTY INDICATORS



2.1 INTRODUCTION

After independence, India adopted a mixed economy strategy, with self-reliance as the principal objective.
Import substitution and export pessimism was the underlying trade strategy. However, doubts about the
effectiveness of this policy regime arose as early as the mid-1970s. Since then, a series of reforms have
been undertaken towards opening up the economy, although effective reforms only started taking place in
the early 1990s. Since the 1990s, India has made substantial progress in terms of its openness through
trade. These reforms have furthered the globalization process with respect to the cross-border movement
of capital, goods and services. This chapter highlights the trends in India’s merchandise and services
trade. Subsequently, it also presents trends in India’s growth and poverty indicators.

2.2 TRENDS IN THE VOLUME OF TRADE: CHANGING SIGNIFICANCE

The importance of trade for India has changed significantly over the years. India’s trade as a percentage of
GDP has risen steadily since 1990. It increased from 16% in 1990 to 46% in 2007, and in 2008, more than
half of India’s GDP was traded. Merchandise trade has always been higher in India than trade in services.
In 2008, services trade constituted 14% of GDP, while merchandise trade amounted to 41% of GDP.


Table 2. 1 India’s trade as percentage of GDP: 1990-2008




Year


Trade
as % of
GDP


Services
Trade as
% of
GDP


Merchandise
Trade as %
of GDP


1990 16 3 13
1991 17 4 14
1992 19 5 18
1993 20 4 16
1994 20 4 16
1995 23 5 18
1996 22 5 18
1997 23 5 19
1998 24 6 18
1999 25 7 18
2000 27 7 20
2001 26 7 20
2002 30 7 21
2003 31 7 22
2004 38 9 25
2005 43 11 30
2006 47 12 32
2007 46 11 31
2008 51 14 41


Source: World Development Indicators (2010).

2.2.1 India’s Merchandise Trade

India’s trade, both in terms of exports and imports, has grown at an unprecedented rate since 2000.
Global merchandise exports increased from $44.5 billion in 2000-01 to $185.2 billion in 2008-09.
Merchandise imports, on the other hand, have grown much faster; they increased from $50.5 billion in




6 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







2000-01 to $303.6 billion in 2008-09. A large part of the growth in imports has been due to both volume
growth and to rises in the import price of crude oil.

India’s trade sector was not able to remain insulated from the global economic crisis, which began in
2007. A close look at India’s trade sector indicates that growth in India’s exports and imports in both
goods and services declined in real terms. However, the impact of the slowdown came with a lag. Growth
in exports of goods declined from 28.9 % in 2007-08 to 3.4% in 2008-09. In 2009-10, both annual export
and import growth rates became negative, with export growth at -4.7% and import growth at -8.2%.

2.2.2 India’s Services Trade

In less than two decades, India has become one of the top five exporters of services amongst developing
countries. It has surpassed some of the other Asian countries that dominated the services trade in the
1990s. India has been deemed a major exporter of services in the world, with a market share of 2.6 % in
2007 as against 0.6 % in 1995. India’s services sector has matured considerably during the last few years,
and has been globally recognized for its high growth and development. Indian services exports grew at a
compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17% during 1993-2000, but grew at a much faster pace during
2001-2008, recording a CAGR of about 24%. There has been a rapid growth in services exports since
2002. Exports have grown from $20.8 billion in 2002 to $90.1 billion in 2007-08 and then to $101 billion in
2008-09. The global slowdown since 2007 had a relatively moderate impact on export growth of services
from India, remaining positive at 16% in 2008-09.

2.3 COMPOSITION OF INDIA’S TRADE BASKET

2.3.1 Composition of Merchandise Trade

In the post-liberalization period, the composition of India’s exports has experienced a substantial change.
The share of agriculture and allied activities in India’s exports fluctuated in the period 1994-95 to 2004-05.
It was 16% in 1994-95, increased to 19% in 1995-96, and peaked in 1996-97 at 20.5 %. Subsequently it
fell to 18.8 % in 1997-98. The downward trend continued in 1999-2000, and the share reduced to 14% in
2000-01. The share of agriculture and allied activities in India’s exports in 2006-07 was 10.3%, while the
share of primary products in its exports was 15.1% (table 2.2).




Table 2.2 Commodity composition of exports





Source: Economic Survey 2007-08.

The share of manufacturing products in exports has also declined over time. In 2000-01 it accounted for
78.8% of total exports, while in 2006-07 the share declined to 68.6%. Within manufacturing, the share of
traditional exports such as textiles and clothing, gems and jewellery, leather and handicrafts has declined,
while the share of engineering goods and chemical products has risen. This marks a shift in India’s export
pattern. Interestingly, the share of petroleum, crude and products (including coal) has risen significantly
from 4.3% in 2000-01 to 15% in 2006-07.




CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 7





A further sector-wise comparison (table 2.3), shows that the share of petroleum products (including rubber
and plastic products) in India’s export basket has been increasing since 2004. India exported $6.8 billion
worth petroleum products in 2004, which increased to $23.6 billion in 2007 and further to $30.4 billion in
2008, and its share increased from 8.6% to 18.1%. Interestingly, the share of textiles, which was a
predominant sector in the export basket in 2004 (16.8%), has been declining continuously, and reached
12% in 2008. Engineering goods, representing a very broad category, continues to be the sector with the
highest share in India’s export basket. Its share further increased from 19.7% in 2004 to 25% in 2008. The
share of chemical and chemical products has remained the same over time (13.7%), while the share of
gems and jewellery has declined from 18% in 2004 to around 11% in 2008.

Interestingly, exports of India’s agricultural products have been rising steadily, from $6.0 billion in 2004 to
$14.9 billion, though their share in India’s export basket still remains low (around 9%). Although exports of
ores and minerals have nearly doubled, from $4.3 billion to $8.4 billion in 2008, this sector’s share in the
export basket remains at around 5%. Marine products and plantations have a share of around 1%, which
has not changed over time.




Table 2. 3: Change in the composition of India’s export basket (%): 2004-2008




S.No 2004 2006 2008


1 ENGINEERING GOODS 19.70 21.79 24.87


2 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 8.63 14.96 18.15


3
CHEMICALS AND RELATED
PRODUCTS 13.72 13.67 13.65


4 TEXTILES 16.77 15.40 12.20


5 GEMS AND JEWELLERY 17.84 12.72 11.23


6
AGRICULTURAL AND ALLIED
PRODUCTS 7.63 6.78 8.94


7 ORES AND MINERALS 5.42 4.78 5.05


8 LEATHER AND MNFRS 3.20 2.66 2.05


9 MARINE PRODUCTS 1.71 1.40 0.87


10 PLANTATION 0.99 0.94 0.63


Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Source: Directorate-General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.

The above trends in the composition of India’s export basket show that India’s export basket has
diversified in the past five years, with engineering goods, petroleum products and chemical products
increasing their share in the export basket, while the share of traditional exports such as textiles, gems,
and jewellery and leather has gone down.

Unlike its export pattern, India’s import pattern has not shown too much of a change over the past six
years. POL continues to have a share of around 30-32%, while capital goods imports have increased from
10.5 to 13% (table 2.4).




8 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table 2. 4: Commodity composition of imports



Share (per cent) CAGR Growth rate (per cent)*



April-


September
2000-
01


April-
September


to
Commodity Group


2000-
01


2005-
06


2006-
07


2006-
07


2007-
08


2004-
05


2005-
06


2006-
07


2006-
07


2007-
08


Food & allied
products 3.3 2.5 2.9 2.3 2.2 24.3 -4.7 42.4 -5.8 26.6


1. Cereals 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.1 16.1 36.8 3589.6 803.8 -55.5


2. Pulses 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 38.0 41.3 53.8 9.6 92.8


3. Edible oils 2.6 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.2 17.2 -17.9 4.2 -11.8 32.9


Fuel (of which) 33.5 32.1 33.2 36.3 33.6 18.5 44.8 29.0 39.8 18.0


4. POL 31.3 29.5 30.8 33.8 31.0 17.5 47.3 30.0 41.2 16.9


Fertilizers 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.9 17.2 59.4 52.4 54.4 48.2


Capital goods (of
which) 10.5 15.8 15.4 13.1 13.2 28.9 62.5 21.8 44.3 28.3


5. Machinery except
electrical & machine
tool 5.9 7.4 7.5 8.1 8.2 26.2 49.0 24.9 39.5 28.3


6. Electrical machinery 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 25.6 25.9 30.3 37.9 28.6


7. Transport
equipment 1.4 5.9 5.1 2.1 2.5 57.7 104.2 6.8 55.7 51.2


Others (of which) 46.3 43.7 43.8 37.8 40.4 23.5 21.1 24.6 -2.8 36.4


8. Chemicals 5.9 5.7 5.2 5.6 5.2 23.6 23.2 14.1 13.2 19.8


9. Pearls, precious &
semi precious stones 9.6 6.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 18.3 -3.1 -18.0 -32.8 30.6


10. Gold & silver 9.3 7.6 7.9 7.7 10.3 24.5 1.5 29.4 -3.1 71.0


11. Electronic goods 7.0 8.9 8.6 9.0 8.9 29.9 32.5 20.6 34.0 26.2


Grand Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 22.2 33.8 24.5 23.5 27.7


* Growth rate in dollar terms.
Source: Economic Survey 2007-08



From 2001-02 onwards, India’s merchandise imports have always been higher than its merchandise
exports, leading to a negative trade balance, which has grown over the years (fig. 2.1). Furthermore,
imports are growing at a much higher rate than exports. In 2008, India’s exports grew by 23.7%, while its
imports grew by 38%.





CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 9





Figure 2. 1 India’s exports, imports and trade balance: 2000-01 to 2007-08




India's Exports, Imports and Trade Balance:2000-01 to 2007-08


-200000 -100000 0 100000 200000 300000


Exports,
f.o.b.


Imports,
c.i.f.


Trade
balance


2007-08(P)
2006-07(PR)
2005-06
2004-05
2003-04
2002-03
2001-02
2000-01





In terms of services, however, export growth is much stronger than import growth, which has led to an
ever-growing positive trade balance in India’s services trade. This reflects the importance of the services
sector in India’s total trade.

Within merchandise imports, India’s oil imports are much higher than its non-oil imports.


 Oil imports

Since October 2007, there has been a steady rise in the value of imported oil. This can be attributed to
increases in oil prices. After July 2008, there was a drastic decline in India’s oil imports on account of a fall
in prices. The volume of oil imports grew by almost 212 % in 2008-09, over 2004-05 (Table 2.5). The rate
of growth of oil imports in each financial year, over the previous financial year, remained greater than 30%
except in 2008-09 (17%).




Table 2. 5: India’s oil imports and rates of growth (%).




FY
Oil imports (in millions of
dollars) ROG (%)


2004-05 29,844
2005-06 43,963 47.31
2006-07 57,099 29.88
2007-08 79,715 39.60
2008-09 93,176 16.88



 Non-oil imports


India’s non-oil imports have increased steadily over time (table 2.6). Non-oil imports grew at almost 138 %
in 2008-09 over 2004-05. However, the growth rate fell from 33.8% in 2007-08 to 13.16% in 2008-09.





10 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table 2. 6: India’s non-oil imports and rates of growth (%).




FY Non-oil imports ($ millions) ROG (%)
2004-05 81,673
2005-06 105,203 28.81
2006-07 128,505 22.15
2007-08 171,940 33.8
2008-09 194,584 13.16



Within the import basket, the decomposition of imports between oil and non-oil imports does not seem to
have changed much over time for India (fig. 2.2).




Figure 2. 2 Composition of India’s import basket: 2004-05 to 2008-09




0


20,000


40,000


60,000


80,000


100,000


120,000


A
pr


-
Ju


ne Ju
l-


S
ep


O
ct


-
D


ec
Ja


n-
M


ar


A
pr


-
Ju


ne Ju
l-


S
ep


O
ct


-
D


ec
Ja


n-
M


ar


Non Oil Imports Oil Imports


India's Oil and Non-Oil Imports


2008-09


2007-08


2006-07


2005-06


2004-05




2.3.2 Composition of India’s Services Trade

India’s export basket of services has not diversified over time, as around 40% of India’s exports have been
comprised of software services since 2000-01. Export of software services has grown at a compound rate
of growth of 26%, as compared to 24% of total services (table 2.7). Apart from software services, the
travel and transportation services constitute the export basket, with a share of around 12% and 11%
respectively in 2007-08.




CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 11





Table 2. 7: Composition of India’s exports of services




CAGR 1993-
2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08


CAGR 2000-
2008


Travel 4.56% 3,497 3,137 3,312 5,037 6,666 7,853 9,123 11,349 15.85%
YoY Growth 15.18% -10.29% 5.58% 52.08% 32.34% 17.81% 16.17% 24.40%


Transportation 2.53% 2,046 2,161 2,536 3,207 4,683 6,325 7,974 10,014 21.96%
YoY Growth 19.86% 5.62% 17.35% 26.46% 46.02% 35.06% 26.07% 25.58%


Insurance 9.29% 270 288 369 419 870 1,062 1,195 1,639 25.29%
YoY Growth 16.88% 6.67% 28.13% 13.55% 107.64% 22.07% 12.52% 37.15%


G.N.I.E 52.75% 651 518 293 240 401 314 253 330 -8.14%
YoY Growth 11.86% -20.43% -43.44% -18.09% 67.08% -21.70% -19.43% 30.43%


Miscellaneous of which: 31.99% 9,804 11,036 14,253 17,965 30,629 42,105 55,235 66,745 27.09%
YoY Growth -3.44% 12.57% 29.15% 26.04% 70.49% 37.47% 31.18% 20.84%


Software 6341 7556 9600 12800 17700 23600 31300 40,300 26.01%
YoY Growth 19.16% 27.05% 33.33% 38.28% 33.33% 32.63% 28.75%
Total 16.91% 16,268 17,140 20,763 26,868 43,249 57,659 73,780 90,077 23.85%
YoY Growth 3.56% 5.36% 21.14% 29.40% 60.97% 33.32% 27.96% 22.09%


Invisibles by Service Export of Transactions



*G.N.I.E: Government services not included elsewhere. Figures in millions of United States dollars.
Source: www.rbi.org.in

2.4 DIRECTION OF INDIA’S EXPORTS

2.4.1 Direction of India’s Merchandise Exports

In the 1990s, more than half of India’s exports were directed towards OECD markets, with 28% directed to
EU markets and around 15% to the United States. Around 16% went to the Russian Federation and a
similar percentage to developing countries, with Asian markets being more dominant (table 2.8). However,
over time, there has been some diversification in terms of the direction of India’s exports. The European
Union’s share declined from 28% in 1995-96 to 20% in 2007-08, while the United States’ share declined
from 17.4% in 1995-96 to 13% in 2007-08. The United Arab Emirates’ share increased from 4.5% in 1995-
96 to 9.7% in 2007-08. There has been considerable increase in the share of Asian developing countries in
India’s export basket, from 23% in 1995-06 to 31.5% in 2007-08. Africa’s share has also increased over
time. It is interesting to note that share of developing countries in India’s exports increased from 17% in
1990-91 to 42% in 2007-08.

The fact that India was able to diversify its exports to different countries has helped in softening the impact
of global slowdown on its exports. However, the bulk of India’s exports, i.e., 33% is still directed towards
the European Union and the United States.


Table 2. 8: Share of region/country in India’s exports: 1990-91 to 2007-08



Group /
Country


1990-
91


1995-
96


2000-
01


2005-
06


2007-
08


I. OECD 56.5 55.7 52.7 44.5 38.8
A. EU 27.5 27.4 23.4 21.7 20.2


B.
North
America 17.8 13.8


1 Canada 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.8


2
United
States 14.7 17.4 20.9 16.8 13.0


C.
Asia and
Oceania 5.1 3.3 3.1


of which:
1 Australia 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.7


2

Japan 9.3 7.0 4.0 2.4 2.2




12 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







D.
Other OECD
countries 1.9 1.6 1.7


II. OPEC 5.6 9.7 10.9 14.8 16.5
of which:


1
United Arab
Emirates 2.4 4.5 5.8 8.3 9.7


III.
Eastern
Europe 17.9 4.2 3.0 1.9 2.1


of which:


1.
Russian
Federation 16.1 3.3 2.0 0.7 0.6


0.0 0.0 0.0


IV.
Developing
countries 17.1 28.9 29.2 38.5 42.3


of which:
A. Asia 14.4 23.0 22.5 30.1 31.5
a) SAARC 2.9 5.4 4.3 5.4 5.7
b) Other Asian 17.6 18.2 24.7 25.8
B. Africa 2.2 4.8 4.4 5.5 7.6


C.


Latin
American
countries 0.5 1.2 2.3 3.0 3.2


V. Others / unspecified 2.9 1.5 4.3 0.3 0.4
Total Trade 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Source: Estimated from RBI Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy. Directorate-General of
Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.

2.4.2 Direction of India’s Exports of Services

Exports of services from India have been oriented mostly towards the EU25 and the United States in the
developed world. The United States and the United Kingdom are the two most important destinations for
services exports. According to the Economic Survey 2007-08, India exports travel services mainly to the
EU, and transportation services to South-East Asia.

Around 13% of total Indian services exports were oriented towards the EU25 in 2003. However, the share
came down to 10% in 2005. The United States accounted for about 8.7% of total India’s services exports
in 2005. Interestingly, the share of the United States went up to around 10.7% in 2007 (table 2.9).


Table 2. 9: Services exports of the United States, and share in global Indian services exports




Year
Exports to United States


(in millions of dollars)
Share of United States in total


exports (%)


2003 2000 7.4


2004 2886 6.7


2005 5057 8.8


2006 7693 10.4


2007 9664 10.7


2008 12141 -
Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis.

2.5 TRENDS IN TARIFFS

India’s tariff levels have experienced a significant decline ever since India embraced liberalization in 1991
(fig. 2.3). Considering Simple Average Tariffs, the tariff level dropped from 81.8% in 1990 to 56.3% in
1992. In 1997, the tariff level dropped even more sharply to 30.09%, but then increased in 1999 to 32.9%.




CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 13





Since 1999, there has been a steady decline in simple average tariffs, reaching 16.4% in 2007. As far as
Weighted Average Tariffs are concerned, this tariff level was down to 27.8% in 1992 from 49.5% in 1990.
In 1997, the level was 20.1%, which increased to 32.9% in 1999. In 2001, Weighted Average Tariffs
declined to 26.5%, and continued their downward trend, reaching 10.4% in 2007.


Figure 2. 3 India’s tariffs 1990-2007






0.00


10.00


20.00


30.00


40.00


50.00


60.00


70.00


80.00


90.00


1990 1992 1997 1999 2001 2004 2005 2007


Simple Average


Weighted Average




Over the years, the Government has taken specific policy measures with a view to promoting exports. This
is evident in the increasing expenditure on export promotion. Figure 2.4 maps the trend in total
disbursement (nominal) from the Indian Government’s budget for foreign trade and export promotion.




Figure 2. 4: Total disbursement for foreign trade and export promotion






Total disbursement for Foreign trade and export promotion


0
200
400
600
800


1000
1200
1400
1600


19
96


-97


19
97


-98


19
98


-99


19
99


-00


20
00


-01


20
01


-02


20
02


-03


20
03


-04


20
04


-05


20
05


-06


20
06


-07


C
ro


re
s o


f R
up


ee
s




2.6 TRENDS IN THE TRADE TO GDP RATIO AND THE TRADE
RESTRICTIVENESS INDEX

The volume of trade as a proportion of GDP has increased over time in India. This has more than doubled
in 2005-06 compared to 1990-91. The growth is faster if trade in services is included (table 2.10).




14 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table 2. 10: Trade as a proportion of GDP
















Source: RBI and WDI.


However, in spite of these trends in trade and openness, India is found to have a high import
restrictiveness index. India’s import restrictiveness index was at 21.7%, which is much higher than some
of the selected countries (fig. 2.5), whereas the export restrictiveness index was at 8.9%, which is lower
than some of these countries.




Figure 2. 5: Trade restrictiveness indices




Restrictiveness Index


0.00


5.00


10.00


15.00


20.00


25.00


Br
az


il


Ch
ina Ind


ia


Ru
ss


ia


Tu
rke


y


Sin
ga


po
re


Th
ail


an
d


Un
ite


d S
tat


es


Eu
rop


ea
n U


nio
n


in percent


Import restrictiveness Index Export Restrictiveness index




Source: Global Monitoring Report.



The number of trade agreements signed or negotiated is useful in assessing the progress of India in
achieving higher openness. By March 2007, there were 197 trade agreements as compared with only 24
agreements in 1986, and 66 agreements in 1996.

2.7 TRENDS IN GROWTH AND POVERTY

India produces nearly 6.4% of world output and is home to nearly 16.9% of the world’s total population
(World Development Indicators, 2006). Importantly, India’s share of population living in extreme poverty
(i.e. on an income of less than $1 a day) is 34.3% (1990-2005, HDR 2007-08). These numbers more than
double if a broader definition of poverty is used: i.e. the number of people living on less than $2 a day is
80.4% (1990-2005, HDR 2007-08). While there has been a rapid rise in GDP growth, this has not been
accompanied by a corresponding growth in employment.

2.7.1 Trends in Growth

There has been steady growth in GDP and per capita GDP in India since 1980, and this has improved
considerably since the 1990s (fig. 2.6).


Year Trade in goods and
services as a percentage of


GDP
1990-91 17.2
1995-96 25.7
2000-01 29.2
2005-06 44.8
2006-07 47
2007-08 46
2008-09 51




CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 15





Figure 2. 6: GDP, Per capita GDP and Trade to GDP Ratio.




0


100


200


300


400


500


600


700


800


900


1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007
0


10


20


30


40


50


60


GDP In Billion (constant 2000
US$)
GDP per capita (constant
2000 US$)
Trade (% of GDP)



Source: World Development Indicators (2009).

The average annual growth rate of GDP in the 1980-1989 period was 5.7%, and it continued to remain at
5.7% in the 1990-1999 period, while the average annual growth rate of per capita GDP increased from
3.5% to 3.8% in this period (table 2.11). Correspondingly, the trade to GDP ratio rose from 14% average
annual growth in the 1980-89 period to 20.9% in the 1990-99 period. In the 2000-2008 period, the average
annual growth rate of GDP increased from 5.7 % to 7.1%, while that of per capita GDP increased from
3.8% to 5.7% – indicating a slower rise in per capita GDP. However, the trade to GDP ratio increased by a
stupendous average annual growth rate of 38%, suggesting the growing importance of trade in the Indian
economy.


Table 2. 11: Average annual growth of GDP and per capita GDP; and the Trade to GDP Ratio






Average annual
growth of GDP


Average annual growth
of per capita GDP


Average annual
growth rate of the
Trade to GDP Ratio


1980-1989 5.7 3.5 14


1990-1999 5.7 3.8 20.9


2000-2008 7.1 5.7 38
Source: World Development Indicators (2009).

2.7.2. Trends in Poverty

In India, estimates of the incidence of poverty by the Planning Commission on the basis of the head-count
ratio given by various rounds of the NSS show that poverty has been consistently declining for the country
as a whole. The percentage of people below the poverty line declined from 54.8 % in 1973-74 to 38.3 % in
1987-88. In the post-liberalization period, this fell further to 35.9 % in 1993-94, and then to 26.1 % in
1999-2000. These figures, however, are not comparable, as they have been calculated for different recall
periods: the uniform recall period (URP) for 1993-94, and the mixed recall period (MRP) for 1999-00. In
2004-05, the estimated poverty ratio by the URP method was 27.5 (making it comparable with the 1993-94
ratios), whereas by the MRP method it was 21.8 (making it comparable with the 1999-2000 ratio).

The uniform recall period (URP) consumption data of the NSS’ 61st Round yields a poverty ratio of 28.3%
in rural areas, 25.7% in urban areas, and 27.5% for the country as a whole in 2004-05. The corresponding
All India figures are 36% for 1993-94, and 27.5% in 2004-05 (table 2.12).




16 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table 2. 12: Poverty ratios by URP (per cent)



S.No Category 1993-94 2004-05


By uniform recall period (URP) method
1 Rural 37.3 28.3
2 Urban 32.4 25.7
3 All India 36.0 27.5


Source: Economic Survey 2007-08.


Nevertheless, the percentage of the population living below the poverty line in India has been steadily
falling. Figure 2.7 shows a slight increase in poverty over the last 6 years, but that could be due to
differences in the method of poverty calculation.


Figure 2. 7:Percentage of the population below the poverty line




















Source: Reserve Bank of India.

2.7.3. Trends in Inequality

A more equitable distribution of resources ensures higher human development in a country. A skewed
distribution, on the other hand, means that a significant proportion of the population is getting a
disproportionately lower share of the total pie. The conventional measure of inequality in income is the Gini
coefficient, which ranges from zero (absolute equality) to 1 (one person receives all the income). Growth is
inevitably followed by some increase in inequality, but the worst scenario arises when slow growth is
accompanied by increasing inequality.

The trends in the Gini coefficient for India are similar to those seen for most developing countries – i.e.
growth accompanied by rising inequality (table 2.13).


Table 2. 13: Trends in the Gini coefficient







Note: (c): Trends in consumption data.

The rural and urban Gini coefficients calculated for India give us an indication of the level of inequality in
these areas. The rural Gini for India was 30.10 in 1983. It increased marginally in 1986-87 and 1987-88,
and then dropped to a low of 27.71 in 1990-91. In the subsequent period, it continued to increase and was
back to the 1983 level in 1997 (in fact marginally higher, at 30.11). The urban Gini, on the other hand, was
33.40 in 1983; it increased to 33.95 in 1990-91 and then to 36.12 in 1997. Inequality, therefore, has been
on the rise in both the rural and urban sectors in India. However, trends reveal that inequality is worsening





1980s average Early 1990s Late 1990s 2004-05


India 0.293 (c) 0.315 (c) 0.378 (c) 0.368


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


1973-741983-84 1993-94 1999-002004-05


years


pe
rc


en
ta


ge
o


f p
op


ul
at


io
n


be
lo


w
p


ov
er


ty
li


ne


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


rural
urban




CHAPTER II. TRENDS IN INDIA’S TRADE, GROWTH AND POVERTY INDICATORS 17





more rapidly in rural areas than in urban areas. However, the urban–rural spending gap, which widened in
the 1990s, has started to close in the past five years.

2.8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Amidst the existing debates on the trade–poverty relationship, the chapter records the trends in India’s
trade, poverty, growth and inequality over the period 1980 to 2008. It is found that in the post-1990s India
has increasingly integrated with the world economy through trade. Not only have average tariffs declined
significantly, from 80% in 1990-91 to around 18% in 2007-08, but the trade to GDP ratio has increased
too, from 16% in 1990-91 to 51% in 2008. Correspondingly, the percentage of people below the poverty
line declined from 36% in 1993-94 to 27.5% in 2004-05. However, India’s Gini coefficient, which indicates
the extent of inequality, shows a steady rise from 0.31 in the early 1990s to 0.36 in 2004-05. There has
also been a rise in unemployment over time.

Although trade policies are rarely formulated with the objective of reducing poverty, trade may affect the
lives of the poor in a substantive way. In view of this, it may be imperative for trade policymakers to use
trade policy as an instrument for generating employment and incomes for the poor. However, for this to
happen, it is important to identify the channels through which the poor may be affected by trade. Though
considerable literature exists on the trade–poverty nexus, there are only very limited studies in existence to
quantify the extent to which the poor are affected by trade.










CHAPTER III. THE TRADE-GROWTH-POVERTY NEXUS: THEORETICAL 19
FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE





CHAPTER III: THE TRADE–GROWTH–POVERTY NEXUS:
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE



3.1 THE TRADE–GROWTH–POVERTY NEXUS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The existing literature on trade and poverty has been categorized into the two broad strands – one which
explains the static relationship between trade and poverty with resources and technology as given, and the
other which explains the dynamic relationship between trade and poverty via growth. The static literature
concentrates on two main channels through which trade can directly affect poverty, irrespective of growth.
These are through the employment effect and through stable macroeconomic policies, which indirectly
influence the poor. The dynamic strand of literature, on the other hand, breaks down the relationship
between trade and poverty into the trade–growth and the growth–poverty relationship.

3.1.1 Trade–Poverty Relationship: Static Framework

There are two main theoretical approaches or analytical frameworks for understanding the channels
through which international trade might impact on the labour market and thereby affect poverty. The first is
the neoclassical Hecksher-Oklin (H-O) model, which provides predictions about the impact of trade
between countries with different resource endowments – as in the case of trade between developed and
developing countries. The second approach is subsumed into what is called the “new trade theories”,
which describe trade between countries with similar resource endowments – as in the case of trade
between developed countries or between developing countries.



The H-O model predicts that comparative advantage arises from the differences in relative endowments of
factors of production. Nations will therefore specialize in producing goods that employ more of their
relatively abundant factor. For instance, developed countries that have relatively more abundant capital
would export capital-intensive goods and services, and would import labour-intensive goods and services
from developing countries where labour is relatively more abundant. Such predictions are reflected by the
actual pattern of trade between developed and developing countries (OECD, 1994). Thus, under the
assumption of the two factors and two goods version of the model, the movement from autarky to trade is
associated, in both countries, with an increase in the relative price of the good that uses the relatively
abundant factor more intensively. Assuming each country produces both the goods, the relative price of
the two goods will increase in the labour-abundant country, making the production of labour-intensive
goods more profitable. The opposite will happen in the capital-abundant country.

Such a change will lead to an increase in demand for labour in the labour-abundant country. Under the
model’s assumption of full employment, this will entail an increase in wages. If this assumption is relaxed,
then the increase in the demand for labour may translate into higher employment as well as an increase in
wages. The precise magnitude would depend upon the labour-market conditions. Trade will therefore
benefit labour in developing countries, thereby increasing their incomes and reducing poverty.

This literature further draws strength from the Stolper Samuelson theorem, according to which trade
results in gains for labour, since this is the relatively abundant factor in most low-income countries. In this
analytical framework, one can alternatively assume that there are two types of workers, high-skilled and
low-skilled, with the latter being the relatively abundant factor of production in developing countries.
Higher trade would benefit low-skilled labour-intensive production, hence increasing demand and wages
of low-skilled workers in developing countries; since low-skilled workers are most likely to be in a situation
of poverty, there would be a reduction in the number of poor people. Thus, according to traditional trade
theories, the poor will be the greatest beneficiaries of trade liberalization in developing countries.

However, the restrictive assumptions upon which the theories are built are not sufficient to provide a viable
interpretation of the complexity of the real world. They ignore the effects of complete specialization and
intra-industry trade (which in many cases bypass the poorest countries). Furthermore, if one recognizes
the possibility of different degrees of mobility of some or all factors over time, the income consequences of
trade liberalization get further complicated. This is demonstrated by the fact that studies that estimate the
effect of trade on the wages of skilled and unskilled workers arrive at ambiguous results. Krueger (1983)
supports the traditional argument through a multi-country study on the effect of trade on wages and
employment. However, Feenstra and Hanson (1996, 1999) find that outsourcing from North to South
results in a rise in the real wages of skilled labour relative to that of unskilled workers in both sets of
countries; but this is consistent with the fact that the real wages of unskilled labour rise as well.




20 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Moreover, a strong limitation of the traditional theory is that although in the long run trade opportunities
can have a major impact in creating more productive and higher-paying jobs, this strand of literature tends
to take employment as given. A common finding is that many of the shorter-run impacts of trade and
reforms involve reallocation of labour or wage impacts within sectors. This reflects a pattern of expansion
of more productive firms (especially export-oriented firms or suppliers to exporters) and
contraction/adjustment of less productive enterprises in sectors that become subject to greater import
competition.

Using the above theory, it can be argued that exports may not be able to generate any additional new
employment. However, an assumption of full employment is far from reality, especially given the vast
supply of labour in the developing countries. Alternative frameworks have been developed dropping the
assumption of full employment. Edwards (1993) provides an excellent survey of studies that have dealt
with this issue. At the centre of this approach is the idea that exports contribute to aggregate output in two
fundamental ways: first, it is assumed that the exports sector generates positive externalities on non-
exports sectors, through more efficient management styles and improved production techniques. Second,
it is argued that there is a productivity differential in favour of the export sector. Thus, an expansion of
exports at the cost of other sectors will have a positive net effect on aggregate output and employment.

The H-O model can at best be interpreted as a long-run rather than a short-run prediction. In the short run,
even labour may be regarded as immobile, as people may have to acquire skills, undergo training and
search for jobs before they move to the expanding labour-intensive sector. In such a scenario,
international trade will be counterproductive, in the sense that it will serve to reduce the real return to
labour. On another level, unionization of the labour force, minimum wage legislation and other
government-mandated labour regulations may also dilute the benefits of trade, impede the frictionless
clearing of labour markets, and contribute to the stickiness of wages.

Nevertheless, caveats such as those mentioned above do not deny the potential of international trade to
benefit labour – at the most, they may postpone such benefits. Indeed, it is argued by some that labour
market intervention can even facilitate adjustment, by protecting the well-being of workers. The resolution
of these debates is essentially an empirical issue.

According to Winters (2004), wage responses to trade will also depend to a large extent on the elasticity of
supply of labour in a country. If the elasticity of supply of labour is zero, wages will increase but
employment will not, whereas if it is infinite, employment will increase but wages will not. In the case of the
labour supply being perfectly elastic at the prevailing wage rate, which is the case in many poor countries,
the effect on poverty will depend heavily on what the additional workers were doing before accepting
these new jobs. If they were engaged in subsistence activities, there is no change in their situation. Only if
the switch into this labour market were so great as to significantly reduce the labour supply to the
subsistence sector and hence raise its wages, would there be a poverty impact.

The so-called “new trade theories” were developed in order to explain trade between countries with similar
factor endowments that is characterized by intra-industry trade of similar (but differentiated) products.
Input–output analysis conducted by Gera and Massé (1996) suggests that the importance of trade in the
1980s and 1990s accounts for a larger share of employment variations relative to other factors such as
domestic demand and productivity than was the case during the 1970s. In the manufacturing sector, the
study found that exports have become a dominant factor in employment growth in high-technology and
skill-intensive industries, while import penetration adversely affected employment growth in low-
technology, labour-intensive industries. This is consistent with international evidence which shows that
trade has been associated with job losses in labour-intensive sectors such as textiles, clothing, wood and
leather (OECD, 1994, 1996). The available evidence also suggests that the net impact of trade on
employment has been positive.

There is also evidence showing that the growing import content of exports has led to lower growth in
export-related employment than might have been expected given the growth in exports as a share of
output (Murphy, 1999). However, in the context of growing international specialization, it may no longer be
appropriate to view imports from this narrow labour-market perspective, as necessarily destructive of jobs.

According to OECD (1996, 1997, 1998, 2000), trade is not the main driving force behind increased demand
for skilled workers in developed countries. There is evidence that trade did contribute to the declining
fortunes of low-skilled workers and increased income inequality in developed countries, but the effect was
limited. With respect to developing countries, only limited literature is available.




CHAPTER III. THE TRADE-GROWTH-POVERTY NEXUS: 21
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE





Another way in which trade can affect the poor in a static framework is through macroeconomic policies
that are followed to encourage trade. According to Bhagwati and Srinivasan (2002), trade helps in poverty
reduction in the developing countries, since countries implementing an export-promoting (as opposed to
an import-substituting) strategy will have to maintain macroeconomic stability. This reduces inflation
fluctuations, to which the poor are most vulnerable. Therefore, greater orientation towards trade
encourages countries to adopt macroeconomic policies which inadvertently favour the poor.

A major lacuna in the static approach is that by ignoring the existing dynamism in the economy, it is unable
to suggest ways of using trade as a mechanism to alleviate poverty. The approach treats trade not as a
means for attaining goals but as an end in itself. In predicting the effect of trade on labour, when using the
H-O model, several caveats need to be kept in mind. This model relies on a series of other restrictive
assumptions: constant returns to scale in production, competitive labour and goods markets, full mobility
of factors within each country, and an inelastic supply of labour. The last assumption may not hold true in
many developing countries. Thus, trade may result in higher employment but not in an increase in wages.

3.1.2 The Trade–Growth–Poverty Relationship: Dynamic Framework

The dynamic approach to trade and poverty views trade as a vehicle for attaining higher levels of growth
and thereby reducing poverty. Two kinds of relationship emerge in this approach, trade and growth; and
growth and poverty. A stream of literature has emerged which debates these relationships.

Trade has long been regarded as an “engine of growth”, and this role for trade has been supported by
both theoretical and empirical literature. However, the net effect of trade openness on economic growth
has been – and remains – a subject of controversy. On the theoretical side, since the time of Smith,
through Ricardo and Solow, trade has been shown to allow a country to reach a higher level of income,
since it permits a better allocation of resources. The growth effects of trade openness are made much
more explicit by the use of the new growth theory led by Romer (1986) and Lucas (1988). Within such a
framework, trade allows an intensification of capacity utilization that increases production and
consumption. Openness offers a larger market for domestic producers, allowing them on the one hand to
operate at the minimum required scale, and on the other hand to reap the benefits from increasing returns
to scale.

However, with the growing volumes of trade in the world in the last two decades, doubts have been raised
not only about whether trade leads to growth or not but also about the direction of the relationship. It has
been argued by some that faster-growing economies trade more, and therefore the relationship between
trade and growth may not be one-way. New developments in growth theory provide an explanation for
questioning the growth regression framework for dealing with complex relationships such as the
openness–growth nexus. The effect of openness on growth depends on a country’s structural and
institutional conditions. Papers such as Chang, Katlani and Loayza (2005) and Dejong and Ripoll (2006)
have attempted to take these contingencies into account.

The existing voluminous literature on trade and growth is complemented by an equally large existing
literature on growth and poverty. It is asserted that if growth is distribution-neutral, and trade enhances
growth, then it can be argued that trade is beneficial for poverty. However, the evidence, both theoretical
and empirical, is much more complex than this. The trickle-down effect from growth to poverty reduction
is based on the assumption that economic growth is distribution-neutral or, if not, distribution-improving.
This is in contrast to the classical stylized facts theoretically consistent with Kuznets’ (1955) theory of
capital accumulation as an inverted-U shape between level of development and inequality. In contrast to
the Kuznets hypothesis, Dollar and Kraay (2001a) find a one-to-one effect of growth on the income of the
poor, so that the income distribution remains stable, and sometimes improves. Meanwhile, Ravallion
(2001) uses World Bank data and computation methodology to argue that growth may have a differential
impact on inequality in different countries. There is a need for micro-level analysis.

Alternatively, it is argued that although growth may be a necessary condition for poverty reduction, it is not
a sufficient condition, since much will depend on its distributional aspects, which may not be equitable in a
liberalized regime. Much of the recent research and debate has focused on the extent to which the poor
benefit from economic growth (Ravallion and Chen 2003, Ravallion 2001, Ravallion and Datt 2000). One
extreme of the debate argues that the potential benefits of economic growth to the poor are undermined or
are offset by inadequate redistributive policies and by the increases in inequality that accompany
economic growth. The second extreme argues that despite increased inequality, liberal economic policies
and open markets raise the incomes of everyone in the society, including the poor. This proportionally
reduces the incidence of poverty. Along with the extent of growth effects on inequality, the direction of the




22 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







impacts has also been debated, where it is argued that more inequitable distribution of gains leads to
higher growth.

Apart from these debates, studies have traced the channels through which trade can affect poverty.
Winters et al. (2004) identify four main channels through which trade shocks, including trade liberalization,
are transmitted into poverty impacts. These include impact on wages and employment; prices of
tradables; taxes and spending; and economic growth and technology. These impacts are transmitted
through four groups of institutions, namely households; enterprises; distribution channels; government.

3.2 THE TRADE–POVERTY RELATIONSHIP: REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL
LITERATURE

Some of the empirical studies in the last two decades that support the role of trade in boosting growth
include those of David Dollar and Aart Kraay (2001). Using data for 80 countries over four decades
reiterates the fact that openness boosts economic growth and that incomes of the poor rise one-for-one
with overall growth. Frankel and Romer (1999) use data for 100 countries since 1960 and conclude that
openness does have a statistically and economically significant effect on growth. Sachs and Warner (1997)
find that developing countries with open economies grew by 4.5% per annum in the 1970s and 1980s,
while those with closed economies grew by 0.7% per annum. According to this study, open economies
double in size in 16 years, whereas closed ones take a hundred years. Winters et al. (2007) find evidence
that trade liberalization in Viet Nam reduced poverty substantially over the period 1993-1998.

Studies that question the growth-enhancing role of trade include Harrison (1996), Barro (1999), Rodriguez
and Rodrik (1999), Nye, Reddy and Watkins (2002), Rodrik (2000), and Rigobon and Rodrik (2004). These
studies criticize the studies that establish links between trade and growth, for their alleged lack of control
for “other” economic policies and use of largely unsatisfactory trade policy indicators. Rodrik (2005)
debates the use of instrument variable strategy in regression analysis to arrive at the effects of government
policies with respect to trade, on growth. Firstly, in this area of enquiry it is genuinely hard to find credible
instruments that satisfy both the exogeneity and the exclusion requirement, and secondly, these
regressions do not indicate how effective the purposeful policy interventions have been. Easterly (2004)
emphasizes that the large policy effects uncovered in growth regressions are typically driven by outliers,
which represent instances of extremely “bad” policies.

Furthermore, Rodriguez and Rodrik (2001) observe that most studies make use of complex indices to
establish the relation between trade and economic growth. For example, they are skeptical about the index
constructed by Sachs and Warner (1995) which includes information on average tariffs, non-tariff barriers,
adoption of central planning, state monopolies of exports and the black-market premium. The link of the
last two components to trade policy was questionable.

On the other hand, Frankel and Romer (1999) have constructed a variable – trade caused by geographical
factors – to use as an instrument for trade/GDP ratios in a regression in which income levels are
dependent. Although using this trade share in the regression gives significant results, the approach has
been questioned on the grounds that the trade share may be acting as a proxy for geography’s direct
effect on growth, for example the effect of climate on disease, international technology transmission etc.

An interesting result by Warner (2003) shows that the unweighted average tariff rate on capital and
intermediate goods did display a simple negative correlation with growth. However, by using different data
sets for growth (Barro-Lee and Pen World Tables version 5.6 and 6.1), Rodriguez and Rodrik found that
the results of Warner could not be replicated. The results were consistent with the idea that there is a
weak, insignificant statistical relationship between growth and tariffs. Rodrik (2007) argues that poor
countries need to design policies according to their unique situations to overcome their own highly specific
constraints in order to benefit from trade.

However, the existing literature lacks the corresponding microanalysis of the impacts of trade liberalization
on the wages and employment of the poor, which is required to trace the static and also dynamic effects
of trade policy on household/individual welfare.




CHAPTER III. THE TRADE-GROWTH-POVERTY NEXUS: 23
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE





3.3. REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE ON THE TRADE–GROWTH–
POVERTY NEXUS IN INDIA

With respect to India, empirical literature on trade–growth–poverty nexus is very limited. Topalova (2005)
examines the differential impact of liberalization on poverty and inequality across Indian districts. She
compares the poverty and inequality measures in the districts with industries that experienced greater
liberalization (measured as a reduction in tariff barriers) to those whose industries remained largely
protected. In the baseline specification, the district-level outcome of measures of poverty and inequality is
taken as a function of the district’s exposure to international trade. The regression equation also includes
district-fixed effects, which takes care of unobserved district-specific heterogeneity and year dummies to
control for macroeconomic shocks that affect the whole country equally. She arrives at the conclusion that
lower levels of tariffs have been associated with significantly high levels of poverty (measured as the
headcount ratio and poverty gap) for rural India. For the urban sector, however, no such significant
relationship between trade liberalization and poverty was found. Similarly, she finds that there is no
statistically significant relationship between trade exposure and inequality (measured as the standard
deviation of log consumption and the mean logarithmic deviation of consumption) either.

Raghubendra Jha (2000) examines the impact of liberalization on poverty and inequality in India by
analysing trends in aggregate inequality and poverty in India and outlining the major characteristics at the
state level. He uses the headcount ratio, the poverty gap index and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke measure
as indicators of poverty. Three sub-periods are considered: 1951-63, 1964-90, and 1991 onwards. He
finds that in the period post-1991, inequality was severely exacerbated, and that poverty also rose due to
the economic crisis of 1990-91 and subsequently declined albeit by a marginal amount.

Jha further uses changes in real wages as a proxy for movements in inequality and rural poverty. A
regression equation with the real agricultural wage as the dependent variable and a time trend, inflation in
the consumer price index for agricultural laborers, and a dummy for a good/bad monsoon year are taken
as independent variables. He finds that although variations in monsoons account for some fluctuations, the
real wages in agriculture have been increasing over time. Additionally, he finds that urban poverty has
been higher than rural poverty, with urban poverty being highly associated (positively) with industrial
growth. He also finds that there is no convergence between states in ranks and there is a weak level
convergence in poverty, inequality and mean consumption in the urban and rural sectors.

Ramesh Chand (1999) analyses the impact of liberalization on four important crops in India – rice, maize,
chickpeas and rapeseed-mustard – at the national and the farm level. In order to gauge the impact of trade
liberalization on the above-mentioned crops, he calculates the Net Protection Coefficient (NPC), which is
the ratio of the domestic wholesale price and the border price of a commodity for each of the four crops
from 1987/88 to 1996/97. He concludes that trade liberalization would lead to a surge in exports of rice
and maize, while rapeseed-mustard oil would experience a substantial increase in imports. He finds
domestic prices and production for chickpeas would not undergo any significant change with trade
liberalization.

He further estimates the impact of liberalization on producer and consumer surplus with the aid of demand
elasticity, supply elasticity and price linkage functions for rice, maize and rapeseed-mustard (since these
are the only crops that were found to experience a reasonable change in domestic prices and production).
He finds that trade liberalization would lead to an increase in producer surplus for rice by Rs. 7,237 million
while it would reduce consumer surplus by Rs. 7,545 million leading to a net decline in social welfare. For
maize, on the other hand, the gain in producer surplus has been estimated to be double the loss in
consumer surplus, leading to a substantial increase in social welfare. Rapeseed-mustard could either lead
to a substantial increase in social welfare or a modest improvement in the same (two possible scenarios
were discussed in the chapter). Thus, the impact of liberalization on social welfare would vary across
commodities.

Gulati and Narayanan (2002) look at the impact of rice trade liberalization on poverty in various developing
countries. This study gauges the impact of liberalization on domestic production of rice and on prices of
rice, using an NPC analysis, and finds that India – along with Thailand and Viet Nam – would be the main
exporter of rice in the medium-to-long run in the post-liberalization period. However, they stress the
importance of looking at the lagged effect of trade liberalization on agricultural wages and employment.
They find that in India, the increase in the price of paddy for the period 1990/91 to 1999/2000 was
accompanied by an increase in the wages of unskilled agricultural labour, an increase in private
investment, and a decline in public investment (which was more than compensated by the increase in
private investment).




24 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







As discussed earlier, this study takes an alternative approach: instead of estimating the impact of trade
liberalization on poverty, it quantifies the impact of trade on the livelihoods of the poor through its impact
on wages and employment. For this purpose, the impact of trade on the wages and employment of the
poor in the unorganized sector of India is estimated, along with its impact on unskilled labour in agriculture
and the organized manufacturing sector. The next section briefly reviews the existing studies in these
areas.

3.4. THE IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZED
AND UNORGANIZED SECTOR IN INDIA: EXISTING STUDIES

Trade can play an important role in labour markets, especially those of developing countries. By exposing
the domestic industry to international and domestic competition, it may force firms to continuously
improve their productivity and efficiency (Bloch and McDonald, 1999). Furthermore, the overseas markets
also act as sources of new knowledge and skills. Though the impact of trade on labour productivity is
generally agreed upon (except for the question of causality of the effect), the impact of trade on
employment and wages is a much-disputed area.

There is an ongoing debate over the impact of trade on relative employment and wages. Ghose (2000)
shows that in the case of industrialized countries, growth of manufactured imports from developing
countries has a small adverse effect on manufacturing employment but virtually no effect on wages.
However, in the case of developing countries, growth of trade has a large positive effect on manufacturing
employment and wages. In addition, trade tends to lead to a decline in wage inequality, by increasing the
demand for unskilled workers. Therefore, in some of these economies, growth of trade is associated with
declining wage inequality. However, focusing on the short-run effects on labour markets, Greenway, Hine
and Wright (2000) find a considerable positive impact from international trade on wages in the United
Kingdom. In particular, trade competition from newly industrialized countries (NICs) in South-East Asia
appears to have increased wage inequality.

With respect to India, most of the studies on the impact of trade on labour markets have been conducted
for the organized sector, and have arrived at mixed results. The “organized sector” in India is defined by
the size of the establishment in terms of the number of workers (10 or more workers). There are many
regulations in India that apply only to the “organized sector”, and some of these regulations are
considered to be especially constraining to employers, leading to rigidities in labour markets. In particular,
three types of regulations that are seen as constraining are: (a) fairly stringent rules relating to the firing of
workers and also to the closing down of enterprises, along with requirements for reasonable compensation
for retrenchment; (b) laws governing the use of temporary or casual labour which enforce permanence of
contract after a specified time of employment; and (c) minimum wage legislation that raises the cost of
hiring workers. Given these rigidities in the organized manufacturing sector, it becomes interesting to
compare the impact of trade on labour markets in the organized sector and the unorganized sector, where
these rigidities do not exist.
With respect to the organized sector, Goldar (2002) found that employment elasticity for aggregate
manufacturing increased from 0.26 in the pre-reform period (1973-74 to 1989-90) to 0.33 in the post-
reform period (1990-91 to 1997-98). However, a significant increase in employment elasticity is observed
only in export-oriented industries, as import competing industries revealed a fall in employment elasticity
from 0.425 in the pre-reform period to 0.264 in the post-reform period. As regards trends in real wages,
results showed that growth in real wages per worker declined appreciably, from 3.29 per cent per annum
during the pre-reform period to 1.16 per cent per annum in the post-reform period.

In a similar vein, Tendulkar (2003) analysed organized industrial growth over three distinct policy regimes,
i.e. 1973-74 to 1980-81, 1980-81 to 1990-91, and 1990-91 to 1997-98. He found that the period 1973-74
to 1980-81 was marked as a period of restrictive industrial and trade policies; the trend growth rate of
output was 4.65 per cent, and employment grew by 3.83 per cent. Product wage per worker increased at
3.2 per cent, and implicit growth of productivity per worker was a negligible 0.8 per cent. The subsequent
period, from 1980-81 to 1990-91, was a period of somewhat liberal trade and industrial policies, combined
with an aggregate demand push provided by rising fiscal deficits and good agricultural harvests. It
experienced jobless growth in manufacturing, indicating an output growth of 7.1 per cent. Real product
wages grew by 4.5 per cent, compared to implicit growth of 7.3 per cent in productivity per worker. The
last period, from 1990-91 to 1997-98 (i.e. the period when economic reforms were initiated) witnessed
considerable improvements in both output and employment growth, at 9.0 and 2.9 per cent respectively,
with a moderate product wage growth of 2.6 per cent.




CHAPTER III. THE TRADE-GROWTH-POVERTY NEXUS: 25
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE





In another study, Goldar (2004), while stressing the slowdown in productivity trends in post-reform periods
in organized manufacturing, reiterated that the trend growth rate in employment from 1997-98 to 2001-02
was significantly negative – at about 3.3 per cent per annum. Furthermore, the trend growth rate in real
value added during the same period was also very low, at about 0.5 per cent per annum, which was much
lower than the trend growth rates in real value of output and the index number of industrial manufacturing
production in this period, both exceeding 5 per cent per annum.

Goldar and Aggarwal (2004) examined the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers on manufactured imports
on price-cost margins in Indian industries. The analysis, based on panel data for 137 three digit level
industries for the period 1980-81 to 1997-98, indicated that lowering of tariffs and removal of quantitative
restrictions on manufactured imports had had a significant pro-competitive effect on domestic industries,
tending to reduce mark-ups or price-cost margins. However, price-cost margins did not fall in the post-
reform period in most of the industry groups. Rather, there had been a marked fall in the growth rate of
real wages and a significant reduction in labour’s income share in value added, perhaps reflecting a
weakening of industrial labour’s bargaining power. This seems to have neutralized, to a large extent, the
depressing effect of trade liberalization on price-cost margins.

Vasudeva-Dutta (2004) empirically analysed the link between trade protection and inter-industry wage
premiums in India using microeconomic data (NSS employment and unemployment surveys) for three
years – 1983, 1993 and 1999. Inter-industry wage premiums were estimated using information on worker
characteristics after controlling for potential selectivity bias for workers in two types of wage employment –
regular and casual wage employment. The results show that there is substantial dispersion of wages
across industries, although the inter-industry wage structure has remained relatively stable over time. The
impact of trade liberalization on inter-industry wage premiums for regular workers is substantial, and more
protected industries tend to have higher relative wages. Conversely, industries that undergo larger tariff
reductions have lower wages relative to other industries. This positive tariff–wage effect is evident whether
or not industry-fixed effects, such as productivity, skill intensity and average enterprise size, are included.
This positive effect could reflect the erosion of rents that are received (and reflected in the wages earned)
by unionized workers in imperfectly competitive markets following trade liberalization.

Banga (2006) examined the impact of exports on employment and wages in the organized sector for the
period 1991-92 to 1997-98, using data for 78 industries. The results show that the export intensity of the
industry has a significant positive impact on employment levels. However, the impact of export intensity on
the wage rate of the industries is not found to be statistically significant.

In contrast to a large number of studies on the impact of trade reforms in the organized manufacturing
sector, evidence of the same in the unorganized manufacturing is limited. Unni, Lalitha and Rani (2000)
compared trends in growth and efficiency in utilization of resources in manufacturing at all-India level and
for Gujarat before and after the reform periods. They found that both the organized and unorganized
manufacturing sectors in Gujarat had done better in terms of growth in value added. In another study, Rani
and Unni (2004) found initial economic reform policies to have adversely affected employment in the
organized and unorganized manufacturing sectors, which improved in subsequent years. In addition, the
reform measures that were initiated had a differential impact on various industry groups, with growth in
automobiles and infrastructure enabling growth in the unorganized segment.

Marjit and Beladi (2008) argue that globalization increases the size of the informal sector. Liberal trade
policy in the form of a decline in tariffs reduces open unemployment and increases informal wages and
informal employment under reasonable assumption if capital is mobile between the formal and the informal
sectors. Marjit and Kar (2007) provide empirical evidence on the movement of real wages in the informal
sector in India and how this affects poverty at the state level. The basic result on income mobility is
corroborated by a primary survey in the province of West Bengal, for which they offer a descriptive
analysis on household income levels in the province’s informal manufacturing and service sectors.

Raj and Duraisamy (2006) analyse the efficiency and productivity performance of unorganized
manufacturing in 13 major Indian states using a large-scale National Sample Survey data for five periods,
broadly representing the pre-reform (1978-79, 1984-85 and 1989-90) and the post-reform (1994-95 and
2000-01) periods. The analysis, based on Malmquist productivity indices, shows that in all states but
Rajasthan, on average, the annual rate of total factor productivity growth has been higher in the reform
period than in the pre-reform years. The better performance of unorganized manufacturing was due to
good progress made in technical efficiency rather than to technological progress; this has been a major
factor in achieving high levels of total factor productivity during the reference period.




26 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







On a somewhat different but related note, Rao (1994), Datt (1999), Papola (1999) and many others have
contended that the policy shift towards greater openness is inherently biased towards organized industry
and better-skilled people in the urban sector. As a result, trade has a more substantial impact on the urban
economy than on the rural economy in India. Notably, rural areas are inhabited by a large proportion of
poor who earn a meagre livelihood and are engaged primarily in the unorganized sector, which is
characterized by inadequate social security benefits, job insecurity, poor working conditions, and a weak
asset and resource base. This would imply that rural non-farm enterprises may not be able to compete and
share the gains expected from the reform process.

Based on these findings, two points can be put forth. Firstly, trade liberalization has had a favourable
effect on Indian organized manufacturing towards improving its competitive strength by enhancing labour
productivity. Secondly, the response of employment and wage rates to economic reforms and liberal trade
policies is mixed for the organized manufacturing sector. Differences in estimates could be due to different
time periods taken in the analysis, and to the fact that not enough studies have been undertaken on the
subject to arrive at a consensus.

It is important to reiterate here that most of the findings with respect to the impact of trade liberalization on
labour markets pertain mainly to the organized manufacturing sector, as not many studies have been
undertaken in this context for unorganized manufacturing. Most of the available studies have estimated the
impact of reforms merely by comparing the trends and growth performance of labour market
characteristics in the pre- and post-reform periods. In doing so, the studies have not tried to capture the
effect of exports and imports on employment and wage rates. Also, since unorganized manufacturing is
heterogeneous in nature (i.e. across industries, states and rural-urban location), the impact of trade at such
a disaggregate level is not yet known. For sure, literature abounds with an exploration of rural and urban
labour markets at district and state level, focusing on diverse aspects, namely employment, and wage
patterns, and their linkages with poverty and growth, separately in the farm and non-farm sectors.
However, in most of the studies, the non-farm sector is studied as a whole, of which unorganized
manufacturing constitutes just one of the economic sectors.3

3.5 IMPACT OF TRADE ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY: EXISTING LITERATURE

In the analysis of the potential link between trade and economic growth, one of the directions in which
research has proceeded is to investigate the microeconomic link between trade and firms’ productivity.
Studies attempt to explore whether firms with higher productivity growth become exporters, or whether
the productivity of firms increases as a result of more intense domestic competition from imports due to
external markets when they enter export markets.

The impact of trade on labour productivity needs to be analysed with care, for it is possible that higher
labour productivity may lead to higher trade. Frankel and Romer’s (1999) pioneering work on the casual
effect of trade on average productivity across nations was based on the perception that trade is partly
determined by the location characteristics of countries. They examined this idea empirically for a large set
of countries in 1985, and concluded that trade has a positive effect on average labour productivity. Kraay
(1997) found that, controlling for firms’ past performance and for unobserved characteristics of firms, past
exports are a significant indicator of an enterprise’s current performance. The estimated coefficient
indicates that a 10 percentage point increase in a firm’s export-to-output ratio in a given year causes a 13
per cent increase in labour productivity.

Trade exposes firms to the latest available technology. Exposure to international markets may provide a
network for sources of new knowledge and new techniques. These may have positive effects on labour
productivity. Bloch and McDonald (2000) have analysed this issue. They found that the labour productivity
in manufacturing firms in Australia increased with increased exposure to exports. Alcala and Ciccone
(2001) ascertain the effect of trade on average labour productivity across countries. Their findings show
that the causal effect of trade on labour productivity is large, highly significant and very robust. They
examined the channels through which trade affects average labour productivity, and found that trade
works through total factor productivity. They also found that average labour productivity is influenced in a
statistically significantly way by the size of a country’s workforce once international trade is taken into
account.



3 See, among others, Chadha (2003); Bhalla (2005); Srivastava and Singh (2005); Sundaram (2007); Singh (2008) for a detailed
exposition on the subject. The analysis is largely based on various rounds of quinquennial NSS employment-unemployment
surveys.




CHAPTER III. THE TRADE-GROWTH-POVERTY NEXUS: 27
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE





A study by Douglas (2003) on the impact of the United States–Canada FTA on Canadian manufacturing
suggests that tariff reductions helped boost labour productivity by a compounded rate of 0.6 per,cent per
annum in manufacturing as a whole, and by 2.1 percent per annum in the most affected (i.e. high-tariff)
industries. These productivity effects were achieved by a mix of plant turnover and rising technical
efficiency within plants. By increasing productivity, the FTA also helped to increase the annual earnings of
workers. Another study by Doyle and Zarzoso (2005) used the real openness measure as a determinant of
labour productivity in a cross-country setting over 1980-2000. This study suggests that a 1 per cent
increase in real openness increases labour productivity only by 0.55 per cent.

Banga (2005) found that exports raised labour productivity in Indian manufacturing industries. Higher
competitive pressures have driven firms to improve their productivity. It is also found that the import
intensity of an industry, which is measured in terms of effective rate of protection, has a strong positive
effect, indicating that the higher the extent of imports, the higher labour productivity will be.

3.6. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGE INEQUALITIES: EXISTING LITERATURE

Very few studies exist that examine the relationship between trade and wage inequalities. One of the first
attempts at a trade-based hypothesis to explain increased differentials between skilled and unskilled
workers was made by Bhagwati and Dehejia (1994). The authors argued that increased economic
integration had increased the volatility of comparative advantage. This had led to increased labour
turnover, reducing the relative wages of the less skilled. There may be two reasons for these results: either
they have skills that are less transferable than those possessed by skilled workers, or they are less likely
than high-skilled individuals to invest in skill improvements during jobless spells. Some empirical support
for this hypothesis, for Canada, was found by Zalkiwal (2000).

Durevall and Munshi (2006) have explored the relationship between trade liberalization and skilled–
unskilled wage inequalities in Bangladesh’s cotton textile industry. Their major finding is that opening up to
international trade has affected unskilled and skilled wages in the same way: there is no reduction or
increase in wage inequality. Moreover, trade opening seems to have increased real wages across the
board, possibly because of trade-induced increases in productivity.

By contrast, Mishra and Kumar (2005), in their study for India, found a strong, negative and robust
relationship between changes in trade policy and changes in industry premiums over time. They conclude
that trade liberalization has led to decreased wage inequalities between skilled and unskilled workers in
India. According to them, as tariff reductions were relatively large in sectors with a higher proportion of
unskilled workers, and these sectors experienced an increase in relative wages, unskilled workers have
experienced an increase in income, relative to skilled workers. Thus, the findings in this paper suggest that
trade liberalization has led to decreased wage inequalities in India.

Similarly, Banga (2005a) found that higher export intensity of an industry is associated with lower wage
inequalities. As most of the exports take place from low-skill and labour-intensive industry, by raising the
demand for low-skilled labour, higher exports increase their returns, and subsequently reduce the wage
gap. However, as technological progress is skill-biased, a higher level of technology acquisition is found to
be associated with higher wage inequalities.

Wage inequality between skilled and unskilled labour can have important implications for the sustainability
of gains from trade. Higher exports may increase the demand for unskilled labour and increase their
returns, but it becomes imperative to establish supporting empirical evidence. It may be the case that in
order to sustain competitiveness, which arises due to low labour costs, higher exports may further
suppress the incomes of unskilled labour.

3.7 GENDER IMPACTS OF TRADE: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Most of the studies that estimate the impact of trade on gender employment conclude that trade
liberalization does not have a gender-neutral impact. Depending upon the intensity of employment of
women in the export and import sectors of the economy, trade may favour employment of one gender
over the other. However, the extent of the impact may differ considerably across sectors and countries. In
this context, it is useful to briefly review the existing literature and to highlight gender-neutralizing trade
policy implications of the studies. For India, only limited empirical literature is available, given the lack of
availability of comparable gender and trade data.




28 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Menon and Rodgers (2006) address the question of whether increasing trade liberalization affects the
wages of male and female workers differently. Their study demonstrates that although an increase in trade
still has a mitigating effect on the gender wage gap (neoclassical), under certain conditions, the net effect
may be that of a widening of the wage gap between male and female workers (non-neoclassical). The
theory is tested by estimating the impact of trade reforms on gender wage differentials using four cross-
sections of household survey data from the National Sample Survey Organization between 1983 and 2004.
The results indicate that increasing openness to trade is associated with a widening of the wage gap in
India’s manufacturing industries.

Raihan et al. (2007) explore the gender aspects of policy reforms in Bangladesh in a sequential dynamic
computational general equilibrium (CGE) framework. The research performs two simulations to examine
the impact of (a) domestic trade liberalization in Bangladesh; and (b) the phasing out of the Multi-Fibre
Agreement (MFA) on textile and garments. It further builds a gendered social accounting matrix (SAM) for
the year 2000, and uses it in a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium framework.

It is found that domestic trade liberalization leads to a significant expansion of the readymade garment
sectors in the economy, as a result of which the share of market labour supply of unskilled female labour
increases. However, this results in a fall in the shares of domestic labour supply and leisure of unskilled
female members of the households. A fall in the share of leisure time may have significant negative
implications for the time spent on education by this labour category. It is also observed that the long-run
impacts are different from the short-run impacts with respect to the magnitude of the effects. In the case
of second simulation, it is noted that the phasing out of the MFA works in completely the opposite
direction. The share of market labour supply of unskilled female members of the households decreases,
and the shares of domestic work and leisure increase for most of the households both in the short and the
long run.

USAID (2006) examines the impact of trade liberalization on growth, employment and poverty in South
Africa. More specifically, by using the dynamic general equilibrium and micro simulation model, the study
attempts to show how trade influences the process of growth and reduces inequality in job opportunities
between men and women. The study finds that trade liberalization has contributed positively to the growth,
by inducing trade-related technological improvement. At the same time, however, it has increased income
inequality between men and women. It is argued that while men and women both benefit from trade-
induced growth, it is male-headed households that have benefitted more from rising factor incomes.

Riddle (2004) undertakes a detailed analysis of the gender impacts of trade in services across 74
developing countries, including 20 of the least developed countries. The study examines potential links
between liberalization of trade in services, and development, focusing on the central role of services in all
economies – with many of the service suppliers being women. It is noted in the study that any growth in
services, whether domestic or through trade, will not in itself ensure equity or an improved quality of life for
girls and women. The study concludes that in order to maximize the development benefits of trade in
services, the focus needs to be on strengthening the ability of developing economies to ensure and
implement gender-sensitive employment, pay-equity legislation, and effective domestic regulatory reforms,
prior to further liberalization of trade in services.

Williams (2002) examines tourism and development from the perspective of social and gender equity, and
finds that the issue is multi-dimensional. The study argues that tourism growth may increase competition
with other sectors such as domestic agriculture and other export areas. Most of these sectors provide
wages for women, and therefore it might be possible that tourist development may not be in line with
social and sustainable development. In addition, it has been argued that there are significant gender
biases and inequalities, which may predispose women to greater vulnerabilities and constraints in enjoying
the presumed benefits of tourism development and to disproportionately shouldering the negative
consequences of adjustments.

Anh-Nga Tran-Nguyen (2004) emphasizes that international trade influences the growth process and
gender equality in positive as well as in negative ways. Positives from trade are the enlargement of
markets and an exchange of technology and information, thereby contributing to growth and development.
Trade benefits all – men and women. However, within the same country, benefits are distributed differently
between men and women, because the society assigns them different roles. Implementation of multilateral
trading rules should, therefore, provide governments with enough policy and regulatory space for pursuit
of the gender-equality objective.




CHAPTER III. THE TRADE-GROWTH-POVERTY NEXUS: 29
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE





Korinek (2005) examines ways in which greater integration through trade affects women and men
differently, which may have implications for growth. The paper finds that trade creates jobs for women in
export-oriented sectors. Jobs that bring more household resources under women’s control lead to greater
investments in the health and education of future generations. Women also have less access to productive
resources, time, and particularly – in many developing countries – to education. Professional women
continue to encounter discrimination in hiring and promotion, including in OECD countries. Once different
impacts are ascertained, well-designed policy responses may aid women in taking advantage of greater
openness to trade.

Grown (2005) explores the linkages between trade liberalization and the provision of – and access to –
sexual and reproductive health services. The study finds that trade liberalization can possibly create new
opportunities for improving reproductive health, but at the same time, it can also make it more difficult to
advance reproductive/sexual health and rights objectives in policies, programmes and services. There are
two ways in which trade affects health. Direct pathways, through trade policies such as GATS and TRIPS,
affect the supply of reproductive health services by possibly interfering with national health policies and by
increasing costs of reproductive drugs, supplies and vaccines. Secondly, trade policies and movements in
goods and services affect women’s demand for services indirectly through changes in their labour force
participation.

The above review of literature on gender impacts of trade highlight that trade liberalization tends to have
asymmetrical impacts on men’s and women’s employment and working conditions. Some of these
impacts are positive for women while others can be negative. The balance of the different impacts and
mechanisms can only be determined in specific contexts and country circumstances.













CHAPTER IV. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES 31






CHAPTER IV: IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE
EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES



4.1 INTRODUCTION

Traditional trade theories, such as the Heckscher–Ohlin–Samuelson (H-O-S) framework, suggest that trade
will lead to labour-abundant countries exporting labour-intensive goods. This will result in a redistribution
of employment from the import sector towards the export sector. Therefore, according to the traditional
theories, due to full employment assumption, trade may not generate additional employment but may lead
to redistribution of labour force towards export-intensive sectors. Any changes in employment will be only
in the short run. However, dropping the assumption of full employment, alternative frameworks have been
developed which suggest that trade and trade policy can affect employment permanently with little or no
adjustment in the economy.4 Empirical literature finds the impact of trade/trade policy on employment and
wages to be country- and sector-specific.

Ghose (2000) shows that in the case of industrialized countries, growth of manufactured imports from
developing countries has a small adverse effect on manufacturing employment, but virtually no effect on
wages. However, in the case of developing countries that have emerged as important exporters of
manufactures to industrialized countries, growth in exports has a large positive effect on manufacturing
employment and wages.

Danthine and Hunt (1994) point out that, while Marshallian pressures would be expected to decrease
wages, as competition in the product market increases, an increased integration will also effectively
reduce the degree of centralization of bargaining. This can lead to either increases or decreases in union
wage demands, depending on the initial bargaining structure of the country concerned. Focusing on the
short-run effects on labour markets, Greenaway, Hine and Wright (2000) find a considerable impact from
international trade on wages in the United Kingdom. Trade competition from newly industrialized countries
(NICs) in South-East Asia appears to have increased wage inequality.

However, no consensus has been reached in the literature so far regarding the impact of trade on
employment and wages in developing countries.5 This chapter quantifies the impact of the rise in exports
in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 on economy-wide employment. It further computes the extent to which
exports in this period have generated incomes for five income groups, including those below the poverty
line and those under abject poverty. Thereafter, the impact of the global slowdown on employment is
estimated. While exports may have generated significant employment during the period of high export
growth, it is also important to quantify the extent of job losses during the downturn in export growth.

Section 4.2 presents the estimates of employment generated in 46 sectors of the economy due to rises in
exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. Section 4.3 computes the incomes generated for the poor by
this rise in exports, and section 4.4 presents the results of the impact of the global slowdown on
employment in 10 broad sectors of the economy. Section 4.5 summarizes and concludes.

4.2 IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT

In order to quantify the export-generated employment in India and to estimate the extent to which exports
generate incomes for the poor, a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) has been used. The details of the
methodology are reported in Appendix I (section A.2.1).

To estimate the impact of exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07, increases in exports in this period
across 46 subsectors6 of the economy are recorded and corresponding rises in output in each of the
sectors are traced. It should be noted that an increase in output in a particular sector might not equal an
increase in its exports. A rise in output due to increased exports of any sector will be caused due to an
increase in its demand as well as an increase in the demand for goods that use the sector’s output as
intermediary goods. In other words, a rise in exports in the exportable sector will also lead to a rise in
output from the other sectors that provide inputs to the exportable sectors. For example, a rise in exports
of food products will generate a demand for food crops and lead to a rise in the output of food crops.



4 For further discussion on this see Appendix I, section A-8 (III).
5 For detailed review of literature see section 3.4
6 The three sectors, namely agriculture, industry and services, are divided into 46 sub-sectors according to the input-output
tables. These sub-sectors are referred to as ‘sectors’ in the chapter.




32 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







After arriving at the actual increase in output in different sectors of the economy due to increased exports
in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07, employment multipliers are applied to the rise in output levels. The
employment multiplier of a sector can be defined as the extent to which employment is generated by a unit
increase in output of the sector. As in the case of output increases, an employment increase in a sector
will include both direct as well indirect increases in employment generated by exports. Summing across
sectors gives the total employment generated in the economy due to rises in exports.

To estimate the output generated by increases in exports across different sectors, an input-output matrix
for the year 2003-04 is used. The rise in real exports and the corresponding rise in output, including both
direct and indirect, in 46 sectors, is presented in Annex Table IV.1.

It is interesting to note that in this period, exports increased substantially for food products (nearly double)
and crude petroleum and natural gas (more than double). Exports generated both direct and indirect
demand. Change in output therefore reflects change in demand for the product for final consumption as
well as for intermediate consumption.

Across sectors, we find that the output generated due to rises in exports has been highest for the
manufacturing industry. Industry’s share in total output generated is 53%, followed by services (42%) and
then agriculture (5%). Within industry, metals (17%) and rubber, petroleum and chemicals (14%) had high
shares in output generated. Within services, maximum output was generated for other services (34%),
followed by trade (16%), and other transport services (12%).

Annex Table IV.2 reports the output and employment multipliers based on 2003-04 across sectors. Given
high employment in the agriculture sector, we find that employment multipliers are highest for food crops
(8.56), followed by wood and furniture (3.14) and plantation crops (2.34). Within the manufacturing sector,
high employment multipliers are found for cotton textiles, jute, hemp and mesta textiles, and other textile
products. Within the services sector, construction, domestic trade and tourism are found to have high
employment multipliers.

Applying employment multipliers to rise in output, rise in employment due to rise in exports in the period
2003-04 to 2006-07 is generated for 46 sectors. The results are presented in Table 4.1. The results show
that total employment generated in the economy by rise in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 was
around 26 million person-years. This implies that exports in this period generated employment of around
26 million person-years, averaging around 6.5 million person-years every year.

It has been argued that that services sector growth in the 1990s was a “jobless growth”. However, using
this methodology for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07, we find that the maximum employment generated by
exports in this period is in services (12 million); followed by industry (7 million) and then agriculture (6
million).

Within the services sector, the maximum employment is generated in the domestic trade sector, which
comprises wholesale and retail trade (4 million person-years), followed by other services (3.95 million
person-years) and food crops (3.23 million person-years). It needs to be noted that there has been no
change in exports of food crops in this period. However, given the intersectoral linkages (particularly with
food products, and hotels and restaurants) and the high employment multiplier in food crops, an increase
in the output of this sector due to increases in exports from other related sectors generates high
employment in this sector.




CHAPTER IV. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES 33





Table 4. 1: Increase in employment due to increase in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07




Sectors


Increased employment from 2003-04 to
2006-07
(in millions of person-years)


Food crops 3.23


Cash crops 1.65


Plantation crop 0.47


Other crops 0.27


Animal husbandry 0.19


Forestry and logging 0.2


Fishing 0.03


Coal and lignite 0.17


Crude petroleum, natural gas 0.08


Iron ore 0.04


Other minerals 0.83


Food products 0.45


Beverages, tobacco, etc. 0


Cotton textiles 0.55


Wool, silk and synthetic fibre 0.26


Jute, hemp, mesta textiles 0.06


Textiles products including wearing apparel 0.9


Wood, furniture etc. 0.82


Paper and printing etc. 0.11


Leather and leather products 0.14


Rubber, petroleum, plastic, cola 0.18


Chemicals etc. 0.22


Non-metallic products 0.1


Metals 0.59
Metal products except mach. and tpt.
equipment 0.29
Tractors, agri. implements, industrial
machinery, other machinery 0.34
Electrical, electronic machinery and
applications 0.02


Transport equipments 0.06


Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 1.18


Construction 0.27


Electricity 0.21


Gas and water supply 0.02


Railway transport services 0.28


Other transport services 1.68


Storage and warehousing 0.01


Communication 0.25


Trade 4.06


Hotels and restaurants 0.93


Banking 0.37


Insurance 0.09


Ownership of dwellings 0


Education and research 0




34 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Medical and health 0


Other services 3.95


Public administration 0


Tourism 0.43


Total 25.97


4.3 IMPACT OF RISE IN EXPORTS IN 2003-04 TO 2007-08 ON INCOMES OF
THE POOR

The extent to which the rise in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 generated incomes for the five
income categories is presented in Table 4.27. The income categories are reported for rural and urban
households separately; where RH1 and RH2 are the income categories of rural households “under abject
poverty” and “below the national poverty line” respectively, and UH1 and UH2 are income categories in
urban households, which are “under abject poverty” and “below the national poverty line” respectively.

The results show that the total income generated by the increase in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-
07 was of Rs 2,364 billion, equivalent to $55 billion. However, within rural areas, we find that the
distribution of income has not been in favour of people in abject poverty, i.e. in income groups RH1. Out of
the total income generated in rural areas due to exports, only 2% reaches the RH1 income group (the
poorest of the poor); while 7% of the total income generated is for the income group RH2. Together, the
low-income groups in rural areas get less than 10% of the total income generated in the rural sectors
because of the rise in exports.

In the case of urban sectors, we find that the situation is not much different. In fact, the income generated
by exports for the UH1 income group (people in abject poverty) is only 1.4% of the total income group,
while UH1 and UH2 together have around 7% of the total income generated, as in the case of rural areas.
Total income generated for the people in the lowest income group (RH1 and UH1) is around 1.6% of the
total income generated in the economy by the rise in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. The
highest income group (RH5 and UH5) gets around 40% of the total income generated by exports, while
70% of the total income generate goes to the top two income groups (rural and urban taken together).


Table 4.2: Increased value added and household-wise increased income due to increase in exports




Increased income from 2003-04 to 2006-07


Rs billion


Labour 1366.22


Capital 1559.19


RH1 24.00


RH2 92.09


RH3 289.08


RH4 360.34


RH5 504.27


UH1 15.41


UH2 64.58


UH3 262.24


UH4 311.78


UH5 440.51


Total increase 2364.3
RH1 and RH2: people under abject poverty and below the poverty line in rural areas.
UH1 and UH2: people under abject poverty and below the poverty line in urban areas.



7 The details of the methodology are reported in Appendix I, section A.2.2.




CHAPTER IV. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES 35





The results, therefore, indicate that exports from India have been able to increase employment across
sectors, and the incomes of the poor. However, the gains from exports in terms of higher incomes have
not percolated down to the poor. The incomes of the poor and the poorest of the poor have increased, but
it is a very small proportion of the total increase in incomes generated by exports. Therefore, a major
policy challenge is to improve the distributional impact of increases in incomes arising from exports.

4.4. IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL SLOWDOWN ON INDIA’S EXPORTS AND
EMPLOYMENT

The increased integration of world markets over the past few years has transmitted, among other things,
economic crisis from one country to the other. The larger the economy where the crisis originates, the
greater the impact is on other countries. The United States – the largest economy in the world, both in
terms of its share in world GDP (27%) and in global imports (17%) – experienced the sub-prime mortgage
collapse in August 2007. This was followed by the reversal of the housing boom in other industrialized
economies, which had a ripple effect all around the world. Furthermore, integrated financial sectors
unmasked other weaknesses in the global financial system, as a result of which some of the financial
products and instruments became so complex and twisted that as things started to unravel, trust in the
whole system started to fail. Stock markets crashed all over the world, with declines ranging from 35 to
40% in developed countries and even more in most emerging markets.

One of the most important channels through which the financial crisis erupting in the United States and
other advanced economies was transmitted to developing countries was through international trade. Apart
from the direct impact of lower demand for exports from developing countries by advanced economies,
the impact of the slowdown can be transmitted through three other major channels of trade. These are
through third market effects, supply chains, and contraction of trade finance. The third market effects are
referred to in the literature as “echo effects”, which work through the trading partners of the country where
the slowdown occurs. Apart from the direct effects on developing countries of lowering of exports to
advanced countries with lower GDP growth, there is an indirect effect through lower demand from trading
partners of the advanced countries. This leads to a second round of slowdown of demand for exports of
developing countries.

International vertical supply chains are also adversely affected, and developing countries, which are a part
of these supply chains, feel the impact of lowering of demand for their exports to other developing
countries, which in turns leads to lower import levels. In addition to these, trade finance squeezes due to
tighter financial markets can lead to substantial supply-side effects. However, the impact of a slowdown
may be felt differently by different countries – depending on the nature of their exportable products, the
destination country of the exports, and the overall dependence of the economy on exports. Furthermore,
the higher the income elasticity of demand for a country’s exports, the higher the adverse impact of lower
GDP growth of its trading partners will be.

One of the unique features of the United States economy is its high income elasticity of imports.8 Three
decades of econometric modelling9 show that the income elasticity of imports in the United States is
greater than 1. While estimates vary, it is generally found that for every 1% increase in United States
income, import demand increases by 2.2%. The implication of this is clear: a 1% slowdown of GDP in the
United States will decrease import demand by 2.2%. This can rapidly transmit the United States’
slowdown into the countries that have the United States as a major market for their exports.

India is one of the many developing countries which have relied heavily on the United States and other
advanced economies for its exports. In 2007, around 17% of India’s exports sought United States
markets, while 29% were directed to G7 countries,10 and around 58% of the exports were directed
towards advanced countries (as defined by IMF). Given such heavy reliance on advanced economies’
markets, India has not been able to remain insulated in this global decline, especially in the trade sector.

A close look at India’s trade sector indicates that in real terms, growth in India’s exports and imports in
both goods and services has declined (Table 4.3). Growth in exports of goods in real terms declined from
17.8% in 2006-07 to 5.4% in 2007-08. Maximum decline is witnessed in growth of exports of services,
which grew at the rate of 26.8% in 2005-06 but experienced a negative growth of -1.8% in 2007-08.
Growth in imports of goods declined from 25.2% in 2005-906 to 10.6% in 2007-08. India’s GDP growth



8 where income elasticity of import/export is defined as percentage change in growth of imports/exports for one percentage
change in growth in its income or GDP.
9 Magee (1975), Sawyer and Sprinkle (1996), Marquez (2001)
10 G7 countries are as defined by IMF.




36 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







was estimated to be 9.2% in 2005-06, which increased to 9.7% in 2006-07 but declined to 9.2% in 2007-
08.


Table 4. 3: Growth in India’s trade (in real terms): 2005-06 to 2007-08



2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Exports of goods 17.2 17.8 5.4


Exports of services 26.8 27.4 -1.8


Imports of goods 25.2 17.9 10.6


Imports of services 17.8 24.0 -3.7


Real GDP at market
prices 9.2 9.7 9.2


Source: National Accounts Statistics, CSO and RBI.

The quarterly trend shows that export growth became negative for the first time since 2005-06 in the third
quarter (Oct-Dec) of 2008-09. Further, in the last quarter of 2008-09 (Jan-March 2009) there was a much
steeper fall of -27.7%. The impact of the slowdown was therefore felt in India from October 2008.


Figure 4. 1: India’s export growth 2005-06 to 2008-09




Figure: India's Export Growth: Quaterly
Comparisons


-40.0
-30.0
-20.0
-10.0


0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0


Apr-June
Jul-Sep
Oct-Dec
Jan-Mar


Apr-June 34.5 23.6 20.5 37.4


Jul-Sep 32.4 30.8 19.2 25.6


Oct-Dec 22.5 20.5 33.0 -13.5


Jan-Mar 10.8 16.4 41.9 -27.7


2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09



Source: DGCI&S

Given the high dependence of the Indian economy on its external trade sector, where the export of goods
and services (less export-related imports) is around 20% of GDP, a slowdown in the trade sector can have
adverse ripple effects in the economy. More importantly, it can lead to job losses and an increase in the
number of poor in the country. The job losses may be direct, due to contraction in output in the exportable
sectors, and indirect, which may occur due to decline in output of the sectors that provide inputs to the
exportable sectors. The increase in cheaper imports, particularly of inferior goods (the demand for which
increases with lowering of incomes), can further add to the contraction of output and employment in the
economy.

To estimate the extent of employment loss due to the global slowdown in India, the change in total export
growth and export growth across 10 major sectors in 2008-09 over 2007-08 (in Table 4.4) has been used
to estimate total employment loss and employment loss in 10 major sectors of India. Details of the
methodology adopted are reported in Appendix I (section A.3).




CHAPTER IV. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES 37





Table 4. 4: Export growth in 2007-08 and 2008-09 in 10 major sectors



Export growth in


2007-08
Export growth 2008-
09 over 2007-08


1Textiles and textile products 15.7 -8.9
2.Ore and minerals 30.4 -12.3
3.Leather and leather products 16.3 2.5
4.Marine products -2.6 -4.4
5.Agriculture 55.6 2.6
6.Plantation 11.6 54.6
7.Engineering and electronics 26.6 22.0
8.Chemicals and products 21.5 9.7
9.Gems and jewellery 23.3 -4.9
10.Petroleum products 52.0 4.7
Total sectors 29.1 3.40


Source: DGCI&S.

The impacts of the global slowdown on India’s employment are presented in Table 4.5. The estimates
show that in the year 2008-09, with export growth of 3.4%, the total job loss in India due to lower export
growth was of around 1.16 million person-years. However, since the impact of the slowdown on India’s
exports only began to be strongly felt as of October 2008, the net employment created by exports in this
year was positive, i.e. 1.25 million person-years. Sector-specific employment changes show that maximum
job losses have occurred in textiles and textile products (559,621); followed by ores and minerals
(373,023); and gems and jewellery (217,157).




Table 4. 5: Impact of the slowdown on employment: 2008-09 to 2010-2011



Employment change in 2008-09


(person-years)
Ores and minerals -373,023
Textiles products -559,621
Leather and products 30,787
Marine products -16,498
Agriculture 373,148
Plantation 1,275,376
Engineering 665,445
Chemicals and products 45,114
Gems and jewellery -217,151
Petroleum products 33,749
Net employment 1,257,327
Job loss -1,166,293





38 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







4.5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

To assess the role played by exports in generating employment and incomes in India, economy-wide as
well as sector-wide analyses have been undertaken. The results are the following:

 The total increase in employment generated by the rise in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07


was around 26 million person-years.

 The maximum employment generated by the rise in exports is in the services sector, which is 12


million; followed by the industrial sector (7 million), and then agriculture (6 million).

 The results show that the total income generated by increases in exports in the period 2003-04 to


2006-07 was of Rs 2,364 billion, equivalent to $55 billion.

 However, the gains from exports in terms of total income generated have been lopsided. Low-income


groups in rural areas get less than 10% of the total income generated in the rural sectors because of
rise in exports. In the case of urban sectors, we find that the situation is not much different. In fact,
income generated by exports for people in abject poverty is only 1.4% of the total income generated,
while people below the poverty line get around 7% of the total income generated as in the case of
rural areas. Total income generated for the people in the lowest income group, i.e. taking rural and
urban households together (RH1 and UH1) is around 1.6% of the total income generated in the
economy by rise in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. The highest income group (RH5 and
UH5) got around 40% of the total income generated by exports, while 70% of the total income
generated went to the top two income groups (rural and urban taken together).



 India has not remained insulated from the global slowdown. The impact of global slowdown was felt


as of October 2008.
 In the year 2008-09, with export growth of 3.4%, the total job loss in India due to lower export growth


was around 1.16 million person-years However, since the impact of the slowdown on India’s exports
was felt strongly only since October 2008, the net employment created by exports in this year was
positive, i.e. 1.25 million.


 Sector-specific employment changes show that maximum job losses have occurred in textiles and
textile products; followed by ores and minerals; and gems and jewellery.



The broad conclusion that emerges from the results is that exports have played a significant role in India.
They have generated employment and incomes for the poor. However, the share of poor in total incomes
generated from exports is marginal.

Trade policies are rarely formulated with the objective of reducing poverty. However, trade policymakers
can use trade policy as an instrument for generating employment and incomes for the poor. Given the fact
that there will always be winners and losers in the process of liberalization, it is not the net positive impact
of trade on poverty that should be the goal of trade policy, as it may not be desirable to compare the gains
to losses. What needs to be focused on more is to increase exports in the sectors that have large
employment multipliers. Policy interventions are required for distributing the incomes generated from
exports more equitably across all income groups. Efforts are needed to percolate the incomes generated
from exports to the poorest of the poor and people in abject poverty. Participation by the poor in the
exportable sectors, or in sectors that provide inputs on a large scale to the exportable sectors, is a
prerequisite for the poor to gain from trade.




CHAPTER IV. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES 39





ANNEX TO CHAPTER IV

Table IV.1 Exports and increase in output across sectors: 2003-04 to 2006-07



S.No Exports


2003-04
Exports
2006-07


Increased output
from 2003-04 to
2006-07


Rs billion Rs billion Rs billion
1 Food crops 61.2 61.2 42
2 Cash crops 17.5 32.9 83
3 Plantation crop 1.8 2.5 21
4 Other crops 35.4 81.6 165
5 Animal husbandry 17.8 20.9 50
6 Forestry and logging 11 17.2 22
7 Fishing 39.7 42 7
8 Coal and lignite 1.6 1.6 96
9 Crude petroleum, natural gas 1.9 4.4 375


10 Iron ore 27.5 50.5 35
11 Other minerals 231.5 231.5 42
12 Food products 164.3 302.2 178
13 Beverages, tobacco etc. 3.4 4.4 6
14 Cotton textiles 78 116.7 91
15 Wool, silk and synthetic fibre 58.7 80 55
16 Jute, hemp, mesta textiles 3.9 6 12
17 Textiles products including


wearing apparel
358.6 501.4 163


18 Wood, furniture etc. 4.3 8.1 31
19 Paper and printing etc. 13.9 23.8 68
20 Leather and leather products 58.8 74.4 26
21 Rubber, petroleum, plastic, cola 204.1 584.2 627
22 Chemicals etc. 300 505 598
23 Non-metallic products 31.9 36.7 22
24 Metals 182.7 364.2 753
25 Metal products except mach.


and tpt. equipment
53.4 91.8 128


26 Tractors, agri. implements,
industrial machinery, other
machinery


129.5 225.6 158


27 Electrical, electronic machinery
and applications


96.3 178.5 137


28 Transport equipment 76.3 177.3 137
29 Miscellaneous manufacturing


industries
389.8 760.7 483


30 Construction 0 0 55
31 Electricity 0 0 277
32 Gas and water supply 0 0 8
33 Railway transport services 42.9 77 100
34 Other transport services 249.4 457.3 429
35 Storage and warehousing 0 0 3
36 Communication 0.9 2.2 51
37 Trade 298.4 492.3 561
38 Hotels and restaurants 90.4 213 139
39 Banking 13.7 146.9 388
40 Insurance 19.3 63.3 81




40 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







41 Ownership of dwellings 0 0 0
42 Education and research 0 0 0
43 Medical and health 0 0 1
44 Other services 510 1453.8 1186
45 Public administration 0 0 0
46 Tourism 230.5 357.6 127


Total 4110.3 7850.7 8017
Source: IDF report (2008).




Table IV.2: Output and employment multipliers based on input–output matrix of 2003-04




S No Sectors Output multipliers
Employment
multipliers


1 Food crops 1.64 8.56
2 Cash crops 1.38 2.15
3 Plantation crop 1.34 2.34
4 Other crops 1.31 0.40
5 Animal husbandry 1.43 0.68
6 Forestry and logging 1.19 0.97
7 Fishing 1.27 0.56
8 Coal and lignite 1.55 0.35
9 Crude petroleum, natural gas 1.25 0.09


10 Iron ore 1.55 0.26
11 Other minerals 1.35 2.04
12 Food products 2.36 1.72
13 Beverages, tobacco, etc. 2.07 0.62
14 Cotton textiles 2.30 1.40
15 Wool, silk and synthetic fibre 2.52 1.06
16 Jute, hemp, mesta textiles 2.11 1.28
17 Textiles products including wearing apparel 2.37 1.22
18 Wood, furniture etc. 1.82 3.14
19 Paper and printing etc. 2.35 0.58
20 Leather and leather products 2.40 1.11
21 Rubber, petroleum, plastic, cola 2.22 0.26
22 Chemicals etc. 2.31 0.36
23 Non-metallic products 2.14 1.01
24 Metals 2.67 0.53
25 Metal products 2.61 0.64


26
Tractors, agriculture implements, industrial
machinery 2.53 0.60


27
Electrical, electronic machinery and
applications 2.55 0.38


28 Transport equipments 2.51 0.40
29 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 2.63 0.65
30 Construction 2.08 0.97
31 Electricity 2.28 0.36
32 Gas and water supply 1.59 0.41
33 Railway transport services 1.94 0.49
34 Other transport services 2.07 0.67
35 Storage and warehousing 1.81 0.67
36 Communication 1.48 0.64
37 Trade 1.37 0.83




CHAPTER IV. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES 41





38 Hotels and restaurants 2.12 1.79
39 Banking 1.37 0.22
40 Insurance 1.53 0.28
41 Ownership of dwellings 1.15 0.36
42 Education and research 1.23 0.80
43 Medical and health 2.36 0.69
44 Other services 1.97 0.69
45 Public administration 1.00 0.64
46 Tourism 2.13 0.83










CHAPTER V. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT: 43
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA





CHAPTER V: IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA



5.1 INTRODUCTION

The unorganized sector11 has emerged as an important sector of the Indian economy. While almost the
entire farm sector can be characterized as an unorganized/informal sector, approximately 80 per cent of
the workforce in the non-farm sector is also employed in the unorganized sector. Not only does the
unorganized sector (consisting mainly of small economic entities with less than ten workers) contribute
substantially to total employment of the economy, it contributes as much as 50% of India’s GDP.12
However, in spite of its contribution to the economy, the majority of India’s poor are in the unorganized
sector.

It is important to mention at the outset that the manufacturing sector’s exports may be derived from both
the organized sector and also from unorganized small-scale manufacturing units such as handicrafts,
metals, small-scale carpet-weaving units etc. However, data on direct exports from the unorganized sector
are not available. Considering the fact that unorganized manufacturing is closely interlinked with the
organized sector due to its backward and forward linkages,13 the unorganized manufacturing sector may
be directly, as well as indirectly, affected by trade. Therefore, for any analysis of the impact of trade on the
poor, it becomes imperative to examine the impact of trade on the wages and employment of unskilled
workers in the unorganized sector.

Although some studies exist on the impact of trade liberalization in India on wages and employment in the
organized sector, there exists only meagre evidence to corroborate whether trade liberalization has
brought about any effect on employment and wages in the unorganized manufacturing sector. Lack of
research on trade-related effects on the unorganized sector is mainly due to the lack of data with respect
to the trade orientation of the industry to which enterprises in the unorganized sector belong. Furthermore,
data on unorganized manufacturing for India are available with a gap of five years. This makes it difficult to
undertake empirical analysis based on consistent data over a long period. This chapter attempts to
overcome these data problems and to undertake empirical analysis of the impact of trade on wages and
employment in the unorganized sector in India.

Recognizing the potential of this sector to absorb the burgeoning labour force of India and to improve the
incomes of the poor, the following issues are examined in detail:


 Do higher exports from industries to which the enterprises in the unorganized sector belong
increase enterprises’ employment and wage levels? In other words, do gains from higher exports
from the organized sector percolate down to the unorganized sector, given the backward and
forward linkages between the two?



 Has the growing domestic competition from imports affected the employment and wages of the


workers in the unorganized sector?

 Does higher external competition due to trade improve the productivity of the enterprises in the


unorganized sector?

 Do locational factors, such as the state in which the enterprise is located, influence the impact of


trade on employment and wages in unorganized manufacturing? In other words, will the state’s
orientation to trade affect the impact of trade on labour markets in the unorganized sector?



11 In line with the international definition and the characteristics of Indian industries, the National Commission of Enterprises in
Unorganized sector (NCEUS) defines the unorganized /informal sector as “The unorganized /informal sector consists of all
unincorporated private enterprises owned by individual or households engaged in the sale and production of goods and
services operated on a proprietary or partnership basis and with less than ten total workers.”
12 The Task Force constituted by the National Commission of Enterprises in Unorganized sector (NCEUS) in its report on the
Contribution of the Unorganized sector to GDP (June 2008).
13 The interdependence as highlighted in Mehta (1985), Samal (1990), Shaw (1990) is established through forward linkages by
sale of output, subcontracting and marketing of products and through backward linkages by purchase of inputs and raw
material, acquisition of skills and technology and credit. The forward linkages are said to be relatively weak compared to
backward linkages, which are fairly strong.




44 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







In order to examine the above issues, this chapter estimates the impact of trade on the employment,
wages and labour productivity of enterprises in the unorganized sector. The empirical analysis is
undertaken for 81,000 enterprises for the year 2005-06.

Furthermore, this chapter fills an important research gap by empirically estimating the impact of exports
and imports on labour markets in the unorganized manufacturing sector by taking into account variations
across industries, states and location (rural-urban). A cross-section enterprise-level analysis is conducted
using data for 81,000 enterprises. The impact of the export orientation of the state to which the enterprise
belongs on employment, wage rates and the labour productivity of the enterprise, is estimated.

It should be noted that the impact of trade on unorganized manufacturing may not be straightforward, as
the data available for this sector is at the enterprise and the industry level, and trade data is available at the
product level. In other words, at the enterprise level, exports and imports are not recorded. Data at the
enterprise and industry level is available from the National Industrial Classification (NIC). Trade data is
available at product level, in accordance with the classification structure of the Harmonised System of
Classification (HS Classification). Therefore, a concordance matrix is constructed to match six-digit HS
2002 codes to three-digit NIC codes, to arrive at trade figures at the industry and enterprise level. Using
the concordance matrix, the impact of trade at the industry level on wages, employment and labour
productivity has been estimated.

This chapter is organized as follows: Section 5.2 examines inter-industry trends and growth patterns in the
unorganized manufacturing sector at a two digit level industrial classification. Section 5.3 discusses the
empirical results of the impact of trade (exports and imports) on employment, wage rates and labour
productivity in unorganized manufacturing. Section 5.4 summarizes and draws implications.

5.2. TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT, WAGES AND GROSS VALUE ADDED IN THE
UNORGANIZED MANUFACTURING SECTOR

The unorganized manufacturing sector in India comprises a large number of small enterprises, often
unregistered, mostly under proprietorship. The composition shows three main types of enterprises: (i) Own
Account Manufacturing Enterprise (OAME-micro enterprises), which run without any hired worker
employed on a fairly regular basis and are engaged in manufacturing and/or repairing activities (with family
labour only); (ii) Non-directory Manufacturing Establishment (small enterprises) employing less than six
workers (household and hired workers taken together) and engaged in manufacturing activities; and (iii)
Directory Manufacturing Establishment (large enterprises) employing six or more workers (household and
hired workers taken together), engaged in manufacturing activities.

Table 5.1 provides a summary of key variables in the unorganized manufacturing sector at all-India level
and at disaggregated level for rural and urban unorganized manufacturing sector during 2000-01 and
2005-06.14

The table shows that during 2000-01 there were 17.02 million unorganized manufacturing enterprises (11.9
million in rural and 5.08 in urban areas) providing employment to 37.08 million people, of which nearly
23.98 million were in rural areas and 13.09 million in urban areas. During the period 2000-01 to 2005-06,
there was a marginal increase in the total number of enterprises, but the number of enterprises in urban
areas declined from 5.08 million to 4.94 million. Employment fell from 37.08 million to 36.44 million in this
period, declining in both rural and urban areas.

Apart from rural-urban bifurcation, data at the enterprise level shows that microenterprises occupy an
overwhelming share in terms of both number of enterprises and employment, particularly in rural areas.
However, in the period 2000-01 to 2005-06, the share of microenterprises in total employment in the
unorganized sector declined from 67.5% to 65%, while the share of small enterprises increased from 15%
to 15.8% and the share of large enterprises increased from 17.4% to 19.1%. Given the five-year period,
this change seems to be marginal. However, this does reflect a shift towards relatively bigger enterprises
in the unorganized sector.

Wage rates in the unorganized sector have risen during this period. The wage rate increased by a
compound growth rate of 7.6 % in nominal terms in the five-year period. The rise in wage rates in



14 The information has been obtained from quinquennial NSS surveys and is available for different industries and states, i.e.,
56th NSS Round and 62nd NSS Round.




CHAPTER V. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT: 45
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA





enterprises in rural areas (9%) was higher than that in urban areas (7.6%), probably because of the lower
level of wages in the base period in rural areas.

Interestingly, the share of microenterprises in gross value added (GVA) declined from 42% in 2000-01 to
31.8% in 2005-06, while the share of large enterprises increased substantially from 32.7% to 44.1%, with
the share of small enterprises being more or less the same. A rise in the share of large enterprises in GVA
was seen in both rural and urban areas. This indicates the growing importance of large enterprises in
contribution to total output of the unorganized sector over time.


Table 5. 1: Summary chart on key variables in unorganized manufacturing during 2000-01 and 2005-06



2000-01 2005-06
Key variables Rural Urban Combined Rural Urban Combined
Enterprises
(million no.) 11.93 5.08 17.02


12.13
(0.32)


4.94
(-0.58) 17.07 (0.05)


Employment
(million no.) 23.98 13.09 37.08


23.46
(-0.44)


12.98 (-
0.17)


36.44
(-0.35)


Workers per
enterprise 2.01 2.57 2.18 1.93 2.63 2.13


Percentage share of type of enterprises in all enterprises
Micro
enterprises 92.66 70.88 86.14 91.59 70.90 85.60
Small
enterprises 5.27 21.26 10.05 6.14 20.74 10.37
Large
enterprises 2.07 7.86 3.80 2.26 8.36 4.03


Percentage share of type of enterprises in total employment
Micro
enterprises 79.83 45.16 67.59 76.82 43.64 65.00
Small
enterprises 8.06 27.71 15.00 10.16 26.15 15.86
Large
enterprises 12.11 27.13 17.42 13.01 30.21 19.14


Percentage share of type of enterprises in total GVA
Micro enterprises 63.05 25.75 42.28 49.50 18.43 31.89
Small enterprises 13.80 33.91 25.02 16.90 29.66 24.20
Large enterprises 23.10 40.34 32.70 33.60 51.85 44.15
GVA per
enterprise (Rs.) 22348 65863 35357


31355
(7.01)


100267
(8.77) 51307 (7.73)


Labour
productivity (Rs.) 11120 25598 16233


16211
(7.83)


38167
(8.32) 24034 (8.16)


Capital intensity
(Rs.) 27600 137500 60500


38732
(7.84)


194321
(6.72) 83780 (7.16)


Loan outstanding
per enterprise
(Rs.)


2900 10100 5100 4634
(9.83)


31966
(25.91)


12548
(19.73)


Emoluments per
hired worker –
Wage rate (Rs)


13082 22133 18488 20233
(9.11)


31302
(7.18)


26682 (7.61)


Note: Figures in parentheses are compound growth rate during 2000/01 to 2005/06 at nominal prices

In rural unorganized manufacturing, the micro enterprises contribute the maximum in terms of workforce
and value addition, but lag behind small enterprises and large enterprises in terms of GVA per worker,
which in micro enterprises is half that in the two other types of enterprises. The micro enterprises are
mostly self-employed, and are considered as the reservoir of unlimited labour supplies. They have low
capital base and productivity. In addition, due to low levels of technology and capital, these small family-
run enterprises are not able to compete with others, and hence are likely to become unviable.




46 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







In urban areas, small enterprises and large enterprises contribute the maximum in GVA, and together
employ around 54.8 per cent of the workforce and add 74.2 per cent of value added. Further, small
enterprises are growing rapidly in urban areas as compared to rural areas, which could be due to
“ancillarization” of enterprises, easy subcontracting due to the greater presence of organized
manufacturing, inadequate employment opportunities outside this sector, better infrastructure etc. (Kundu,
Lalitha and Arora, 2001; Sharma and Dash, 2006).

Trends at the industry level reveal that the food, tobacco and textiles industries (agro-based industries)
have a significantly large number of enterprises and workers in both the rural and urban manufacturing
sector, but these industries lag behind others (mainly non-agro-based industries) in labour productivity and
capital intensity. In addition, non-agro-based industries have experienced a relatively higher absolute
increase as well as growth rate in value added per worker, capital intensity, wage rates, and institutional
finance compared to agro-based industries, especially in rural areas.

It is important to note that there are no data on the extent of exports done directly by the unorganized
manufacturing sector in India. However, there is evidence that over time, there has been a rise in
outsourcing from firms in the organized sector to enterprises in the unorganized sector, especially in the
export-oriented industries (NSSO, 2007). The study, therefore, estimates the impact of export orientation
of the industries to which the enterprises belong on the employment, wages and labour productivity of the
enterprises. The estimates capture both the direct as well as the indirect impact of exports on the labour
market characteristics of enterprises in the unorganized sector. Unlike most of the other studies, which
have used tariffs as an explanatory variable for import competition, this study uses a more direct
explanatory variable for import competition, i.e. import of goods produced by the industry to which the
enterprise belongs.

5.3. EMPIRICAL RESULTS: IMPACT OF TRADE ON EMPLOYMENT AND WAGE
RATES IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR

Chapter 3 reviews the studies that estimate the impact of international trade on the unorganized sector.
Although there is little evidence of exports from the unorganized sector, international trade can indirectly
affect employment and wage rates in the unorganized sector significantly. Higher exports from the
organized sector can lead to an outsourcing of orders to the unorganized sector and can generate higher
demand for informal workers and subsequently affect employment and wage rates. On the other hand,
import competition can lead to contraction of output in the organized sector, leading to lower demand for
output and labour from the unorganized sector.

To estimate the impact of export orientation and import competition faced by the industry on the wages
and employment of enterprises in the unorganized sector, labour demand and wage rate equations have
been estimated. The details of the methodology are reported in Appendix I (Section A.4). Both ordinary
least squares (OLS) and simultaneous equation model (2SLS) results are presented in Annex to chapter V.
Table V.2 presents the OLS estimates of the impact of trade on employment in the unorganized
manufacturing sector during 2005-06. Table V.3 presents OLS results of the impact of trade on wage rates
in enterprises in the unorganized sector. Table V.4 presents the results of 2SLS model, which estimates
the labour demand and wage rate equation simultaneously, using the predicted wage rate in the labour
demand equation.

The labour demand equation estimated explains the level of employment in an enterprise by the “size” of
the enterprise, wage rate paid by the enterprise, and export and import intensity of the industry to which
the enterprise belongs. The literature in the context of export markets has used firm size as a proxy for
essential firm resources required to venture into the market. The bigger the size of the firm, the higher the
employment will be. The export intensity of the industry is defined as the ratio of exports of the industry to
its total output. Import intensity, on the other hand, is defined as imports of the final product produced by
the industry as a ratio of the industry’s output. Impact of trade on employment is captured by estimating
the impact of competition in external market (through export intensity) and competition in domestic
markets (through import intensity) on the labour demand of the enterprise.

The rural-urban dummy is used to capture the impact of urbanization, and state dummies have been used
to control for state-specific effects.

In the estimated equations, wage bills are used to explain the extent of employment in the enterprise, but
doubts have been raised about the data on wage rates as derived from National Sample Surveys. The
recorded wages paid are the wages paid for the month in which the sample unit is surveyed, while the




CHAPTER V. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT: 47
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA





number of workers reported is more or less the same as those which are regular. The wage rate derived by
dividing emoluments paid to workers by the number of workers employed is therefore questionable.
Accepting this caveat, we estimate the wage equation and accept the results to be indicative in terms of
the direction. The equations have been estimated for small enterprises and large enterprises, as micro
enterprises do not employ any hired workers, and therefore no wages are paid per se.

Table V.4 presents the results of two stage least squares (2SLS) where the labour demand equation is
estimated along with the wage rate equation, and the results of 2SLS are reported for small enterprises
and large enterprises.

The results show that, as expected, large enterprises employ more people and at higher wage rates. At
higher wage rates, the demand for labour is less. The results show that after controlling for rural-urban
differences, industry-specific variations, and the size of the firm, the higher the export intensity is of the
industry to which the enterprise belongs, the higher the employment in the enterprise will be. The export
orientation of the industry to which the enterprise belongs therefore increases the demand for labour. The
impact of export orientation is found to be higher and more significant for large enterprises (enterprises
employing six or more workers) than small enterprises (enterprises employing less than six workers). One
possible reason for this could be that the organized sector is increasingly sourcing its export requirements
from the unorganized sector on a contractual basis. This is supported by an overall increase of the
percentage of firms in the organized sector working on a contractual basis with enterprises in the
unorganized sector.15 The number of enterprises in the unorganized sector found working on a contractual
basis with firms in the organized sector increased from 27.6% during 2000/01 to 31.7 % during 2005/06.
Of the total number of firms working on contract, the proportion of micro enterprises was 33%, small
enterprises 25%, and large enterprises 30%.

The import competition faced by the industry, i.e. the extent to which the final product produced by the
industry is imported as a proportion of its output, is found to have a significant negative impact on
employment of the enterprise belonging to that industry in the unorganized sector according (Table V.3).
However, 2SLS results show that import competition faced by the industry in the organized sector does
not have any significant displacement effect on employment in small enterprises in the unorganized sector
(Table V.4). The labour-displacing effect is found only in the case of large enterprises. This indicates that
domestic competition is not adversely affecting enterprises with less than six workers, but may displace or
reduce the size of the enterprises with more than six workers. We do find that there has been a decline in
the number of micro enterprises in the post-reform period.

The empirical results further show that the larger the output of the firm and higher the labour productivity,
the higher the wage rates are paid by the enterprises. With respect to the export intensity of the industry to
which the enterprise in the unorganized sector belongs, it is found that the higher the export intensity of
the industry is, the higher the wage rate is paid by the enterprise. This indicates that enterprises that
belong to export-oriented industries pay more to their labour. This is in line with the results obtained by
many studies for other developing countries (e.g. Goldberg and Pavcnik, 2007).

Import intensity, however, is not found to have any significant impact on wage rates, according to the
2SLS results. It is also found that wage rates do not differ significantly in the unorganized sector across
rural and urban areas.

The results, though not comparable with other studies due to their being for the unorganized sector, are in
line with Goldar (2002), who found higher employment elasticity of demand in export-oriented industries in
the post-reform period, and Banga (2006), who estimated the positive impact of exports on organized
employment. The findings also appear to substantiate the argument put forward by Haggblade, Hazell and
Reaerdon (2007) which shows that liberalized trade and exchange rate policies generally hurt rural firms
that compete with imported goods, while helping enterprises that serve export markets or use imported
equipments and inputs.

Thus, the results show that the export orientation of industries increases the employment and wage rates
of enterprises in the unorganized sector, but import competition displaces labour only in the larger
enterprises and does not affect wage rates.




15 “There is an increasing trend of outsourcing by the organized sector, it has been found that 32 per cent of all unorganized
sector enterprises undertake contract work” (Report by NSSO, 2007)




48 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH








5.4 EMPIRICAL RESULTS OF THE IMPACT OF THE TRADE ORIENTATION OF
STATES ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT

Table V.5 presents the 2SLS results of the impact of the trade orientation of states on the employment and
wages of enterprises in the unorganized sector. Model 1 presents the results for small enterprises, and
model 2 presents the results for large enterprises. The employment equation takes the export intensity of
the industry, import competition faced by the industry, and the export orientation of the state to which the
enterprise belongs as factors affecting the employment by the enterprise, along with other factors such as
the size of the enterprise (captured by output/gross value added) and wage rates.

A striking result found is that the state’s export orientation has a statistically significant impact on
employment in both kinds of enterprises – i.e. small enterprises and large enterprises. It signifies that the
location of the enterprise in terms of the state in which it operates has a strong influence, irrespective of
whether the enterprise belongs to an export-oriented industry or not. Enterprises belonging to the state
with higher export orientation have higher employment. As expected, the size of the enterprise positively
affects employment, implying that the large enterprises employ more labour. Wage rates have a negative
relation with employment, which is consistent with the theory. As wages rise, the cost to the enterprise
goes up, and employment therefore reduces.16

The results are consistent with those arrived at earlier with respect to the export intensity of the industry to
which the enterprise belongs. Enterprises belonging to industries that have higher export intensity have
experienced a rise in employment. However, import competition is not found to have displaced jobs in
large enterprises in the unorganized sector, although small enterprises or enterprises employing less than
six workers are not adversely affected by the import competition. The probable reason for this is that the
larger the size of the firm, the larger the probability of it outsourcing to organized-sector firms, and import
competition may therefore adversely affect them more than it affects small enterprises.

The wage rate equation estimated simultaneously for small enterprises shows that the export orientation of
the state leads to higher wage rates being paid by large enterprises, or larger enterprises as compared to
small enterprises or smaller enterprises. Higher export intensity of the industry is found to lead to higher
wage rates in both small enterprises and large enterprises in the unorganized sector, but import
competition does not affect the wages in small enterprises in any significant manner. A plausible reason for
this could be that the enterprises in the exporting industries are able to pay more. With respect to import
competition, results show that enterprises in the industry that face higher import competition, pay lower
wage rates. Banga (2006) found a similar positive impact of export intensity on wage rates in the organized
manufacturing sector, but no adverse effect of import competition faced by the industry on the wage rates
of skilled/unskilled workers in organized manufacturing. One plausible explanation for the diverse effects of
import competition on wage rates in the two sectors could be that unlike the organized sector, where the
Government has a role in determining wage rates and enacts strict labour laws, wages in the unorganized
sector are more flexible due to an absence of government intervention by means of legislation or
otherwise.

State orientation towards exports does not assure higher wages in small enterprises. This is in line with the
economic theory which argues for unlimited supply of labour at a given wage rate in the unorganized
sector. A higher demand for labour due to the export orientation of the state does not lead to higher
wages. The results show that the size of the enterprises, and labour productivity, have a significant
positive effect on the wage rate, in conformity with economic theory. Results also suggest that wage rates
are lower in rural areas in the case of large enterprises, whereas there are no significant rural-urban
differences in wage rates in small enterprises. Thus, the export orientation of the state significantly
influences employment as well as wage rates in the unorganized sector.



16 The F statistics is high which show that the instrument used, which is predicted wages in this case, is suitable (see Stock
and Watson, 2003, ch 10).




CHAPTER V. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT: 49
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA





5.5. STATE-SPECIFIC EMPIRICAL RESULTS

To assess the state-specific impact on employment and wages in the unorganized sector, the impact of
the export and import intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs is undertaken separately for
each state. The results of the states where the export intensity of the industry has a significant impact on
employment in the unorganized sector are reported in Annex Table V.6. The states for which the results
are not reported are the states where higher export orientation does not have any significant impact on
employment in the unorganized sector.

The results show that states such as Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu are the states where the export intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs
has increased the employment of the enterprises in the unorganized sector. The other variables, namely
size of firm and wage rate, have the expected impact. According to the Economic Survey 2007-08, these
are also the states with the highest share of exports in total exports.

5.6. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

This chapter analyses the impact of trade on labour markets in the unorganized manufacturing sector in
India in the post-reform period. The analysis begins with trends and growth patterns at 2-digit level during
2000-01 and 2005-06, followed by an empirical estimation of the impact of various factors, including
exports and imports, on employment, and wage rates using cross-section data for 2005-06.

The empirical findings cover 81,000 enterprises, 66 industries at three-digit level, and 35 states and union
territories, to capture the labour market impacts of trade at all-India level, state level and enterprise level.
The results, based on the ordinary least square method and 2SLS model, reveal both internal factors
(operating within the system) and external factors (exports and imports) to be at work in labour markets,
having a differential impact on wages and employment. While higher industrial exports lead to higher
employment and higher wage rates in the unorganized sector for small enterprises (those employing less
than six workers) and for large enterprises (those employing more than six workers), the gains in terms of
employment and wages are found to be higher in the case of large enterprises as compared to small
enterprises. An important conclusion that emerges from the result is that in order to harness gains from
trade, the size of the enterprise matters. Large enterprises gain more. This may be due to their higher scale
of production and capital intensity, which allows them to improve their labour productivity in the face of
competition and consequently increase their output and employment. They are also able to pay more to
their labour. Import competition, on the other hand, has overall had an unfavourable impact on the labour
markets in the unorganized sector, especially in the case of large enterprises.

It may be emphasized that the unorganized manufacturing sector in the country, with its low capital base,
is very large and growing. It is responsible for absorbing the growing labour force of the country, mainly
from rural areas. This sector is not covered by any policy regime, but since it hosts the maximum number
of the country’s poor, it may have important implications with respect to the impact of trade on labour
absorption and poverty reduction.

In the face of this, and due to the growing importance of this sector, the Government of India has instituted
the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS), whose recommendations
may be put into practice in the near future. Unlike the organized sector, where wage rigidity is an important
feature, this sector has been able to work in a wage-flexible scenario. In fact, the results obtained do show
that growth in real wages in unorganized manufacturing has decelerated much faster than growth in
employment in the post-liberalization period, which in a way has facilitated the cost adjustments.17
Improvements in the scale of production and in the capital investments of the enterprises in the
unorganized sector can be an important policy intervention. This may help enterprises to gain from the
opportunities provided by the export orientation of their industries, and to compete successfully in
domestic markets.

The results also indicate that the location of the enterprise is an important determinant of whether trade
impacts are percolated to the unorganized sector. States where exports have favourably affected
employment in the unorganized sector are Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. An important conclusion that emerges from the analysis is that interregional
disparities exist with respect to the impact of trade on wages and employment. A higher export orientation



17 See also Bathla and Sharma (2008).




50 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







of the industry to which the enterprise belongs leads to higher employment, but this may not be the case
in all states. The export orientation of the state may play a vital role in distributing the gains of overall trade
in the economy. Further, in order to percolate the gains of trade to the poor, backward and forward
linkages between the unorganized sector and the organized sector may play an important role.

ANNEX TO CHAPTER V


Table V.2: Impact of trade on employment in unorganized manufacturing: 2005-06 (OLS estimates)




Dependent Variable: Log No. of workers


All enterprises Small
enterprises


Large enterprises


Independent
variables in log


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


GVA 0.464 (75.17)* 0.26 (26.49)* 0.38 (34.21) *


Wage rate -0.246 (-31.83)* -0.10 (-8.51)* -0.30 (-22.90) *


Export intensity 0.0403 (2.84) * 0.055 (2.25)* 0.16 (4.22) *


Import intensity -0.0127 (-0.92) -0.055 (-2.71)* -0.099 (-3.24) *


Rural-urban
dummy


0.09 (15.78) * 0.008 (1.76)** 0.10 (10.08) *


Industry dummies Yes Yes Yes


State dummies Yes Yes Yes


Constant -1.34 (-27.67) -0.67 (-10.94) -0.33 (-2.76)


R-squared 0.68 0.32 0.47


Number of
observations


28461 17449 9574


Note: * indicates significance at 1%, ** indicates significance at 5%, ***indicates significance at 10%.


Table V.3: Impact of trade on wage rates in unorganized manufacturing during 2005-06 (OLS estimates)





Small
enterprises
(3)


Large
enterprises
(4)


Independent
variables in log


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


GVA 0.46 (19.49)*** 0.17 (12.82)***


Labour productivity 0.35 (11.91)*** 0.65 (42.31)***


Export intensity 0.07 (3.37)*** 0.01 (2.42)**


Import intensity -0.06 (-2.26)** -0.01 (-3.68)***


Rural-urban dummy -0.07 (-0.86) -0.09 (-0.77)


Industry dummies Yes Yes


State dummies Yes Yes


Constant -0.15 (-2.14)* 0.056(1.53)


R-squared 0.62 0.85


Number of
observations


17449 9574


Note: * indicates significance at 1%, ** indicates significance at 5%,
***indicates significance at 10%.




CHAPTER V. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT: 51
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA





Table V.4: Impact of trade on wages and employment in the unorganized sector: Simultaneous equation
model results






Small
enterprises
(employment
equation)


Small
enterprises
(wage rate
equation)


Large
enterprises
(employment
equation)


Large
enterprises
(wage rate
equation)


Independent
variables in log


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


GVA 0.26*** (66.5)
0.46***
(38.72)


0.38***
(74.16)


0.17***
(15.69)


Wage rate -0.10*** (-24.83)
-0.32***
(49.96)


Labour Productivity 0.34***
(25.56)


0.64***
(49.96)


Export intensity 0.002***
(2.36)


0.008***
(4.31)


0.013***
(7.53)


0.02***
(9.41)


Import intensity -0.01 (-0.89)
-0.01
(-0.04)


-0.01*
(-1.71)


-0.01*
(-1.63)


Rural-urban
dummy


0.008*
(1.74)


0.007
(0.88)


0.13***
(14.41)


0.09
(0.20)


State dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes


Constant -0.65*** (-4.66)
0.73
(25.59)


0.42***
(10.20)


R-squared 0.33 0.65 0.42 0.85


F-Statistic 46770
(p = 0.00)


7247.82
(p=0.00)


1745.38
p= (0.00)


14669.36
(p=0.00)


Number of
observations


17556 17556 9584 9584


Note: Results of 2SLS are reported.





52 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table V.5: Impact of the state orientation towards exports on the wages and employment in the
unorganized sector: Simultaneous equation model results




Model 1 Model 2




Small
enterprises
(employment
equation)


Small
enterprises
(wage rate
equation)


Large
enterprises
(employment
equation)


Large
enterprises
(wage rate
equation)


Independent
variables in log


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


Coefficient
(t value)


GVA 0.25***
(65.76)


0.46***
(38.75)


0.38***
(74.07)


0.18***
(15.97)


Wage rate -0.10
(-25.37)


-0.31***
(-48.91)




Labour productivity 0.34*** (35.37)
0.65***
(48.91)


Export intensity 0.001** (1.80)
0.007***
(3.37)


0.03***
(11.30)


0.01***
(2.35)


Import intensity 0.001
(1.48)


-0.0002
(-0.12)


-0.02***
(-8.49)


-0.01***
(-3.85)


State export
orientation


0.009***
(6.70)


-0.01
(-0.80)


0.005**
(1.83)


0.02***
(5.78)


Rural-urban
dummy


0.15***
(3.11)


-0.01
(-1.42)


0.13***
(14.08)


0.09***
(6.85)


Constant -0.49***
(-19.23)


-0.16***
(-3.43)


0.65***
(21.41)


0.49***
(11.19)


R-squared 0.46 0.72 0.42 0.86


F statistics 1049.67
(p=0.00)


4850.67
(p=0.00)


1176.5
(p=0.00)


9797.1
(p=0.00)


Number of
observations


17431 17431 9546 9546







CHAPTER V. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT: 53
IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR OF INDIA





Table V.6 State-wise regression results with employment as the dependent variable (continued)








Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu
Coefficient t-stat Coefficient t-stat Coefficient t-stat Coefficient t-stat


Variables
Constant -0.77*** -15.44 -2.02*** -19.66 -1.37*** -10.03 -1.48*** -18.93


GVA 0.4*** 18.1 0.46*** 21.03 0.48*** 12.57 0.61*** 39.98
Wage rate -0.23*** -8.57 -0.16*** -7.51 -0.28*** -6.96 -0.39*** -20.81
Export
intensity of
the industry 0.009*** 2.91 0.02*** 3.15 0.02*** 3.63 0.003** 1.99



R-squared 0.60 0.58 0.60 0.67
Number of
variables 2606 1811 962 2781




Punjab Haryana Gujarat
Coefficient t-stat Coefficient t-stat Coefficient t-stat
Variables
Constant -1.29*** -13.94 -1.32*** -13.42 -0.99*** -9.44
GVA 0.36*** 14.43 0.51*** 18.94 0.67*** 21.24
Wage rate -0.11*** -3.73 -0.29*** -8.85 -0.5*** -13.66
Export
intensity of
the industry 0.01** 2.24 0.01** 2.03 0.04*** 5.39
R-squared 0.60 0.68 0.57
Number of
observations 1181 1103 1190








CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA 55





CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL
WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA



6.1 INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is the largest sector in India in terms of its contribution to employment. It continues to remain
the mainstay for a large majority of the population, with about 600 million people depending directly or
indirectly on this sector. Therefore, agricultural policy in India has been guided mainly by domestic supply
and self-sufficiency considerations. Incentives and subsidies are provided in this sector through support
prices to farmers, and through supplies to the general population at low cost through the public
distribution system.18

Given the significance of this sector for employment, this sector still has a variety of control measures,
such as high tariffs, state trading, export and import restrictions etc.19 Some of the controls are imposed or
relaxed in times of shortages, overproduction or price fluctuations; this is not infrequent, as the repeated
decisions to reduce tariffs on wheat to zero indicate. Thus, many of the policies related to trade in
agriculture are still adopted in an ad hoc manner.

However, agriculture exports and imports have been rising steadily, and the sector’s exposure to trade has
been increasing over the years. In the period 2000-01 to 2004-05, exports of agriculture and allied
activities increased at a compound growth rate of 9% and imports of food and allied products increased
by 24% (Economic Survey 2007-08). Given the rising exposure of the sector to trade and the high
dependency of the economy with respect to employment, mainly of the poor, it becomes imperative to
estimate the impact of trade on wages and employment in this sector in order to assess the overall impact
of trade on the unorganized sector. However, the unavailability of consistent employment data for the
sector makes any analysis of the impact of trade on agriculture employment difficult. The availability of
wage data of unskilled labour at the state level makes it possible to undertake impact assessments of
trade on wages in agriculture sector.

The impact of trade on wages of unskilled agricultural labour is estimated at the state level for total
agricultural products and separately for three agricultural product categories, namely cereals; fruits and
nuts; and vegetables, roots and tubers. The period of analysis is 1990-91 to 1999-2000, for which data on
wages to unskilled agricultural workers are available. Section 6.2 discusses the trends in agriculture wages
in India across different states, section 6.3 presents the empirical results, and section 6.4 summarizes and
concludes.

6.2. TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE WAGES IN INDIA

Agricultural Wages in India (AWI) is the oldest series of wage data available in the country. This provides
data for various agricultural operations, and is collected by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics,
Ministry of Agriculture. In spite of its limitations as an indicator of wages for rural labour, it remains the
major source for wage data, used by researchers as well as the government for policy formulations and
analysis regarding the standard of living of rural labourers.

Table 6.1 presents the real wage rates and their growth, for different states. The figures suggest a high
growth rate of 6.12% for 1983 to 1987-88 at all-India level. In this period, most of the states show
improved performance in increasing wage rates for agricultural labourers, with Haryana and Rajasthan
being exceptions to the general trend. Using triennium averages, even the traditionally lagging states show
good performance, with real wages growing at the rate of 6–7 per cent for Orissa, Assam, Bihar,
Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh. West Bengal is the best performer, showing
the highest growth rate of around 10% for the same period.

For the period 1987-88 to 1993-94, which also includes the period of fiscal crisis and the subsequent
economic reforms, growth in wage rates shows a deceleration in almost all states and at all-India level
where the growth rate dropped to around 2% from around 6% compared to previous period. The decline
in the growth of wage rates is sharper for Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat and Karnataka. In Uttar
Pradesh and West Bengal, there is a sharp decline compared to the previous period.



18 India Trade Policy Review 1998
19 Economic Survey 2008-09 (pp 164-169)




56 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







For the period 1993-94 to 1999-00, most of the states continue to show a lower growth rate compared to
the 1983 to 1987-88 period. However, at the all-India level, wage rate growth improved to 2.3%, compared
to 2% in the previous period. Nevertheless, this increase was mostly accounted for by the increased
growth performance of states, such as Kerala and Tami Nadu, which grew at a rate of higher than 7%.
Even at the all-India level, the growth rate during 1993-94 and 1999-00 was lower than the entire period
between 1983 and 1993-94.


Table 6. 1: Agriculture wage rates state-wise: 1983 to 1999-2000


Real Wage Rates from Agricultural Wages in India (1999‐00 prices) 
   Trennium Averages  Growth Rates 


   1983  1987‐88 
1993‐
94 


1999‐
00 


1983‐
87‐88


1987‐
88‐


93‐94
1993‐
94‐


99‐00
1983‐
93‐94 


1987‐
88‐


99‐00
Andhra Pradesh  28.36  38.47  40.31  45.27  7.01  0.78  1.95  3.40  1.36 
Assam  37.75  51.07  52.20  51.83  6.95  0.37  ‐0.12  3.14  0.12 
Bihar  28.11  37.74  40.71  43.15  6.77  1.27  0.98  3.59  1.12 
Gujarat  33.40  40.23  40.10  56.97  4.22  ‐0.05  6.02  1.76  2.94 
Haryana  63.75  68.82  79.99  74.13  1.71  2.54  ‐1.26  2.19  0.62 
Karnataka  24.30  30.77  31.70  41.48  5.38  0.50  4.58  2.56  2.52 
Kerala  58.96  66.06  77.29  121.10 2.56  2.65  7.77  2.61  5.18 
Madhya 
Pradesh  23.91  31.17  37.35  41.85  6.07  3.06  1.91  4.34  2.48 
Maharashtra  22.85  30.87  36.83  42.83  6.92  2.98  2.55  4.65  2.77 
Orissa  20.63  28.33  35.89  36.81  7.31  4.02  0.42  5.42  2.20 
Punjab  56.78  67.77  83.00  76.91  4.01  3.43  ‐1.26  3.68  1.06 
Rajasthan  47.46  47.86  46.33  56.19  0.19  ‐0.54  3.27  ‐0.23  1.35 
Tamilnadu  26.06  29.79  37.13  57.10  3.02  3.74  7.43  3.43  5.57 
Uttar Pradesh  33.05  42.20  47.36  56.09  5.58  1.94  2.86  3.48  2.40 
West Bengal  32.98  50.29  60.14  65.36  9.82  3.03  1.40  5.89  2.21 
All India  30.58  39.94  44.86 51.44 6.12 1.95 2.31 3.72  2.13
   Annual Figures  Growth Rates 


  
1983  1987‐88 


1993‐
94 


1999‐
00 


1983‐
87‐88


1987‐
88‐


93‐94
1993‐
94‐


99‐00
1983‐
93‐94 


1987‐
88‐


99‐00
Andhra Pradesh  31.21  38.82  42.77 45.96 4.97 1.63 1.21 3.05  1.42
Assam  39.45  52.23  49.96 51.68 6.44 ‐0.74 0.57 2.27  ‐0.09
Bihar  28.79  37.35  41.58 41.36 5.96 1.8 ‐0.09 3.56  0.85
Gujarat  36.50  36.18  41.88 62.06 ‐0.20 2.47 6.78 1.32  4.60
Haryana  68.41  67.25  81.90 73.03 ‐0.38 3.34 ‐1.89 1.73  0.69
Karnataka  25.50  29.59  37.53 43.33 3.36 4.04 2.43 3.75  3.23
Kerala  56.53  67.98  78.15 110.6 4.18 2.35 5.96 3.13  4.14
Madhya 
Pradesh  27.01  31.46  37.89 42.99 3.44 3.15 2.13 3.27  2.64
Maharashtra  26.10  29.82  42.70 38.85 3.01 6.16 ‐1.56 4.8  2.23
Orissa  21.41  27.94  37.09 36.83 6.10 4.83 ‐0.12 5.37  2.33
Punjab  58.77  69.88  84.98 75.77 3.92 3.31 ‐1.89 3.57  0.68
Rajasthan  49.18  56.69  43.36 58.57 3.21 ‐4.37 5.14 ‐1.19  0.27




CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA 57





Tamilnadu  24.84  29.00  41.46 63.68 3.51 6.14 7.42 5.00  6.77
Uttar Pradesh  34.83  41.04  46.28 54.02 3.71 2.02 2.61 2.74  2.32
West Bengal  32.39  54.13  61.59 64.94 12.09 2.17 0.89 6.31  1.53
All India  31.96  40.02  47.03 50.92 5.13 2.73 1.33 3.75  2.03




6.3 EMPIRICAL RESULTS: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE WAGES OF UNSKILLED
LABOUR IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR

The impact of exports and imports of agricultural products on the wages of unskilled labour has been
estimated. The details of the methodology adopted and the data sources are reported in Appendix I
(section A.5). Annex Tables VI.1 and VI.2 report the change in real wage rates for the period 1993-94 to
1999-2000, and minimum agricultural wages for the selected states. Table VI.3 presents the empirical
results for all agricultural products taken together and for three different agricultural products, i.e. fruits
and nuts; cereals; and vegetables, roots and tubers. The estimation uses data for 14 states of India (for
which comparable data were available) for the period 1991-92 to 2000-2001.

6.3.1. Results for all Agricultural Products

With respect to agricultural products as a whole, empirical results show that exports have not had any
significant impact on the wages of unskilled labour. In other words, states with higher export orientation
with respect to agriculture do not have correspondingly higher wages for unskilled workers; however,
wage rates of labour in unskilled agriculture are associated negatively with imports of agricultural products.
This implies that higher imports of agriculture products have adversely affected the wages of unskilled
labour in states where the production of the corresponding product has a high share in India’s total
production of the product. Furthermore, the results show that states that use better technology, in terms of
more fertilizers, and have larger irrigated areas, pay more to their unskilled agricultural labour.

It is interesting to note that states that have higher minimum wage legislation for the agriculture sector pay
higher wages to unskilled labour. This indicates that social security nets may be desirable, and effective in
improving the share of unskilled labour in total income generated.

6.3.2 Fruits and Nuts

The results may differ with respect to different agricultural products. With respect to fruits and nuts, the
results show that exports have increased the wages of unskilled labour, but it is statistically significant only
at a low level. The result is therefore only indicative in nature. However, the results also show that higher
imports of fruits and nuts have led to a decline in the wages of unskilled labour in agriculture. This
indicates that the growing imports of fruits and nuts may have lowered domestic production of those fruits
and nuts, thereby lowering the demand for unskilled labour and adversely affecting their wages. The size
of the state is found to affect the wages paid to the unskilled workers. It is found that larger states with
larger gross irrigated areas pay higher wages.

6.3.3 Cereals

In case of cereals, the results indicate that exports of cereals have led to a significant rise in the wages of
unskilled workers, and imports have not had any significant impact. This is plausible, as during the period
of analysis, imports of cereals were limited. Other variables that positively affect the wages of unskilled
labour in the production of cereals are better rainfall, higher gross irrigated area, and greater use of
fertilizers.

6.3.4 Vegetables

For vegetables, the results indicate that imports of vegetables have led to a fall in the wages of unskilled
labour but the impact of exports is not significant. Imports displace domestic production, leading to lower
demand for labour and lower wages. The number of tractors used in a state reflects its technological
advancement. The results show that states that use better technology compared to others pay more to
their unskilled labour.




58 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Overall, only in the case of cereals have exports led to a favourable impact on the wages of unskilled
labour. For all agricultural products, and at disaggregated level for fruits and nuts and vegetables, exports
have had no impact on the wages of unskilled labour; but imports have had significant adverse impact on
the wages of unskilled labour. Results also indicate that the wages of unskilled labour are positively
affected if state domestic product is higher, rainfall is higher, and the minimum wages of unskilled labour
are fixed at a higher level.

6.4. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

The chapter examines the impact of trade on the wages of unskilled labour in the agriculture sector.
Results show that the poor may be affected differentially in different sectors by trade and within the sector;
the impact will depend on many other factors, such as the product they produce, and the state in which
they are employed.

The results indicate that for states that produce a higher proportion of the agricultural products that are
exported, there is no evidence of a corresponding rise in wages for unskilled labour. However, states that
produce a higher proportion of agricultural products that are imported have witnessed lower wage levels
for unskilled labour.

The importance of existing regulations in protecting the wages and employment of unskilled labour in
agriculture is highlighted by the results. The results indicate that the minimum wages of unskilled labour at
the state level has led to relatively higher wages of unskilled agriculture labour in the states. The existence
of downward rigidity of wages due to minimum wage regulations and their enforcement is required to
mitigate the adverse impact that imports may have on wages.





CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA 59





ANNEX TO CHAPTER VI


Table VI.1 Change in real wages for unskilled agricultural workers for selected states




Annual Percentage Change in Real Wages for Unskilled Agricultural Labour for Selected States


  Percentage Change for agricultural year (July to June) over previous year
State 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97


1997-98
(P)


1998-99
(P)


1999-2000
(P)


Andhra Pradesh (+) 8.60 (+) 2.71 (-) 1.73 (+) 1.51 (+) 4.33 (-) 3.46 (+) 4.13


Assam (-) 6.58 (-) 1.67 (+) 2.68 (+) 1.52 (+) 0.77 (+) 1.18 (-) 1.02


Bihar (+) 5.98 (+) 1.69 (-) 2.30 (+) 15.15 (-) 4.70 (-) 5.70 (-) 3.26


Gujarat (+) 2.86 (+) 1.27 (+) 2.92 (+) 5.08 (+) 14.43 (+) 7.37 (+) 10.14


Kamataka (+) 41.31 (-) 15.60 (-) 8.61 (+) 21.39 (+) 17.05 (-) 2.83 (+) 8.42


Kerala (-) 2.84 (+) 5.24 (+) 13.20 (+) 14.54 (+) 15.67 (+) 4.90 (-) 14.53


Madhya Pradesh (-) 3.53 (+) 4.93 (+) 1.24 (+) 1.31 (+) 0.83 (+) 0.79 (+) 3.74


Maharashtra (+) 25.58 (-) 0.68 (-) 7.89 (+) 8.31 (+) 8.78 (-) 5.41 (-) 10.84


Orissa (-) 0.14 (-) 3.52 (+) 0.55 (-) 0.41 (+) 2.39 (+) 0.61 (-) 0.23


Punjab (+) 1.51 (-) 1.17 (-) 6.50 (-) 0.42 (+) 0.56 (-) 2.92 (-) 0.74


Rajasthan (-) 7.66 (+) 1.05 (+) 10.33 (+) 17.81 (+) 5.12 (-) 16.26 (+) 16.83


Tamil Nadu (+) 11.60 (+) 1.03 (+) 3.63 (+) 7.90 (+) 13.39 (+) 2.63 (+) 16.84


Utar Pradesh (-) 6.77 (-) 2.31 (+) 14.78 (-) 6.39 (+) 17.36 (+) 0.38 (-) 5.61


West Bengal (-) 6.50 (-) 5.29 (-) 0.28 (+) 11.15 (+) 3.02 (-) 3.14 (+) 0.65


All India (+) 5.61 (-) 0.39 (+) 0.72 (+) 6.37 (+) 7.17 (-) 1.56 (+) 1.15


(P): Provisional.
Notes: (I) Data on state average wage rates for unskilled agricultural labour in current prices are taken


from the Ministry of Agriculture. The same have been converted into real wages by deflating
with the State level Consumer Prince Index Numbers for Agricultural Labourers (CPIAL) with
1960-61 as base. (CPIAL) has been sourced from Labour Bureau (Shimla). Having estimated
real wages for agricultural year percentage change over previous year has been worked out.




(II) New series of CPIAL with base 1986-87 =100 were released w.e.f. November 1995. To
maintain continuity of old series of CPIAL, the new series have been converted by using the
linking factor of each state and then, the average for each state has been worked out on the
basis of converted series.


  


(III) The real wages for unskilled agricultural labour for each state have been weighted by total
agricultural labourers of the state for working out all India average. The weighted average real
wages for all India are based on 14 states as reported above. Having estimated weighted
average real wages for all India, percentage chage over previous year has been worked out.


Source: Ministries of Agriculture and Labour                                    




60 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Table VI.2: State-wise agricultural minimum wages


State-wise Daily Rates of Minimum Wages for Agricultural
Workers fixed under Minimum Wages Act, 1948@


(As on 1.10.2001, 30.06.2003, 31.12.2004 and 31.03.2006)
Minimum Wages for unskilled Agricultural


Workers (in Rs. per day)


States/UTs As on 1.10.2001 As on 30.06.2003 As on 31.12.2004
As on
31.03.2006


Rs. 52.00 to Rs.
55.50 p.d.


Andhra
Pradesh


(According to
Zones)


Rs. 52.00 to Rs.
55.50 p.d.
(According to
Zones)


52.00# 64.00 to
84.00 (as
per zone)


55.00
(Area-I)


Arunachal
Pradesh


Rs. 39.87 to Rs.
42.11 p.d.
(According to
Areas)


Rs. 39.87 to Rs.
42.11 p.d.
(According to Areas)


39.87# (Area-I) 42.11
(Area-I) (According to
zones) 57.00


(Area- II)
Assam Rs. 45.00 p.d. *


without food,
Shelter and
clothing Rs. 38.60
p.d. plus food,
shelter and
clothing


Rs. 60.00 p.d.
without food,
Shelter and clothing
Rs.50.00 p.d. plus
food, shelter and
clothing


50.00 with food,
Shelter and clothing
60.00 without food,
Shelter and clothing


69


Bihar Rs. 37.88 p.d. * Rs. 37.88 p.d. * 50 66


Chhatisgarh - 52.87 52.87 52.87
Goa Rs. 58.00 p.d. 58# 94.00# 94
Gujarat Rs. 75.80 p.d. 50 50 50


84.29 with
meal


Haryana Rs. 74.61 p.d. * Rs. 79.31 with Meal 84.29 with Meal 88.29
Without Meal


88.29
without
meal


Himachal
Pradesh


Rs. 51.00 p.d. 83.31without Meal# 65.00# 70


Jammu and
Kashmir


Rs. 45.80 p.d. 45.00# 45.00# 66


Jharkhand - 45 -$ -
Karnataka Rs. 51.63 p.d. 56.3 56.3 56.48


72.00 for
Lighting
Work


Kerala Rs. 30.00 p.d. for
light work Rs.
40.20 p.d. for
Hard work


Rs. 100.00 p.d. for
light work Rs. 150
for Hard work


100.00 for light work
150.00 for Hard work#


125.00 for
Hard work


Madhya
Pradesh


Rs. 51.80 p.d. * 54.56 56.96 56.96


Zone-I
51.00
Zone- II
49.00
Zone- III
47.00


Maharashtra Not Available Not Available Zone-I 51.00 Zone-II
49.00 Zone-III 47.00
Zone-IV 45.00


Zone- IV




CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA 61





45.00
Manipur Rs. 62.15 p.d.* for


Valley Areas Rs.
65.15 p.d. for Hill
Areas


66 66 72.4


Meghalaya Rs. 50.00 p.d. * 50.00# 70 70
Mizoram Rs. 70.00 p.d. 84.00# 84.00# 91
Nagaland Rs. 45.00 p.d. 50.00# 50.00# 66
Orissa Rs. 42.50 p.d. * 52.5 52.5 55
Punjab Rs. 72.38 p.d.*


with Meal Rs.
82.08 without
meal


82.65 87.59 90.58


Rajasthan Rs. 60.00 p.d. 60 673.00# 73
Sikkim The Minimum


Wages Act, 1948
yet to be
extended.


The Minimum
Wages Act, 1948 yet
to be extended.


The Minimum Wages
Act, 1948 has been
extended
w.e.f.1.10.2004


-


Tamil Nadu Rs. 54.00 p.d. 54 54.00# 70.00-
80.00


Tripura Rs. 45.00 p.d. 50# 50.00# 50
Uttar Pradesh Rs. 58.00 p.d.* 58 58 58
Uttaranchal - 58 58 73


62 with
meal


West Bengal Rs. 58.90 p.d.*
(with Meal) Rs.
62.10 (without
meal)


Rs.108.57with Meal
Rs. 111.77 (without
meal)


107.99 with Meal
110.97 without meal


65 without
meal


100.00
(Andaman)


Andaman and
Nicobar
Islands


Rs. 70.00 p.d.
(Andaman) Rs.
75.00 (Nicobar)


Rs.100.00 p.d.
(Andaman) Rs.
107.00 (Nicobar)


100.00# (Andaman)
107.00# (Nicobar)


107
(Nicobar)


Chandigarh Rs. 81.65 p.d. 100 100 114
Dadra and
Nagar Haveli


Rs. 60.00 p.d.* 60 84 89


Daman and
Diu$


- - - -


Delhi Rs. 99.70 p.d.* 50 to 60# 110.1 125.8
Lakshadweep Rs. 46.80 p.d.* 107.1 -$ -
Pondicherry 52 -
Pondicherry
Region


Rs. 20.00 to Rs.
22.00 p.d.


Rs. 45.00 to Rs.
119.00


45.00 to 100.00 45.00 for 5
hours
(women)


Rs. 30.00 p.d. for
light work


Mahe Region


Rs. 40.20 p.d. for
Hard work


Rs. 30.00 for light
work Rs. 40.20 for
Hard work


30.00 for light work
40.20 for Hard work


-


55.00 for 5
hours
(women)


Yanam
Region


Rs. 19.25 to Rs.
26.25 p.d.


Rs. 19.25 to Rs.
26.25


55.00 to 75.00


65.00 for 6
hours
(Men)




62 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Karaikal Rs. 20.00 to Rs.
22.00 p.d.


Rs. 45.00 to Rs.
100.00


45.00 to 100.00 54.00 for
6hours
(Men)


Central
Sphere


Rs. 83.02 to* Rs.
92.71 p.d.


Rs. 90.05 to
Rs.100.48


94.04 to 104.89 102.78 to
114.78



Note : The minimum wages also include the variable dearness allowance, wherever


provided.
* : Indicate the Provision of variable dearness allowance with the minimum rates


of wage.

# : No Provision of variable dearness allowance with the State.


$ : Not applicable.

@ : The minimum wages also include the variable dearness allowance,


wherever provided.
Source: Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India.





CHAPTER VI: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE AGRICULTURAL WAGES OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN INDIA 63





Table VI.3: Impact of trade on the wages of unskilled workers in agriculture in India: 1991-92 to 2000-2001

Dependent variables: Log real wages of unskilled labour in agriculture



Note: *** indicates significance at 1%, ** indicates significance at 5%, * indicates significance at 10%.
The figures reported are the coefficients and the figures in bracket are the t-values.
The estimations are carried out for 14 States for the period 1991-92 to 2000-2001.








Explanatory variables Fruits and
nuts


coefficien
t


(t value)
(1)


Cereals
(2)


Vegetables,
roots and
tubers


(3)


Oilseeds
(4)


All agricultural
products


(5)


Lag -0.26
(-00.4)


0.51**
(2.07)


1.13***
(4.91)


0.65***
(5.05)


0.64
(3.00)


Log exports 0.30
(1.53)


0.05***
(2.43)


-0.004
(-0.24)


-0.004
(-0.10)


-0.03
(-0.70)


Log imports -0.25*
(-1.83)


0.01
(1.58)


-0.009***
(-2.62)


-0.0008
(-0.02)


-0.11***
(-2.44)


Log state domestic
product


0.80***
(2.91)


-0.07
(-0.73)


0.25
(1.20)


0.27**
(2.36)


0.52***
(2.92)


Log rainfall 0.64***
(2.46)


0.13*
(1.85)


-0.04
(-0.50)


0.03
(0.40)


0.001
(0.03)


Log share of
agriculture


-0.97*
(-1.57)


-0.20
(-1.12)


-0.20
(-1.10)


-0.06
(-0.36)


-0.16
(-0.69)


Log gross irrigated
area


-0.4***
(-2.16)


0.28*
(1.92)


0.28
(1.05)


-0.03
(-0.24)


0.34*
(1.76)


Log number of
tractors


0.92
(1.64)


-0.05
(-1.60)


0.08*
(1.81)


0.01
(0.26)


-0.01
(-0.32)


Log fertilizers


0.06
(1.30)


-0.13**
(-2.23)


-0.29***
(-2.49)


-0.13
(-1.66)


-0.23***
(-2.42)


Log minimum wages -0.06
(-0.85)


-0.05
(-0.93)


-0.04
(-0.85)


-0.05
(-1.20)


0.06***
3.06)


Constant 0.21
(1.1.3)


0.39
(0.45)


-1.56
(-0.82)


_ -1.31*
(-1.78)


Number of
observations


83 92 88 84 89


Sargan test Chi2 9.19 5.31 5.96 6.67


5.0


Auto correlation (z) 1.03 0.98 0.86 1.02 0.32










CHAPTER VII: HAVE UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING 65
BENEFITED FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE?





CHAPTER VII: HAVE UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED
MANUFACTURING BENEFITED FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE?



7.1 INTRODUCTION



One of the key arguments for promoting international trade in developing countries is the favourable
impact of trade on employment and returns to unskilled labour. This argument finds its origin in standard
trade theories, e.g. the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem and Stolper- Samuelson theorem, according to which
trade results in a country exporting more of the product, which uses its relatively abundant factor
increasing the relative returns to this factor. As unskilled labour is the relatively abundant factor in
developing countries, it has been hypothesized that trade will favourably affect unskilled labour by
increasing demand for it and consequently its returns. However, as discussed in chapter 3, the
assumptions upon which these theorems are built are not sufficient to mirror the complexities of the real
world in low-income countries, particularly due to the existence of unlimited supply of unskilled labour,
disguised unemployment, and restrictive trade regimes.

In the context of India, the debate on whether trade benefits unskilled labour in terms of enhanced
employment and returns has an additional dimension. In particular, one of the unique characteristics of
Indian labour markets is their dualistic nature, where a large unorganized sector co-exists with the
organized sector. There are many regulations in India that apply only to the “organized sector”.20 Some of
these regulations lead to rigidities in labour markets, which may interfere with the straightforward
application of trade theories. These include fairly stringent rules relating to the firing of workers and the
closing down of enterprises, along with requirements for reasonable compensation for retrenchment; laws
governing the use of temporary or casual labour which enforce permanence of contract after a specified
time of employment; and minimum wage legislation, which raises the cost of hiring workers and leads to
downward inflexibility in wages.

Further, it has been argued by some that given a large unorganized sector, which contributes around one
third of manufacturing output and employs 86% of total workers,21 the arguments for trade increasing
gains for labour are at best not relevant for organized industries, which employ only a small percentage of
the total labour force.

However, inflexibilities in the Indian labour markets may lead to differential impacts from trade on labour
markets as compared to other countries, but the existence of a large unorganized sector by itself may not
render the argument concerning impact of trade on unskilled labour in the organized sector irrelevant for
the economy. Gains/losses from trade may directly accrue to labour in the organized sector, and given
high backward and forward linkages,22 they may percolate down through the organized sector to the
unorganized sector. According to the Economic Survey (2007-08), most of the increase in organized-
sector employment in the period 1999-00 to 2004-05 was on account of increases in the employment of
informal workers from the unorganized sector. Therefore, although the organized sector may be a small
part of the whole economy, it is the most dynamic sector with respect to distributing the gains/losses of
trade.

Given the complexities of the Indian labour market and the interlinkages between the organized sector and
the unorganized sector, it becomes important to estimate the extent to which trade has affected unskilled
labour, both in the unorganized sector and the organized sector. To this end, this chapter estimates the
impact of trade on the wages and employment of unskilled labour in the organized manufacturing sector at
three-digit industry level for the period 1998-99 to 2005-06.23 The differential impact of trade on labour
productivity and wage inequality on skilled and unskilled labour is estimated too.

The next section discusses trends in wages and employment in the organized manufacturing sector.
Section 7.3 presents the empirical results and section 7.4 concludes the chapter.



20 The “organized sector” in India is defined by the size of establishment in terms of number of workers (more than 10 workers).
21 See National Commission of Enterprises in the Unorganized sector (2008)
22 Mehta (1985), Samal (1990), Shaw (1990) establish strong backward and forward linkages between the two sectors.
23 The choice of the period has been restricted as ASI changed the industrial classification in 1998-99.




66 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







7.2. TRENDS IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING LABOUR MARKETS IN INDIA

7.2.1 Trends in Employment in Organized Labour Markets

The most informative statistics available on unemployment are the daily status of unemployment provided
by NSSO.24 Using this data and tracing the employment trends in India, it is found that employment almost
doubled in 2004-05 as compared to 1983-84, and the growth rate of employment was much higher in the
period 1999-2000 to 2004-05 as compared to 1993-94 to 1999-2000, when it actually fell below the 1983-
84 to 1993-94 level (Table 7.1).

The table shows that the unemployment rate has increased from about 20.27 million in 1993-94 to about
34.74 million in 2004-05. This was because the labour force grew at a rate of 2.84%, which was higher
than the 2.62% increase in the workforce. Unemployment rates are over two percentage points higher
than ten years ago (at 6.07 % in 1993-94 compared to 8.28% in 2004-05), and the employment-to-
population ratio is lower than it was ten years ago. While a part of the reason for the decline in this ratio
could be extended time spent on education, it is also indicative of low employment opportunities.

Table 7. 1: Employment and unemployment rates in India


Source: Economic Survey 2007-08.

This decline in the growth of employment during 1993-94 to 1999-00 can also be attributed to lower
absorption in agriculture. The share of agriculture in total employment dropped from 61% to 57% during
this period. It further fell to 52% in 2004-05. While the share of the manufacturing sector increased only
marginally during this period, the trade, hotel and restaurant sector contributed significantly to overall
employment (Table 7.2).

Table 7. 2: Employment in India by sector:


Industry 1983 1993-94 1999-00 2004-05
Agriculture 65.42 61.03 56.64 52.06
Mining and quarrying 0.66 0.78 0.67 0.63
Manufacturing 11.27 11.10 12.13 12.90
Electricity, water etc. 0.34 0.41 0.34 0.35
Construction 2.56 3.63 4.44 5.57
Trade, hotel and restaurant 6.98 8.26 11.20 12.62
Transport, storage and communication 2.88 3.22 4.06 4.61
Fin., insur., real est., and busi. services 0.78 1.08 1.36 2.00
Comty., social and personal services 9.10 10.50 9.16 9.24
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Source: Economic Survey 2007-08

According to the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS), organized
sector employment increased from 54.12 million in 1999-00 to 62.57 million in 2004-05. However, the
increase was accounted for by the increase in informal workers in organized enterprises, from 20.46 million



24 NSSO gives the average level of unemployment on a given day, during the survey year and thereby capture the unemployed
days of the chronically unemployed; the unemployed days of usually employed who become intermittently unemployed during
the reference week and unemployed days of those classified as employed according to the criterion of current weekly status.


1983-
84


1993-94 1999-00 2004-05 1983 to
1993-94


1993-94
to 1999-


00


1999-00
to 2004-


05
million Growth p.a. (%)


Population 718.10 893.68 1005.05 1092.83 2.11 1.98 1.69
Labour force 263.82 334.20 364.88 419.65 2.28 1.47 2.84
Workforce 239.49 313.93 338.19 384.91 2.61 1.25 2.62
Unemployment rate
(per cent)


9.22 6.06 7.31 8.28


Number of
unemployed 24.34 20.27 26.68 34.74




CHAPTER VII: HAVE UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING 67
BENEFITED FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE?





in 1999-00 to 29.14 million in 2004-05. Thus, the increase in employment in the organized sector has been
because of informal employment of workers.

7.2.2. Trends in Wages in the Organized Manufacturing Sector

The most reliable source for wages paid in the organized manufacturing sector is the Annual Survey of
Industries, which gives, at three-digit level, detailed data on the wages paid to workers, supervisory staff
and other employees. If the definition of unskilled labour is taken as ‘blue collar’ workers and skilled labour
as ‘white collar’ workers in the organized manufacturing sector, then a rising trend in the wage rates of
both skilled and unskilled workers is observed, although the rise has been much higher for skilled workers
than for unskilled workers.

7.3. EMPIRICAL RESULTS: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE WAGES AND
EMPLOYMENT OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING

To estimate the impact of trade on the wages and employment of skilled and unskilled workers in the
organized sector, similar equations are estimated as in the case of the unorganized sector. As the impact
is analysed for a longer period of time, i.e. 1997-98 to 2005-06 for 54 three-digit level industries, the
Generalized Method of Moments (GMM-IV) one-step estimators, following Arellano and Bond (1991),25
have been adopted. The details of the methodology are reported in Appendix I (Section A.6).

7.3.1 Impact of Trade on the Wages of Unskilled Labour

To estimate the impact of exports and imports on the wages of unskilled labour (blue collar workers, or
‘workers’ by the ASI definition), inter-industry analysis for 54 industries for the period 1997-98 to 2005-06
is undertaken.

The impacts of exports and imports on the wages and employment of unskilled labour26 are presented in
Annex Table VII.1. The results with respect to the impact of trade on the wages of unskilled workers show
that after controlling for inter-industry differences, the export intensity of the industry has a positive and
significant impact on the wages of unskilled workers. This implies that if other factors remain the same, the
higher the exports of an industry relative to its output, the higher the wages paid by the industry will be.
However, the impact of import intensity, which reflects imports of the products produced by the industry
as a proportion of its total output, is not found to have a statistically significant impact. This indicates that
import competition does not have any significant impact on the wages of unskilled workers in the
organized sector. A plausible explanation for imports not affecting wages could be the downward rigidity in
wage rates, given the minimum wage norms applicable in the organized manufacturing sector. The export
orientation of the industry, on the other hand, will create pressure on the industry to retain labour and to
improve their skills, which may raise their returns. As expected, the other factors, such as output of the
industry, and labour productivity, positively contribute to the wages of unskilled labour. The methodology
controls for differences in the technology used by the industry. While low-tech industries may pay higher
wages to unskilled workers, this is not found to be the case in Indian manufacturing.



25 The coefficients and standard errors reported are those of the one-step estimation since, as Arellano and Bond (1991) argue,
inference based on standard errors obtained from the two-step estimates can be
unreliable. The Sargan test of over identifying restrictions and the test for second order autocorrelation are, however, based on
two-step estimates (see Arellano and Bond 1991).
26 The dependent variables are Log of wages of unskilled workers and Log of number of unskilled workers. All estimates are
based upon heteroscedastic robust standard errors. Consistency of the GMM estimates requires that there is no second order
correlation of the residuals of the first-differenced equation. Our results of the AR(2) test on the residuals as developed by
Arellano and Bond (1991) do not allow us to reject the hypothesis of the validity of instruments used. We also use industry
dummies at two-digit level to control for industry-specific effects.




68 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







7.3.2 Impact on Employment of Unskilled Labour

In terms of employment, the results are not very encouraging, as the results do not show that the export
orientation of industries positively impacts the employment of unskilled labour. This result appears to be
contrary to the results arrived at by other studies such as those of Banga (2005) and Goldar (2002), who
find a higher employment elasticity of demand in export-oriented industries in the post-reform period.
However, since the impact was analysed on the employment of unskilled labour and not on total labour,
the results may not be comparable. One of the plausible reasons for this result could be strict labour laws,
which, as argued by many, discourage firms from employing more labour. The employment of informal
workers has been increasing over the years in organized manufacturing (Economic Survey 2007-08), which
is also indicative of the fact that export-oriented industries may be outsourcing more or employing more
informal labour, which is not captured by the data used.

The results further reveal that import competition does not have any significant impact on the employment
of unskilled labour. This is not very surprising, given the strict labour firing policy in India. The size of the
firm, as expected, has a positive impact on the numbers of unskilled labour employed, and wage rates
have a negative impact.

7.3.3 Impact of Trade on Labour Productivity

Annex Table VII.2 presents the results of the dynamic panel-data estimation of labour productivity
equations. Estimates are done for aggregate employment and for skilled and unskilled labour separately.
Skilled labour implies ‘white collar workers’, while unskilled labour implies ‘blue collar workers’. Equation
(1) of Table VII.2 presents the results for labour productivity of total labour force, irrespective of the skills of
labour. Equation (2) presents results with respect to skilled labour, and equation (3) presents results with
respect to unskilled labour. Each of the equations has been estimated separately to capture the impact of
export intensity and import intensity.

For aggregate labour, impacts of both export intensity and import intensity are found to be positive and
statistically significant. This implies that both export intensity and import intensity of the industries lead to
higher labour productivity of labour. This supports the view that competition, whether in the international
market or the domestic market, will raise labour productivity.

Trade may differently affect the productivity of skilled and unskilled labour. The results show that export
intensity of the industry increased labour productivity of unskilled labour. This is in line with the trade
theory as it is expected that developing countries such as India will export products that are labour-
intensive and produced mainly in low-tech industries which employ more unskilled labour.

Import intensity, on the other hand, is found to have improved labour productivity of both skilled and
unskilled labour. Domestic competition may therefore raise productivity levels of labour more than
competition in international markets. Higher capital intensity is found to improve labour productivity of both
skilled and unskilled labour. However, the impact in the case of skilled labour is much larger than that in
the case of unskilled labour. Modernization of industry, reflected in terms of rise in capital labour ratio,
increases the productivity of skilled labour more than that of unskilled labour.

The results control for the size of the industries. The larger the size of the industry is, the higher the
productivity is of both skilled and unskilled labour.

7.3.4 Impact of Trade on Wage Inequality

Annex Table VII.3 presents the results of the dynamic panel-data estimation of impact of trade on wage
inequality between skilled and unskilled labour. Two specifications have been tested; one controls for
technology differences across industries using the K/L ratio, while the other equation is estimated by
dropping the K/L ratio. The results are reported in equations (1) to (4) of the table.

Wage inequality is defined as the difference between the wage rate of skilled and unskilled labour. The
higher the wage inequality is, the lower the wage rate is of unskilled labour as compared to skilled labour.

Keeping other factors constant, the results indicate a positive relationship between the export and import
intensities of the industry with wage inequality. This indicates that increase in competition, whether
external or domestic, increases the wage differential between skilled and unskilled worker in an industry.
This is in line with other studies, including Bhagwati and Dehejia (1994). Buoyancy in economic activities,




CHAPTER VII: HAVE UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING 69
BENEFITED FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE?





as witnessed in the period until 2006, fast augmented the demand for skilled labour. However, as
industries became more labour-intensive, the demand for unskilled labour did not increase in the same
proportion. It is interesting to note that the lagged wage inequality has a significant positive relationship
with wage inequality in the current period, which indicates that industries with higher wage differentials in
the past have continued to have larger wage inequalities in the subsequent period as well.

The fact that the increase in trade in India is positively related with the widening wage inequality is also
reinforced by the direct relationship between scale of output and wage inequality across the sectors.
Increase in output of the industry is found to be directly related to increase in the inequality in the wage
rate. The results also show that in India’s manufacturing sector, as the proportion of unskilled labour to
skilled labour rises in an industry, the wage inequality between skilled and unskilled labour lowers. This
indicates that in industries that employ more unskilled labour as a proportion of skilled labour, the wage
inequality between skilled and unskilled labour is lower. High-tech industries are found to have a larger
wage inequality, which is along the lines expected, as they would hire more expensive skilled labour. The
impact of exports and imports on wage inequality is also tested by not controlling for technology; when
this is the case, it is found that similar results are arrived at, which indicates the robustness of the results.

7.4. CONCLUSIONS

This chapter examines the linkages between international trade and labour market outcomes in India.
Theory predicts that with greater openness to trade and the resulting expansion of trade, developing
countries’ labour-intensive manufacturing sector will benefit in terms of improvements in employment and
returns to unskilled labour. It has also been argued that the abundant factor (unskilled labour) should
benefit more from trade. This might result in a reduction in the wage differential between unskilled and
skilled labour. To test these propositions, the chapter examines the impact of trade on the employment
and wages of unskilled labour in India in the organized manufacturing sector. It further estimates the
impact of trade on the productivity of skilled and unskilled labour and their wage inequality.

The analysis is conducted using data drawn for 54 industries at three-digit level for the period 1998-99 to
2004-05. Focusing on the registered manufacturing sector, it is found that the exports intensity of the
industry increases the returns of unskilled labour, although the impact on employment is not found to be
statistically significant. Import competition, on the other hand, is found to have no impact on wages or the
employment of unskilled labour. The labour productivity of unskilled labour is found to be positively
impacted by higher competition, whether in external or domestic markets. However, the productivity of
skilled labour is found to have been positively affected only by domestic competition, i.e. by higher levels
of imports of the products produced by the industry. Although trade has benefited labour in general and
unskilled labour in particular, it has in no way reduced the differences in the wage earnings between the
two classes of labour. In fact, trade has led to higher wage inequality. This suggests that higher skills
enable higher gains from trade.

ANNEX TO CHAPTER VII

Table VII.1: Impact of trade on the wages and employment of unskilled workers in the Indian manufacturing
sector: 1997-98 to 2005-06

Explanatory Variables Dependent


Variable:
Log Wages
of Unskilled
Labour


(1)


Dependent Variable: Log
number of Unskilled
Labour


(2)


Log Wages to Unskilled Workers
Lagged ( L1)


-0.13***
(-7.19)




Log Number of Unskilled Workers
Lagged (L1)


- -0.02**
(-14.99)


Log Wage Rate (Predicted) - -0.01*
(-0.74)


Log Output 0.32***
(8.14)


0.04*
(1.97)


Log Labour Productivity of
Unskilled Labour


0.02*
(1.77)





70 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Log TECH 0.01
(1.32)




Log Export Intensity 0.03***
(2.43)


0.01
(1.39)


Log Import Intensity -0.01
(-0.34)


-0.02
(-1.53)


Cons 7.31***
(17.06)


4.64***
(4.42)


Industry Dummies Yes Yes
Wald chi2(6) 355.4* 821.3*
Auto correlation(z) -1.20 0.91
N 302 302
Notes:
*** indicates significance at 1%, ** indicates significance at 5%, * indicates significance at 10%.
The predicted wage rate values arrived at from the wage equation are used as an instrument for wage rate
in the employment equation.
The estimations are carried out for 54 industries for the period 1998-98 to 2005-06.
The figures reported are the coefficients and the figures in bracket are the t-values.

Table: VII.2 Impact of trade on the labour productivity of skilled and unskilled labour


(1) (2) (3)
Variables / Stats Skilled + Unskilled Skilled Unskilled


Constant -6.7899
(-43.64)*


-6.7067
(-28.35)*


-2.7560
(-13.65)*


-2.6673
(-11.15)*


-6.8530
(-43.11)*


-6.8389
(-30.63)*


Log (LPTY)-1 -0.2593
(-4.52)*


-0.3108
(-3.70)*


0.2335
(1.78)


0.03512
(0.24)


-0.2686
(-4.84)*


-0.3576
(-4.29)*


Log (GVA) 0.5030
(25.98)*


0.4830
(22.01)*


0.3512
(13.32)*


0.3398
(11.32)*


0.5271
(23.34)*


0.5051
(21.31)*


Log
(exports/outp


ut)


0.0138
(2.32)*


- -0.0011
(-0.13)


- 0.0121
(2.08)*


-


Log
(imports/outp


ut)


- 0.0258
(3.26)*


- 0.0192
(1.77)*


- 0.0224
(2.96)*


log (K/l) 0.03495
(2.84)*


0.0399
(3.22)*


0.0661
(4.32)*


0.0514
(3.26)*


0.0269
(2.32)*


0.0340
(2.91)*


Wald Chi Sq 1373.2 623.1 187.2 204.4 1411.4 648.5
Notes: (a) Estimations are made using the Arellano-Bond dynamic panel-data technique. (b) * signifies
statistical significance at 5% level. (c) Due to the high degree of correlation between K/L and (K/L)2, (K/L)2
was dropped from the estimation.




CHAPTER VII: HAVE UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING 71
BENEFITED FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE?





Table VII.3 Impact of trade on wage inequality

Variables /


Stats
(1) (2) (3) (4)


Constant
-4.289
(-7.04)*


-5.0263
(-7.75)*


-5.0967
(-10.03)*


-5.4317
(-9.15)*


Log (Wd)
0.3503
(20.39)*


0.3877
(22.42)*


0.2988
(22.06)*


0.3456
(30.21)*


Log (GVA)
0.1101
(1.41)


0.2281
(3.48)*


0.1295
(1.88)


0.2111
(3.40)*


Log (unsk/Sk)
-0.2193
(-2.22)*


-0.2831
(-2.19)*


-0.3873
(-4.54)*


-0.4070
(-3.77)*


Log (exports-
output)


0.0254
(3.55)*


0.0317
(4.06)*


- -


Log (imports-
output) -


- 0.0178
(2.32)*


0.0369
(5.15)*


log (K/l)
0.0853
(4.02)*


- 0.0994
(5.61)*


-


Wald Chi Sq 3460.7 2087.0 2616.0 2708.5
Notes: (a) Estimations are made using the Arellano-Bond dynamic panel-data technique. (b) * signifies
statistical significance at 5% level.








CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN INDIA 73





CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT
IN INDIA?



8.1 INTRODUCTION

Theoretical literature points out that trade may not have a gender-neutral impact. With the change in the
production structure of India as a consequence of trade liberalization, new avenues of employment may
favour one gender as compared to the other. Increased exports may lead to higher employment of women,
but only if the intensity of women’s employment is high in export-oriented units. Similarly, a rise in imports
may adversely affect the employment of women if the imports are mainly in those sectors where women
have a higher probability of employment.

The issue of a differential impact of trade on gender becomes even more relevant in the case of developing
countries, where women are at a disadvantage in terms of access to resources starting as soon as they
are born. In India, the percentage share of the female population in the total population is around 48%,
while the work participation rate of females is only 26%. The male-female gap in the literacy rate is
21.59%. In 2004-05, women within the “15 years and above” age group were usually engaged in domestic
duties; only 33% in rural India and 27% in urban India had reported availability for “work”. In the organized
sector, only 18.7% of total employees are women. This clearly indicates a gender lag whereby women
start with lower levels of access to and participation in economically gainful activities.

In addition to gender differentiation in respect of access to resources, the returns from economic activities
also differ significantly with respect to gender. According to the NSSO Report (2005-06),27 the average
wage rate for regular wage/salaried women employees is only 67% of that of male employees in urban
areas, while it is only 55% in rural areas. Trade may affect gender returns favourably as well as
unfavourably. The gender wage gap may be reduced because trade can increase competition among firms
resulting in pressure to cut costs. Lower wages for women who have comparable skills to men may result
in an increase in demand for their labour, ultimately leading to wage equality. However, trade often results
in a premium on skills. Thus, the resulting increase in the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers
may increase the gender wage gap, given that, in most countries, men as compared to women have higher
levels of labour market skills on average.

Trade, therefore, may have vital implications for gender equality, and gender-sensitized trade policy needs
to be used to enhance the gender-neutral impact of trade. In order to arrive at directions for trade policy, it
becomes important to identify and estimate the trade–gender impacts in an economy. However, limited
literature exists that estimates gender-differentiated impacts of trade. Therefore, this chapter undertakes
the following analyses:

 Gender employment multipliers are estimated across 46 subsectors in the economy using the input-


output tables. This helps in identifying the subsectors across agriculture, industry and services
where the employment of women is relatively high.



 Impact of exports and imports on employment of women in the organized manufacturing sector is


estimated through a labour demand equation for 54 industries over the 1999-2000 and 2004-2005
periods.



 Finally, gender-sensitive products, defined as products for which the share of women’s employment


is relatively higher, are identified. Trade policymakers can use the list of these products as a tool to
enhance gains from trade to women, by enhancing exports of these products and protecting
women’s vulnerabilities from trade by limiting import surges of these products.



The chapter is organized as follows: section 8.2 discusses briefly the trends in trade-related gender
development indicators; section 8.3 presents the gender employment multipliers for 46 subsectors of the
Indian economy; section 8.4 presents the results of the impact of trade on gender employment in the
organized manufacturing sector; section 8.5 identifies gender-sensitive products for India; and section 8.6
summarizes and concludes.



27 Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, NSS, 62nd round.




74 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






8.2 TRENDS IN TRADE-RELATED GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

8.2.1 Trends in the Gender Development Index

Trends in the Gender Development Index (GDI) – which is based on life expectancy, education (the adult
literacy rate and the combined primary to tertiary gross enrolment ratio), and estimated earned income –
indicates that there has been some improvement in gender-related development in India (Table 8.1).


Table 8. 1: Trends in the Human Development Index and Gender Development Index in India

















Source: HDR (2009).


The United Nations Human Development Report (2009) reported India’s Human Development Index (HDI)
in 2007 as 0.612, which had increased from 0.556 in 2000. In terms of the HDI, India ranks 134th out of 182
countries in the world. In terms of the Gender Development Index, India ranks 134th out of 182 countries.
This shows an almost zero count in terms of HDI-GDI rank, indicating that both move together. During the
period from 1995 to 2003, GDI grew by 0.15 percentage points, while in 2003-07 it saw an increase of 0.02
percentage points.

8.2.2 Gender Literacy Rates in India

Despite a significant increase in female literacy over time, a huge gap exists between male and female
literacy rates (Table 8.2). There has been no discernible attitudinal change, and education for males is still
considered more essential than education for females, as there is less return on investment made in
educating a girl child.


Table 8. 2: Percentage of literacy rates by sex in India




Year Age Group Persons Males Females Rural Urban


Male-
Female
Gap in
Literacy
Rates


1971 5 and above 34.45 45.95 21.97 27.89 60.22 23.98
1981 7 and above 43.56


(41.42)
56.36
(53.45)


29.75
(28.46) 36.09 67.34 26.65


1991 7 and above 52.21 63.86 39.42 44.69 73.09 24.84
2001 - 64.8 75.3 53.7 - - 21.59


Source: Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Government of India.

By 2001, around 75% of males and 50% of females were able to read and write simple sentences.
However, there is a marked difference in rural and urban literacy rates. The 1991 census revealed that
while literacy levels in urban areas were around 75%, those in rural areas were only 45%. The male–female
gap in the literacy rate has declined since 1981, but the decline has not been too significant.


Year HDI GDI
1980 0.427
1985 0.453
1990 0.489
1995 0.551 0.424
1999 0.595
2000 0.556
2003 0.574
2005 0.596 0.590
2006 0.604 0.591
2007 0.612 0.594




CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN INDIA 75





8.2.3 Trends in Gender Employment in India

The percentage share of female population in the total population in India is around 48%, while the work
participation rate of females is only 26%, compared to 52% for males. A wide urban–rural divide exists in
the participation of women and men in the economy. About 24.9% of women in rural areas and about
14.8% of women in urban areas were in the workforce in India during 2004-05, whereas about 54.6% of
men in rural areas and 56.6% of men in urban areas were in the workforce. In the organized sector, out of
the total employees in 2004, about 18.7% were women (Table 8.3).


Table 8. 3: Employment by industry:[percentage of employment according to usual status




1993-94 1999-2000 2004-05


Agriculture


Rural males 74.1 53.4 66.5


Rural females 86.2 85.4 83.3


Urban males 9 6.6 6.1


Urban females 24.7 17.7 18.1


Manufacturing


Rural males 7 7.3 7.9


Rural females 7 7.6 8.4


Urban males 23.5 22.4 23.5


Urban females 24.1 24 28.3


Construction


Rural males 3.2 4.5 6.8


Rural females 0.9 1.1 1.5


Urban males 6.9 8.7 9.2


Urban females 4.1 4.8 3.8


Trade, hotels and restaurants


Rural males 5.5 6.8 8.3


Rural females 2.1 2 2.5


Urban males 21.9 29.4 28


Urban females 10 16.9 12.2


Transport, storage and communications


Rural males 2.2 3.2 3.9


Rural females 0.1 0.1 2


Urban males 9.7 10.4 10.7


Urban females 1.3 1.8 1.4


Other services


Rural males 7 6.1 5.9


Rural females 3.4 3.7 3.9


Urban males 26.4 21 20.8


Urban females 35 34.2 35.9


Source: National Sample Survey, 62nd round.

Within services, the share of different services sectors in total female employment in services is computed.
It is found that the percentage of female employment in total employment in the services sector,
comprising other transport services, communications, banking, insurance, tourism and other services, is




76 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






around 16%. The share of other services in total female employment in the services sector is found to be
the highest (79%), followed by communication services (11%) and banking services (5%). Female
employment in the labour force is found to be low in other transport services, insurance services and
tourism.

8.2.4 Trends in Gender Wage/Salary

To assess the extent of the benefits of trade being shared between the two genders in India, it is important
to examine the extent of participation by females in different sectors and gains in terms of wages and
salaries.

With respect to wages and salaries, studies indicate large gender disparities. Very limited information
exists for wage/salary across gender for disaggregated sectors. NSSO (2005) estimates average
wage/salary received per day by regular employees for two broad categories of services (Table 8.4).


Table 8. 4: Average wage/salary (in Rs) received per day by regular wage/salaried employees of age 15-59
years by industry of work, sex, sector, and broad educational level for India.





Rural


Educational level


Industry division Not literate Literate upto Secondary & Hr Graduate All


Middle Secondary and above


Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


Agriculture (01-05) 45.65 53.39 54.41 66.27 134.61 149.40 105.32 200.33 54.51 71.16
Mining and
Quarrying (10-14) 84.88 174.13 212.29


217.6
4 83.29 323.41 0.00 341.46 82.75 246.93


Manufacturing (15-
22) 26.53 58.36 36.26 74.41 47.26 103.40 89.21 160.67 38.24 90.60
Manufacturing
(23.37) 38.40 75.73 58.54 84.51 62.12 109.43 219.58 534.81 57.95 146.72


Electricity Gas &
Water (40-41) 168.63 142.41 178.57


202.9
5 290.91 260.51 111.91 306.55 253.95 246.32


Construction (45) 82.64 85.59 44.21
100.1


9 101.70 111.08 136.09 223.09 90.80 106.79


Trade (50-55) 34.72 65.35 40.70 66.67 67.51 86.57 136.45 108.34 51.15 75.34
Transport and
Storage etc. (60-
64) 87.75 98.28 102.54


112.7
9 105.32 138.45 256.22 235.17 135.75 126.96


Services (65-74) 100.00 51.82 97.35
126.4


3 89.95 193.12 157.28 278.29 143.72 200.71


Services (75-93) 34.70 101.07 50.55
133.2


0 105.74 197.20 174.18 256.93 113.66 203.66


Private hhs with
emp. Persons (95) 29.18 50.74 34.10 66.68 54.90 88.14 0.00 137.67 31.27 67.80


Others (99) NA 0.00 NA 0.00 NA 0.00 NA 250.00 NA 250.00


All 35.74 72.47 47.75 98.59 100.19 158.04 172.70 270.02 85.53 144.93


Urban


Educational Level


Industry division Not literate Literate upto Secondary & Hr Graduate & above All


Middle Secondary


Female Male Female Male

Female Male Female Male Female Male


Agriculture (01-05) 55.60 68.83 73.45 70.66 74.20 182.06 225.56 237.37 79.59 104.80
Mining and
Quarrying (10-14) 154.15 266.71 75.78 248.61 714.29 348.64 351.30 806.61 186.30 359.41
Manufacturing (15-
22) 34.23 79.41 53.25 88.45 70.71 122.10 235.10 218.85 65.58 113.22
Manufacturing (23-
37) 54.81 106.70 45.81 108.62 113.24 176.79 219.39 362.06 102.16 189.41




CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN INDIA 77





Electricity Gas &
Water (40-41) 127.06 169.10 103.33 188.21 240.48 325.56 422.72 523.53 233.34 340.51


Construction (45) 69.08 81.03 122.35 115.36 147.59 106.45 253.59 376.45 191.75 171.47


Trade (50-55) 48.81 62.44 53.63 76.41 95.07 112.21 204.85 208.97 104.53 103.47
Transport and
Storage etc. (60-
64) 90.72 104.74 144.69 138.84 228.99 211.92 414.48 361.17 278.41 207.57


Services (65-74) 45.77 64.01 108.36 122.25 131.04 174.19 372.60 501.69 304.07 360.15


Services (75-93) 78.53 126.80 116.16 150.01 186.33 239.72 247.12 345.63 205.35 265.72


Private hhs with
emp. Persons (95) 38.20 78.77 42.77 89.82 51.67 62.95 67.61 164.08 41.26 86.94


Others (99) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 66.71 134.00 0.00 0.00 66.71 134.00


All 48.7 89.79 64.79 111.44 150.41 182.58 269.17 366.76 153.19 203.28


Source: National Sample Survey Organisation, 61st
round (July 2004-June 2005)


Note: Code in brackets represent National Industrial Classification (NIC), 1998 Industry codes.

Very interesting insights emerge from this information. In urban areas, on average, the wage/salary paid to
females is only 75% of that paid to males, while in rural areas it is only 59% of that paid to males
(according to 61st round of NSSO). This wage disparity differs across sectors and education levels. In
urban areas, the highest gender–wage disparity exists in the mining, quarrying, and manufacturing sectors.
In rural areas, the gender–wage disparity is higher in many sectors as compared to urban areas. Better
access to resources such as education, technology and knowledge may be a reason for the rural–urban
differences in the trends. These trends clearly reflect the existence of gender–wage disparity in all sectors
of the economy.

Across services sectors, the wage/salary trends show that as the literacy levels of females increase, the
wage disparity declines. However, it is interesting to note that even at graduate level and above, the
salaries earned by females, on average, are only 70-75% of those earned by males with a similar level of
education. This implies that with higher growth of services, even if employment opportunities for women
grow at the same rate, the benefits of the growth go more to males than to females.

8.3 GENDER EMPLOYMENT GENERATED BY EXPORTS IN INDIA DURING THE
2003/04 TO 2006/07 PERIOD

The methodology to estimate the employment generated for men and women by exports is reported in
Appendix I (section A.7). Table 8.5 presents the increase in male and female employment across 46
subsectors due to rises in exports during the period 2003/04 to 2006/07.

The results show that exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 generated 9.38 million jobs for women and
16.6 million jobs for men. This implies that although exports generated additional employment for women
in India in this period, it was only 36% of the total additional employment generated. However, the share of
females in additional employment generated due to exports exceeds the share of females in total
employment by nearly 5 percentage points. This suggests that exports may have led to a reduction of the
male–female gap in employment in India.

It is interesting to note that the female employment generated is found to be high in the agriculture sector –
mainly in food crops, plantation crops and cash crops. In the manufacturing sector, the female
employment generated is found to be high in cotton textiles, textile products, wood furniture, and
miscellaneous manufacturing products. Among the services sectors, female employment generated is
found to be high in domestic trade, hotels and restaurants, other transport services and tourism. Animal
husbandry is the only subsector where female employment is found to be higher than that of males.

Overall, it can be concluded that a rise in exports in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07 increased female
employment in almost all sectors, although the employment generated for females was only 36% of the
total employment generated.




78 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






Table 8. 5: Gender employment generated by increases in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07


Increase in female
employment from 2003-04 to
2006-07


Increase in male
employment from
2003-04 to 2006-07


Sectors (in person-years) (in person-years)


Numbers (millions) Numbers (millions)


Food crops 1.27 1.96


Cash crops 0.67 0.98


Plantation crops 0.22 0.25


Other crops 0.11 0.16


Animal husbandry 0.12 0.07


Forestry and logging 0.09 0.11


Fishing 0.01 0.02


Coal and lignite 0.06 0.11


Crude petroleum, natural gas 0.03 0.05


Iron ore 0.02 0.02


Other minerals 0.13 0.70


Food products 0.18 0.27


Beverages, tobacco, etc. 0.00 0.00


Cotton textiles 0.21 0.34
Wool, silk and synthetic
fibres 0.10 0.16


Jute, hemp, mesta textiles 0.02 0.04
Textiles products, including
wearing apparel 0.36 0.54


Wood, furniture etc. 0.29 0.53


Paper and printing etc. 0.04 0.07


Leather and leather products 0.05 0.09
Rubber, petroleum, plastic,
cola. 0.07 0.11


Chemicals etc. 0.08 0.14


Non-metallic products 0.03 0.07


Metals 0.18 0.41
Metal products except
machinery and transport
equipment 0.09 0.20
Tractors, agricultural
implements, industrial
machinery, other machinery 0.11 0.23
Electrical, electronic
machinery and applications 0.01 0.01


Transport equipment 0.02 0.04
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries 0.38 0.80


Construction 0.09 0.18


Electricity 0.08 0.13




CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN INDIA 79





Gas and water supply 0.01 0.01


Railway transport services 0.10 0.18


Other transport services 0.55 1.13


Storage and warehousing 0.00 0.01


Communication 0.09 0.16


Trade 1.30 2.76


Hotels and restaurants 0.36 0.57


Banking 0.14 0.23


Insurance 0.03 0.06


Ownership of dwellings 0.00 0.00


Education and research 0.00 0.00


Medical and health 0.00 0.00


Other services 1.53 2.42


Public administration 0.00 0.00


Tourism 0.16 0.27


Total 9.38 16.60

8.4 EMPIRICAL FINDINGS OF IMPACT OF TRADE ON GENDER EMPLOYMENT
IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING

In order to estimate the impact of trade on gender employment, two specifications have been estimated,
i.e. the impact of the export and import intensity of industries on the proportion of women’s employment in
total employment; and the impact of the export and import intensities of industries on total employment in
the industries. The results of the two specifications are reported in Annex to chapter VIII (Table VIII.1 and
Table VIII.2).

The results reported in Table VIII.1 show that the export intensity of an industry has a positive and
significant impact on women’s employment, implying that the higher the exports to output ratio of an
industry is, the higher the ratio of women in total employment in the industry will be. However, import
intensity is not found to have any statistically significant impact on women’s employment. On the contrary,
the results for total employment (Table VIII.2) show that although export intensity has positively affected
employment in the industry, higher import intensity is negatively related to a fall in employment intensity. In
other words, as expected, the wage rate is negatively related to women’s employment and total
employment. These results indicate that the higher the exports of an industry are as a proportion of its
total output, the higher women’s employment in the industry is as a proportion of total employment. Import
competition, however, does not affect gender employment.

Interestingly, the results show that technology is positively related to the women’s employment ratio, while
it is negatively related to total employment. This indicates that low-tech industries have higher total
employment compared to high-tech industries, but that in the case of women’s employment, the better the
technology, the higher the proportion of women’s employment is.

Further, we find that when the real wage rate rises, the fall in women’s employment will be higher than the
fall in men’s employment. In other words, at a given wage rate, the chance of women getting employment
is lower than that of men. At the aggregate level, the wage and employment relationship is inconclusive,
due to a lack of statistical significance. This indicates that the wage rate may be important for determining
the employment of women, but at aggregate level, it does not have a very strong relationship with
employment. The weak relationship between the wage rate and employment at aggregate level could be
attributable to the rigid labour laws in India.

The positive relationship between technology and the intensity of women’s employment in both export and
import equations indicates that as capital intensity improves, women have higher chances of employment
than men do. Women may find themselves less preferred for jobs in relatively labour-intensive sectors, but
they are preferred to men in relatively capital-intensive sectors. Improvements in technology reduce the




80 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






need for physical strength, and enable women to opt for jobs which earlier may have been done by men.
This is evident from the fact that electric machinery has seen an increase in the female share of its regular
salaried workforce, from 4.6 per cent in 1983 to 19.5 per cent in 2004 (Menon, 2007).

With rapid increases in modernization of business, one would expect the intensity of women’s employment
to increase. The positive relationship between intensity of women’s employment and technology is
reinforced by the result at aggregate level. The latter shows that improvement in technology would have an
adverse effect on employment, though this relationship is not strongly conclusive. Thus, improvement in
technology might reduce overall employment, but would increase the proportion of women in total
employment. The scale of operation of the industry is found to have a negative relationship with proportion
of women’s employment in total employment. In other words, the bigger the industry is in terms of its
output, the less the intensity of women’s employment is.

Although trade – particularly the export intensity of an industry – may have a favourable impact on
women’s employment, it is important to identify the industries that employ a higher proportion of women in
order to gender-sensitize trade policy.

8.5. IDENTIFYING GENDER-SENSITIVE PRODUCTS

Trade policies are generally not cognizant of the gender effects of trade. For trade gains to be fairly
distributed among genders, it is important to gender-sensitize trade policies. Trade policies should attempt
to address the gender vulnerabilities of the economy, such as the high dependency of women on
employment in a few sectors. This section attempts to identify industries that have a high share of women
in employment, i.e. gender-sensitive industries. Products from these industries are categorized as
“gender-sensitive products”.

In order to identify gender-sensitive products, three steps are undertaken. Firstly, the extent of women’s
employment in three-digit-level manufacturing industries in the organized sector is estimated. The data
source for this is the Annual Survey of Industries (2005-06). Secondly, the concordance matrix constructed
between six-digit HS (Harmonized System of Tariffs 2002) codes and three-digit NIC (National Industrial
Classification) codes has been used. Finally, industries where women’s employment is greater than three
times the total industrial average over the period (2003-2005) are identified, and the products produced by
these industries are categorized as gender-sensitive products.



With regard to Indian manufacturing, it was found that women’s employment as a proportion of total
employment has remained stable over the years. In fact, it was at around 15% in 2000-01 and declined to
around 14% in 2004-05. Over the years, on average, it can be said that organized manufacturing industries
employed around 13% of women employees (Table 8.6).


Table 8. 6 Average employment of women in India’s organized manufacturing industries



Year Ratio of women employed in total


employment (average across industries in
organized manufacturing)


1999-2000 0.143
2000-01 0.148
2001-02 0.135
2002-03 0.130
2003-04 0.133
2004-05 0.138
Average over the
years


0.138


Source: Annual Survey of Industries 2005/06.

Averaging over the last two years, it was found that there were basically four industries that had a rate of
women’s employment greater than 39%, namely (a) manufacture of tobacco products; (b) manufacturing
of wearing apparel except fur apparel; (c) manufacture of other food products; and (d) agricultural and
animal husbandry service activities, except veterinary (Table 8.7).




CHAPTER VIII: HAS TRADE ENHANCED GENDER EMPLOYMENT IN INDIA 81





Table 8.7: Industries with a high proportion of women’s employment



NIC codes Description Ratio of women’s


employment to total
employment


160 Manufacture of tobacco
products


0.64


181 Manufacture of wearing
apparel, except fur apparel.


0.59


154 Manufacture of other food
products


0.39


014 Agricultural and animal
husbandry service activities,
except veterinary


0.39


Source: Annual Survey of Industries, 2005-06

There are 1,379 products at eight-digit level, which are produced by these industries and can be
categorized as gender-sensitive products. Examining the gender-sensitive products, i.e. the products
produced by the identified industries, it is found that these products have a high share in India’s export
basket. For example, manufacture of wearing apparel is an export-oriented sector where the concentration
of women is not only high but has been increasing over the years. In the case of wearing apparel, for
instance, the female share of its regular salaried workforce went up from 16.1% per cent to 23.1 per cent
between 1983 and 2004 (Menon, 2007).

8.6 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY DIRECTIONS

Some broad conclusions and policy directions that may be inferred from the results are as follows:

The results of the chapter show that with respect to India, trade has provided more employment
opportunities to women in export-oriented industries. The higher level of participation by women in
industries, which are expanding because of exports, indicates that export-oriented policies can be
instrumental in gender empowerment in the case of India. Trade policies can therefore be designed to
provide special incentives to export-oriented units that favour higher women’s employment. For example,
a threshold can be decided for the share of women in total employment, above which incentives for
women’s employment can be provided.

The results also highlight that women’s education and skill accumulation are the most important factors
determining the impact of trade on women’s employment and the gender wage gap. As long as women
remain less qualified than men, they are likely to remain in lower-paying, less secure jobs, even if better-
paying jobs become available through trade expansion. Education and skills also provide greater flexibility
and power to negotiate wages and better working conditions.

It can, therefore, be said that the process of globalization is no longer an enclave process, which may
influence only those that participate in trade. The impact of globalization reaches all sectors and sections
of society, irrespective of their level of participation in the process. This has led to the need to formulate
trade policies to incorporate the concerns of all who are affected. Gender is an area that has remained out
of the orbit of trade policy formulation in many countries, especially developing countries. One of the major
challenges faced by trade policymakers is to ensure gender equity in the distribution of gains from trade.

For this purpose, the following specific policy directions can be highlighted:


(a) It is important to assess the impact of trade on gender employment and wages in different
sectors;


(b) Identify the sectors where gender inequality is high, which would imply that any growth of trade in
the sector will further increase gender inequality; and


(c) Identify the sectors that provide potential for improving gender equality, and then formulate
sector-specific policies.





82 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






ANNEX TO CHAPTER VIII


Table VIII.1: Dependent variable is ln (Women / Total Employment)


N=199



Independent variables Coefficients
Equation (1) Equation (2)
Lag L(1) 0.131


(1.76)
0.125
(1.66)


Ln GVA -0.083
(-1.59)


-0.098
(-1.89)


Ln(W/P) -0.510*
(-2.07)


-0.534*
(-2.27)


Ln (K/L) 0.050*
(2.24)


0.050*
(2.17)


Ln(export/output) 0.018*
(3.21)


-


Ln (imports/output) - 0.003
(0.70)


Constant 1.051
(1.17)


1.147
(1.33)


Note: (a) * indicates statistical significance at 5% level; (b) T-values in parentheses; (c) Equation (1) and
Equation (2) are with export and imports as independent variables respectively.


Table VIII.2: Dependent variable is ln (Total Employment)



Independent variables Coefficients
Equation (1) Equation (2)
Lag L(1) -1.56*


(-4.26)
-1.54*
(-4.08)


Ln GVA -0.001
(-0.02)


0.032
(0.49)


Ln(W/P) -0.030
(-0.12)


-0.311
(-1.14)


Ln (K/L) -0.044
(-1.66)


-0.046
(-1.69)


Ln(export/output) 0.026*
(2.28)


Ln (imports/output) -0.040*
(-3.61)




Constant 28.83*
(5.85)


30.01*
(5.89)


Note: (a) * indicates statistical significance at 5% level; (b) T-values in parentheses; (c) Equation (1) and
Equation (2) are with export and imports as independent variables respectively.




CHAPTER IX: CONCLUSIONS AND KEY MESSAGES 83





CHAPTER IX: CONCLUSIONS AND KEY MESSAGES

9.1 INTRODUCTION

Trade is becoming increasingly important for the Indian economy, with the trade-to-GDP ratio increasing
from 16% in 1990 to 51% in 2008. When more than half of the output produced in a country is traded,
especially in a country where around 37% of the population is below the poverty line, it becomes
imperative to analyse how the poor of the country are affected by international trade.

There is a growing debate, albeit inconclusive, on the impact of trade on poverty. This debate has mainly
focused on the “net” impact of trade on poverty and has highlighted whether trade has led to a fall or a
rise in poverty. Irrespective of the methodology followed, this approach compares the ‘gains’ to the
‘losses’ to arrive at the net impact of trade on poverty. However, gains may accrue to the relatively rich
while losses may accrue to the relatively poor in the economy, or vice versa. Therefore, even if the gains
are higher than the losses, it may not be fair to compare the gains/losses of the rich to the gains/losses of
the poor. Accordingly, this study avoids estimating the net impact of trade on poverty; instead, it attempts
to quantify how international trade affects the livelihoods of the poor.

The impact of trade on the livelihoods of the poor is examined by estimating the impact of trade on the
wages and employment of labour employed in India’s unorganized manufacturing sector and agricultural
sector. The unorganized sector employs around 80% of the total labour force and hosts the largest
number of poor. In addition, detailed estimations are undertaken for assessing the impact of trade on the
wages and employment of unskilled labour in the organized manufacturing sector. Trade effects on wage
inequality between skilled and unskilled labour are estimated in order to assess the sustainability of trade
effects. Further, the study estimates the gender impacts of trade. This becomes essential, given the
gender inequality in access to resources in the economy.

Using similar methodology across sectors to estimate the wage and employment effects of international
trade on the Indian economy, the following are the main conclusions and key messages of the study:


1. Real exports in goods and services, in the period 2003-04 to 2006-07, increased by around $62
billion, which generated employment for 26 million person-years. The most employment was
generated in the services sector (12 million); followed by industry (8 million) and agriculture (6
million).



2. Exports in this period generated income of $55 billion in the economy. However, out of this, only


1.6% went to the poor in abject poverty (the lowest income group); 70% of the total income
generated went to the top two income groups. Thus, although exports have generated economy-
wide employment, the gains from exports, in terms of higher incomes generated, have not
percolated down to the poor section of the economy.



3. The global slowdown has adversely affected India’s international trade since October 2008, when


export growth became negative for the first time since 2005-06. The consequent job losses in the
year 2008-09 were estimated to be 1.16 million person-years. The highest number of job losses
occurred in textiles and textile products; followed by ores and minerals; and then in the gems and
jewellery sectors. However, some sectors experienced positive export growth and therefore
recorded a rise in employment. The net employment created by exports in 2008-09 was 1.25
million person-years.



 Exports have generated additional employment and incomes in the economy, but these gains have not


trickled down to the poor. For the poor to benefit from international trade, it is important to increase
their participation in the sectors that are expanding on account of trade. One plausible way of directly
linking the poor to trade could be to identify the products produced by the poor, or those that have a
greater number of poor people associated with them, and to enhance exports of these products so
that the benefits go directly to the poor.



4. The unorganized sector in India employs around 80% of the labour force. Although exports are


mainly carried out by the organized manufacturing sector, exports and imports also affect the
unorganized manufacturing sector. This is due to the backward and forward linkages that exist
between the organized and unorganized sectors. Exports of industries in the organized sector
have led to higher wages and employment in the enterprises in the unorganized sector. However,




84 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






the size of the enterprise matters. Gains from trade have gone mainly to relatively large enterprises
(which employ more than 6 workers). However, these enterprises are also the ones where wages
and employment are adversely affected due to higher imports.



5. Interregional disparities exist in respect of trade impacts on wages and employment in the


unorganized manufacturing sector. Therefore, the location of the enterprise in the unorganized
sector matters. Enterprises that are located in states with a higher export orientation, such as
Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, have a higher
positive impact of increased exports on wages and employment in the large enterprises of the
unorganized sector.



6. The agriculture sector is an unorganized sector of India which in 2008-09 contributed 16% to


GDP, 52% to employment and around 6% to trade in India. Though the contribution of agriculture
to total trade is the lowest of all sectors, since its contribution to employment is the maximum, it is
nonetheless an important sector for any analysis of the impact of trade on the poor. Agriculture
exports and imports have risen steadily in the latter half of this decade. However, exports have not
led to any increase in the wages of unskilled workers in the agricultural sector. Only in the case of
cereals, and fruits and nuts, have exports led to increases in wages. However, imports have
adversely affected the wages of unskilled workers in the agriculture sector.



 The unorganized sector in India acts as a safety valve for absorbing excess employment in the


economy. The impact of trade on wages and employment in the unorganized sector can have far-
reaching implications for how the poor are affected by trade. In order to absorb excess labour through
higher exports and minimize displacing labour through higher imports, it becomes vital to develop
strong linkages between the organized and unorganized sectors in the economy. In this regard,
township and village enterprise may be encouraged, as China has done.28 Creating physical and social
infrastructure, developing institutions that extend loans and export credits, imparting vocational
training and skills to people, and achieving exportable quality for the products produced are some of
the means that can go a long way towards accelerating and strengthening the growth of the
unorganized manufacturing sector in India and empowering the poor to benefit from trade.



7. The impacts of trade in the organized sector are more prominent. Unskilled labour has benefited


from industrial trade. While exports have increased the wages and employment of unskilled
labour, import competition has not adversely affected them. Minimum wages and strict labour
firing policies have helped unskilled labour to counter the adverse impact of trade. However, trade
has led to increases in wage inequality between skilled and unskilled labour. This casts doubts on
the sustainability of the pro-poor effects of trade through benefits to unskilled labour.



8. Unskilled labour in the organized manufacturing sector has also benefited in terms of


improvements in labour productivity due to increased domestic competition through higher
imports and increased external competition through higher exports.



 The pro-poor impact of international trade in terms of higher wages and employment of unskilled


labour is more prominent in the organized manufacturing sector as compared to unorganized sector.
Minimum wages and rigid firing policies in the organized sector have, to some extent, enabled
unskilled workers to benefit from trade. However, in order to increase the gains to the poor from trade,
it is important to improve their skills and bargaining power. It is important to keep a check on
increasing wage inequality between white-collar and blue-collar workers. This can be done by
periodically revising the minimum wages. More training programmes and skill enhancement
programmes could help in distributing the gains from trade more equitably.



9. The gains from trade should be distributed more equitably across the different income groups,


skills groups, and the genders. Lack of equitable access to resources across the genders makes it
difficult for the gains from trade to be gender-neutral. In the period 2000-04 to 2006-07, exports
generated around 9.38 million person-years of employment for females, and 16.60 million person-
years of employment for males. Only 36% of the total employment generated went to women.
Nevertheless, the share of women in the additional employment generated by exports is higher
than their share in total employment, indicating that exports have led to a lowering of the gender
gap in employment.





28 See Mukherjee and Zhang (2007).




CHAPTER IX: CONCLUSIONS AND KEY MESSAGES 85





10. Exports have also led to higher levels of employment of women in total employment in the
organized manufacturing industries. However, the impact has been higher in the high-tech
industries. This indicates the need for women to acquire higher skill levels and learn better
technologies. Rising wage rates lead to higher displacement of women as compared to men. This
suggests that in periods of high labour demand, men will benefit more than women.



 For all sections of the economy to benefit equitably from trade, it is important to have a gender-


equitable distribution of the gains from trade. Export-oriented policies can be an important instrument
in the hands of policymakers for gender empowerment in India. However, in order for this to happen,
gender sensitization of trade policy is required. Gender-sensitive products need to be identified, and a
cautious approach should be adopted with respect to promoting exports of these products and
ensuring that imports do not displace domestic production of these products. Higher levels of
educational and skill enhancement for women can help them in gaining a greater share in trade-
generated employment.



Trade can play a vital role in improving the livelihoods of the poor. However, this goal is beset with several
policy challenges, both within the country and internationally. It is a well-recognized fact that trade
liberalization does not automatically increase trade, let alone enhance growth. Furthermore, the
relationship between trade, growth, income distribution and poverty differs across countries, and is likely
to evolve as an economy changes in structure. The changes in product and factor prices triggered by
opening up an economy will inevitably produce both winners and losers. However, the extent to which the
poor are affected by international trade has a bearing on where and how these gains and losses occur.
This depends on a number of external factors, which include the stage of development of the country; the
timing, scale, and sequencing of policy reforms; and pre-existing domestic and international conditions.
Ultimately, the role of trade in improving the livelihoods of the poor will depend upon the extent to which
the poor are able to participate gainfully in the expanding sectors relating to trade.









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APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 97





APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES

A.1 INTRODUCTION

The main objective of the study is to estimate the extent to which the wages and employment of the poor
are affected by international trade in India. For this purpose, two kinds of analyses have been conducted.
Firstly, at the economy level, direct and indirect employment generated by exports has been estimated;
and secondly, a separate analysis has been conducted for the organized and unorganized sectors of the
economy to estimate the impact of international trade on the wages and employment of the poor. Different
methodologies have been used for the two analyses. For economy-wide impact, an input–output matrix
has been used, while for estimating the impact on the organized and unorganized sectors, a common
methodology has been adopted, i.e. the same econometric models have been estimated. This makes the
results across the organized and unorganized sectors comparable.

The analysis relating to the employment generated by exports in the 2003-04 to 2006-07 period is
undertaken for 46 subsectors of the economy. The generation and distribution of incomes from exports are
estimated for five income groups, out of which two income groups are below the poverty line. The loss of
employment in the subsequent years, i.e. 2007-08 to 2009-10, due to the global slowdown and the
subsequent decline in exports is estimated for 10 major sectors of the economy. To estimate the impact of
the international trade of an industry on the wages and employment of the skilled and unskilled labour
employed, labour demand and supply equations have been derived from the CES production function.
Using the same production function, a wage rate equation has also been derived. Depending on the kind
of data set that is available, appropriate econometric methodologies have been used to arrive at results for
specific sectors.

For the unorganized sector, cross-section data for 82,000 enterprises is used for the year 2005; whereas
for the organized sector, the analysis is undertaken at the industry level using data for 54 industries for the
period 1998-99 to 2005-06. To estimate the impact of trade on the wages of unskilled labour in the
agriculture sector, the analysis is undertaken (a) for all agricultural products together; and (b) separately for
three agricultural products namely fruits and nuts, cereals, and vegetable roots and tuber. The analysis is
undertaken at the state level, using data for 14 major states of India for the period 1991-92 to 2000-01.
The choice of period and the level of analysis have been mainly guided by the availability of the dataset.

For the unorganized sector, since cross-section analysis is undertaken, the impact of trade on the wages
and employment of unskilled labour is estimated simultaneously using 2SLS. For the organized sector,
panel data analysis is undertaken and dynamic panel data estimation techniques are applied using GMM-
IV. To estimate the impact of trade on the wages of unskilled labour in agriculture and on gender, we use
the same methodology, i.e. GMM-IV. In addition, gender employment multipliers have been estimated
using SAM (Social Accounting Matrix) for the year 2003-04 for 46 subsectors in the economy.

Section A.2, which follows, presents the methodology adopted for estimating the impact of increases and
declines in exports on employment and incomes. Section A.3 presents the derivation of labour demand
equation and wage rate equation from the CES production function. Section A.4 presents the equation
estimated for capturing the impact of trade on labour productivity. Section A.5 presents the derivation of
the equation estimated for estimating the impact of trade on wage inequality between skilled and unskilled
labour. Finally, section A.6 discusses some methodological issues.


A.2. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON
ECONOMY-WIDE EMPLOYMENT AND THE INCOMES OF THE POOR

A.2.1 Methodology for Estimating the Impact of Exports on Economy-Wide
Employment

To estimate the impact of increases in exports in the 2003-04 to 2006-07 period on economy-wide
employment, the input–output matrix for India for the year 2003-04 is used, and employment multipliers for
46 subsectors of the economy are used. The increase in exports from 2003-04 to 2006-07 across these
subsectors is first recorded. Exports in each sector in 2006-07 have been deflated to remove any price
effects. The actual increase in exports in different subsectors is assumed as the change in the output of




98 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






each sector. These changes, for any particular sector, will include both the direct increase in output of the
sector caused by exports, as well as the indirect increase in output that is generated because of the rise in
demand due to exports of any other good in which the sector’s output is used as an input. For example, a
rise in exports of food products will generate an induced demand for food crops.

The employment multipliers give the additional employment that will be generated due to rises in exports.
As in the case of output increase, employment increase in a sector will include both direct as well as
indirect increases in employment generated by exports.

Using the change in output due to exports in each subsector, output and employment multipliers are
derived. We define the output multiplier of a subsector as the amount by which the total output of the
economy increases for a unit increase in the output of that sector. It is usual to measure the unit change in
INR lakhs (00,000) or 0.1 million. Thus, if the output multiplier for a sector is 4, this implies that for every
INR 1 lakh (100,000) increase in the sectoral output, the total output of the economy increases by INR 4
lakh (400,000); in other words, an increase in total output by 0.4 million for every increase in sectoral
output by 0.1 million rupees. Similarly, the employment multiplier of a sector gives an estimate of the
aggregate direct and indirect employment changes, in person-years, resulting from the increase in INR
100,000 of output of that sector.

A.2.2 Methodology for Estimating the Impact of an Increase in Exports on Incomes

To estimate the impact of an increase in exports on the incomes of low-income groups, the increase in
value added has been estimated using the corresponding increase in employment. The share of labour
and capital in value added has been taken from the input–output matrix. It is assumed, based on economic
theory, that the increase in value added by labour will be same as the increase in the share of labour in
total income generated. The distribution of the increase in income across different income groups is
arrived at by using National Sample Survey (NSS) data on incomes across rural and urban households in
different income strata. Income generated by exports has been estimated for five income groups across
rural and urban areas, including the lowest income group, i.e. people in abject poverty.

To arrive at these categories, the population is divided into 5 rural and 5 urban expenditure classes. For
1999-2000, detailed item-wise expenditures by expenditure class are given in NSS report no. 461. NSS
also gives the population in each expenditure class. Using these expenditure data, the relative expenditure
of each expenditure class is obtained for most of the sectors. For a few sectors, the distribution of related
or broad groups is used. The total sector-wise private final consumption expenditure (PFCE) is divided into
expenditure classes by applying the relative sector-wise expenditure of each class.



The NSS gives the consumption expenditure by twelve classes for rural and urban areas. We club these
classes into five. The first two classes refer to population below abject poverty and below the poverty line,
and the next class is taken up to the expenditure class covering the average per capita expenditure for
rural as well as urban areas. The upper four classes have been clubbed into two classes, as mentioned
below.


Table A.2.1 Expenditure classes into which PFCE is divided



Rural Expenditure class


(Rs. per month)
Urban Expenditure class


(Rs. per month)


RH1 000-255 UH1 000-350


RH2 255-340 UH2 350-500


RH3 340-525 UH3 500-915


RH4 525-775 UH4 915-1500


RH5 775- above UH5 1500- above






APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 99





A.3 METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL
SLOWDOWN ON EMPLOYMENT

Using the latest available input–output matrix for India for the year 2003-04, the impact of decline in
exports due to the global slowdown on employment has been estimated for 10 major sectors of the Indian
economy for the years 2007-08 and 2008-09.

Using the actual sector-wise exports for the years 2006-07 and 2007-08, provided by the Reserve Bank of
India (RBI), change in exports has been calculated for subsectors of the input–output matrix. Using the
Leontif inverse matrix, the change in output across different sectors subsequent to change in output for
each sector (due to change in exports) has been estimated. Applying the labour coefficients across the
sectors, total employment change (which is direct as well as indirect) is arrived at for each sector. These
are further summed up to arrive at change in total employment and change in employment for 10 major
sectors.

The estimated impact on employment for a sector includes both direct increase in employment of the
sector caused by exports, as well as indirect increase in employment which is generated because of the
rise in exports of other sectors that use the sector’s output as their inputs. For example, employment in
agricultural products may rise because of an increase in their exports and because of an increase in the
demand for these products as exports of processed food products and textiles and textile products
increase.

A.4 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES AND
EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNORGANIZED SECTOR

Lack of research on trade-related effects on the unorganized sector is mainly due to the lack of data on
the trade orientation of the industry to which enterprises in the unorganized sector belong, as well as
corresponding labour market variables such as wages and employment. Furthermore, data on unorganized
manufacturing is provided by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) with a gap of five years,
which makes it difficult to undertake empirical analysis based on consistent data over a long period.

Another issue of concern in analysing the impact of trade on labour markets in the unorganized sector is
that trade data is available at the product level, while data on wages and employment in the unorganized
sector is available at the enterprise level. To overcome the data limitations, a concordance matrix has been
constructed between HS 2002 six-digit product level classification and three-digit level industrial data at
National Industrial Classification (NIC). Using this concordance matrix, trade data at the industry level is
constructed. Data at the enterprise level for the unorganized sector also reports the code of the industry in
which the enterprise operates. Using the enterprise level data on wages and employment from the National
Sample Survey (62nd round) for the year 2005-06 and the corresponding industry code, trade data at the
industry level in which the enterprise operates is constructed. Using this, the impact of trade at the
industry level on wages and employment at the enterprise level in the unorganized sector is estimated.

At the industry level, NSS data reports the NIC three-digit level industry code for each enterprise. There
are 24 groups at two-digit level of industries (based on National Industrial Classification) engaged in a wide
range of activities, from manufacturing of cotton ginning-cleaning (code 1405), food and food products
(code 15), tobacco (code 16), textiles (code 17), wearing apparels (code 18), wood and wood products
(code 20), and paper and paper products (code 21), to manufacturing of basic metals (code 27), electrical
machinery and transport equipments (code 31), radio-television (code 32), furniture (code 36) and recycling
(code 37). At three-digit level, nearly 67 industries are identified.

NIC
Code Description


NIC
Code Description


1405 Cotton ginning, cleaning and baling 25
Manufacture of Rubber and Plastics
Products


15
Manufacture of Food Products and
Beverages 26


Manufacture of Other Non-Metallic Mineral
Products


16 Manufacture of Tobacco Products 27 Manufacture of Basic Metals


17 Manufacture of Textiles 28
Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products,
Except Machinery and equipment


18
Manufacture of Wearing Apparel;
Dressing and Dyeing of Fur 29


Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment
Not Elsewhere Classified.




100 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






19 30
Manufacture of Office, Accounting and
Computing Machinery




Tanning and Dressing of Leather;
Manufacture of Luggage, Handbags,
Saddlery, Harness and Footwear 31


Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and
Apparatus Not Elsewhere classified


20
Manufacture of Wood and of Products of
Wood and Cork, Except 32


Manufacture of Radio, Television and
Communication Equipment and apparatus



Furniture; Manufacture of Articles of
Straw and Plating Materials 33


Manufacture of Medical, Precision and
Optical Instruments, Watches and clocks


21
Manufacture of Paper and Paper
Products 34


Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and
Semi-Trailers


22
Publishing, Printing and Reproduction of
Recorded Media 35 Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment


23
Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum
Products and Nuclear Fuel 36


Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing Not
Elsewhere Classified.


24
Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical
Products 37 Recycling



The impact of trade (exports and imports) on labour demand, wage rates and labour productivity in
unorganized manufacturing is empirically estimated for the year 2005-06 based on enterprise-level NSS
data of 81,000 enterprises at three digit levels.

As mentioned earlier, the unorganized manufacturing sector in India comprises three segments:
microenterprises, small enterprises, and large enterprises. Recognizing a diverse pattern across these
three types of enterprises, the regression analysis is carried out separately for all three types of
enterprises. As microenterprises are family-based enterprises with no hired workers, these are finally
dropped from the analysis, as employment and wage rates are not relevant for microenterprises. The
results are presented for all three categories of enterprises taken together, as well as for small enterprises
and large enterprises separately.

Variables estimated


1. Export intensity and import intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs: Export
intensity/import intensity is calculated as the percentage of the exports/imports of each industry in
the total output of that industry. To arrive at the industry-level data on exports and imports, a
concordance matrix between six-digit product-level data on HS 2002 codes from DGI&S and
three-digit NIC 98 has been constructed. Industrial output is derived from the Annual Survey of
Industries for the year 2005-06 and industry-level export and import intensities are estimated.



2. State export orientation:



The state-wise export orientation is estimated by first constructing industry-level shares of exports
in a state. The value of output of each three-digit-level industry that can be attributed to a state is
estimated by multiplying India’s exports from the industry by the ratio of the industry’s output in
the state to the total output of the industry at All India level. It is assumed that the share of a state
in India’s exports of industry i is the same as its share in India’s production from industry i. By
summing the estimated exports of each industry in a state, total state-level exports are obtained.
By dividing total state-level exports by India’s total exports, state export orientation is arrived at.


The variable has been calculated as follows:

State export orientation =


∑{
' exp of


'
State s output in Industry i orts Industry i


India s Total output in Industry i
 } / India’s Total Exports i



Using the above formula, we estimate the export orientation of the states for the year 2005-06. Data from
the Annual Survey of Industries is used to estimate the output of the industries, and the concordance
matrix, as discussed above, has been used to arrive at corresponding export figures for each three-digit-
level industry in a state. Column 1 of Table A.4.1 reports the top nine states in descending order, following
estimates of export orientation of the states undertaken in accordance with the methodology outlined




APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 101





above. Column 2 of the table shows the shares of states in exports in the year 2006-07 as reported by the
Economic Survey 2007-08, which for the first time uses the actual export data at the state level.

According to the Economic Survey 2007-08, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are some of the states with a significant share in total exports. From
the calculations undertaken above, these are also the states which are more export-oriented, measured by
the aggregate of the industry shares in total exports of the industries in each state (Table A.4.1). The
estimated shares and ranking of the top ten states arrived at by estimating the state export orientation is
quite close.


Table A.4.1 Comparing export orientation with shares in total exports of states



Export Orientation
of States 2005-06


(1)-


Share in Total Exports
(2006-07) (2)


STATES


(our estimates)


STATES


(Economic Survey)


Gujarat 23.69 Maharashtra 28.6


Tamil Nadu 12.31 Gujarat 19.2


Maharashtra 11.62 Tamil Nadu 10.4


Karnataka 11.42 Karnataka 10


Uttar
Pradesh


6.16 Andhra
Pradesh


4.3


Haryana 4.24 West
Bengal


3.2


Andhra
Pradesh


4.2 Haryana 3


West
Bengal


3.97 Uttar
Pradesh


2.9


Rajasthan 3.75 Rajasthan 2.7




A.5 DERIVATION OF LABOUR DEMAND AND WAGE-RATE EQUATIONS

Labour demand and wage rate equations can be derived from Cobb-Douglas or CES production functions.

Cobb-Douglas production function and labour demand equation

To consider how variables such as technology, trade and FDI may have an effect on absolute employment,
a simple static profit-maximizing model of firm behaviour (based upon Greenaway et al., 1999) can be
used, assuming a Cobb-Douglas production function of the form:




where Y is real output, K is the capital stock and N is the units of labour utilized. A profit-maximizing firm
will employ capital and labour up until the point at which the marginal revenue product of capital equals
the user cost r and the marginal revenue product of labour equals the wage w. Solving simultaneously and
re-arranging to eliminate capital from the expression yields:






The parameter A is allowed to vary across time in the following way:







102 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






where and T is a time trend. Rearranging equations and taking a logarithmic transformation yields:






Finally, allowing trade to take the form of import and export intensity (Greenaway et al., 1999) yields:




R&D/Y is a measure of technology intensity, Imports/Y is import intensity, Exports/Y is export intensity, FDI
is the proportion of foreign equity invested in industry i, w/r is captured by the K/L ratio, and Y is the total
sales. Vector M contains sector controls.

CES production function and labour demand equation

The analysis in this study derives labour demand and wage rate equations from the CES production
function. For this purpose, we assume a two-input CES production function, which embodies labour-
augmenting technological progress [following Brown and de Cani (1963)] and allows for non-constant
returns to scale provided that the function remains homogenous of degree μ, i.e.

Q =  [ s(k)- + (1-s) (Let)- ] -/ ………………………………(a)
Where  > 0 & 0 s< 1

Q is the output, k is the capital, s is the share parameter and  determines the degree of substitutability of
the inputs. The elasticity of substitution can take any non-negative constant value (including unity, as in the
Cobb-Douglas case), and technical progress is labour-augmenting at the rate of .  is the efficiency
parameter as it changes output in the same proportion for any given set of input levels, and the parameter
can be interpreted as a distribution parameter since it determines the distribution of income through the
factor payments.

Since direct estimation of the parameters of the CES production function would require simultaneous
estimation of a system of nonlinear equations,29 much of the literature adopts indirect estimation methods
that exploit the marginal productivity conditions implied by profit maximization behaviour.

To examine the factors that affect the demand for labour and consequently the employment in an industry,
we use the standard marginal productivity theory, and equate marginal product of labour (MPL) to the real
wage (W/P). The derived labour demand equation is:

Ln (L) it = 0 + 1 ln (Q) it + 2 ln (W/P) it - 3 EXPORTS it + 4 IMPORTS it + i + e
it……………………….(1)

CES production function and wage rate

Following the standard economic theory, we arrive at the wage rate equation. In a competitive labour
market, firms will hire workers until MCL (which is wage rate) equals MR (which is price x MPL). Labour
demand is given by MPL. Assuming that labour supply is a function of the average wage rate, we get:

Ls =  (w/p) r
Log (Ls) = b0 + r ln(w/p)

Equating labour supply to labour demand we get: wage rate as a function of:



29 In general, the estimation of production functions is problematic, not just because they are usually nonlinear in their
parameters, but also because the level of the inputs is jointly determined with the level of output. As a result, the presence of
endogenous explanatory variables will lead to problems of simultaneity bias. In addition, the inputs are unlikely to be
independent, raising the possibility of multicollinearity.




APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 103





(w/p) it = F [ Q it , LP it , EXPORTS it , IMPORTS it , Time, Fixed Effects],……(2)
However, in an empirical framework, along with the above factors, we need to include other potential
demand shifters, which may also control for industry-specific effects. This is justified by arguing that
merely including the factors derived from theory may not capture other influences, which could affect an
industry’s demand function (Driffield and Taylor, 2000). Inter-industry variations are controlled for by
including capital-labour ratios. Two specifications of the equation are estimated: controlling for technology
and without controlling for technology.

A.6 LABOUR DEMAND EQUATION ESTIMATED FOR THE UNORGANIZED
SECTOR

The impact of trade (exports and imports) on labour demand and wage rates in unorganized manufacturing
is empirically estimated for the year 2005-06 based on enterprise-level NSS data on 81,000 enterprises at
three-digit level.

The unorganized manufacturing sector in India comprises three segments: microenterprises, small
enterprises, and large enterprises. Recognizing a diverse pattern across these three types of enterprises,
the regression analysis is carried out separately for all three enterprises. However microenterprises, being
family-based enterprises with no hired workers, are finally dropped from the analysis, as employment and
wage rates are not relevant for microenterprises. Regressions are also undertaken for all three categories
of enterprises taken together, and for small enterprises and large enterprises separately. Deriving from the
CES production function, the labour demand equation therefore becomes:

Ln (L) it = 0 + 1 ln (Q) it + 2 ln (W/P) it - 3 EXPORTS it + 4 IMPORTS it + i + e it

However, apart from these variables which may affect the employment of an enterprise, the export
orientation of the industry to which the enterprise belongs may impact the employment of the enterprise.
Furthermore, it is argued that the location of the enterprise may affect the employment too. After
controlling for the size of the enterprise and the wage rate, enterprises located in states that are trade-
oriented may have a higher demand for labour, because of technical progress which is labour-augmenting.
Higher linkages between organized and unorganized sectors in export-oriented states may be a plausible
reason for this. Import competition, on the other hand, may adversely affect the employment demand in
the unorganized sector, depending on the state’s share in total domestic production. The equation
estimated is therefore:

ln ln( ) ln( ) ln( ) ln(expint int )


................(1)
f f f f f f f i f i i


f f


emp GVA wrate stateor or imp
StateDum


    
 


     



where,
empf = total employment in enterprise f
GVA f = Gross Value Added by enterprise f
wrate f = wage rate in enterprise f
stateor f = states’ export orientation to which the enterprise belongs
expinti = export intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs
impinti = import intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs
StateDum = state dummies to capture the other state-specific effects

Wage rate equation estimated for unorganized sector

Equating labour supply to labour demand wage rate is obtained as a function of output (Q), labour
productivity (LP), export-intensity (EXPORTS) and import-intensity (IMPORTS) :

(w/p) it = F [ Q it , LP it , EXPORTS it , IMPORTS it ]

At the enterprise level, we estimate the following equation which incorporates the export intensity of the
industry to which the enterprise belongs and the trade orientation of the states.


' '


' '


ln ln( ) ln( ) ln( )


ln(expint int ) ................(2)
f f f f f f f i


f i i f f


wrate GVA j lp stateor


or imp StateDum


  
  


    
 




104 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






where,
empf = total employment in enterprise f
GVA f = Gross Value Added by enterprise f
wrate f = wage rate in enterprise f
stateor f = states’ export orientation to which the enterprise belongs
expinti = export intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs
impinti = import intensity of the industry to which the enterprise belongs
StateDum = state dummies to capture the other state-specific effects
lp = labour productivity

The impact of exports and of import competition on wages and employment has been estimated using
ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares (2SLS) models in order to check the consistency
of the results across different methodologies.

OLS may not be the most appropriate estimator to estimate a single equation embedded in a system of
simultaneous equations if one or more of the stochastic explanatory variables is correlated with the
stochastic disturbance term in that equation, as the estimators obtained may be inconsistent. The 2SLS
regression technique extends regression analysis to include models that violate the OLS assumption that
the disturbance term is uncorrelated with the independent variables (Bollen, 1996). This requires that there
is sufficient information about the economic behaviour being modelled by the specified variables in order
to estimate (identify) the parameters of each equation. The 2SLS method can be applied to estimate
unique parameter estimates for both exactly identified equations and over-identified equations. It replaces
the (stochastic) endogenous explanatory variable with an estimated proxy variable that is a linear
combination of all the predetermined variables in the model (and hence is uncorrelated with the stochastic
disturbance term) and uses this combination as the explanatory variable in lieu of the original endogenous
variable.

The 2SLS method thus resembles the instrumental variable method of estimation in that the linear combination
of the predetermined variables serves as an instrument, or a proxy, for the endogenous variables. This
technique completes the analysis in two stages. In the first stage, it computes the structural equations by
regressing endogenous variables on all the predetermined variables in the system in which interdependence
among variables is removed, because structural equations are those in which endogenous variables are
expressed solely in terms of the predetermined variables and stochastic disturbances. As such, the
application of the OLS technique to the reduced form equation gives the structural or reduced form
coefficients. These structural form coefficients are substituted in primary equations. The estimation of those
equations again by OLS technique completes the second stage of the estimation and yields unbiased and
consistent coefficients

A.7. IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGES IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR:
METHODOLOGY AND DATA

To estimate the impact of trade on agricultural wages, data is collected from INDIAIHARVEST, which is a
compiled database provided by C.M.I.E. The state-level wages of unskilled agricultural labour have been
collected from the Department of Agriculture, Government of India.

Data on trade at the state level is not available. To estimate the state’s share in total exports of an
agricultural product, we apply the share of the state in total production of the product to its exports. This
assumes that the share of the state in the exports of the product will be similar to its share in the
production of the product. Similar estimates to construct the share of the state in total exports have been
used by other studies, for example that of Marjit and Kar (2008). Imports of a particular agricultural product
may affect labour more in the states that produce the product. Therefore, we take the state’s share in the
total production of the product and apply the ratio to total imports to arrive at the state’s share in imports.

The analysis is carried out for four categories of agricultural products, namely (a) fruits and nuts; (b)
vegetables, roots and tuber; (c) cereals; and (d) total agricultural products. The analysis is undertaken for
the period 1990-91 to 1999-2000 (for which data on wages of unskilled agricultural labour was available),
for 14 states of India.






APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 105





Wage rate equation in agriculture

For the agriculture sector, the wages of unskilled agricultural workers differ across states, though not
across crops. We therefore, undertake state-level analysis where wages of unskilled workers are
influenced by the following factors:
Ln Wit = 1 ln W i, t-1 +0 Xit + i + u it

where W= wage rate, X = explanatory variables, i = state-specific fixed effects


X it = f (SDP it , RAINFALL it , SHAREAGRI it , IRRIGATEDAREA it , NOTRACTORS it , FERT it , MINWAGES it,
EXPORTS it , IMPORTS it , State-specific fixed effects)

Where
SDP = State Domestic Product, RAINFALL = Average annual rainfall received, SHAREAGRI = Share of
agriculture in total SDP, IRRIGATEDAREA = Extent of gross irrigated area in the state, NOTRACTORS =
Number of tractors used, FERT = Amount of fertilizers used, MINWAGES = Minimum wages of unskilled
labour in the state, EXPORTS = Share of state in total exports of the product, IMPORTS = Imports of the
product.

The equation to be estimated for the agriculture sector is therefore:

Ln(w/p) it = F [ Ln(w/p) it-1 , LnSDP it ,LnRAINFALLit; LnSHAREAGRI it , Ln IRRIGATEDAREA it , Ln
NOTRACTORS it ,Ln FERT it ,Ln MINWAGES it ,Ln EXPORTS it , Ln IMPORTS it , Fixed Effects

A.8 EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY: IMPACT OF TRADE ON THE WAGES AND
EMPLOYMENT OF UNSKILLED LABOUR IN ORGANIZED MANUFACTURING

A.8.1 Impact on the wages of unskilled labour in the organized manufacturing sector

Keeping in mind the unique characteristics of Indian labour markets and the important role played by the
government in wage-setting, the wage equation is arrived at. It is assumed that labour supply is perfectly
elastic at any given wage rate. In this case, wages will be fixed exogenously depending on the minimum
wages fixed by the government and the bargaining power of labour unions.

In order to estimate the impact on employment, wage rigidities in the Indian labour market are taken into
account, and dynamic panel data (DPD) models are constructed which are estimated using the
Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) following Arellano and Bond (1991). GMM has become an
important tool in empirical analyses of panels with a large number of individual units and a relatively short
time series. This model can be written as


yit = αyi,t-1 + ηi + vit
where i=1,…,N; t=2,…,T; T  3 and α < 1

For such models, the within group estimator (for the fixed effects models) and the Generalized Least
Squares (GLS) estimator (for the random effects model) are not applicable. Therefore, the GMM estimator
is applied. Adopting standard assumptions concerning the error components and initial conditions (i.e.
error terms are not autocorrelated), Arellano and Bond (1991) propose moment conditions.30 The validity of
moment conditions implied by DPD models is commonly tested using the conventional GMM test of
overidentifying restrictions, associated with Sargan (1958).

A.8.2 Data Sources and Construction of Variables

For the manufacturing sector, no single source of data exists for the Indian economy that provides data
required by this study. The study therefore draws data from two different sources, i.e. the Annual Survey of
industries (ASI), which is published by the Central Statistical Organization, the Government of India and
DGCI&S, for trade data. ASI provides reasonably comprehensive and reliable disaggregated estimates for



30 For details, see Blundell and Bond (1998): 118.




106 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






the manufacturing industries. It covers all the production units registered under the Factories Act, 1948,31
with the ‘large ones’ on a census basis (with the definition of ‘large’ changing over time) and the remaining
ones on a sample basis. DGCI&S provides data at eight-digit level on HS 2002 codes. A concordance
matrix is constructed to arrive at trade data at ASI three-digit industry-level NIC codes.

The data used in the study is constructed for 54 industries at three-digit level of industrial classification
(National Industrial Classification) for the period 1998-99 to 2005-06.32

There are considerable problems in obtaining good-quality time series data on wages by skill level. The
study uses the available information on wages contained in the ASI database. This source provides the
average number of full-time production-process ‘workers’ and ‘employees’ (which includes, in addition to
‘workers’, non-production workers such as supervisors, clerks etc.) employed per day after taking account
of reported multiple shift working. Wages of production workers is taken as wages of unskilled workers.

A.9 IMPACT OF TRADE ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY

For modelling labour productivity, we consider the CES production function with CRS.

Q =  [ s(k)- + (1-s) (L et)- e] -1/e



Kmenta (1967) provides an alternative approach that allows single-equation estimation of the CES
production function by ordinary least squares.33 He obtains a linear approximation of the nonlinear CES
function by expanding ln(Q) in a Taylor’s series around =0. Adopting the Kmenta approach, we estimate
the following regression with respect to (a):

ln (Q) = ln ( ) + et ln (K/L)+ ln (L) + (  et (1-s)/ 2) [ ln (K/L) ]2
ln (Q/L) it = ln ( ) it + et ln (K/L) it + (  et (1-s)/ 2) [ ln (K/L) ]2 it
(Cobb-Douglas function assumes e = 0)

t is taken as an exogenous technical change which may occur through different channels, such as FDI,
trade, or technology acquisition, and which may affect the productivity of labour.

Labour productivity is therefore a function of

(Q/L) it = F [(K/L) it , Q it , ,EXPORTS it ,IMPORTS it, Time, Fixed Effects]……..(3)

A.10 IMPACT OF TRADE ON WAGE INEQUALITY

To analyse the effect of trade on the market for skills, a demand and supply framework is used. Following
Katz and Murphy (1992), a two-factor CES production function with low-skilled labour (U) and skilled
labour (S) is used, as follows:


  /1]))(1()([),( tsttuttt SUSUF 

where, ut and st are functions of labour efficiency units and the parameter <1.

The labour efficiency index can be interpreted as accumulated human capital or the skill-specific
technology level. Elasticity of substitution between U and S is σ= 1/ (1-). In neoclassical theory,
technological change happens exogenously. However, trade can also shift the pattern of technological
change. The labour efficiency indices (skill-specific technological progress) depend on trade intensity
(TRDI) [export intensity (EXPI) and import intensity (IMPI)] and technology (TECH).



31 The Factories Act, it may be noted, applies to those units employing 10 or more workers and using electric power, or 20 or
more workers not using electric power.
32 The period chosen has been constrained by the availability of comparable data from 1998 onwards, the reason being that
ASI changed its industrial classification starting from 1998-99.
33 Kmenta’s approximation has some drawbacks, as demonstrated by McCarthy (1967). In particular, it is likely that the
variables on the right-hand side are affected by a high degree of multicollinearity, increasing the standard error on the
coefficient estimates and thus decreasing the value of the t-statistic.




APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 107





Using the first-order condition that factor productivity equals the real factor price, the wages of skilled
labour (WSK) relative to those of unskilled workers (WUSK) can be represented as:


  TechTRDIUSWW tttUSKSK 431 )/1()/1()/1()/ln(1]/)1ln[(/ln  


Given the downward rigidities in wages, especially for unskilled workers, it is found that the relative wages
of skilled workers with respect to unskilled workers are a function of:

(Wages skilled labour / Wages unskilled labour ) = F [, Skilled labour /Unskilled labour, time, Imports, Exports,
Technology]…………………………….(4).


A.11 METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ECONOMY-WIDE GENDER
EMPLOYMENT

In order to estimate the impact of exports on gender employment across different sectors, we use the
latest available input-output matrix for India for the year 2003-04. Using the employment coefficients and
the change in output due to increased exports, the output and employment multipliers are derived for each
sector over the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. Output multipliers indicate the total increase in output of the
sector due to direct as well as indirect demand created because of exports in the economy. The
employment multiplier of a sector indicates the increase in employment required in the sector to produce
the increase in output demand.

The output multiplier of a sector is defined as the amount by which the total output increases for a unit
increase in the output of that sector. It is usual to measure the unit change in INR lakh (00,000) or 0.1
million. Thus, if the output multiplier for a sector is 4, this implies that for every increase by INR 1 lakh
(100,000) in the sectoral output, total output (that of the entire economy) increases by INR 4 lakh (400,000).
That is an increase in total output of 0.4 million INR for every increase in sectoral output by 0.1 million INR.
Similarly, the employment multiplier of a sector gives an estimate of the aggregate direct and indirect
employment changes, in person-years, resulting from the increase in INR 100,000 of output of that sector.
Exports in each sector in 2006-07 have been deflated to remove any price effects.
Gender employment is generated by applying gender employment ratios to the increase in employment
generated by the exports across sectors. The following are the sources used for gender-wise employment
coefficients.


1) For plantation crops, the ratio of female to total employees is taken from Indian labour statistics
for 2003-04.


2) For other crops, the estimates are based on the gender-wise workforce from the 2001 census.
The same coefficients are used for food crops, cash crops and “other crops”.


3) For minerals, the gender-wise estimates are based on Statistics of Mines in India, vol. 1 (coal) and
vol. 2 (other minerals), from the Indian Bureau of Mines.


4) For different sectors under manufacturing, the estimates are based on NSSO report no. 515 on
“Employment and the unemployment situation in India, 2004-05”. This source is also used to
obtain estimates for animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, and other service sectors.



A.12. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF EXPORTS AND
IMPORTS ON GENDER EMPLOYMENT

In order to estimate the impact of exports and imports on gender employment in the Indian organized
manufacturing industries, trade data is needed at the industry level. However, trade data is reported at the
product level. Using a concordance matrix matching the six-digit HS codes (Harmonized System of Tariffs,
2002) with the three-digit NIC codes (National Industrial Classification), three-digit trade data at the ASI
classification of industries is constructed. The industrial data reports the employment by gender. Using ASI
data, the labour demand equation is estimated for men and women separately. Applying dynamic panel
data techniques (Arellano-Bond model), we estimate the impact of the export intensity and import intensity
of industries on gender employment. Using the same labour demand equation that was derived from the
CES production function and reported in Appendix I (section A.7), the impact of trade on gender
employment is estimated. Dynamic panel data estimations were discussed earlier.




108 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH






Data and variables

To estimate the impact of exports and imports on gender employment, the concordance matrix (HS-NIC)
to arrive at three-digit industry-level export and import data is used. The data on exports and imports have
been taken from the World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS). The data on total persons engaged, total
emoluments, gender employment, and capital formation is extracted from various issues of the Annual
Survey of Industries (ASI) 2005-06. Data is drawn for 54 industries at a three-digit level of industrial
classification (National Industrial Classification) for the period between 1999-2000 and 2004-05.

For estimation of the regression equations, a set of variables has been constructed using various data
series. Assuming that the industry wage rate is common to both genders, it has been calculated by
dividing the total emoluments by the total number of persons engaged in an industry. The wage series, as
obtained, has been deflated with the WPI index to reflect the wage rates in real terms. Intensity of
employment of women in an industry is calculated by dividing the number of women employed in an
industry by the total employment in that industry. The gross value added (GVA) of industries is deflated
with respective WPI series to reflect the values at constant (1993) prices. To capture the technological level
across industries, a ratio of capital formation to labour is arrived at. Export and import intensities have
been calculated to represent their respective shares in total output of the industry concerned.

A.13. SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

While estimating the above equations in the study, there are three methodological issues that may arise:


I. Issue of endogeneity and causality
II. Use of trade volume variables rather than trade policy variables
III. Exports may not generate new employment but may only lead to sectoral shifts in


employment. This argument finds its basis from the assumptions of full employment in the H-
O-S framework.



I. Issue of Endogeneity and Causality



In the equations estimating the impact of exports and imports on wages and employment, it may be
argued by some that exports and imports may be endogenous variables in the production function and
that the causality may be reversed and the dependent variable may cause trade. However, the actual
volumes/value of exports and imports is now commonly being used in the literature on the interrelationship
between growth, labour markets and trade liberalization, to proxy the effects of competition faced in the
foreign markets and competition faced in the domestic markets (see Edwards in Journal of Economic
Literature, 1993, and Milner and Wright, 1998).



The above approach used in the study is similar to that used by Greenaway, Hine and Wright (1999), which
estimates a labour demand equation derived from the Cobb-Douglas production function. It uses exports
and imports as independent variables in a panel framework using Arellano and Bond (1991) GMM
techniques. There have been many other studies that use exports and imports as independent variables in
the derived labour demand equation, initiated by the seminal paper of Griliches (1992), but also including
Barrell and Pain (1997), Driffield and Taylor (2000), Driffield, Love and Taylor (2005), Milner and Wright
(1994, 1998), Hine and Wright (1998), Giovanni et al. (2003), Kletzer (2002), Bruno, Falzoni and Helg (2003),
Taylor and Driffield (2005) and Fajnzylber and Maloney (2005).



Furthermore, methodologically, the use of GMM to a certain extent takes care of the endogeneity problem,
as it uses the first lag of the independent variables as instruments.

On the question of causality of effect between trade and wages and employment, it may be pointed out
that the H-O-S predictions are far from reality. Given the unlimited supply of labour in the developing
countries, it is difficult to explain intersectoral differences in trade with respect to the available labour
supply. On the other hand, trade may have a differential impact on sectoral employment depending upon
the differences amongst them in the type of exposure they have to trade, firm-level heterogeneity within
the sectors, differentiating products etc. Edwards (1993) provides an excellent survey of studies that have
dealt with the problem of causality. At the centre of this approach is the idea that exports contribute to
aggregate output in two fundamental ways: First, it is assumed that the export sector generates positive
externalities on non-exports sectors, through more efficient management styles and improved production
techniques. Second, it is argued that there is a productivity differential in favour of the export sector. Thus,




APPENDIX I: METHODOLOGY AND VARIABLES 109





an expansion of exports at the cost of other sectors will have a positive net effect on aggregate output and
employment, and not the other way round.



II. Use of Trade Value Variables Rather than Trade Policy Variables

Using trade values instead of trade policy variables may be questioned by some, as it could be argued that
trade policy variables are exogenous in nature, whereas trade values (exports and imports) may not be
exogenous variables as a host of determinants may affect them.
The issue of exogeneity of trade volume variables has been discussed in the above section. However, the
use of trade policy is subjected to the following limitations:



a) To capture the impact of trade on wages and employment, the most commonly used variable is


import duties. However, these do not capture the effect of exports on wages and employment.
b) Many studies have emphasized that in developing countries, non-tariff barriers (e.g. quotas,


licences and prohibitions) have traditionally constituted the most important form of restriction on
trade. In the case of India, from 1947 to 2000, the main policy instrument for import regulation was
quantitative restrictions (QRs). Use of tariff equivalence of QRs has many limitations, including
with regard to gathering actual data on premiums, undertaking international price comparisons
etc. Moreover, the QRs were at disaggregated product level, making it difficult to derive a
meaningful industry-level QR.


c) Lowering of import duties may not by itself capture the change in imports that may arise,
especially if there is low demand for the importable products.


d) Further, to capture the impact of exports, it is difficult to identify any appropriate sectoral policy
variable which can be used as an instrument.



In view of these limitations, India’s import duty may not be the appropriate variable for capturing the
impact of trade on the poor.




III. Exports May not Generate New Employment, but May Only Lead to Sectoral
Shifts in Employment

It may be argued that the assumptions under the H-O-S framework are far from reality. Given the unlimited
supply of labour in the developing countries, it is difficult to explain intersectoral differences in trade with
respect to the available labour supply. On the other hand, trade may have a differential impact on sectoral
employment, depending upon the differences among developing countries in the extent of exposure they
have to trade, firm-level heterogeneity within the sectors, differentiating products etc. At the centre of this
approach is the idea that exports contribute to aggregate output in two fundamental ways: First, it is
argued that the exports sector generates positive externalities on non-exports sectors, through more
efficient management styles and improved production techniques. Second, it is argued that there is a
productivity differential in favour of the export sector. Thus, an expansion of exports at the cost of other
sectors will have a positive net effect on aggregate output and employment, and not the other way round.

Further, it may be stated that there exists a long-standing debate on this issue between different schools
of thought. Neoclassical economists recognize that, in the shorter run, the level of economic activity may
be influenced by macroeconomic policy and shocks (money supply, fiscal policy etc.) as well as by trade
shocks or major changes in trade policy, though they argue that in the long run, the labour market will
clear in the absence of distortions. This is, essentially, the often-criticized “full employment” assumption.
The structuralist school, on the other hand, rejects the long-run full employment assumption; see, for
example, Ocampo and Taylor (1998). It postulates that trade and trade policy shocks can affect
employment permanently, by creating or destroying jobs with little or no adjustment in the sectors of the
economy not directly affected by shocks. Both theorists and empiricists have explored the connection
between trade/trade policy and employment, and have arrived at varied results, which are country-
specific.









APPENDIX II 111





APPENDIX II

II.1 THE SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX

A SAM (social accounting matrix) can be defined as an organized matrix representation of all transactions
and transfers between different (production) activities, factors of production (labour and capital), and
institutions (e.g. households, firms, and government), actual or imputed, within the economy and with
respect to the rest of the world. A SAM is thus a comprehensive accounting framework within which the
full “circular flow of income” is captured, from production to value added (factor income) to household
incomes to household demand and back to production. Each row of the SAM details the receipts of an
account, while the columns detail the corresponding expenditure. Consequently, the number of rows and
columns in a SAM are the same, and hence it is a square matrix. An entry in row i and column j of the
SAM denotes the receipts of account i from column j . This may alternatively be expressed as the
expenditure by account j to be paid to account i .



A SAM has manifold uses. First, a SAM can be used to provide an analysis of the interrelationship between
the production structure of an economy and the distribution of income and expenditure among different
household groups. Second, the SAM can be supplemented with satellite tables (e.g. those distinguishing
various categories of employed persons), thus providing a flexible and yet consistent framework for socio-
economic analysis. Third, SAMs have been used as the database (and base-year equilibrium benchmark)
of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models; these models are widely used to estimate the effects on
growth and income distribution of a range of policies, from trade liberalization policies to tax rate changes
and structural adjustment programmes. Fourth, development planners, statistical bureaus and economic
modellers increasingly use the SAM as an approach to macroeconomic data systems. The great
usefulness of the SAM approach is that it brings out any inconsistencies, gaps and redundancies in the
statistical system of an economy.



Finally, the SAM can be used as the basis for simple modelling under certain assumptions. Using the SAM,
one can assess, by means of multipliers and structural path analysis, the economy-wide consequences –
for production, income distribution and demand – of exogenous changes such as a change in public
investment expenditure, a change in export demand, and the introduction of a new public system of
income transfers. In this study, we use this property of the SAM to work out the potential effects of
changes in service sector exports. We do this by using the “multipliers” associated with exogenous
change. The SAM multipliers measure the total effects on output, employment or value added, given an
increase in exogenous injections.



The basic structure of a SAM is based on the transactions and transfers in the economy given in Table 9.
The production process requires land, labour and capital, along with intermediate goods and services.
Institutions such as households, firms and the government contribute the factor endowments. These
institutions, in turn, receive factor payments as value added. Apart from value added, institutions receive
income from other sources, such as transfers from the government and from the rest of the world. Income
is spent as consumption expenditure on goods and services and for payment of taxes. The rest is saved
for the future. The total supply in the economy has to be matched by the demand by the institutions and
through capital formation in the form of the purchase of investment goods. In the SAM, the household
consumption expenditure is broken down to reflect the role that different levels of households play in the
economy. The schematic structure of a SAM presented here is made up of five major accounts:
production, factors, institutions, capital, and rest of the world (ROW) accounts. These concepts are
explained below.



The production account consists of two parts: activities (industries) and commodities. The activity account
is the “make matrix”. Each row in this matrix gives the distribution of the output of different commodities
produced by the industry in that row. Each column in this matrix gives the value of output of the
commodity in that column produced by different industries (A1.2). On the other hand, industry purchases
goods and services in the form of commodities (A2.1), hires factor services in the form of labour and
capital (A3.1) and pays indirect taxes towards the purchase of goods and services (A8.1). This matrix in
total is called the absorption matrix.



The aggregate supply in the economy consists of imports in addition to commodities produced by
industries (A10.2). This supply of commodities, in addition to meeting the intermediate demand of




112 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







industries, meets the requirements of the components of the final demand. The components of final
demand are households (A2.4), government (A2.7), gross fixed capital formation (A2.9) and exports (A2.10).



Factors receive value added, in (A3.1), as a payment for their services, which is otherwise known as gross
domestic product (GDP) at factor cost, net of indirect taxes on activities. They also receive net factor income
from abroad (A3.10). This total value added, GDP plus net factor income from abroad, is termed as gross
national product (GNP) at factor cost. Since institutions provide factor services, income is either remitted
abroad or accrues to domestic institutions. Hence, the total GNP at factor cost is distributed as:
(1) Factor income to households (A4.3);
(2) Operating profits of the private corporate sector (A5.3);
(3) Operating surplus of public non-departmental enterprises (A6.3); and
(4) Income from entrepreneurship to government (A7.3).



The gross national product is the primary source of income for these institutions. In addition to the value-
added income, other sources of income for households are government transfers and interest on public
debt (A4.7), and net current transfers from abroad (A4.10). Column 4 in the table records household spends
from its income through consumption expenditure, direct taxes (A7.4) and indirect taxes on purchases (A8.4).
The residual income is kept as savings (A9.4). Apart from operating profit, the other source of income for the
private corporate sector is interest on public debt from the government (A5.7). The private corporate sector
pays corporate taxes (A7.5) out of its earnings and saves (A9.5). Value added is the only source of earning for
the public non-departmental enterprises. The only entry in Column 6 is that of public-sector savings (A9.6), to
match with total public-sector earnings.



Column 7 and row 7 balance the government’s budget. Receipts of the government consist of income from
entrepreneurship (A7.3), direct taxes (A7.4) and (A7.5), and indirect taxes (A7.8). On the other hand, its outlay
includes its final consumption expenditure on goods and services (A2.7), its transfers to institutions (A4.7) and
(A5.7), and indirect taxes on purchases (A8.7). The residual government saving (A9.7) balances the budget.



The capital account represents the aggregate capital account of all institutions in the economy. It defines the
savings and investment closure of the economy. Column 9 of the capital account shows the investment
demand in the economy. It has gross domestic capital formation inclusive of changes in stocks (A2.9), and
indirect taxes on purchase of investment goods (A8.9). Row 9 indicates the sources of savings in the
economy, including aggregate capital depreciation in the economy, i.e. consumption of fixed capital (A9.3).
Households, private corporations, the public sector and government contribute to domestic savings. These
are net domestic savings. When added to depreciation, this becomes gross domestic savings. The foreign
savings or the current account balance (A9.10) matches the difference between total investment inclusive of
indirect taxes and gross domestic savings.



Here, it is worth mentioning that the capital account can be detailed by dividing the institutions into the current
account of institutions and the capital account. The capital account in this case represents the source of funds
and their use in a detailed manner. The external sector can also have current as well as capital accounts in
order to differentiate between merchandise trade balance and flow of capital.



It should be noted that international transfers, along with the current account balance, must finance the
difference between imports and exports in the external closure. Transactions between the domestic economy
and the rest of the world are represented by column 10 and row 10. Total foreign exchange inflows for the
country come from exports (A2.10), net factor income (A3.10), net current transfers (A4.10), and net capital
transfers from abroad (A7.10). Total imports represents the foreign exchange outflow from the country to the
rest of the world (A10.2). The difference between the foreign exchange receipts and outflow, after paying the
export taxes (A8.10), gives us the net foreign exchange reserve as foreign savings (A9.10).

The SAM constructed here is for the financial year 2003-04 and consists of 46 production sectors, two
factors of production and five household classes by expenditure levels separately for rural and urban
areas. It is important to note that this is the first SAM that gives household classes by expenditure levels.
The major steps involved in the construction of this SAM are updating of the available 1998-99 Input-Output
(I-O) table for the year 2003-04, division of sector-wise value added into wage and non-wage income and
distributing the aggregates among different institutions, and distribution of personal income and expenditure
among different household categories.




APPENDIX II 113





II.2 METHODOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION OF SAM

Since the I-O table (matrix) is an important part of SAM, it is essential to understand the methodology of
construction of the I-O table too. The Central Statistical Organization (CSO) has been constructing I-O
tables since 1973-74, at an interval of 5 years. The latest available table is for 1998-99. The methodology
of construction of the table is given by the CSO (2005). In order to construct the I-O (symmetric commodity
by commodity) table, the first step is to construct two tables: the absorption table (also called the use
table) and the make matrix (also called the supply table). CSO (2005) gives the methodology and data
sources for these matrices. Since we are in the 2003-04 SAM, the absorption as well as the make matrices
have been updated to 2003-04.

II.3 UPDATING I-O FOR 2003-04

For 2003-04, the economy is divided into 46 producing sectors. First, the 115-sector 1998-99 absorption
matrix, and the make matrix, are aggregated to 46 sectors. The value added and values of output are
estimated for these 46 sectors. Wherever feasible, inputs are directly estimated from various sources. The
remaining estimates are based on the 1998-99 absorption matrix, except for the relative price changes.
The make matrix for 2003-04 is obtained by using the 1998-99 make matrix and the RAS methodology for
making adjustments. The sector-wise ratios of commodities to industry output of 1998-99 are assumed for
2003-04. (For details of the RAS methodology, see Pradhan et al., 2006). The sources, the methods used,
the assumptions made, and the problems encountered in estimating the inputs, outputs, and final demand
components are discussed in the following paragraphs.

II.4 PRODUCTION SECTORS

Agriculture (sectors 1 to 4):
The crop-wise estimates of the value of output as available from the National Accounts Statistics (NAS,
2005) for the years 1998-99 and 2003-04 are used to get the values of output of different sectors under
agriculture. The growth indices of values of production for 2003-04 (with 1998-99 as the base) are first
computed and then applied to the commodity, as well as the industry output of the 1998-99 I-O table, in
order to get sector-wise values of output for 2003-04. The directly available values of output of different
crops are not used, because some of the sectors in the I-O table, such as cereals, are inclusive of milling.
It is assumed that the ratio of these activities to the output of crops for each sector will be the same for
1998-99 and 2003-04.



The major inputs of agriculture are seed, organic manure, fertilizers, electricity, pesticides, diesel oil and
animal services. These inputs are estimated for the entire agriculture sector as a whole. In the case of
pesticides, fertilizers and organic manure, the inputs are based on their availability. For diesel oil and
electricity, the growth in the inputs from 1998-99 to 2003-04 (as obtained from the NAS) is used, and
sector-wise inputs are first calculated by using 1998-99 ratios. The totals of inputs thus obtained are pro-
rata adjusted to get the control totals. For other minor inputs, trade and transport margins, and indirect
taxes, the 1998-99 coefficients are used directly.



Animal husbandry (sector 5):
There are three sectors under animal husbandry: (a) milk and milk products; (b) animal services; and (c)
other livestock products. The NAS gives the estimates of value-added of the animal husbandry sector, and
also the item-wise values of output of this sector. The value of output of animal services is equal to the
value of its inputs consumed by other sectors of the economy (agriculture). For 1998-99, the total inputs
consumed by animal husbandry are slightly higher than the cost of feed given in the NAS (because of
repair and maintenance etc.). For 2003-04, the total of inputs is obtained by using the 2003-04 cost of feed
given in the NAS and the 1998-99 ratio of total inputs to the cost of feed. The distribution of the total
inputs is done on the basis of 1998-99 distributions.



Forestry and fishery (sectors 6 and 7):
For these two sectors, the gross value-added and value of output are both taken from the NAS. The
distribution of inputs for 1998-99 is assumed for 2003-04.



Mining (sectors 8 to 11):
The item-wise values of output and group-wise value-added are available from the NAS. The distribution of
value-added within a group is done by making use of 1998-99 value-added to value-of-output ratios,
where the 2003-04 group-wise value-added is taken as the total. The 1998-99 distribution of inputs is
assumed for 2003-04.




114 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







Manufacturing industries (sectors 12 to 29):
There are 18 sectors under manufacturing. Ten of these sectors are ones for which gross value added
(GVA) is available from NAS 2005, at two-digit-level classification, for 1998-99 and also 2003-04. For these
10 sectors, the growth of GVA between 1998-99 and 2003-04 is applied to the GVA of these sectors in the
1998-99 absorption matrix, to obtain the GVA of sectors for 2003-04. It is assumed that the GVA to gross
value of output (GVO) for these manufacturing sectors will be the same for 1998-99 and 2003-04. Also, the
commodity to industry output ratios for all sectors will be the same for these two years. For the remaining
sectors, the growth rates in the GVA and the GVO between 1998-99 and 2003-04, based on their values
from the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), are applied to the GVA and GVO in the 1998-99 absorption
matrix. The 1998-99 input structure with relative price change is assumed for 2003-04.

Relative price adjustment of the CxI (1998-99) matrix has been carried out by first constructing a price
index of 2003-04 over 1998-99 for the 46 sectors mentioned above, and then multiplying the index with
the corresponding rows of the constructed 46 sectors (CxI matrix). Price indices have been constructed by
taking values of output from the NAS. Price increases (VOP current prices/VOP (1993-94) constant prices)
are calculated for 1998-99 and 2003-04, and then the change (2003-04 over 1998-99) in prices is
calculated. This is done for the primary sectors. For the manufacturing sectors, price indices are taken as
the growth in WPI from 1998-99 and 2003-04. For sectors for which output is not available, GDP is used
for calculating price indices. For Gas and Water Supply, Trade, Hotels and Restaurants, Transport by
Other Means, Storage, Banking and Insurance, Education and Research, Medical and Health, Other
Services, and Public Services, we have used GVA for getting price indices.



Other sectors (sectors 30 to 46):
The data on value added from these sectors is directly taken from the NAS. For some sectors, such as
construction, communications, railways etc., the values of output are directly available from the NAS. For
the rest, the values of output, as well as the values of input, are obtained by using the 1998-99 I-O
structures.

II.5 MAKE MATRIX

The make matrix for 2003-04 is obtained by using the industry output control totals and the make matrix of
1998-99. As already mentioned, the sector-wise commodity outputs are obtained from the industry output
by making use of their proportions in 1998-99. By using the industry and commodity outputs of 2003-04,
and the make matrix of 1998-99, the make matrix for 2003-04 is obtained, by applying the RAS method.
Some minor adjustments are made mechanically in the commodity outputs to get the consistent matrix.

II.6 FINAL DEMAND

Private Final Consumption Expenditure (PFCE):
CSO supplied us with the values of PFCE at detailed item level for 1998-99 and 2003-04. These items
were grouped into our sectors, and the growth rates between 1998-99 and 2003-04 obtained from this
data were applied to the PFCE for these sectors for 1998-99 in order to get the estimates for 2003-04. For
a few sectors, however, we could not directly obtain the growth rates. In such cases, the increase in the
value of output is assumed for increase in PFCE. The total PFCE obtained by this method comes to about
4% higher than the corresponding estimate given in the NAS. It may be mentioned here that in the 1998-
99 I-O table also, the estimate of PFCE is higher than that given in the NAS by about the same magnitude.

Government Final Consumption Expenditure (GFCE):
Total expenditure on goods and services, as given in the NAS, is divided into different sectors by
assuming the 98-99 I-O structure with some adjustments in the education and medical and health sectors
because of higher growth in their value added. Because of the adjustments in these two sectors, the total
expenditures are slightly higher than those given in the NAS.

Imports and Exports:
Imports are at CIF prices, while exports have been converted into factor cost prices. Like PFCE, the
indices of growth have been worked out and used for imports as well as exports. These growth rates are
based on the data available from CMIE on merchandise imports and exports at eight-digit level. In addition
to merchandise, the foreign trade consists of transport, communications, insurance etc. The growth rates
between 1998-99 and 2003-04 in these service sectors are based on the data available from NAS 2005.
The values of total imports and exports are higher than those given in the NAS. There were similar types of
differences in the 1998-99 I-O table, too.




APPENDIX II 115





Gross Fixed Capital formation (GFCF):
GFCF is available from the NAS for construction, and machinery and equipment. The capital formation
from construction is obtained by subtracting inter-industrial consumption and GFCE from the total value of
output. The estimate obtained in this way is slightly different from the estimate given in the NAS. For
capital formation from animal husbandry, the index of growth of increment to livestock is applied to the
capital formation as given in the 1998-99 I-O table. For other sectors, including trade, transport, and
indirect taxes, the remaining capital formation is distributed among different sectors by using the 1998-99
structures. According to the NAS, there is a huge margin of error, of about 14 per cent, between estimates
based on type of assets and those based on domestic savings. In the I-O table, the estimates match
according to type of assets. It may be mentioned here that the margin of error for 1998-99 was 5.6 per
cent, whereas it was less than 2 per cent for 2001-2002. CSO in 1998-99 had adjusted this margin of error
in the estimates for GFCF. However, we could not adjust such a huge difference.

Change in Stocks (CIS):
No details are available regarding the CIS. In most of the sectors, the CIS is a balancing entry and cannot
be considered as actual changes in stocks. Even in the 1998-99 tables, at number of places, the CIS
seems to be a balancing entry. For service sectors, the differences in the output and the total of
intermediate and final demands are pro-rata adjusted among various production sectors. In some sectors,
the values are relatively very high. For example, in furniture and wood products, the increase in value
added according to the NAS is very small.



According to CSO, there is a substantial increase in PFCE and in inter-industry consumption because of
increases in the output of sectors consuming wood and wood products. As a result, there is a huge
negative value under CIS. There is no CIS in services sectors except for electricity, gas and water supply,
where we could not distribute the difference between supply and demand and there are non-zero values
under these sectors.

II.7 EXTENSION OF I-O FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF SAM

This subsection deals with the methodology and the data sources for division of gross value added into
wage and non-wage income, and of PFCE and personal income into economic categories/expenditure
classes of households.

Wage and Non-Wage Income:

The division of the gross value added into wage (including imputed) and non-wage income has been done
for 46 sectors of the economy for 2003-04, into which the 115-sector I-O table has been aggregated. The
sources of data and methods used are given below, by broad sectors of the economy.

Agriculture and Allied Activities and Mining:

The NAS gives the breakdown of the net value added (NVA) into compensation to employees (CE) and
operating surplus/mixed income separately for organized and unorganized components of agriculture and
animal husbandry. From 1980-81 to 1989-90, the NAS has broken up mixed income into income of family
labour and operating surplus (CSO, 1994). By using the proportions of 1989-90, we have divided the mixed
income of 2003-04 into the above two categories. Wage income due to family labour, obtained this way,
has been added to the actual wage income from the organized and unorganized components to get the
total income due to labour. The remaining part of the net domestic product is the operating surplus. The
same proportions have been used for the four sectors under agriculture.

The NVAs, for these sectors, have been obtained from the corresponding GVAs by using the depreciation
to GVA ratio for the entire agriculture sector, as available from the NAS. For forestry, fishing, and all the
four sectors of mining, the mixed income in the unorganized part is divided into wage income and
operating surplus, using the same ratio as in agriculture. The total value added in each of these sectors is
divided into its components by applying the same method as used for agriculture. For mining, the NVA
from the unorganized part is only about 7 per cent.

Manufacturing Industries:

The output of manufacturing industries comprises the outputs of the registered and the unregistered
sectors. For the registered sector, the GVA at two-digit level of industrial classification for 2003-04 given in
the NAS is divided into wage and non-wage income on the basis of the ASI data for 2003-04. For
unregistered manufacturing, the 2000-01 estimates of GVA, emoluments, and number of hired and total




116 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH







workers are available for manufacturing establishments. These are used to get the estimates for the
unorganized sector. For self-employed workers, the imputed values based on the data for hired workers
are used. Using the proportions of different components of GVA for 2000-01 for the unorganized sectors
to the 2003-04 GVA of the unorganized sector, we get, at two-digit level, the components of GVA. Adding
these values for the registered and unregistered sectors, we obtain, at two-digit level, the components of
the GVA for the entire manufacturing sector. Using the ratios for each two-digit-level industrial group for all
the sectors under that group, we get the wage and non-wage incomes for different sectors under
manufacturing.

Trade; Hotels and Restaurants and Transport; Storage and Other Services; etc.:

For the organized parts, the estimates of wage and non-wage income are available from the NAS. For the
unorganized parts, the wage components are directly estimated by making use of the follow-up surveys of
the economic censuses in a way similar to that used for the unorganized manufacturing sector.

Electricity, Gas and Water Supply:

The NDP from the electricity sector is divided between consumption expenditure and operating surplus on
the basis of their ratios for the organized part of the combined sector, i.e. electricity, gas and water supply,
available from the NAS. By deducting the wage and non-wage components of the electricity sector from
the corresponding components of the combined sector, we get those components for the organized “gas
and water supply” sector. Besides, the entire mixed income under the unorganized “gas and water supply”
sector is assumed as wages, as the mixed income is mainly from “gobar gas” and not much capital is
involved in it.

Banking and Insurance:

A very small portion of the value added under banking is from the unorganized part. This is shown against
mixed income and income that has been assumed to be non-wage income, as a major part of the activity
under the unorganized segment is that of moneylenders. In moneylending, mainly capital is involved, and
in general, moneylenders carry out other activities as well.

Ownership of Dwellings:

The NVA is available from the NAS for the combined sector of real estate, ownership of dwellings and
business services. The GVA, however, is available separately for these sectors. As the depreciation is
proportionately more in the case of ownership of dwellings, the NVA cannot be divided among these three
sectors on the basis of their GVAs. We have arbitrarily assumed the depreciation to be 10% of the GVA in
case of both real estate and business services. As real estate and business services form part of the “other
services”, the NVA thus obtained is divided into wage and non-wage income based on the ratio obtained
from the “other services” sector. As ownership of dwellings is mainly in the unorganized sector, the total
NVA for this sector is divided into wage and non-wage income by assuming the same ratios as in the
unorganized component of the combined sector and assuming the entire mixed income as the non-wage
income.

Construction:

The whole of mixed income, except the interest charges, under the unorganized sector, is assumed as
wage income. For the organized sector, the wage and non-wage incomes are available separately from the
NAS.






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In


co
m


e
of



p


riv
at


e
co


rp
or


at
e


se
ct


or


6
P


ub
lic



en


te
rp


ris
es






O


p
er


at
in


g


su
rp


lu
s


A
6.


3












In


co
m


e
of



p


ub
lic



co


rp
or


at
e


se
ct


or


7
G


ov
er


nm
en


t



In


co
m


e
fr


om


en
te


rp
ris


es


A
7.


3


In
co


m
e


ta
x


b
y


ho
us


eh
ol


d
s


A
7.


4


C
or


p
or


at
e


ta
xe


s
A


7.
5





To
ta


l
in


d
ire


ct


ta
xe


s
A


7.
8



N


et


ca
p


ita
l


tr
an


sf
er



A


7.
10




To
ta


l
go


ve
rn


m
en


t
ea


rn
in


gs


APPENDIX II 117







8
In


d
ire


ct
t


ax
es



Ta


xe
s


on


in
te


rm
ed


ia
te



A


8.
1





Ta
xe


s
on



p


ur
ch


as
es



A


8.
4





Ta
xe


s
on



p


ur
ch


as
es



A


8.
7



Ta


xe
s


on


in
ve


st
m


en
t


go
od


s
A


8.
9


Ta
x


on


ex
p


or
ts



A


8.
10




To
ta


l
in


d
ire


ct


ta
xe


s


9
C


ap
ita


l
ac


co
un


t



D


ep
re


ci
at


io
n


A
9.


3
H


ou
se


ho
ld



sa


vi
ng


s
A


9.
4


C
or


p
or


at
e


sa
vi


ng
s


A
9.


5


P
ub


lic


se
ct


or


sa
vi


ng
s


A
9.


6


G
ov


er
nm


en
t


sa
vi


ng
s


A
9.


7





Fo
re


ig
n


sa
vi


ng
s


A
9.


10


G
ro


ss


sa
vi


ng
s


of


ec
on


om
y


10
R


es
t


of
w


or
ld





Im
p


or
ts



A


10
.2















Fo


re
ig


n
ex


ch
an


ge


p
ay


m
en


ts


T
ot


al


To
ta


l c
os


t
of



p


ro
d


uc
tio


n


A
gg


re
ga


te


su
p


p
ly



To


ta
l f


ac
to


r
en


d
ow


m
en


ts
To


ta
l u


se
o


f
ho


us
eh


ol
d



in


co
m


e


P
riv


at
e


co
rp


or
at


e
in


co
m


e


In
co


m
e


of


p
ub


lic


co
rp


or
at


e
se


ct
or




A
gg


re
ga


te


go
ve


rn
m


en
t


ex
p


en
d


itu
re


s


To
ta


l
in


d
ire


ct


ta
xe


s


A
gg


re
ga


te


in
ve


st
m


en
t


Fo
re


ig
n


ex
ch


an
ge



re


ce
ip


ts




118 HOW ARE THE POOR AFFECTED BY INTERNATIONAL TRADE
IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH








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