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Atlas of Global Development - A Visual Guide to the World’s Greatest Challenges

Report by The Work Bank, 2013

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This report illustrates the most important development challenges facing our world today. Based upon authoritative data from the World Bank's World Development Indicators, it provides information on critical global topics - from poverty, population growth, and food production to climate change, foreign direct investment, and international trade. In addition, it includes detailed information about targets for the Millennium Development Goals.





OF GLOBAL


DEVELOPMENT


A
T


L
A


S


Fourth Edition




© 2013 International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development /
The World Bank
1818 H Street NW,
Washington DC 20433
United States
Telephone: 202-473-1000;
Internet: www.worldbank.org


Some rights reserved


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Published for the World Bank by Collins Bartholomew
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First published 2007
Second edition 2009
Third edition 2011
Fourth edition 2013


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Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: World Bank and Collins. 2013. Atlas of Global Development: A Visual
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ISBN (paper): 978-0-8213-9757-2
ISBN (electronic): 978-0-8213-9758-9
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9757-2


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Contents


People


Population growth and transition


Rich and poor


Measuring income | Growth and opportunity


Where is the wealth of nations? | How poor is poor?


Education


Children at work | Education opens doors


Health


Children under 5—struggling to survive


Improving the health of mothers


Communicable diseases


Economy


Structure of the world economy | Governance


Infrastructure for development | Investment for growth


The integrating world | People on the move


Aid for development | External debt


Environment


The urban environment


Feeding a growing world | A thirsty planet gets thirstier


Protecting forests | Energy security and climate change


Statistics


Key indicators of development


Ranking of economies by GNI per capita


Definitions, sources, notes, and abbreviations


Foreword


Acknowledgments


Guide to the online atlas


Classification of economies


The Millennium Development Goals


128


104


66


52


38


32


Gender


Gender equality and development


46


14


10


8


6


5


4


Index143




Acknowledgments
The text and data for the fourth edition of the Atlas of Global Development were prepared by the


Development Economics Data Group of the World Bank under the management of Shaida Badiee.


The team consisted of Liu Cui, Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary, Neil Fantom, Juan Feng, Shota Hatakeyama,


Masako Hiraga, Wendy Huang, Bala Bhaskar Naidu Kalimili, Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu, Soong Sup Lee,


Hiroko Maeda, Johan Mistiaen, Esther G. Naikal, Beatriz Prieto-Oramas, William Prince, Evis Rucaj,


Sun Hwa Song, Emi Suzuki, Jos Verbeek, Olga Victorovna Vybornaia, and Sergiy Zorya. Eric Swanson was


the general editor. Aziz Gökdemir, Stephen McGroarty, Santiago Pombo, Stuart Tucker, and Shana Wagger


from the World Bank’s Office of the Publisher managed the development and dissemination of the book


and its online companion. Jeff Lecksell, in the Bank’s Cartography Group, provided guidance on maps.


The Publishing, Design, Editorial, Creative Services, and Database teams at Collins Bartholomew,


HarperCollins Publishers, provided overall design direction, editorial control, mapping, and typesetting.


Picture credits
Front cover, top to bottom Simone D. McCourtie/World Bank; Curt Carnemark/World Bank; Curt Carnemark/


World Bank; Stanislas Fradelizi/World Bank; Back cover, top to bottom Julio Pantoja/World Bank; Aziz


Gökdemir; Yosef Hadar/World Bank; Curt Carnemark/World Bank; 16 Ami Vitale/World Bank; 20, 34, 106,


117 (top) Michael Foley/World Bank; 28 John Isaac/World Bank; 30 David A. Cieslikowski/World Bank;


36, 53, 94, 102, 109, 110, 114, 118, 126 Curt Carnemark/World Bank; 39, 68, 105 Scott Wallace/World Bank;


40 Tran Thi Hoa/World Bank; 43 Trevor Samson/World Bank; 44 Armine Grigoryan/World Bank; 48 Bill Lyons/


World Bank; 50 Steve Harris/World Bank; 54, 78 Eric Miller/World Bank; 56 Yosef Hadar/World Bank;


60, 75, 113 Arne Hoel/World Bank; 64 Masaru Goto/World Bank; 67 (top) William Taufic/Corbis; 67 (bottom)


Ray Witlin/World Bank; 71 Gennadiy Ratushenko/World Bank; 72 Lars Plougmann/Creative Commons license,


creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0; 76 Yuri Mechitov/World Bank; 80 Yang Aijun/World Bank;


86 Guiseppe Franchini/World Bank; 88 Cory Doctorow/Creative Commons license, creativecommons.org/


licenses/by-sa/2.0; 92 Shannon Stapleton/Reuters/Corbis; 98 UNHCR/T. Irwin; 117 (bottom) UNEP;


120 Julio Pantoja/World Bank; 123, 124 Dominic Sansoni/World Bank.


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Foreword


We are very pleased to bring you the fourth edition


of the Atlas of Global Development and the fortieth


atlas produced by the World Bank documenting


development trends over the past 50 years. The atlases


represent the longest continuing publication of the


World Bank. Data presented in an atlas help us to


understand the geographic relationships among


countries and their economic and social development.


In designing the atlas, we have illustrated these


relationships with maps, charts, tables, and photos.


Geography is not destiny, but geography strongly


influences the ways economies can and do develop.


Geography encourages exchange and human


interaction. It also creates barriers and nourishes


disputes and conflicts. Neighboring economies


may share common resources and interests, but


economies at great distance may also be linked by


historical ties of settlement and migration that still


influence political alliances and economic exchange.


Landlocked economies have a harder time bringing


their goods to markets and have generally been


slower to develop, but Botswana and Switzerland


are two examples of landlocked economies that


have flourished. Small island economies, because


of their isolation and limited internal markets, face


similar challenges, but Mauritius has overcome those


obstacles and prospered. And because climate and


geography are closely linked, economies in the same


region face similar risks from climate change and


from natural hazards such as storms, flooding, and


earthquakes. All of these are important reasons for


taking a comprehensive view of the geography of


global development.


Understanding the development process, formulating


policies, and evaluating outcomes require reliable data.


The Atlas of Global Development draws on the


World Development Indicators database, which has


been compiled from the work of the World Bank,


other international organizations, and the national


statistical offices of member countries. To improve


the quality of international statistics, the World Bank


in collaboration with national and international


partners supports programs for the development of


statistics in developing countries.


While new technologies have not eliminated


geographic barriers to the movement of goods and


peoples, they have made it possible for information


to move far more quickly and to reach a larger


audience. Online databases and electronic


publications can be accessed from anywhere in the


world. Nevertheless, barriers to information remain.


In some places economic and social statistics are


treated as privileged information, restricted in their


use or priced so as to limit access. Such policies deny


citizens the use of data collected with public funding


and prevent the development of innovative new


applications of benefit to all.


As part of the World Bank’s Open Data Initiative,


the World Bank has adopted a policy of providing


open, free, and unrestricted access to its databases,


which are available on the Web at data.worldbank.org.


You can also access the Atlas online at data.worldbank.


org/atlas-global. Throughout the Atlas you will find


links to other public sources of data. We encourage


you to explore these databases, to employ the data in


your own work, to disseminate them to others, and to


send us feedback on how we could improve our ways


to make data more accessible and usable.


Shaida Badiee
Director, Development Data Group
The World Bank




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6


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 2000 20051995 2010


Most migrants reside in high-income economies


International migrant stock (millions)


Source: World Bank estimates based on data from the UN Population Division


0


20


40


60


80


100


120


140
High-income


Middle-income


Low-income


USER’S GUIDE TO THE WORLD BANK eATLAS OF
GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT


Easy navigation from the home page (accessible via data.
worldbank.org/atlas-global)


• Usetheright-hand paneltoselectamaintopicand
seerelatedindicatorsformapping.(Whenyoumakea
selection,adescriptionappears,andthepanelrefreshes
withtheindicators[igure1])


• Usethesearch box(topright)tosearchforanywordin
anindicatortitleordescription(e.g.,“malnutrition”).


• Useindicator(topleft,graytoolbar)todrillquicklyfrom
topictoindicator.


• Howeveryoustart,selectingaspeciicindicator
launchesaworldmapthatshowsthelatestavailable
datapercountry,withmanyothervisualizationsand
options.


Mapping basics (figure 2)


Onceyouhaveselectedyourindicator,themapping
applicationlaunches.
• Theworld mapshowsyourindicatorwiththelatest


availabledataforeachcountry.Mouseoverthemapto
seecountrynames,details,andindicatordata.


• Theindicator name(abovethemap,graytoolbar)is
linkedtothedeinitionandsourceinformation.


• Theranking table(bottomright-handpanel),which
showsindicatordata,togglesfromtabletochart.


• Atime series chart(acrossthebottom)iscreated;
clickingonanycountryaddsdatatothechart.


• View(topleft,redtoolbar)letsyoulaunchasecond
mapalongsidetheirst,providingaComparative View.


Changing and viewing countries (figure 2)


• Viewandzoomtocountries:
•Clickanycountryonthemaporinthe


ranking tabletozoom,or
•Usecountries (abovethemap,graytoolbar)


toselectacountry,or
•Uselocations(abovethemap,graytoolbar)


toselectacountry.
• Restorethefullviewbyclickingthemapareaor


byusingtheinsetmapatthetop.
• Eachtimeyouzoomtoacountry,itis
•Addedtothetime series chart(bottom).
•Givenmorecontext(topright-handpanel)
•Highlightedintheranking table(bottomright-


handpanel)


Figure1


Guide to the online atlas




7


Changing years, colors, intervals, and more (figure 2)


• Useperiods(abovethemap,graytoolbar)toselect
differentyearsand“latestavailable”data.


• Useoptions(abovethemap,graytoolbar)tochange
colors,intervals,andanalysismethods.


• Uselocations(abovethemap,graytoolbar)toselect
acountry.


Comparing maps and data


• Useview(topleft,redtoolbar)toselectComparative
Viewandseetwomaps.


• Useindicators, periods, options,andlocations
(aboveeachmap,graytoolbar)toselectwhatyouwant
tocompare,includinganycombinationofindicators
andyears.


• Selectthetabsbeloweachmaptoseetheranking table,
thetime series chart,andmore.


• Useview(topleft,redtoolbar)toselectStandard View
andreturntoonemapwithallthefeatures.


Using the time series chart (figure 2)


• Whenyouselectacountry(uptoive),relatedtime
seriesdataappearonthechart(bottom);countryname
anddataareshownwhenyoumouseover.


• Usetheplaybuttonbelowthecharttodynamicallymap
thetimeseriesforyourindicator.Asthemapchanges
foreachyear,theranking tableandotherinformation
refresh.


NEW FOR THIS EDITION
TheAtlas of Global Developmentisalsoavailableaspart
oftheAtlasbyCollinsapp.ItisavailableforbothiPhone
andiPad.


Forfurtherinformationandtechnicaladvicegoto
www.atlasbycollins.com


Figure2




Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Kiribati


Antigua and Barbuda


Dominica


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the GrenadinesGrenada


Cape Verde


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


Luxembourg


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Aruba
(Neth)


Barbados


St. Kitts and Nevis


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Greenland (Den.)


Western
Sahara


Gibraltar (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Latin America & Caribbean


Europe & Central Asia


East Asia & Pacific


Other


no data


OECD


High-income economies


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


Low- and middle-income economies


classification of economies


8


to imply that all economies in the group are


experiencing similar development or that


other economies have reached a preferred or


final stage of development.


The regions used in this atlas are based


on the regions defined by the World Bank


for analytical and operational purposes.


The World Bank classifies economies as low-


income, middle-income (subdivided into


lower-middle and upper-middle), or high-


income based on gross national income


(GNI) per capita. Low- and middle-income


economies are sometimes referred to as


developing economies. This is not intended




Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Albania


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Timor-Leste


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Solomon Islands


American Samoa (US)


Samoa


Tuvalu


Vanuatu
Fiji


Tonga


Kosovo


Lebanon


West Bank and Gaza


Maldives


Seychelles


Mauritius


Comoros


Israel


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


San
Marino


Malta


Cyprus


Nauru


Netherlands Antilles ceased to exist on October 10, 2010. Curaçao and St. Maarten
became autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire,
St. Eustatius, and Saba became special municipalities of the Netherlands.


9


These regions may differ from common


geographic usage or from the regions defined


by other organizations. Regional groupings and


the aggregate measures for regions include only


low- and middle-income economies.


Data are shown for economies as they were


constituted in 2011. Additional information


about the data is provided in World Development


Indicators 2012 or on the World Bank website


(data.worldbank.org).




1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


Source: UNESCO Institute of Statistics


Primary school completion rate (%)


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


110


To reach the goal of universal primary education,
children must remain in school


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2015


All regions but Sub-Saharan Africa are on track to
reach the poverty reduction target


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


People living on less than $1.25 a day (%)


Source: PovcalNet, an online poverty analysis tool developed by the World Bank
(iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/index.htm), and Global Monitoring Report 2012


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


10


The Millennium
Development Goals


The Millennium Declaration,


ratified in 2000 by the 189 member


states of the United Nations,


committed rich and developing


countries to work in partnership


to achieve a set of critical


development outcomes. Those


commitments are embodied in


the eight Millennium Development


Goals (MDGs) for 2015, supported


by 18 quantified targets and 60


indicators measuring progress


since 1990. Progress has been


uneven and many countries will


not reach the targets set for 2015,


but others have met or exceeded


the targets, improving the lives of


hundreds of millions of people.


Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger


Defined as average daily consumption of


$1.25 or less, extreme poverty means living


on the edge of subsistence. In 1990, more


than 1.9 billion people lived on less than


$1.25 a day. Since then, the poverty rate


in developing countries has fallen from


43 percent to 22 percent in 2008, reducing


the number of people in extreme poverty


to less than 1.3 billion. Between 2005 and


2008, poverty rates fell in all six developing


regions, the first time that has happened.


By 2015, the global rate of extreme poverty


is expected to be 16 percent and the number


of people living in poverty will fall to around


1 billion. At the global level, the goal of


halving the poverty rate has been reached,


and all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa are


expected to reach the target by 2015.


Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education


More than 20 years ago, the world


community committed itself to providing


at least a primary school education to


every child. Providing all children with a


good quality education is the foundation




1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010


Measles immunization rate
(% of children ages 12–23 months)


Source: WHO and UNICEF


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


High-income


Measles is the leading cause of vaccine-
preventable deaths in children


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary enrollment


Gender parity in enrollment has improved, but gender gaps remain
large in some regions


East Asia &
Pacific


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin America
& Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia Sub-Saharan
Africa


High-
income


Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


110


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


11


of sustainable development and poverty alleviation. In 2010,


the primary school completion rate reached 89 percent for


developing countries: 94 percent for middle-income countries


but just 68 percent for low-income ones. But 67 million


children worldwide were out of school in 2009—and about


half of them will receive no formal education.


Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empowering women


Promoting gender equality and empowering women are


important in their own right and because they foster progress


toward other MDG targets, such as those for reducing poverty,


hunger, and disease and improving access to education.


When women make decisions, household resources tend to


be shared more equitably. And educated women are better


able to care for children and more likely to send their children


to school.


Education opportunities for girls have expanded since 1990.


Enrollment patterns in upper-middle-income countries now


resemble those in high-income countries, and those in lower-


middle-income countries are nearing equity. But gender gaps


remain large in low-income countries, especially at the primary


and secondary levels.


Goal 4: Reduce child mortality


Deaths of children under age 5 have been declining since


1990. By 1999, for the first time, the number of children who


died before their 5th birthday fell below 10 million. Child


mortality rates in developing countries


dropped nearly 35 percent between


1990 and 2010, from 98 to 64 per 1,000


live births. Though this progress is


impressive, it is insufficient to meet the


fourth MDG of reducing under-5 child


mortality by two-thirds.


Success in reducing infant and


child mortality is a general indicator


of progress toward the human


development outcomes under the


MDGs, reflecting falling poverty rates,


improved nutrition, increasing female


literacy, disease prevention, access to


medicine and health facilities, and safe


water and sanitation. Immunizations


for measles—a leading cause of


vaccine-preventable deaths among


children—continue to expand


worldwide. Coverage in all regions


now exceeds 70 percent, markedly


improving child survival rates.


For more information about the


Millennium Development Goals, see


the World Bank eAtlas of the MDGs:


data.worldbank.org/mdg-atlas




Source: UNAIDS and WHO


High-
income


Prevalence of HIV among population ages 15–49 (%)


Prevalence rates have risen as more people are
living with HIV/AIDS


Europe &
Central


Asia


East
Asia &
Pacific


Latin
America &
Caribbean


Middle
East &
North
Africa


South
Asia


Sub-
Saharan
Africa


0


1


2


3


4


5


6


19
90


20
09


19
90 2


00
9


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09


Source: UNICEF, State of the World’s Children; Childinfo; and
Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro International


Births attended by skilled health staff (%)


Better care during childbirth improves mothers’
chances of survival


Europe &
Central


Asia


East
Asia &
Pacific


Latin
America &
Caribbean


Middle
East &


North Africa


South
Asia


Sub-
Saharan
Africa


0


20


40


60


80


100


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


12


high-income countries, yet continue to kill


millions a year in developing countries, and


HIV/AIDS remains a global pandemic.


Worldwide, more than 30 million people


have died from AIDS, and more than 16


million children have been orphaned since


AIDS was first reported more than three


decades ago. In 2010, 33 million people were


living with HIV, but less than half of them were


believed to be aware of their infection. With


better treatment, death rates are declining


and more people are living with AIDS. There


were 1.8 million AIDS-related deaths in 2010,


down from 2.2 million deaths in 2005. But


there were over 7,000 new HIV infections


every day, mostly among people in low- and


middle-income countries. Sub-Saharan Africa


contains just over one-tenth of the world’s


population but is home to two-thirds of the


people living with HIV/AIDS, with women far


more likely to be infected than men.


The World Health Organization estimates


that in 2010, there were 216 million cases of


malaria, leading to 655,000 deaths. Though


malaria is endemic in many tropical and


subtropical regions, most deaths occur


among children living in Africa, where a


child dies every minute from malaria.


The number of new tuberculosis cases


peaked globally in 2004 and is leveling off,


but prevalence is still high in Sub-Saharan


Goal 5: Improve maternal health


Every year, hundreds of thousands of women


die from complications related to pregnancy


or childbirth. Some 99 percent of these deaths


occur in developing countries. And for every


woman who dies, about 20 suffer from


injury, infection, or disease. In developing


countries, pregnancy-related complications


are among the leading causes of death and


disability for women between 15 and 49.


Prenatal care and the presence of skilled


health workers at delivery is critical to


reducing maternal mortality. In developing


countries, the share of births attended by


skilled health staff rose from 58 percent


in 1990 to 65 percent in 2010, and the


proportion of pregnant women receiving


prenatal care is rising. Countries in Europe


and Central Asia have made the most


progress in ensuring safe deliveries. Most


have achieved universal coverage, and the


rest are on track to achieve it by 2015.


Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and


other diseases


For many reasons—including poverty, climate,


bad policies, and inadequate services—


people in developing countries are highly


susceptible to life-threatening diseases. Some


of these, such as malaria and tuberculosis,


have been eliminated or largely contained in




All DAC donors


Japan


Netherlands


Sweden


United Kingdom


United States


0.0


0.2


0.4


0.6


0.8


1.0


1.2


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


High-income


19921990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010


Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Measurement Programme Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee


Population without access to improved drinking water source (millions)


Most regions will achieve the 2015 target for access to an improved
water source


19921990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010


Official development assistance as a share of GNI (%)


Aid efforts by DAC donors have increased since
2000, but most still fall short of their commitments


0


250


500


750


1,000


1,250


13


Africa, and some South Asian countries appear to have returned


to 1990 levels. In 2010 there were 8.8 million cases of tuberculosis


globally—down from 14 million in 2007.


Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability


The 1992 Earth Summit adopted comprehensive global,


national, and local responses for every area where humans


affect the environment. This agenda was incorporated into the


Millennium Declaration along with commitments to reduce


greenhouse gas emissions, protect biodiversity, and prevent


desertification.


Also included among the MDGs’ targets are commitments


to reduce the number of people lacking access to improved


water and sanitation facilities. An improved water source meets


basic standards for access to a protected water supply, but


water from improved sources—such as public taps or hand


pumps—may not meet standards set by the World Health


Organization and may require considerable fetching and


carrying. In 1990, more than 1 billion people in developing


countries lacked access to such a minimal convenience. In


2010, 786 million people—42 percent of whom live in Sub-


Saharan Africa—still lack access to improved sources for


drinking water, but most regions made progress.


Around the world, 2.6 billion people lack access to toilets,


latrines, and other forms of improved sanitation, and more


than 40 percent of these people practice open defecation. In


developing countries, the share of people with access to improved


sanitation rose from 37 percent in 1990 to 56 percent in 2010.


To halve the proportion of people without basic sanitation by


2015, more than 1.3 billion people would have to gain access


to an improved facility—so the global target will be missed.


Goal 8: Develop a global partnership


for development


Prospects for sustaining the current


economic recovery will be enhanced


if advanced and developing countries


continue to cooperate in implementing


policies aimed at increasing growth,


protecting the poor and vulnerable,


maintaining infrastructure investment,


and sustaining private sector growth.


Private investment and remittances


from migrants have become


increasingly important sources of


financing for developing countries.


However, official development


assistance—grants and loans made


at low interest rates—remains an


important source of support for


development programs in the poorest


countries. In 2005, the leaders of the


richest industrial countries made


specific commitments to increase aid


to Africa. Aid received by all developing


countries has increased substantially in


real terms—from $79 billion in 2000


to $130 billion in 2010, measured in


constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Aid to


Africa increased to $45 billion in


2010, but remains far short of the


commitments made in 2005.




Sub-Saharan Africa 2%
South Asia 3%


Latin America &
Caribbean 7%


High-income
68%


East Asia &
Pacific


13%


* Middle East &
North Africa 2%


Europe &
Central Asia


5%


Sub-Saharan Africa 2%
South Asia 7%


Latin America &
Caribbean


9%


High-income
54%


East Asia & Pacific
18%


* Middle East &
North Africa


3%


Europe &
Central Asia


7%


* Middle East & North Africa data are 2009, latest available


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


GNI, Atlas method (current US$), 2011


Comparing incomes: The share of developing
economies is higher when measured using
purchasing power parity


GNI, PPP (current international $), 2011


2000 2009 20111990


Even measured using purchasing power parity,
large differences remain


GDP per capita measured at PPP (constant 2005 international $)


Note: GDP in constant prices measures the total volume of goods and services
produced in the global economy
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


0


5,000


10,000


15,000


20,000


25,000


30,000


35,000 High-income economies


Low- & middle-income
economies


14


Measuring income


Standards of living vary


substantially across the globe.


Comparing income or consumption


or poverty levels among countries


requires a common unit of


measurement. Exchange rates


reflect the relative value of


currencies as traded in the market.


Purchasing power parities take into


account differences in price levels.


Both have important roles in


measuring the size of economies.


What is a developing country? Because


development encompasses many factors—


economic, environmental, cultural,


educational, and institutional—no single


measure gives a complete picture. However,


the total earnings of the residents of an


economy, measured by its gross national


income (GNI), is a good measure of its


capacity to provide for the wellbeing of its


people. The World Bank classifies countries


according to their average income, or


GNI per capita, converted to U.S. dollars


using three-year average market exchange


rates (commonly called the World Bank


Atlas method). Countries with average


incomes of less than $12,476 in 2011 are


classified as low- and middle-income


(often referred to as developing economies).


Countries with average incomes of $12,476


or more in 2011 are classified as high-


income or developed economies. In 2011,


the 1.1 billion people in high-income


economies had an average income of


$39,783 per person; the 5 billion residents


in middle-income economies had average


incomes of $4,121; and the 800 million


people in low-income economies earned


only $567, with some as low as $190.




GNI per capita (PPP $)


Each square represents one country


…. and higher net school enrollment rates in secondary education


Net enrollment rate for secondary school (%), 2009–2010


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000
0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


Niger


Uzbekistan Norway


Qatar


United
States


United Kingdom


Countries with higher GNI per capita often have higher life expectancy at birth ….


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


Life expectancy at birth (years), 2010 Each square represents one country


GNI per capita (PPP $), 2010


Sub-Saharan countries with high prevalence of
HIV/AIDS: Angola, Botswana, Equatorial Guinea,
Gabon, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.


0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000
0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


United States


United Kingdom


Swaziland


South
Africa


Luxembourg


15Rich and poor


To measure differences in welfare, comparisons of income


among economies should take into account differences in


domestic price levels. This is done using purchasing power


parities (PPPs). Using PPPs instead of market exchange rates,


the standard of living among countries can be compared in


real terms, as if the people purchased goods and services at


the same prices using a common currency. Measured using


PPPs, developing economies receive 46 percent of world


income. But when measured using the World Bank Atlas


method, they receive only 32 percent. The difference is due to


the lower cost of services and nontraded goods in developing


economies, a fact that travelers frequently observe.


As the most comprehensive measure of living standards,


GNI per capita is closely related to other, nonmonetary


measures of the quality of life, such as


life expectancy at birth, the mortality


rate of children, and enrollment rates


in school. Low incomes are both


a cause and effect of low levels of


health, education, and other human


development outcomes. Poor people


have a hard time obtaining good health


care and education, while poor health


and poor education leave them less


able to improve their incomes.




Gross national income
PPP current


international $ (billions)


Fishing village in the suburbs of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire


United States


China


Japan


India


Germany


Russian Federation


France


United Kingdom


Brazil


Italy


15,232


11,325


4,539


4,488


3,283


2,845


2,346


2,316


2,261


1,966


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


CountryRank


Largest economies, 2011


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Gambia


Kiribati


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Antigua and Barbuda


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada


St. Lucia


Dominica


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Monaco


French Polynesia (Fr)


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas
Turks and Caicos


Islands (UK)


Puerto
Rico (US) US Virgin


Islands (US)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Western
Sahara


Gibraltar (UK)


Middle East & North Africa
$7,097


Latin America & Caribbean
$8,645


Brazil
$10,720


Upper-middle-income countries ($4,036–$12,475)


Lower-middle-income countries ($1,026–$4,035)


Low-income countries ($1,025 or less)


High-income countries ($12,476 or more)


no data


GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method, 2011


income


16




World Development Indicators data.worldbank.orgOf the 36 economies classified as low-income in 2011, 27 are in
Sub-Saharan Africa, eight are in Asia, and one is in Latin America
and the Caribbean.


Variations of income within each region can be large. For example,
in 2011, Botswana’s GNI per capita surpassed $7,480, while GNI
per capita in neighboring Mozambique was only $470.


Most economies in Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East
and North Africa, and Europe and Central Asia are middle-income
economies.


Average GNI per capita in the low- and middle-income countries
was $3,628 in 2011, while in high-income economies it was $39,783.


Since 1989, 26 economies had moved from developing to
high-income status, two of them in the last three years.


Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and
Development—Statistics


www.oecd.org/statistics


International Monetary Fund
Dissemination Standards
Bulletin Board


dsbb.imf.org


United Nations—
Statistics Division


unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama


International Comparison
Project


www.worldbank.org/data/icp


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sudan


South
Sudan


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Kosovo


West Bank and Gaza


Timor-Leste


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Solomon Islands


Vanuatu
Fiji


Tonga


Samoa


Tuvalu


American Samoa (US)


Palau


Maldives


Seychelles


Mauritius


Lebanon


San
Marino


Malta


Cyprus


Israel Kuwait


Bahrain


Qatar


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Nauru


Sub-Saharan Africa
$1,265


Europe & Central Asia
$23,562


South Asia
$1,299


East Asia & Pacific
$7,857


China
$4,930


India
$1,410


Russian Federation
$10,400


17Rich and poor




2007 2009 2011


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database * 2011 data not available for Middle East & North Africa


Recovery from the financial crisis has been slow and uneven


GDP growth (%)


-10


-5


0


5


10


15


Latin America & Caribbean


* Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


High-incomeEast Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 20102007 2011


Global recession in 2007–2009 reversed years of
record economic growth


GDP growth rate (%)


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


Low- & middle-income economies


High-income economies World


-4


-2


0


2


4


6


8


10


18


Growth and opportunity


Economic growth reduces


poverty. As a result, fast-growing


developing countries are closing


the income gap with high-income


economies. But growth must be


sustained over the long term and


the gains from economic growth


must be shared to make lasting


improvements in the wellbeing


of all people. The recent financial


crisis has interrupted that process


and recovery has been uneven.


Sustained growth is essential to reducing


poverty, but few developing countries—


especially low-income countries—have


seen strong and steady growth in the


past. Fewer than one-third of low-income


countries have increased per capita income


by 3.0 percent a year or more since 1980.


For many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa,


the 1990s were a lost decade, with little or


no growth. But growth accelerated in the


following decade. Since 2000, more than


half of all developing countries achieved


an average growth of per capita income of


3.2 percent a year or more. In Sub-Saharan


Africa, three-quarters of the countries


grew faster than 3.2 percent a year, despite


formidable development challenges such as


conflict and epidemic disease.


The financial crisis, which began in 2007


and spread from high-income to low- and


middle-income economies in 2008, became


in 2009 the most severe global recession in


50 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) fell


by 3.7 percent in high-income economies


and grew by only 2.7 percent in developing


economies. The crisis was transmitted


from high-income countries to developing


countries as exports, private capital flows,


commodity prices, and workers’ remittances


all declined. Many developing countries




Less equal


More equal


Income inequality has fallen in roughly half of the developing countries from the late 1990s to late 2000s


Annual change in Gini coefficient in 74 developing countries, late 1990s to late 2000s


Percentage points per year


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database
‘The late 1990s’ is the most recent year between 1995 and 1999, or 2000. ‘The late 2000s’ is the most recent year between 2005 and 2011


-2


-1


0


1


2


3


4


19Rich and poor


entered the crisis in better shape than in previous recessions,


but for countries with large portions of their populations


clustered around the poverty line, even brief periods of


economic slowdown can have severe effects. In the poorest


developing countries, health and education outcomes move


with the economic cycle; they deteriorate during economic


crises and take a long time to recover.


Since 2009, the global economy has shown signs of


recovery, expanding by 4.3 percent in 2010. However, the


pace of recovery has been uneven. High-income countries


grew only 3.3 percent while developing countries grew


7.6 percent. East Asia and the Pacific was the fastest-


growing region with 9.7 percent followed by South Asia and


Latin America and the Caribbean, which grew 8.7 and


6.2 percent, respectively. The recovery has proved to be


fragile; it suffered a setback in 2011, with global growth


slowing to 2.7 percent. High-income countries grew only


1.5 percent while developing countries showed more


resilience posting 6.2 percent growth. Weak recovery will


likely resume in 2012 in the major advanced economies, and


activity could remain relatively solid in most emerging and


developing economies. However, since commodity prices


are unlikely to continue the recent fast pace of growth, these


economies may have to adapt their policies to promote


economic growth in the post-crisis environment.


Economic growth reduces poverty. But in some countries,


high growth has been accompanied by rising inequality of


incomes, impeding the pace of poverty reduction. Moreover,


a country with high initial inequality will need to grow faster


than a country with more equal income distribution to achieve


the same poverty reduction. Rising


income inequality may also lead to


social tensions, undermining the


social impacts of economic growth and


poverty reduction. Therefore, policies


will need to simultaneously stem rising


inequality of income and accelerate


economic development and poverty


reduction. Since the late 1990s, income


inequality, measured by the Gini


coefficient, has increased in roughly


half of the developing countries with


available data, and decreased in the


other half.


In addition to inequality of


incomes, inequality of opportunities


is a challenge facing most developing


countries. Personal circumstances at


birth, such as gender, race, ethnicity,


location, wealth, and parents’


education, are associated with the level


of access to those services needed for


a productive life, such as safe drinking


water, sanitation, electricity, basic


education, and nutrition. Achieving


universal access to these services is


critical to the poverty reduction and


development agenda.




1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Average annual growth
rate (%), 2000–2009


Recent growth of GDP per capita
Small businesses, such as the one run by this dressmaker,
contribute to economic growth


Azerbaijan


Vanuatu


Equatorial Guinea


Turkmenistan


Armenia


Angola


China


Belarus


Kazakhstan


Cambodia


16.7


14.3


13.6


12.3


10.5


9.9


9.7


8.7


7.9


7.3


CountryRank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Kiribati


The Bahamas


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Bermuda
(UK)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Barbados


Grenada


St. Lucia


Puerto
Rico (US)


The Gambia


Channel Islands (UK)


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


French Guiana
(Fr)


Greenland (Den)


Dominica


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


São Tomé and Príncipe


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Monaco


Cape Verde


Trinidad
and Tobago


Gibraltar (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)
Western
Sahara


0.0–1.9%


2.0–3.9%


4.0–5.9%


6.0% or more


less than 0.0%


no data


average annual growth of GDP per capita, 2000–2011


economic growth


20




In contrast to record economic growth from 2000 to 2007, the
global economy fell by 2.2 percent in 2009 as a result of the
2008 financial crisis.


While the global economy is showing signs of recovery, low-income
countries continue to suffer the consequences of the global recession.


Between 1990 and 2011, GDP per capita grew 4.7 times in East Asia
and the Pacific, but still ranked fourth among regions, behind Latin
America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and
Europe and Central Asia.


Among 10 developing countries with the highest GDP per capita
growth in 2000–2011, two are from low-income economies, and
two are from Sub-Saharan Africa.


GDP fell by 3.7 percent in high-income economies and grew by
only 2.7 percent in developing countries in 2009.


World Bank—Global
Economic Prospects


www.worldbank.org/prospects


IMF World Economic Outlook www.imf.org/weo


OECD statistics www.oecd.org/statistics


The Commission on
Growth and Development


www.growthcommission.org/


World Development Indicators data.worldbank.org


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Federated States of Micronesia


Brunei Darussalam


Comoros


Bahrain


San
Marino


Malta
Israel


Qatar


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Palau
Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


Fiji


Tonga


Vanuatu


Cyprus


Mauritius


Seychelles


Lebanon


Kuwait


Singapore


Timor-Leste


Samoa


Solomon Islands


Maldives


Kosovo


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Nauru


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


West Bank and Gaza


21Rich and poor




30


28


25


21


20


20


18


17


17


17


2009


2008


2009


2009


2010


2006


2008


2010


2010


2006


Inequality
ratioYear


One commonly used measure of income inequality is the
inequality ratio, calculated as the ratio of income or
consumption shares of the richest 20 percent to the poorest
20 percent of the population. A ratio of 10 means that the top
20 percent of the population earns (or spends) 10 times as
much as the bottom 20 percent of the population.
Generally the higher this ratio, the more unequal the income
distribution. Countries with high inequality ratios are mostly
in Latin America and Africa. The highest inequality ratio
among Asian countries is 12.


Countries with highest inequality ratios


Honduras


Bolivia


South Africa


Brazil


Colombia


Guatemala


Central African Republic


Paraguay


Panama


Zambia


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Country with population
over 1 millionRank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


São Tomé and Príncipe


The Gambia


Cape Verde


Luxembourg


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Monaco


Gibraltar (UK)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


The Bahamas
Turks and Caicos


Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica


St. Lucia


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


St. Martin (Fr)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


Bermuda
(UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Grenada


Antigua and Barbuda


St. Kitts and Nevis


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Western
Sahara


4.0–5.9%


6.0–6.9%


7.0–7.9%


8.0% or more


less than 4.0%


no data


share of income going to the poorest quintile,
2000–2010, most recent year available


inequality


22




United Nations
Development Programme—
Human Development Report


World Bank—
World Development Report 2006


www.worldbank.org/wdr2006


www.hdr.undp.org


Inequality in Focus go.worldbank.org/CCKE912HN0


World Bank—Poverty
Reduction and Equity


www.worldbank.org/poverty


Poverty and Equity Data povertydata.worldbank.org/
poverty/home/


Human Opportunity Index,
Latin America and the
Caribbean


go.worldbank.org/A9Z0NUV620


Latin America and the Caribbean has persistently been the region
with highest average inequality within countries, but inequality has
been falling noticeably in the region since around 2000.


Between one-quarter and one-half of income inequality observed
among adults in Latin America and the Caribbean is due to personal
circumstances endured during childhood that fell outside their
control or responsibility, such as race, gender, birthplace, parents’
educational level, and father’s occupation.


East Asia started out as the region with lowest inequality within
countries in early 1980s, but has seen a steady rise in inequality
(side by side with a downward trend in inequality between countries).


In South Africa, circumstances at birth are important drivers for
the unequal opportunities in childhood and later reemerge to
contribute to unequal access to jobs.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Federated States of Micronesia


Qatar


Seychelles


Comoros


Israel


Maldives


Fiji


West Bank and Gaza


Timor-Leste


San
Marino


Malta


Kosovo


Cyprus


Lebanon


Kuwait


Bahrain


Mayotte
(Fr)


Mauritius
Réunion (Fr)


Brunei Darussalam


Singapore


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Nauru


Marshall Islands


American Samoa (US)


Solomon Islands


Samoa


Tuvalu


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Vanuatu


Tonga


23Rich and poor




Angola


Mongolia


Azerbaijan


KazakhstanZambia


China


Botswana


Vietnam


Energy and mineral rents (% of GDP), 2010
Source: World Bank estimates


Adjusted net saving is often low in countries with high exhaustible resource rents


Adjusted net saving (% of GNI), 2010


100 20 30 40 50 60
-40


-30


-20


-10


0


10


20


30


40


Gross saving Net saving Net saving plus
educational


expenditures


Adjusted net
saving excluding


pollution damages


Adjusted
net saving


Source: World Bank, Little Green Data Book 2012


Adjusted net saving for a resource-rich country can be negative despite high gross saving


Adjusted net saving in Kazakhstan (% of GNI), 2010


-5


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


Pollution
damages


Depletion of
natural


resourcesEducational
expenditures


Depreciation
of fixed
capital


24


Where is the
wealth of nations?


Development can be seen as a


process of building and managing


a diversified portfolio of assets


that contribute to economic


wellbeing. For wellbeing to be


sustainable, the total value of


assets must be maintained at


a constant level or increased.


Adjusted net saving is a measure


of the net change in a country’s


assets and thus a powerful


indicator of sustainability.


A country’s wealth includes not only


physical capital such as buildings and


machinery, but also natural capital, such


as oil deposits, forests and crop land, and


human and social capital. The capacity of a


country to sustain and increase wellbeing


depends on how well these assets are


managed. Adjusted net saving (ANS)


provides a measure of net change in


wealth. It is defined as gross saving plus


investment in human capital (education


expenditures), minus depreciation of


produced capital, depletion of natural


capital (energy, mineral, and forest assets),


and damage from global and local pollution.


If ANS is negative, it means that the


country is exhausting its resources at the


cost of future generations; hence it is on


a path of unsustainable development.




Asia has sustained positive adjusted net saving rates over the past three decades


Source: World Bank estimates


Adjusted net saving (% of GNI) Sub-Saharan AfricaEast Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


South Asia


-10


-5


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


40


20101980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008


25Rich and poor


Countries rich in natural resources have an advantage


over others in financing development. Natural resource


rents can be effectively deployed for this purpose, but it is


important to reinvest such rents in other types of capital,


notably human capital and institutions. The data show that


natural resource abundance often leads to low or negative


ANS. This is true for many resource-rich countries in the


developing world. Adjusted net saving as a percentage of


gross national income (GNI) often has a negative relationship


with the share of energy and mineral resource rents of gross


domestic product (GDP). Countries such as Angola, Mongolia,


Kazakhstan, and Zambia, with resource rents greater than a


quarter of GDP, have negative ANS rates as low as –30 percent


of GNI. With relatively fewer natural resource endowments,


China has achieved a high ANS rate by investing in produced


and human capital. But natural resource abundance need not


be a curse. At the other end of the spectrum are countries


such as Botswana and Vietnam, rich in mineral wealth and


energy resources but with positive ANS rates. Those countries


are good examples of how reinvesting resource rents can


boost social and institutional capital with positive results


on growth. Vietnam’s GDP grew by 7.5 percent over the


past 10 years, and Botswana, one of the fastest-growing


economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, grew by 4.1 percent.


Adjusted net saving trends across regions have varied


widely over time. Sub-Saharan Africa generally has a


declining trend in ANS, suggesting that this region is on


an unsustainable development path.


But if one looks more closely, distinct


stories emerge. In Sub-Saharan Africa,


a relatively small handful of countries


have dragged down performance for


the entire region, relative to the rest


of the world. But nearly two-thirds of


African countries have had positive


saving rates over the decade. This


group was led by the largest African


economy, South Africa, and includes


others such as Botswana, Ethiopia,


Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, and


Uganda. The South Asia and East Asia


regions stand out as achieving almost


steadily increasing ANS rates generated


mostly via their high gross saving rates


in recent years. Other regions do not


show a clear trend.




Country, population
over 30 million


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Countries with the highest share of natural capital in total wealth


..


-3.6


..


..


29.8*


4.5


15.8


12.1


7.5


9.4


69


56


55


53


52


43


39


35


32


28


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Sudan


Nigeria


Iran, Islamic Rep.


Algeria


Russian Federation


Vietnam


Tanzania


Ethiopia


Pakistan


Rank
Natural capital as a share


of wealth (%), 2005
Adjusted net saving


(% of GNI), 2010


* 2009


Natural capital as a share of comprehensive
wealth is most important in low- and lower-
middle-income countries. But countries differ
substantially in terms of adjusted net saving.


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Dominica Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Luxembourg


The Gambia


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


Grenada


St. Lucia


Barbados


Aruba
(Neth)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


Bermuda
(UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Greenland (Den)


Western
Sahara


Latin America & Caribbean
6.3%


-5.0–0.0%


0.1–4.9%


5.0–9.9%


10% or more


less than -5.0%


no data


adjusted net saving, including particulate
emission damage, as a share of GNI,
2010 or latest available data


wealth of nations


26




Report of the Commission on the
Measurement of Economic and
Social Progress


Where Is the Wealth of Nations? go.worldbank.org/
2QTH26ULQ0


www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr


www.worldbank.org/
environmentaleconomics


Environmental Economics at the
World Bank


go.worldbank.org/
TF3U5N1AO0


The Changing Wealth of Nations


Natural capital constitutes a major component of wealth and is a
principal source of income in developing countries.


If Trinidad and Tobago had reinvested all resource rents from
oil and gas into manufactured capital, it would have accumulated
more than three times as much manufactured capital between
1980 and 2005.


In 2010, the ANS rate was 10.4 percent of GNI for the world as
a whole, 18 percent for low- and middle-income countries, and
7.1 percent for high-income countries.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Solomon Islands


Fiji


Brunei Darussalam


Lebanon


Cyprus


Maldives


Réunion (Fr)
Mauritius


Vanuatu


Singapore


Israel Kuwait


Bahrain


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


American Samoa (US)


Tonga


Samoa


Nauru


Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Timor-Leste


Mayotte
(Fr)


Seychelles


West Bank and Gaza


San
Marino


Malta


Kosovo


Qatar


Comoros


Sub-Saharan Africa
-6.2%


Europe & Central Asia
3.2%


South Asia
21.6%


East Asia & Pacific
28.6%


27Rich and poor




Man selling household goods out of a cart in the
slum district of Bangalore, India


People living on less than $1.25 a day


All developing regions


People living on more than $1.25
and less than $2.00 a day


Other developing regions


East Asia & Pacific


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


While the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day has fallen, the number living on between $1.25 and
$2.00 a day has increased


198
1


198
4


198
7


199
0


199
3


199
6


199
9


200
8


200
2


200
5


Source: World Bank, PovcalNet – an online poverty analysis tool, iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/index


People living in poverty (billions)


0.0


0.5


1.0


1.5


2.0


2.5


3.0


28


How poor is poor?


Poverty and hunger remain, but


fewer people live in extreme


poverty. Between 1981 and 2008,


the proportion of people in the


developing world living on less


than $1.25 a day fell from 52 to


22 percent, and nearly 650 million


people were lifted out of poverty.


Despite the 2008 financial crisis


and food and fuel price increases,


global poverty has continued to


fall, but progress has been uneven


and more than a billion people


remain in dire need.


quality public services and infrastructure,


and by protecting vulnerable people such


as women, children, and the elderly. There


is no single solution; the best strategies


will depend on the circumstances in each


country.


Definitions of poverty vary from country


to country. A poverty line set at $1.25 a


day in 2005 purchasing power is used by


the World Bank as the working definition


of extreme poverty. It represents the level


of consumption of the poorest people in


the poorest countries of the world. Since


Poverty is found everywhere that poor


health and lack of education deprive


people of productive employment; where


environmental resources have been depleted


or spoiled; and where corruption, conflict,


and bad governance waste public resources


and discourage private investment. Poverty


needs to be tackled on many fronts: by


creating more and better jobs, delivering




Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, 2005–2009


Under-5 mortality rate (10 year rate, per 1,000 live births),
MRY 2005–2011


Mali


Children from poor households are more
likely to die before reaching age 5


0 50 100 150 200 250


Ukraine


Albania


Colombia


Moldova


Maldives


Armenia


Egypt


Dominican
Republic


Honduras


Philippines


Indonesia


Azerbaijan


Nepal


Cambodia


Namibia


São Tomé and
Príncipe


Bangladesh


Bolivia


Zimbabwe


Timor-Leste


Madagascar


Kenya


Ghana


India


Tanzania


Pakistan


Senegal


Haiti


Swaziland


Ethiopia


Congo, Rep.


Malawi


Rwanda


Uganda


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Liberia


Sierra Leone


Nigeria


Guinea


Richest quintile


Poorest quintile


Average


To measure poverty in the world as a whole, a common standard is required.
Because market exchange rates tend to understate the real incomes of developing
countries and overstate the extent of poverty, PPPs are used to compare income and
consumption levels between countries. PPPs are calculated to compensate for
differences in the price of goods and services between countries. The result is a
conversion factor that can be used like an exchange rate to convert values in one
currency into those of a reference currency (such as the U.S. dollar). In 2008, new
PPP estimates for 2005 became available from the International Comparison
Program. The World Bank's original ‘$1 a day’ international poverty line was based on
the poverty lines in the world's poorest countries. By focusing on the standards of
the poorest countries, the $1 a day line gave the global poverty measure a salience
in focusing on the world's poorest. Using the new 2005 PPP rates, the international
poverty line was revised to $1.25 a day, which is the average poverty line of the 10 to
20 poorest countries in the world.


Purchasing power parity (PPP) and the international poverty line


29Rich and poor


1981, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty in


the developing world has fallen from 52 percent to 22 percent


(as of 2008). In absolute terms, the number of people living in


extreme poverty fell from nearly 2 billion in 1981 to less than


1.3 billion in 2008.


But global success in reducing extreme poverty over


the past three decades has disguised uneven progress


across regions. The greatest drop occurred in East Asia and


the Pacific, where the poverty rate fell from 84 percent in


1981 to 13 percent in 2008 and the number of people living


on less than $1.25 a day fell by 662 million. In South Asia,


the poverty rate fell from 61 percent to 36 percent over the


same period. However, due to rapid population growth, the


number of extremely poor people in the region increased and


only returned to the 1981 level by 2008. In Sub-Saharan Africa,


the poverty rate rose from 52 percent in 1981 to 58 percent in


1999, as many countries suffered a long period of civil discord


and slow growth. By 2005, the number of people living in


extreme poverty had almost doubled. But the poverty rate


fell to 48 percent in 2008, and the number of people living


in extreme poverty fell to 386 million. Africa’s success was


echoed everywhere: between 2005 and 2008, both the poverty


rate and the number of poor people fell in all six developing


regions for the first time since the World Bank began


monitoring global poverty.


Rising incomes have brought more countries into middle-


income status, so that nearly three-quarters of the world’s


poor people now live in middle-income countries. In many


of these countries, a poverty line of $2 a day or higher is


more representative of the extent of serious poverty. There


are almost 2.5 billion people living on $2 a day or less, and


progress in reducing their numbers


has been slow. The number of people


living on between $1.25 and $2 a day


is expected to remain constant at


about 1.2 billion for the next decade.


These are still very poor people whose


prospects will improve only through


continued growth.




Developing country


Number of people
(millions, most recent


data 2005–2010)


Public services are lacking in slum areas


India


China


Nigeria


Bangladesh


Indonesia


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Pakistan


Ethiopia


Tanzania


Philippines


568


276


108


64


64


51


35


29


28


17


People living on less than $1.25 a day


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Greenland (Den)


The GambiaSt. Lucia


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Aruba
(Neth)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


The Bahamas


Bermuda
(UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Barbados


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada


French Guiana
(Fr)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Andorra


Liechtenstein


Luxembourg


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
1990: 13 million
2008: 9 million


Latin America & Caribbean
1990: 53 million
2008: 37 million


2.0–9.9%


10.0–24.9%


25.0–49.9%


50.0% or more


less than 2.0%


no data


share of population living on less
than $1.25 a day (2005 PPP), 2008


poverty


30




World Bank—Country
Poverty Assessment


World Bank—PovcalNet
Online Poverty Analysis Tool


iresearch.worldbank.org/
PovcalNet


www-wds.worldbank.org
(go to ‘By Doc Type’ in the left-hand bar and
select ‘Poverty Assessment’ from ‘Economic
and Sector Work’)


www.unmillenniumproject.orgUnited Nations Millennium
Project


World Bank Poverty &
Equity Data Website


povertydata.worldbank.org/
poverty/home


Two-thirds of the world's poor people live in the world's three
most populous middle-income countries: China, India, and
Indonesia.


Although extreme poverty occurs mostly in rural areas, urban
slums also have high poverty rates.


China reduced its extreme poverty rate from 84 percent in 1981 to
13 percent in 2008 and lifted 662 million people out of poverty.


While Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest poverty rate, South Asia
has the most people living in extreme poverty.


Preliminary survey-based estimates indicate that the Millennium
Development Goal of halving poverty from its 1990 level by 2015
has been achieved at the global level in 2010.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros Timor-Leste


Fiji


Seychelles


Maldives


West Bank and Gaza


San
Marino


Kosovo


Malta
Lebanon


Israel


Cyprus


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Mauritius


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Vanuatu


Solomon Islands


Nauru


American Samoa (US)


Tonga


Samoa


Tuvalu


Sub-Saharan Africa
1990: 290 million
2008: 386 million


Europe & Central Asia
1990: 9 million
2008: 2 million


South Asia
1990: 617 million
2008: 571 million


East Asia & Pacific
1990: 926 million
2008: 284 million


Population living on less
than $1.25 a day, 1990, 2008


31Rich and poor




East and South Asia hold half the world’s population, but population growth has been fastest in Sub-Saharan Africa


Source: World Bank, HealthStats database


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 20152010 20252020 20352030 20452040 2050


Population (millions) Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


High-income


0


1,000


2,000


3,000


4,000


5,000


6,000


7,000


8,000


9,000


10,000


32


Population growth and
transition


The world is undergoing rapid


demographic change, resulting


from changes in the key


determinants of population


growth and structure: fertility,


mortality, and migration. By 2050,


there will be 9 billion people,


most living in today’s developing


countries. More people will


live in cities and the average


age will increase, bringing new


opportunities and challenges.


In developing countries, life expectancy


at birth increased steadily, from 47 years


in 1960 to 68 years in 2010. Fertility rates


declined, but at 2.6 births per woman, they


remain well above those of high-income


countries, fueling population growth as


births exceed deaths. Fertility rates are


particularly high in Sub-Saharan Africa,


averaging five births per woman in 2010.


In high-income countries, life expectancy


has reached 80 years, 11 years longer than in


1960. The increase in life expectancy


has coincided with income growth. With


a fertility rate of 1.8 births per woman—


well below replacement level—the average


age of the population will rise, and


population size may fall in the absence of


immigration. A majority of international


migrants are from developing countries,


and these migrants make up a significant


part of population growth in industrial


countries. However, the number of migrants


leaving most developing countries is too


small to have much impact on the countries’


population growth.


The world’s population is expected to


grow to 7.2 billion in 2015 and 7.9 billion


in 2025, with more than 90 percent of the


growth occurring in developing countries.


The world’s population grew at an


extraordinary rate in the 20th century—


from 1.6 billion in 1900 to 6.1 billion in


2000, reaching 6.9 billion in 2010. Eighty-


four percent of the world’s people live in


developing countries. East and South Asia,


with half the world’s population in 1960,


added 2 billion people over 50 years. Sub-


Saharan Africa, whose population more than


tripled in the same time period, from 230


million to 850 million, grew fastest.




2010 2020 2030 2010 2020 2030


Developing countries High-income countries


Population ages 65 and older


Population ages 15–64


Population ages 0–14


The population is aging in both developing and
high-income countries


Age structure (% of total population)


Source: World Bank, HealthStats database


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100
6


65


29


8


66


26


10


66


24


16


67


17


18


65


17


21


62


17


High-income
7%


Sub-Saharan
Africa
37%


South Asia
27%


East Asia &
Pacific
12%


Latin America &
Caribbean
8%


Middle East &
North Africa
8%


Europe &
Central Asia
1%


Source: World Bank, HealthStats database


More than 90 percent of population growth
will occur in developing countries, particularly
in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa


Share of population increase by region, 2010–2030Total fertility rate (births per woman)


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010


Fertility rates are falling, but they remain highest in Sub-Saharan Africa


0


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


High-income


33People


Urbanization will intensify. About 90 percent of the


additional population will be in urban areas. A third of


people in urban areas will live in slums that lack basic


social services such as clean water and sanitation and


decent housing. In Sub-Saharan Africa, about 60 percent


of urban dwellers will live in slums.


The average age of the population will increase as


fertility slows and people live longer. About 20 percent of


the population will be 65 years and older in high-income


countries in 2025. The population will age at a higher rate


in developing countries, although the share of elderly will


remain lower than in high-income countries. In 2025,


9 percent of the population in developing countries will be


65 or older, a 42 percent increase since 2010.


Future population growth, mainly concentrated in


urban areas, poses challenges for many countries. Those


that cannot meet the needs of their current populations


will be hard pressed to provide more schools, health care,


employment opportunities, and infrastructure for growing


populations. Although cities offer more favorable settings


to deliver services because of their advantages of scale and


proximity, the challenge is how to take advantage of their


possibilities. Aging populations bring their own burden of


chronic and noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease


and stroke, cancer, and diabetes. Such diseases currently


account for 60 percent of all deaths, and they are rapidly


increasing in developing countries, putting additional


pressure on health budgets.




1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Projected population
(millions)


Countries with the largest population in 2020Father and son in Bhutan


India


China


United States


Indonesia


Brazil


Pakistan


Nigeria


Bangladesh


Russian Federation


Mexico


1,385


1,382


335


262


210


205


204


167


139


126


CountryRank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Andorra


The Gambia


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Luxembourg


The Bahamas


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and BarbudaAruba
(Neth) St. Lucia


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Sint Maarten (Neth)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Liechtenstein


Monaco


Greenland (Den)


Bermuda
(UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Grenada


Guadeloupe (Fr)


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Curaçao
(Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica


Gibraltar (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
1.8%


Latin America & Caribbean
1.2%


0.0–0.9%


1.0–1.9%


2.0–2.9%


3.0% or more


less than 0.0%


no data


annual average growth rate, 2000–2011


population growth


34




The world’s population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, with
virtually all population growth occurring in developing countries.


It took human history up to the early 1800s to reach 1 billion
people; today the world gains 1 billion people every 12 to 14 years.


Almost all population growth between 2008 and 2030 will occur in
urban areas, the vast majority of them in developing countries.


Sub-Saharan Africa will experience the largest proportional increase
in population, from 12 percent of the world’s population today to
21 percent by 2050, while East Asia and the Pacific’s share, which
stands at 29 percent today, is expected to fall to 23 percent by 2050.


UN Population
Information Network


UN Population Fund


Demographic and
Health Surveys


World Bank—HealthStats


U.S. Census Bureau


www.un.org/popin


www.unfpa.org


www.measuredhs.com


datatopics.worldbank.org/hnp


www.census.gov


Population Reference Bureau www.prb.org


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Timor-Leste


West Bank and Gaza


Comoros


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Vanuatu


Solomon Islands


American Samoa (US)


Guam (US)


Maldives


Lebanon


Israel


CyprusSan
Marino


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Kosovo


Malta


Réunion (Fr)


Seychelles


Mauritius


Mayotte
(Fr)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


Tonga


Samoa
Fiji


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Nauru


Sub-Saharan Africa
2.5%


Europe & Central Asia
0.2%


South Asia
1.5%


East Asia & Pacific
0.8%


35People




Years


Economies with the longest and shortest
life expectancies, 2010


A child in Sub-Saharan Africa can only expect to reach,
on average, the age of 54


48


48


48


47


47


83


83


83


82


82


Longest


San Marino


Japan


Hong Kong SAR, China


Switzerland


Italy


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Guinea-Bissau


Central African Republic


Sierra Leone


Lesotho


Shortest


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


St. Lucia


Cape Verde


French Polynesia (Fr)


Channel Islands (UK)


Luxembourg


Bermuda
(UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Grenada


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


Puerto
Rico (US)


The Bahamas


French Guiana
(Fr)


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Liechtenstein


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Andorra


Kiribati


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Dominica
St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Curaçao
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
72 years


Latin America & Caribbean
74 years


50–59 years


60–69 years


70–74 years


75 years or more


less than 50 years


no data


life expectancy at birth, 2010


life expectancy


36




UN Population
Information Network


Demographic and
Health Surveys


World Bank—HealthStats


UN Population Fund


www.measuredhs.com


datatopics.worldbank.org/hnp


U.S. Census Bureau www.census.gov


Population Reference Bureau www.prb.org


www.un.org/popin


www.unfpa.org


Life expectancy at birth has reached 80 years in high-income
countries, 11 years longer than in 1960.


Male life expectancy in Europe and Central Asia fell from 64 years
to 61 years between 1988 and 1994. Life expectancy started to
recover and was back to 66 years in 2010.


Life expectancy for Zimbabwe and Swaziland is over 10 years
shorter today than in 1990, the result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.


In 1960, life expectancy in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa was
43 years and 41 years, respectively, but today there is a 11-year gap
between South Asia (65 years) and Sub-Saharan Africa (54 years).


In four countries, all of them in Europe and Central Asia, female
life expectancy is longer than male life expectancy by more than
10 years.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Solomon Islands


Federated States of Micronesia


Fiji


Timor-Leste


Kosovo


Lebanon


West Bank and Gaza


Seychelles


Mauritius


Vanuatu


Tonga


Samoa


San
Marino


Malta
Israel


Cyprus


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Maldives Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Guam (US)


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Palau
Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


Nauru


American Samoa (US)


Sub-Saharan Africa
54 years


Europe & Central Asia
71 years


South Asia
65 years


East Asia & Pacific
72 years


37People




Source: Understanding Children's Work (UCW) calculation based on Zambia Labour Force Survey, 2005


Child activity status by age (15–17 years), Zambia (%), 2005


School exclusively
40.3%


Both activities
35.5%


Both activities 36.5%


Economic activity
exclusively 21.4%


Neither activity
6.9%


Economic activity
exclusively 12.4%


Neither activity
11.8%


School exclusively
35.2%


As age increases, children are more involved in economic activity


Child activity status by age (7–14 years), Zambia (%), 2005


Fewer young children are available to enter the
labor force


Number of child laborers (millions)


2000 2004 2008


Source: International Labour Office, 2010, Accelerating action against child labor, Geneva


0


40


80


120


160


200


5−14 years


15−17 years


38


Children at work


There are 215 million child


laborers across the developing


world. Some perform simple tasks


within the family; others endure


long hours in harsh and damaging


conditions. Children’s work


interferes with their education and


can impede physical and mental


development, reducing their


prospects for leading healthy and


productive lives.


The number of working children ages 5–17


fell by 30 million between 2000 and 2008.


The progress was significant among the


younger child laborers ages 5–14, but the


population of the older working children


ages 15–17 still grew. Sixty percent of child


laborers are found in agriculture, and


68 percent work for their own families


without pay.


Fewer children are working in hazardous


occupations. The ratio of children in


hazardous occupations to all child laborers


improved to 54 percent in 2008 from


70 percent in 2000. Boys are more likely to


be engaged in hazardous work. Asia and the


Pacific had the largest population of children


in hazardous occupations while Sub-Saharan


Africa recorded the highest incidence in


2008. Exposure to workplace hazards at an


early age has consequences for children’s


immediate safety and long-term health.


A substantial proportion of working


children manage to attend school, at least


some of the time, but children cannot


benefit from their time in the classroom if


they are tired or stressed by work or made


ill by hazardous working conditions. And


many drop out early to devote more time




Boy tending field of potatoes with his
family in Brazil


Reported work-related ill health, children ages 5–17 years (%), by hours worked, 2001–2003


Source: Understanding Children's Work (UCW), 2004, Impact of working time on children's health


1–10 hours 11–20 hours 21–30 hours 31–40 hours 40+ hours


Bangladesh CambodiaBrazil


Long hours of work affect children’s health


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


2000 2001 2002 2003 2004


Source: Understanding Children's Work (UCW), 2006, Child labour in
Venezuela: children’s economic vulnerability to macroeconomic shocks


No
activities


Work
only


Work and
school


School
only


The number of working children increased
during an economic downturn (2002–2003)


Children ages 10−14 years in R.B. Venezuela,
by activity status (%)


0


5


10


15


100


Children in hazardous occupations by region (5−17 age group, % of total children), 2008


Source: International Labour Office, 2010, Accelerating action against child labor, Geneva * ILO region


Asia &
Pacific *


Latin America &
Caribbean *


Sub-Saharan
Africa *


Other
regions *


Sub-Saharan Africa has a large share of children doing hazardous work


0


5


10


15


20


39Education


to work. Especially during financial crises, increased rates


of child labor and school dropout can be observed. In the


little time available to them, children balancing school and


work are deprived of leisure and rest. Girls are particularly


disadvantaged, as they often undertake household chores


after work. However, their situation may be improving,


evidenced by the 15 percent decrease in the number of girl


child laborers.


The effects of child labor extend into adulthood. Lacking


adequate education, young people are likely to wind up in


low-paid, insecure work, or to be unemployed. They are more


likely to be self-employed or in unpaid family work rather than


paid employment. They also suffer from lower productivity,


social stigma, and lower job aspirations.


Child labor, for too long seen as


an isolated issue, not only is a serious


violation of the rights of children, it


also has broader consequences for


national development. Because child


labor cuts across many development


issues including schooling, health


care, labor market conditions, labor


standards and legislation, and


social protection, it requires action


by governments, employers, labor


organizations, and schools as well as


by families themselves.




Children on their way home from farmwork, Son La province,
northern Vietnam


Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Children at work
(% of children ages 7–14,


most recent year 2006–2010)


Highest proportion of working children


Rank


Benin


Sierra Leone


Guinea-Bissau


Ghana


Niger


Côte d’Ivoire


South Sudan


Somalia


Cameroon


Peru


74.4


53.7


50.5


48.9


47.1


45.7


45.6


43.5


43.4


42.2


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Greenland (Den)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Bermuda
(UK)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada
Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Aruba
(Neth)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US) US Virgin


Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Dominica


St. Lucia


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


25.0–39.9%


15.0–24.9%


5.0–14.9%


less than 5.0%


40.0% or more


no data


economically active children as a share of children
ages 7–14, 1996–2010, most recent year available


children at work


40




Understanding Children’s
Work Project


International Labour
Organization—
Child Labor


UNICEF Childinfo—
Child Labor


www.ilo.org/global/topics/
child-labour/lang--en/
index.htm


www.ucw-project.org


www.childinfo.org/
labour.html


More boys are engaged in child labor than girls, except for the
Democratic Republic of Congo, Lao P.D.R., and Nepal. But there
are wide variations among countries. In Bangladesh and Nicaragua,
the gender difference is more than 10 percentage points.


More than 75 percent of child laborers in Morocco, Pakistan, and
South Sudan do not attend school, while almost all working children
in Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Ukraine attend school.


In the Kyrgyz Republic, Romania, and Timor-Leste, over 97 percent of
working children are engaged in the agricultural sector. In Chile, the
Dominican Republic, and Uruguay, 60 to 70 percent of child laborers
work in the service sector and fewer than 30 percent in agriculture.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


Rep. of
Congo


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Timor-Leste


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Nauru


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Vanuatu


Tonga


Solomon Islands


Samoa


Tuvalu


Fiji


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Maldives


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Seychelles


Mauritius


Comoros


Lebanon


Israel


Cyprus


West Bank and Gaza


Malta


Kosovo


San
Marino


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


41Education




0


20


40


60


80


100


Primary completion rate by wealth quintile
(% of relevant age group), 2008


Years of schooling by urban-rural residence,
ages 15–19, Nigeria, 2008 (%)


Source: Demographic and Health Surveys; Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey Source: World Bank Edstats database


Ghana Madagascar Nigeria 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Poorest quintile


Richest quintile


Year of schooling


Urban


Rural


Children from poor families and those living in rural areas are less likely to complete schooling


0


20


40


60


80


100


120


Eas
t A


sia
&


Pac
ific Eu


rop
e &


Ce
ntr


al A
sia


Lat
in


Am
eri


ca
&


Ca
rib


bea
n


Mi
dd


le E
ast


&


No
rth


Af
ric


a
So


uth
As


ia


Su
b-S


aha
ran


Afr
ica


Primary completion rates have improved,
but regional differences remain


Primary completion rate (% of relevant age group)


Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics


0


20


40


60


80


100


120


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


20
10


19
91


19
91


42


Education opens doors


The promise of full primary


education for everyone by 2015


has been around since 1990.


Enrollment rates are rising, but


many children still do not start,


attend, or complete primary


school. A good quality education


is key to sustainable development


and poverty alleviation and


accelerates improvement in


other areas.


Progress has been made toward universal


primary education since 1990. In 2010,


89 percent of the world’s school-age


children were enrolled in primary schools.


Primary completion rates—the proportion of


children completing the last year of primary


school—measure progress toward this


goal. In East Asia and the Pacific, Europe


and Central Asia, and Latin America and


the Caribbean, most children enroll in and


complete primary school. But South Asia and


Sub-Saharan Africa, with primary completion


rates of just 88 and 70 percent, respectively,


lag far behind. Worldwide, some 60 million


primary school-age children remained


out of school in 2010. About 75 percent of


those were in South Asia and Sub-Saharan


Africa. There are many reasons children


drop out or never attend school. Schools


may be inaccessible or inadequate; teachers


may be absent or indifferent, especially


in rural areas; parents may not be able to


afford school-related costs; or there may


be demands for children’s labor and their


income. Children in poor families and those


living in rural areas are less likely to enroll


and attend school and more likely to drop


out earlier.


Enrollment and completion rates are


important measures of education, but they




Rural children walking to school near Ulundi in Kwa-Zulu Natal,
South Africa


Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic
Eu


ro
pe


&
C


en
tr


al
A


si
a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an
M


id
dl


e
Ea


st
&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


0


20


40


60


80


100


Achievements in secondary and tertiary
enrollment vary among regions


Gross enrollment ratio (% of relevant age group), 2010


Secondary


Tertiary


Average mathematics score on the SACMEQ exam, 2007


Source: World Bank Edstats database


Zambia South Africa Tanzania Mauritius


Standardized tests reveal achievement gaps


Female


Male


0


100


200


300


400


500


600


700


43Education


do not always indicate successful education. Some students


complete primary school without acquiring adequate literacy


and numeracy skills. Hence there is an increased focus on


measuring and monitoring education quality and learning


achievement. Many countries conduct national assessments to


monitor progress in learning outcome, but differences persist.


Results from international assessments, such as the Progress for


International Student Achievement (PISA) and Southern and


Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality


(SACMEQ), reveal large achievement gaps among countries,


especially between developing and developed countries.


Beyond primary schooling


To compete in today’s knowledge-driven economy and shifting


global markets, countries need a flexible, skilled work force, able


to create and apply knowledge. This


is usually achieved through strong


secondary and tertiary education


systems. While all regions have made


progress in expanding secondary and


tertiary enrollments between 1991


and 2010, disparities remain between


regions, and by gender, household


wealth, and rural/urban location.


Europe and Central Asia and Latin


America and the Caribbean have


enrollment rates of about 90 percent


in secondary education, but only


Europe and Central Asia has tertiary


enrollment reaching 50 percent. In


Sub-Saharan Africa, where primary


enrollment is lower than all other


regions, the secondary enrollment ratio


is even lower, about 40 percent, and a


huge gender gap persists: the ratio of


female to male secondary enrollment is


only 82 percent. Achieving widespread


and equitable access to education will


remain a development goal for many


years to come.




Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Rank
Completion rate


(%, MRY 2007–2011)


Chad


Djibouti


Eritrea


Central African Republic


Burkina Faso


Niger


Angola


Equatorial Guinea


Mali


Burundi


35


36


40


43


45


46


47


52


55


56


Lowest primary completion rates, 2007–2011Preschool micro-project in Armenia


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Gambia


Dominica


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth) St. Lucia


St. Kitts and Nevis


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Antigua and Barbuda


Grenada
Barbados


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


Liechtenstein


Kiribati


French Polynesia (Fr)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Channel Islands (UK)


Luxembourg


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Andorra


Curaçao
(Neth)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
91%


Latin America & Caribbean
102%*


*Primary completion rate can exceed
100 percent because it can include
children who are older or younger


than the official school age


50–69%


70–84%


85–94%


95% or more


less than 50%


no data


primary completion rate, 2007–2011,
most recent year available


education for all


44




UNICEF Childinfo—Education


UNESCO—Education www.unesco.org/new/en/
education/


UNESCO Institute for Statistics www.uis.unesco.org


www.childinfo.org/
education.html


World Bank Edstats data.worldbank.org/
data-catalog/ed-stats


Demographic and
Health Surveys


www.measuredhs.com


UN MDG Indicators unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg


There are 60 million children of primary school age who are out
of school. About 50 percent of them are in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Latin America and the Caribbean has one of the highest primary
net enrollment rates at 95 percent, but also one of the highest
percentage of repeaters at 8 percent—the same level as that of
Sub-Saharan Africa, which has the lowest net enrollment ratio.


In Sub-Saharan Africa, the adult literacy gap between men and
women is more than 20 percentage points. The gap is much
smaller among young people ages 15–24, reflecting the recent
improvement in education participation.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Timor-Leste


Vanuatu


Comoros


Lebanon


San
Marino


Malta
Israel


Cyprus


West Bank and Gaza


Qatar


Kuwait


Seychelles


Mauritius


Maldives


Brunei Darussalam Marshall Islands


Samoa
Fiji


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Kosovo


Bahrain


Singapore


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Solomon Islands


Nauru


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Tonga


Tuvalu


Sub-Saharan Africa
70%


Europe & Central Asia
98%


South Asia
88%


East Asia & Pacific
97%


45Education




Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labor Market database


Developing regions with available data


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin
America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia High-
income


countries


Contributing family workers as a percentage of
employed males and females (%), 2010


Despite narrowing gender gaps in education,
women are more likely than men to work as
unpaid family workers


0


10


20


30


40


50


Male


Female


Primary Secondary Tertiary


Female-male ratio of gross enrollment ratios (%), 2010


Secondary and tertiary enrollment rates of girls are
much lower than those of boys in Sub-Saharan Africa,
South Asia, and the Middle East and North Africa


Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics


Sub-Saharan
Africa


East Asia &
Pacific


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


46


Gender equality and
development


Women around the world have


made unprecedented progress in


education, health, and access to


some labor market opportunities


in the past quarter century.


However, gender inequality


still has a significant effect on


many aspects of women’s lives.


Established institutions may be


unfavorable to women, while


societal and cultural norms often


limit their economic opportunities,


which in turn constrain their social


and political influence.


students in secondary and tertiary education.


Women make up 40 percent of the global


labor force and 43 percent of the world’s


farmers. Moreover, as women have gained


better access to health services, their health


outcomes have improved dramatically in


the last two decades. More women than


ever now have access to antenatal care and


birth assistance provided by trained health


professionals. Women also live longer than


men in every region of the world.


Yet progress has not come evenly to


all countries or to all women or along all


dimensions of gender equality. Women and


girls still face discrimination and constraints


in different areas of their lives. Gender


gaps in secondary and tertiary education


remain persistent in regions like South


Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and


Sub-Saharan Africa. In almost all countries,


societal norms and expectations have


strong influences on the choice of subjects


of studies in higher education by men and


women. Social and cultural stereotyping also


biases the roles and remuneration of women


in the labor market. Despite a high female


labor force participation rate, the types of


The last quarter century has witnessed an


unprecedented narrowing of gender gaps


in education, health, and access to some


labor market opportunities. Gender gaps


in primary schooling have been closed, and


in one-third of the developing countries,


female students now outnumber male




M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


So
ut


h
As


ia


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an


H
ig


h-
in


co
m


e,
O


EC
D


Source: Inter Parliamentary Union (data represent the situation as of May 31 of the year)


Percentage of seats held by women in
lower or single house (%)


There has been progress in the past decade, but women still hold less
than a quarter of parliamentary seats


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


Uganda India Morocco Turkey Costa
Rica


China


Source: Global Findex, World Bank


In many countries, a noticeably higher
percentage of men than women have an
account at a formal financial institution


Percentage of females and males (age 15+) who
have an account at a formal financial institution (%)


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100
Female


Male-female gap


Percentage of births assisted by skilled health personnel (%)


Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, 2008–2011


Ethiopia NigeriaTimor-Leste Nepal CambodiaBolivia


Women in wealthier households are more likely to have their babies
delivered by skilled health professionals than those from poorer households


Poorest 20%


Richest 20%


National
average


56.350.4


71.0


85.9


90.4 98.8 97.3


2.9


12.4


8.7


20.6


39.4


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


2002


2012


47Gender


employment and the levels of earnings of women are generally


inferior to those of men. Women, especially poor women,


also bear a disproportionate share of domestic and care-


giving responsibilities, leaving them very little time for market


activities. In addition, women among disadvantaged groups


still lack access to services such as transportation, education,


and health care. Inadequate delivery of health services in the


rural areas and among the poorest individuals places women


at a higher risk of death during infancy, childhood, and


reproductive years. Women also have less access than men to


productive assets and services, such as land, capital, financial


services, and information communication technologies (ICTs).


The many biases and constraints


women face in different stages of their


lives leave a vast number of them


isolated and without bargaining and


decision-making power, whether within


the household, in the marketplace, in


civil society, or in politics.


Evidence has shown that growth


and economic development alone do


not lead to gender equality in all its


dimensions. Public action plays an


important role. Promoting gender


equality has received heightened


attention and commitment of the


international development community


in recent years. Ongoing public efforts


need to be intensified in four priority


areas: reducing excess female mortality


and closing the remaining gender


gaps in education, improving access


to economic opportunities for women,


increasing women’s voice and agency


in the household and in society, and


limiting the reproduction of gender


inequality across generations.




Countries with lowest ratio of girls to boys
gross enrollment rates in primary and
secondary education, MRY 2007–2011


Developing country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Ratio (%)Rank


Somalia


Afghanistan


Chad


Central African Republic


Yemen, Rep.


Togo


Guinea


Niger


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Angola


53


64


66


69


75


75


77


78


79


79


Students taking year-end exams at Martyr Kardi School in
Sana’a, Yemen


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Antigua and Barbuda


Liechtenstein


The Gambia


St. Kitts and Nevis


Aruba
(Neth)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Luxembourg


Andorra


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica


Cayman Islands (UK)


Grenada
Barbados


Kiribati


French Polynesia (Fr)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Gibraltar (UK)


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Monaco


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
96%


Latin America & Caribbean
102%*


*Primary and secondary completion rates
can exceed 100 percent because they


can include children who are older or
younger than the official school age


80–89%


90–97%


98–100%


101% or more


less than 80%


no data


ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary
education, 2007–2011, most recent year available


gender equity in education


48




World Development Report 2012:
Gender Equality and Development


World Bank
Gender Data Portal


data.worldbank.org/gender


www.worldbank.org/wdr2012


UNICEF Childinfo—Education www.childinfo.org/
education.html


UNESCO Institute for Statistics www.uis.unesco.org


The Little Data Book on
Gender 2011


data.worldbank.org/products/
data-books/little-data-book-
on-gender


In 2010, 64 percent of the 800 million illiterate adults (ages
15 and above) in the world were women—a share that has
remained unchanged since 1990.


Gender stereotyping in education largely reflects societal norms and
expectations and has implications for gender gaps in job placement
and earnings. In many countries, females constitute 70 to 90 percent
of the total university graduates in education and health, but only 10
to 30 percent in law, engineering, manufacturing and construction.


The gross enrollment ratio of girls in secondary and tertiary
education in the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and
Sub-Saharan Africa is still considerably lower than that of boys.


Some countries have experienced reverse gender gaps in school
enrollment, especially at the secondary and tertiary levels. Male
disadvantage in education needs to be closely monitored.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Solomon Islands


Vanuatu


Malta


Timor-Leste


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)
Mauritius


Cyprus


Marshall Islands


Samoa
Fiji


Brunei Darussalam


Seychelles


Qatar


Kuwait


Lebanon


Israel


West Bank and Gaza


San
Marino


Kosovo


Bahrain


Comoros


Maldives Singapore


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Tonga


Tuvalu


Nauru


Sub-Saharan Africa
88%


Europe & Central Asia
97%


South Asia
91%


East Asia & Pacific
102%*


49Gender




Countries with lowest ratio of female to male
labor participation rates, 2010


Developing country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Ratio (%)Rank


Syrian Arab Republic


Afghanistan


Algeria


Iraq


West Bank and Gaza


Iran, Islamic Rep.


Jordan


Pakistan


Egypt, Arab Rep.


Lebanon


18


19


21


21


22


22


23


27


32


32


Woman at work in the fields near Nongma village, southwest China


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Puerto
Rico (US)


French Polynesia (Fr)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Luxembourg


St. Lucia


Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


The Bahamas


The Gambia


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Kiribati


Bermuda
(UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Dominica
St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Grenada


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
25%


Latin America & Caribbean
40%


55–69%


70–79%


80–85%


86% or more


less than 55%


no data


ratio of female to male labor
participation, 2010


gender equity in
the labor market


50




International Labour Organization,
Key Indicators of the Labour Market


www.ilo.org/empelm/what/
WCMS_114240/lang--en/
index.htm


The Global Financial Inclusion
(Global Findex) Database


go.worldbank.org/
VMW3ST4CQ0


Women in National Parliaments,
Inter-Parliamentary Union


www.ipu.org/wmn-e/
world.htm


World Development Report 2012:
Gender Equality and Development


www.worldbank.org/wdr2012


Women are more likely than men to be vulnerable workers—that is,
less likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against
economic shocks. In developing countries, 65 percent of women
were in vulnerable jobs in 2010 compared with 57 percent for men.


In almost all countries, including high-income countries, women
are more likely than men to engage in low-productivity activities,
and they are more likely to be employed in informal sectors. As a
result, women earn only 10 to 80 percent of what men earn.


Women’s political participation remains low in both developed and
developing countries. Only 20 percent of the parliamentary seats
were occupied by women globally by mid-2012.


Women shoulder a much larger burden in household chores than
men do. For example, the time women spend on fetching water each
day can be two to four times the time men spend.


Facts Internet links


World Bank
Gender Data Portal


data.worldbank.org/gender


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Fiji


Timor-LesteComoros


Malta
Lebanon


West Bank and Gaza


Kuwait


Bahrain


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Solomon Islands


Samoa


Qatar


Mauritius


Guam (US)


Maldives Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Vanuatu


Tonga


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Israel


Cyprus


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


Marshall Islands


Seychelles


San
Marino


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
42%


Europe & Central Asia
44%


South Asia
29%


East Asia & Pacific
45%


51Gender




Child mortality rates have declined over four decades


Source: UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation


1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010


Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


High-income


0


50


100


150


200


250


52


Children under 5—
struggling to survive


Seven million children died before


their fifth birthday in 2011, the


vast majority from causes that are


preventable through a combination


of good care, nutrition, and simple


medical treatment. Child mortality


is closely linked to poverty, and


poor children are twice as likely


to die before their fifth birthday


compared with children from


rich families.


prevention, prevention of mother-child


HIV transmission, and increased access to


antiretroviral drugs, safe drinking water, and


sanitation have all contributed to the decline.


Child mortality is increasingly


concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and


South Asia, where under-5 mortality rates


were 109 and 62 per 1,000, respectively,


in 2011. In high-income countries the


mortality rate is less than one-tenth those.


Half of all child deaths occurred in only


five countries—India, Nigeria, Democratic


Republic of Congo, Pakistan, and China.


India and Nigeria together account for


one-third of all under-5 deaths worldwide.


Under-5 mortality is higher among


children living in rural areas and in poorer


households. These children are less likely to


have access to good-quality health care or to


avail themselves of these services.


Good childcare practices such as early


and exclusive breastfeeding, and low-


cost treatments and interventions such as


antibiotics for respiratory infections, oral


rehydration for diarrhea, immunization, and


the use of insecticide-treated bednets and


appropriate drugs in malarial regions, can


prevent many unnecessary deaths. However,


only 34 percent of children sleep under


insecticide-treated bednets in Sub-Saharan


Child mortality has improved in every


region since 1970, when one in six children


died before the age of 5. By 2011, this


rate had fallen to 1 in 18 children. Latin


America and the Caribbean and the Middle


East and North Africa made the greatest


progress: in 2011, child mortality there


was less than one-sixth the level of 1970.


Much of the improvement in these regions


occurred among the poorest segments of


the population. Better health care and public


health measures such as immunization, use


of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria




Under-5 mortality rate
(per 1,000) urban/rural location


Source: Demographic and Health Surveys


Bolivia
2008


Madagascar
2008–2009


Children living in rural areas are more likely
to die than children in urban areas


0


20


40


60


80


100


Urban


Rural


Under-5 mortality rate
(per 1,000) by wealth quintile


Source: Demographic and Health Surveys


Bolivia
2008


Madagascar
2008–2009


Children in poor households are more likely
to die than children in rich households


0


20


40


60


80


100


120


Poorest


Richest


Source: UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic
Eu


ro
pe


&
C


en
tr


al
A


si
a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an
M


id
dl


e
Ea


st
&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


Except in Sub-Saharan Africa, the number of
under-5 deaths has fallen significantly


Number of under-5 deaths (thousands) 1990


2011


0


1,000


2,000


3,000


4,000


5,000


Children of a slum-dwelling family have a high risk of dying before
the age of 5


53Health


Africa, where 90 percent of malaria deaths occur. More than


30 percent of children in South Asia with respiratory infections


are not taken to health providers and 16 percent of children


in developing countries lack immunization against measles.


Improved public services, such as safe water and sanitation


and education, especially for girls and mothers, can help save


children’s lives. Greater effort is needed to make sure these


services reach poor families and people in rural areas, because


they suffer the most and are the hardest to reach.


Nutrition and child mortality


More than one-third of child deaths are attributable to


malnutrition, which weakens children’s immune systems


and reduces resistance to diseases. The process often begins


at birth, when poorly nourished mothers give birth to


underweight babies. Improper feeding and childcare practices


worsen malnutrition. In developing countries, nearly 30 percent


of children under 5 are stunted (that is, too short for their


age) as a result of chronic malnutrition. Breast milk alone


is the ideal nourishment for infants for the first six months,


providing all of the nutrients as well as antibodies that help


to prevent disease. However, exclusive breastfeeding is often


stopped in favor of commercial breast milk substitutes or early


introduction of solid or soft foods. Fewer than 40 percent of


infants under six months in developing countries enjoy the


benefit of exclusive breastfeeding.




Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Under-5
mortality rate


(per 1,000 live births)


Highest under-5 mortality rate, 2011Man with sick child in waiting room of local hospital in Africa


Rank


Sierra Leone


Somalia


Mali


Chad


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Central African Republic


Guinea-Bissau


Angola


Burkina Faso


Burundi


185


180


176


169


168


164


161


158


146


139


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Gambia


Kiribati
São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


The Bahamas


Dominica


St. Lucia


Grenada


Guadeloupe (Fr)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Monaco


French Polynesia (Fr)


Greenland (Den.)


Gibraltar (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Bermuda
(UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Aruba
(Neth)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Puerto
Rico (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
32


Latin America & Caribbean
19


10–19


20–34


35–99


100 or more


less than 10


no data


under-5 mortality rate per 1,000 live births, 2011


child mortality


54




World Health Organization—
Maternal, Newborn, Child and
Adolescent Health


UNICEF Childinfo—
Child Mortality


www.childinfo.org/
mortality.html


www.who.int/child_adolescent_
health/data/child/en


World Bank HNPstats go.worldbank.org/N2N84RDV00


Demographic and
Health Surveys


www.measuredhs.com


UN Millennium
Development Goals


unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg


Inter-agency Group for
Child Mortality Estimation
database (CME Info)


www.childmortality.org/


6.9 million children a year die before their fifth birthday,
approximately 40 percent of them during their first four
weeks of life.


Four diseases—pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, and AIDS—
accounted for 38 percent of all deaths in children under 5
worldwide in 2010.


Substantial progress has been made toward reducing child mortality.
In 2011, 14,000 fewer children under age 5 died every day compared
with 1990, and the rate of decline in under-5 mortality increased
between 2000 and 2011.


The number of child deaths has significantly decreased since 1990
in all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Federated States of Micronesia


Timor-Leste


West Bank and Gaza


Marshall Islands


Solomon Islands Tuvalu


Kuwait


Bahrain


Seychelles


Maldives


Mauritius


Palau


Vanuatu


Tonga


Fiji
Samoa


San
Marino


Malta
Israel


Cyprus


Lebanon


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Qatar


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Kosovo


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Nauru


Sub-Saharan Africa
109


Europe & Central Asia
21


South Asia
62


East Asia & Pacific
21


55Health




Prevalence of child
stunting (%)


Highest rates of malnutrition, 2005–2011Malnourished children are vulnerable to diseases


58


58


55


49


48


48


48


48


46


46


Burundi


Timor-Leste


Niger


Madagascar


Guatemala


India


Malawi


Lao P.D.R.


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Zambia


Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Rank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Cape Verde


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Aruba
(Neth) St. Lucia


Dominica


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


St. Kitts and Nevis


Grenada
Barbados


Antigua and Barbuda


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
6%


Latin America & Caribbean
3%


less than 10.0%


10.0–19.9%


20.0–29.9%


30.0% or more


no data


proportion of children under 5
who are underweight, 2005–2011,
most recent year available


malnourished children


56




UNICEF Childinfo—
Undernutrition


WHO Global Database on
Child Growth and Nutrition


www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/en


www.childinfo.org/
undernutrition.html


FAO Food Security Statistics www.fao.org/publications/
sofi/en/


UNICEF Health Statistics www.unicef.org/health/index_
statistics.html


Malnutrition is an underlying cause for more than one-third of all
child deaths worldwide.


South Asia has the highest prevalence of underweight children.
One-third of children under 5 are underweight. Latin America and
the Caribbean has the lowest prevalence of underweight children
at 3 percent.


Nearly one-fifth of children under 5 (about 100 million) in
developing countries are underweight.


Children in rural areas are nearly twice as likely to be underweight
as those in urban areas, and poor children are more than twice as
likely to be underweight as rich children.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Timor-Leste


Vanuatu


Solomon Islands


Maldives


Tuvalu


Kuwait


West Bank and Gaza


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Tonga


Samoa


Nauru


Fiji


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Seychelles


Mauritius


Comoros


Qatar


Bahrain


Lebanon


Israel


CyprusSan
Marino


Malta


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
21%


South Asia
33%


East Asia & Pacific
5%


Europe & Central Asia
1%


57Health




Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


Source: UNICEF, The state of the world's children 2012


Births attended by skilled health staff (%)


Mothers in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa still
lack adequate health care during childbirth


0


20


40


60


80


100


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


20
00


20
10


Women in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are
at higher risk of dying during childbirth


Source: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and World Bank, 2012,
Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2010


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


High-income


1990 1995 2000 2005 2010


Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)


0


200


400


600


800


1,000


58


Improving the
health of mothers


Having a baby is a happy event.


But for many mothers, it is also


life-threatening. More than


280,000 women die each year from


pregnancy-related causes. Over


99 percent of all maternal deaths


occur in developing countries—


85 percent in poor countries in


Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.


Most of these deaths are avoidable


with access to health care and


prompt medical procedures.


after delivery. Care by skilled health staff is


crucial for handling normal deliveries safely,


recognizing the onset of complications, and


referring the mother for emergency care as


needed. Less than half of births in South


Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are attended


by skilled health staff, compared with


99 percent in high-income countries.


Prenatal care during pregnancy is


important for the health and wellbeing of


mothers and their infants. The World


Health Organization recommends that


every woman have at least four prenatal


visits during pregnancy. But only 56 percent


of women in developing countries receive


such a level of care, and 19 percent receive


no prenatal care. In any country, poor


women are much less likely to receive care


during pregnancy and childbirth from


skilled health staff.


Maternal deaths are both caused by


poverty and a cause of it. A mother’s death


is not just a human tragedy but also an


economic and social catastrophe for the


family. Her children lose the opportunity of


a mother’s nurture and too often the chance


of education, leading the family even further


into poverty.


The risk of maternal death is often rooted


in a poor childhood. When malnourished


girls become mothers, they are more


vulnerable to complications or death during


delivery. These mothers often do not have


adequate access to health care before,


during, and after pregnancy, resulting in


untreated complications and higher risk of


death. The majority of all maternal deaths


occur just before, during, or immediately




Pregnant women receiving prenatal
care by wealth quintile (%)


Source: Demographic and Health Surveys


Bangladesh
2007


Egypt, Arab Rep.
2008


Nigeria
2008


Poor women receive less care during
pregnancy


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


Poorest


Richest


Source: World Development Indicators database


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


Contraceptive use is particularly low in
Sub-Saharan Africa


Contraceptive prevalence (% of married women
ages 15–49), 2010


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100


19981997 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15–19)


Adolescent fertility is decreasing everywhere, but large regional
differences remain


Source: United Nations, World population prospects, 2010 revision


0


25


50


75


100


125


150


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


High-income


59Health


Compounding the risks of poor reproductive health care


are poorly timed and inadequately spaced births, which expose


women to frequent pregnancies in short intervals. Although


cheap and easy methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies


are available, every year more than 100 million couples, or


17 percent of married women, wanting to avoid pregnancy


do not use contraception. As a result, 50 percent of all


pregnancies are unplanned and 25 percent are unwanted—


and a quarter of pregnant women seek abortions. Many of


these abortions are performed by untrained providers, and


47,000 women die every year because of them. Contraceptive


use among women in developing countries has risen, from


less than 10 percent in 1960 to 61 percent in 2008. But there is


much variation—in Sub-Saharan Africa, only about 22 percent


of women plan their pregnancies.


Teenage pregnancies are high risk for both mother and


child. They are more likely to result in premature delivery,


low birth weight, delivery complications, and death. About


16 million girls ages 15–19 give birth each year, accounting


for more than 10 percent of all births. In addition to the risk of


death during pregnancy and childbirth, which is twice as high


as for older pregnant women, adolescent mothers often give


up opportunities for education and future employment and


earnings.


In the long run, promoting girls’ and women’s education


and offering them opportunities for success are just as


important for reducing birth rates as promoting contraception


and family planning. Education and greater gender equity


become a form of social contraception


for women. A woman’s education


provides knowledge and skills to


improve the nutritional and health


status of the family and build job skills


that allow her to join the workforce


and marry later in life. Education also


gives her the power to say how many


children she wants and when. These are


enduring qualities she will hand down


to her daughters.




Countries with low contraceptive prevalence
rate, 2005–2010


Fertility and mortality are highest in Sub-Saharan Africa with
low levels of contraceptive use and inadequate delivery care


Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Contraceptive prevalence
rate (% of married women


ages 15–49)Rank


Chad


Sudan


Sierra Leone


Mali


Guinea


Mauritania


Liberia


Senegal


Côte d'Ivoire


Macedonia, FYR


5


8


8


8


9


9


11


12


13


14


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Gambia


Luxembourg


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


Puerto
Rico (US)


The Bahamas


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada
Barbados


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Bermuda
(UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Dominica


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
81


Latin America & Caribbean
81


20–99


100–299


300–499


500 or more


less than 20


no data


health of mothers
maternal mortality ratio per 100,000
live births, 2010


60




World Health Organization—
Maternal Health


UNICEF—Maternal and
Newborn Health


www.unicef.org/health/index_
maternalhealth.html


World Bank HNPstats go.worldbank.org/N2N84RDV00


Maternal Mortality Estimation
Inter-agency Group database
(MME Info)


www.maternalmortalitydata.org/


UNICEF Childinfo—
Maternal Health


www.childinfo.org/
health.html


www.who.int/topics/
maternal_health/en


UN MDG Indicators unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg


287,000 women die each year because of pregnancy-related
causes. For every woman who dies, at least 20 others suffer injuries,
infection, and disability. Almost all maternal deaths are preventable.


Eighty percent of women in the developing world receive antenatal
care from a skilled health provider at least once during pregnancy.
But only 56 percent of all pregnant women benefit from four
antenatal visits.


Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, which bear the greatest burden
of maternal mortality, also have the lowest levels of skilled birth
attendance, at 46 percent and 48 percent, respectively.


Of 44 million abortions performed every year, nearly half are
unsafe. Forty-seven thousand of them result in death.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Timor-LesteComoros


Federated States of Micronesia


Vanuatu


Tonga


Samoa


Solomon Islands


Fiji


Mauritius


Maldives


Brunei Darussalam


Lebanon


Bahrain


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Singapore


Qatar


Kuwait
Malta


Israel


Cyprus


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


Marshall Islands


Seychelles


Kosovo


West Bank and Gaza


San
Marino


Sub-Saharan Africa
500


Europe & Central Asia
32


South Asia
220


East Asia & Pacific
83


61Health




M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a


Ea
st


, S
ou


th
&


So
ut


he
as


t A
si


a


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


Lo
w


-
an


d
m


id
dl


e-
in


co
m


e


Antiretroviral therapy coverage (%), 2010


In low- and middle-income countries, nearly
half of people eligible for antiretroviral therapy
were covered in 2010


Source: WHO, Global HIV/AIDS response progress report, 2011


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


HIV prevalence rate, adults ages 15–49 (%)


HIV prevalence is concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa


Source: UNAIDS, Report on the global AIDS epidemic, 2010


0


1


2


3


4


5


6


19
90


20
09


19
90 2


00
9


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09


19
90


20
09 19


90


20
09


62


Communicable diseases


Communicable diseases such as


HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and


malaria kill millions of people


each year. They exact a terrible toll


on society and the economies of


developing countries. Although


international awareness and


funding to fight epidemic diseases


have increased, much remains to


be done. Meanwhile, the burden


of non-communicable diseases is


also increasing.


a factor of 17 over the past seven years.


In 2010, 6.7 million people in developing


countries received antiretroviral therapy.


Almost 70 percent of people living with HIV


are in Sub-Saharan Africa, where women


and children are especially vulnerable to the


disease. Women constitute 58 percent of


adults (ages 15 and older) living with HIV in


Sub-Saharan Africa whereas they constitute


37 percent of adults living with HIV


worldwide. More than 90 percent of all HIV-


positive children live in the region. Infants


are often at high risk of infection through


mother-to-child transmission.


Tuberculosis, still a major cause of


illness and death worldwide, is becoming


more dangerous with the spread of drug-


resistant strains of the bacteria. Drug-


resistance is caused by inconsistent or partial


treatment, wrong treatment regimens, or


unavailability of appropriate drugs. Twenty-


nine out of 30 countries with the highest


tuberculosis incidence rates are located in


Sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia and the


Pacific. Together they account for 85 percent


of all tuberculosis cases. Poor people are


especially vulnerable to the disease because


of underlying health problems and limited


Every day, over 7,400 people are infected


with HIV, and about 5,000 die from AIDS.


The number of people living with HIV


reached 34 million in 2010. Although the


global prevalence rate of HIV appears


to have leveled off in the late 1990s, the


number of infected people continues to


rise because better care and antiretroviral


therapy, which suppresses the virus and


stops the progression of HIV to AIDS, are


keeping more people alive for longer. Access


to antiretroviral therapy has expanded by




0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80


Source: UNICEF, The state of the world’s children, 2012


Children sleeping under ITN (% of children under 5)


Rwanda


Niger


Tanzania


Togo


Malawi


São Tomé and
Príncipe


Zambia


Eritrea


Mali


2007


Madagascar


Burundi


Timor-Leste


Guinea-Bissau


Uganda


Nigeria


Sierra Leone


Benin


Central African
Republic


Somalia


Burkina Faso


Guinea


Swaziland


2000


2000


2000


2002


2002


2000


2002


2000


2000


2001


2003


2000


2001


2000


1999


2003


2003


2000


2003


2000


2004


2000


2010


2010


2010


2010


2010


2010


2009


2010


2008


2009


2010


2010


2010


2009


2010


2008


2006


2006


2006


2006


2008


Incidence of tuberculosis including patients with HIV (per 100,000 people)


Source: WHO, Global tuberculosis control, 2011


Tuberculosis incidence is leveling off, but remains high in Sub-Saharan Africa


20
06


19
90


19
91


19
92


19
93


19
94


19
95


19
96


19
97


19
98


19
99


20
00


20
01


20
02


20
03


20
04


20
05


20
08


20
07


20
09


20
10


East Asia & Pacific


Latin America & Caribbean


Europe & Central Asia South Asia


Middle East & North Africa


High-income


Sub-Saharan Africa


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


Many more children are sleeping under
insecticide-treated bednets


63Health


access to treatment. Tuberculosis is a leading killer of people


living with HIV. At least one-third of the people living with HIV


worldwide are infected with tuberculosis, and about one in


four deaths among people with HIV is caused by tuberculosis.


Malaria causes approximately 700,000 deaths each year,


primarily among children below age 5 and pregnant women.


Ninety percent of all malaria deaths occur in Sub-Saharan


Africa. Insecticide-treated bednets are one of the most effective


ways to prevent malaria transmission as these nets provide a


physical barrier against the bite of an infected mosquito. In


addition, a net treated with insecticide provides additional


protection by repelling or killing mosquitoes that rest on the


net—an important protective effect that extends beyond the


individual to the community. The percentage of households


owning at least one insecticide-treated bednet in Sub-Saharan


Africa has increased from 3 percent in 2000 to 50 percent in


2011, although it is still too low to cover everybody at risk.


In addition to the use of insecticide-treated bednets, malaria


control depends on surveillance, efficient public health


measures, education, and access to medications.


Increase in non-communicable diseases


Urbanization, aging populations, tobacco use, unhealthy diet,


physical inactivity, and harmful use of alcohol have combined


to make chronic and non-communicable diseases—such as


diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and injuries—


increasingly important causes of mortality and morbidity in


developing countries. The rise of chronic, non-communicable


diseases comes on top of an unfinished


agenda on communicable diseases.


The increase in non-communicable


diseases, accompanied by a shift in


the distribution of disease and death


from younger to older people as the


population ages, will result in many


developing countries, especially low-


income countries, struggling to provide


adequate health care for their people.




Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Prevalence of HIV
(% of population


ages 15–49)


A campaigner holds a candle for HIV/AIDS victims at a
rally in Cambodia


Rank


Swaziland


Botswana


Lesotho


South Africa


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Namibia


Mozambique


Malawi


Uganda


25.9


24.8


23.6


17.8


14.3


13.5


13.1


11.5


11.0


6.5


Countries with the highest HIV prevalence
rates, 2009


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Bahamas


Barbados


The Gambia
Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Luxembourg


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Aruba
(Neth)


Dominica


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Bermuda
(UK)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Greenland (Den)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
0.1%


Latin America & Caribbean
0.5%


5.0–14.9%


1.0–4.9%


0.5–0.9%


less than 0.5%


15.0% or more


no data


adult HIV prevalence, 2009


hiv/aids


64




UNAIDS


World Health Organization
on Tuberculosis, Malaria,
and HIV/AIDS


www.who.int/topics/tuberculosis
www.who.int/topics/malaria
www.who.int/topics/hiv_aids


www.unaids.org


World Bank HNPstats go.worldbank.org/N2N84RDV00


UNICEF Childinfo on
Malaria and HIV/AIDS


www.childinfo.org/malaria.html
www.childinfo.org/hiv_aids.html


UNICEF on Malaria and
HIV/AIDS


www.unicef.org/health/index_
malaria.html
www.unicef.org/aids/index_
documents.html


34 million people were living with HIV in 2010; 2.1 million of
them were children under 15 years, and 16 million were women.
Every day, about 7,400 persons become infected with HIV and
about 5,000 persons die from AIDS.


One-third of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis
infections. One in every 10 of those people will become sick
with active tuberculosis in his or her lifetime.


Over 90 percent of children living with HIV are in Sub-Saharan Africa.


90 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, and
most of these deaths are among children under 5.


Chronic and non-communicable diseases such as heart disease and
stroke, cancer, and diabetes are increasing because of aging and
unhealthy lifestyles including consumption of unhealthy food, lack of
exercise, and smoking. They account for 60 percent of all deaths.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Mauritius


Fiji


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Comoros


SingaporeMaldives


Malta
Lebanon


Israel


Qatar


Seychelles


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Vanuatu


Tonga


Samoa


American Samoa (US)


Solomon Islands Tuvalu


Nauru


Timor-Leste


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Kuwait


Bahrain


Cyprus


West Bank and Gaza


San
Marino


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
5.5%


Europe & Central Asia
0.6%


South Asia
0.3%


East Asia & Pacific
0.2%


65Health




Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database Note: For Middle East & North Africa, the last year of data available is 2007; for Sub Saharan Africa, it is 2009


Service sectors are growing rapidly in both East Asia and the Pacific and South Asia


Value added in services 1995 = 100
Europe & Central Asia


East Asia & Pacific


Middle East & North Africa


Latin America & Caribbean


Sub-Saharan Africa


South Asia


0


50


100


150


200


250


300


350


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 20102007


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 20102007


Low-incomeHigh-income Middle-income


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


Services now account for two-thirds of global output


Value added in services (% of GDP)


0


20


40


60


80


66


Structure of the
world economy


Services, the most rapidly


growing sector of the global


economy, now account for almost


70 percent of world output.


Developing economies are also


becoming important producers


of manufactured goods; others


already specialize in services.


However, for many of these


economies, the natural resource


sectors, especially agriculture and


mining, continue to be the main


source of income.


and fisheries), industry (including mining


and manufacturing), and the service sector


(including government and private services).


As economies develop, they typically shift


from the production and export of agricultural


and mining commodities to manufactured


goods, and later to services. In many high-


income economies more than 70 percent of


GDP is produced in the service sector.


Services now account for 55 percent of


the output of middle-income economies,


although some countries—such as Jordan,


Panama, and South Africa—have maintained


large service sectors for some time. In low-


income economies, the service sectors are


growing and now produce 50 percent of


GDP. East Asia and the Pacific, led by China,


and South Asia, led by India, have increased


their service output in real terms by more


than 300 percent since 1990.


Although the service sector is growing


everywhere, agriculture remains very


Gross domestic product (GDP) measures the


overall output of an economy. It is the sum of


value added in agriculture (including forestry




Although the service sector can contribute
more than 70 percent of GDP in high-income
economies...


...agriculture is still of major importance in
developing countries


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


Many countries are still dependent on agricultural employment


Agricultural employment as a share of total employment (%), 2007–2011


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80


Cambodia


Uganda


Bhutan


Vanuatu


India


Liberia


Pakistan


Armenia


Albania


Thailand


67Economy


important to developing economies. Agriculture not only feeds


a growing population, it produces raw materials for industries


such as rubber and timber. Increases in oil prices have resulted


in additional demand for food crops, such as corn and sugar


cane, used to produce biofuels. Higher prices for agricultural


products raise the incomes of producers, but higher food


prices also reduce the welfare of consumers.


In 2011, value added in agriculture as a share of GDP


was over 40 percent in four low-income economies, three


of them in Africa. Agriculture is also an important source of


employment. It employs over 35 percent of the labor force in


17 countries, over 50 percent in five countries, and as much


as 72 percent in Cambodia. Not only low-income economies


but also some middle-income economies remain highly


dependent on agriculture. In Bhutan, agriculture accounts for


65 percent of total employment. In comparison, agricultural


employment made up 3.7 percent of total employment in


Japan, 1.6 percent in Germany and in the United States, and


1.2 percent in the United Kingdom and Argentina.


While the shift toward services describes the general


trend of industrial development, there are many variations.


Economies grow fastest when they develop in ways that


make best use of their factor endowments.


Countries differ in their factor endowments (natural


resources, labor, human capital, and physical capital), but


the relative importance of those factors evolves along with


the optimal industrial structure at each stage of development.


Government can play an important role by facilitating the


development of markets, directing growth toward industries


that make best use of current


endowments, and encouraging


industries that are likely to evolve in


line with its future endowments. In


planning their development path, a


country can look toward other countries


with similar endowment structures


and two to four times their current


average income (approximately 10 to


30 years ahead of them) and encourage


industries that have already gained


an entry in international trade with


the possibility of overtaking existing


suppliers. This is the path followed


by China and other fast-growing


economies and can serve as a model


for many more.




Family tending potato fields in northeast Brazil


Agricultural value
added as share of


GDP (%)


Central African Republic


Comoros


Sierra Leone


Togo


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Ethiopia


Guatemala


Solomon Islands


Nepal


Mali


56.5


46.3


44.4


43.2


42.9


41.9


40.5


38.9


38.1


36.5


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Countries most dependent on agriculture,
2010–2011 (most recent year available)


CountryRank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Kiribati


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


Dominica


Cape Verde


St. Lucia


Grenada


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


Luxembourg


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
10.5%


Latin America & Caribbean
6.3%


Brazil
5.5%


3–9%


10–14%


15–24%


25% or more


less than 3%


no data


share of value added in agriculture in GDP,
2007–2011, most recent year available


agricultural output


68




World Bank data data.worldbank.org/data-
catalog/world-development-
indicators


The global agricultural sector grew by 2.5 percent a year from 2000
to 2010. The service sector grew by 2.7 percent and the industrial
sector by 2.5 percent over the same period.


In Sub-Saharan Africa the agricultural sector grew by 3.3 percent a
year from 2000 to 2010, while the service sector grew by 4.8 percent
and the industrial sector by 4.7 percent.


In East Asia and Pacific the industrial sector was the fastest growing
with 10.2 percent annual growth over the period 2000 to 2010. Services
were second with 10 percent growth. Agriculture grew by 4.1 percent.


In South Asia the dominant sectors were services with annual growth
of 8.6 percent and industry with 8.1 percent annual growth, while
agriculture grew by 3.2 percent over the same period.


On average, services have grown faster than other parts of the economy,
except in East Asia and the Pacific and Europe and Central Asia.


Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development


www.oecd.org/


United Nations—
National Accounts Main
Aggregates Database


unstats.un.org/unsd/
snaama


New Structural Economics:
A Framework for Rethinking
Development and Policy


go.worldbank.org/
QZK6IM4GO0


“Demystifying Success:
The New Structural
Economics Approach”


wbi.worldbank.org/
wbi/devoutreach/article/
1048/demystifying-
success-new-structural-
economics-approach


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Solomon Islands


Vanuatu


Tonga


Kosovo


Fiji
Samoa


Lebanon


Mauritius


Maldives


Palau


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Seychelles


Malta


CyprusSan
Marino


Israel


West Bank and Gaza


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Timor-Leste
American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Nauru


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Sub-Saharan Africa
11.2%


Europe & Central Asia
7.2%


South Asia
17.9%


East Asia & Pacific
10.7%


China
9.3%


India
17.2%


Russian Federation
4.0%


69Economy




Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic
Ea


st
er


n
Eu


ro
pe


&
C


en
tr


al
A


si
a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


W
or


ld


Informal payments to public officials ‘to get
things done’ are more common in South Asia
and the Middle East and North Africa


Percentage of firms expected to make informal payments to
public officials


Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


40


O
EC


D


La
tin


Am
er


ic
a


Ea
st


er
n


Eu
ro


pe
&


Ba
lti


cs
M


id
dl


e
Ea


st
&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
Ea


st
A


si
a


&
Pa


ci
fic


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ric


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Fo
rm


er
S


ov
ie


t
U


ni
on


Countries of the former Soviet Union rank lowest
on control of corruption


Source: Kaufmann D., A. Kraay, and M. Mastruzzi (2010),
The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues


Control of corruption, percentile rank (0–100)


0


20


40


60


80


100


2000


2005


2010


70


Governance


Governance describes the way


public officials and institutions


acquire and exercise authority


to provide public goods and


services including education,


health care, infrastructure, and a


sound investment climate. Good


governance is associated with


citizen participation and improved


accountability of public officials.


It is fundamental to development


and economic growth.


liberties and property rights, a free and


vibrant press, an open and impartial judiciary,


and well-informed and effective legislative


structures—all contribute to strong and


capable institutions of the state.


Although bad governance is often


equated with corruption, the two concepts,


while related, are different. Corruption—


the abuse of public office for private gain—


is an outcome of poor governance,


reflecting the breakdown of accountability.


A capable and accountable state creates


opportunities for poor people, provides


better services, and improves development


outcomes—which is why the World Bank


includes a governance and anticorruption


strategy as part of its effort to reduce


poverty. There are now several global


collaborative governance initiatives, such as


the Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative,


the Extractive Industries Transparency


Initiative (EITI), the Construction Sector


Transparency Initiative (CoST), and the


Business Fighting Corruption Through


Collective Action Initiative.


The links among weak institutions,


poor development outcomes, and the risk


Governance has several dimensions:


• theprocessbywhichgovernmentsare
selected, monitored, and replaced;


• thecapacityofgovernmenttoeffectively
formulate and implement sound policies;


• therespectofcitizensandthestatefor
the institutions that govern interactions


between them.


Features of good governance—such as


free and fair elections, respect for individual




Source: World Bank, Country Policy and Institutional Assessment


0


1


2


3


4


5


6


Zi
m


ba
bw


e
C


en
tr


al
A


fr
ic


an
Re


pu
bl


ic


To
go


Si
er


ra
L


eo
ne


Th
e


G
am


bi
a


Se
ne


ga
l


Public sector and institutions cluster score
(1–6, low to high), 2009–2011


2009


2010


2011


Several Sub-Saharan African countries
improved their performance


Parliament in session in Tajikistan


71Economy


of conflict are often evident in countries that are in fragile


situations. Some 1.5 billion people live in areas affected by


fragility,conlict,orlarge-scaleorganizedcriminalviolence,
and no fragile or conflict-affected country has achieved a


single Millennium Development Goal. A major episode of


violence can wipe out an entire generation of economic


progress. World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security,


and Development found that countries and areas with the


weakest institutional legitimacy (both formal and informal)


and poor governance are the most vulnerable to violence and


instability and the least able to respond to internal and


external stresses.


Measuring the quality of institutions and governance


outcomes is difficult and often subject to large margins of


error. Data for one dimension of governance—control of


corruption—are presented in the map on pages 72–73.


The data are aggregate measures derived from several


sources of informed views of individuals in both the private


and the public sectors. The map represents data on control


of corruption by percentile ranges, from the best performing


(90th to 100th percentile) to the poorest performing (0 to


9th percentile). Some developing countries have better scores


on some governance measures than developed countries.


The World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional


Assessment (CPIA) is an annual staff effort to measure the


extent to which a country’s policy and institutional framework


supports sustainable growth and


poverty reduction. Scores of these


assessments are disclosed only for


low-income countries that are eligible


for lending by the World Bank’s


International Development Association


(IDA). CPIA indicators examine policies


and institutions, not development


outcomes, which can depend on


forces outside a country’s control.


There are 16 criteria grouped into


four clusters; one of the clusters


(shown in the bottom right chart


on page 70) is the public sector


management and institutions cluster.


This cluster includes five criteria:


property rights and rule-based


governance; quality of budgetary and


financial management; efficiency of


revenuemobilization;qualityofpublic
administration; and transparency,


accountability, and corruption in the


public sector. The median value for


all low-income economies was 2.9


in 2011.




Developing country
with population
over 1 million


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Approximate
rank


© Lars Plougmann
Used via a Creative Commons license, creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/


Chile


Uruguay


Botswana


Mauritius


Costa Rica


Cuba


Rwanda


Lithuania


Namibia


Latvia


91


86


80


73


73


72


71


66


64


63


Percentile
rank,
2010


85


80


73


69


67


62


62


61


58


58


Lower
percentile


range


Anticorruption billboard in Zambia Control of corruption


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Cape Verde


Greenland (Den)


Andorra


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


French Guiana
(Fr)


Kiribati


Puerto
Rico (US)


Grenada


Dominica


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


French Polynesia (Fr)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)
Western
Sahara


50th–74th percentile


25th–49th percentile


10th–24th percentile


75th–89th percentile


90th–100th percentile


0–9th percentile


no data


control of corruption from the Worldwide
Governance Indicators, percentile rank, 2010


controlling corruption


72




World Bank—
Enterprise Surveys


World Bank—Worldwide
Governance Indicators


www.govindicators.org


www.enterprisesurveys.org


Transparency International


United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP)—
Democratic Governance


www.transparency.org


World Bank—Public Sector
Governance


www.worldbank.org/
publicsector


World Bank—
Doing Business


www.undp.org/governance


www.doingbusiness.org


Eleven Sub-Saharan African countries rank in the
50th percentile or higher in the Worldwide Governance
Indicators measure of control of corruption.


There is a positive correlation between higher levels of
income and lower levels of corruption. Nine out of 10
countries in the ranking table are upper-middle-income
economies. Only Rwanda is a low-income economy.


Three key principles for promoting good governance
include transparency, accountability, and participation.
Participation implies that people have rights that are
recognized and they have a voice in the decisions that
affect them.


percentile


93


92


86


80


80


76


75


72


72


70


Upper
percentile


range


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


Congo


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Singapore


Qatar


Guam (US)


Brunei Darussalam


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Malta


Cyprus


Seychelles


Mauritius


Israel Kuwait


Bahrain


Federated States of Micronesia


Nauru


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


SamoaVanuatu


Maldives


Comoros


Palau
Marshall Islands


Solomon Islands


Tonga


West Bank and Gaza


Kosovo


Timor-Leste


Fiji


Lebanon


San
Marino


N. Mariana Islands (US)


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


73Economy




Improved water source Improved sanitation facility


Access to clean water and sanitation remains low
in Sub-Saharan Africa


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


0


20


40


60


80


100


Population with access (%), 2010


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


Energy TransportTelecommunications Water and sewerage


Private investment goes primarily to energy and
telecommunications


Source: World Bank, Private Participation in Infrastructure database


Share of private investment (%)


0


20


40


60


80


100


74


Infrastructure for
development


Infrastructure—the basic systems


for delivering energy, transport,


water and sanitation, and


information and communications


services to people—directly or


indirectly affects lives everywhere.


Increased productivity and incomes


and improvements in health and


education outcomes require


investment in infrastructure.


refrigerators for vaccines. Roads in rural areas


boost school attendance and use of medical


clinics. And information and communication


technologies can improve teacher training


and promote better health practices.


The global supply of infrastructure services


is not able to meet today’s needs. Developing


countries require about $900 billion


(7–9 percent of GDP) to maintain existing


infrastructure and to build new infrastructure,


but only half that amount is available. The


continuing global recession will curtail


maintenance and new investments in


infrastructure as governments face shrinking


budgets and declining private financial flows.


Water and sanitation infrastructure has


barely kept pace with population growth in


the developing world. Further improvements


will require more public and private


investment. Measured in 2010 constant


price dollars, investment commitments in


water and sanitation projects with private


participation remained low: $29 billion over


the last decade compared with $58 billion


during the previous one. Since 2001, average


annual investment commitments have


ranged between $2 billion and $3 billion.


Infrastructure services play a key role in the


most important development objective—


reducing poverty and improving the lives of


billions of people in developing countries.


These services affect people in many ways:


what they consume and produce; how they


heat and light their homes; how they travel


to work, to school, or to visit family and


friends; and how they communicate. Access


to clean water and sanitation reduces infant


mortality. Electricity powers hospitals and




Pastoralist in a Nigerian village using
a mobile phone


2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011


Internet users in developing countries have
tripled since 2005


Developed countries Developing countries


Source: International Telecommunication Union


Individuals using the Internet (millions)


0


200


400


600


800


1,000


1,200


1,400


1,600


Source: International Telecommunication Union


2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011


Global mobile penetration reached 86 percent while fixed telephone
line subscriptions remained below 20 percent in 2011


0


20


40


60


80


100


Mobile cellular subscriptions Fixed telephone lines


Per 100 people


75Economy


Infrastructure is typically an enabler, but rarely the sole solution


to development challenges. Reducing disease transmission, for


example, requires better water and sanitation facilities, but it also


requires good hygiene practices such as routine hand washing.


Physical isolation is a strong contributor to poverty. People


living in remote places have reduced access to health and


education services, employment opportunities, and markets.


Problems are particularly severe in rural areas that lack good


transportation facilities. Transport infrastructure—the roads,


bridges, railroads, waterways, ports, and the services they


provide—can eliminate growth-constraining bottlenecks and


shortages, increase agricultural productivity, improve poor


rural farmers’ incomes and nutrition, and expand nonfarm


employment. In Vietnam, a World Bank project provided


financing for ethnic minority women to undertake road


maintenance in rural areas. As a result, 13,470 kilometers of


road are being maintained and 1,533 ethnic minority women


from four communes were trained as rural transportation


managers; many more eagerly await the opportunity.


Information and communications technology has vast


potential for fostering growth in developing countries by


helping to increase productivity in a wide range of economic


activities from agriculture to manufacturing and services.


Mobile phones keep families and communities in contact and


provide market information for farmers and businesspeople.


According to the International Telecommunication Union,


by the end of 2011 there were almost 6 billion mobile cellular


subscriptions in the world, or about 86 per 100 people. The


Internet delivers information to schools


and hospitals, and computers improve


public and private services as well as


increase productivity and participation.


Over the last five years, developing


countries have increased their number


of Internet users from 501 million in


2006 to 1.4 billion in 2011.




Economies with
population over 1 million


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Subscriptions
per 100 people


A food vendor talking on her mobile phone in Armenia


Hong Kong SAR, China


Panama


Saudi Arabia


Russian Federation


Oman


Finland


Libya


Austria


Italy


Lithuania


210


204


191


179


169


166


156


155


152


151


Rank


Most mobile cellular subscriptions, 2011


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Kiribati
São Tomé and Príncipe


Andorra


Monaco


The Gambia


Cape Verde


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Aruba
(Neth) St. Lucia


Grenada


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Liechtenstein


French Guiana
(Fr)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Dominica
St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Bermuda
(UK)


Luxembourg


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Gibraltar (UK)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
89


Latin America & Caribbean
107


100–129


70–99


30–69


less than 30


130 or more


no data


mobile cellular
subscriptions
mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people,
2011 or latest available data


76




World Bank—Information and
Communications Technologies


International
Telecommunication Union


www.itu.int


www.worldbank.org/ict


World Resources Institute—
Water


insights.wri.org/topic/water


World Bank—Climate Change data.worldbank.org/
climate-change


WHO—Water,
Sanitation, and Health


www.who.int/water_
sanitation_health/en


International Road Federation www.irfnet.org


Developing countries accounted for more than 80 percent of the
660 million new mobile cellular subscriptions added in 2011.


The number of people using the Internet continues to grow
worldwide. By the end of 2011, 2.3 billion people were online.


By the end of 2011, there were more than 1 billion mobile-
broadband subscriptions worldwide.


In 2011, India added 142 million mobile cellular subscriptions,
twice as many as in all of Africa.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


West Bank and Gaza


Timor-Leste


Solomon Islands


Tonga


Samoa
Fiji


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Palau


Mauritius


Cyprus


Lebanon


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Brunei Darussalam


Vanuatu


San
Marino


Malta
Israel


Qatar


Bahrain


Kuwait


Seychelles


Maldives Singapore


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


American Samoa (US)


Nauru


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
53


Europe & Central Asia
132


South Asia
69


East Asia & Pacific
80


High-income
117


77Economy




1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


Source: World Development Indicators database Note: For the Middle East & North Africa, last year of data available is 2007; for Sub Saharan Africa, it is 2009


Investment has grown rapidly in the East Asia and Pacific region


Gross capital formation (2000 $ billions) Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


0


200


400


600


800


1,000


1,200


1,400


1,600


1,800


78


Investment for growth


Sustainable economic growth is


impossible without investment.


Investment replenishes assets used


up in production and increases


the total capital stock. A good


investment climate is one in which


government policies encourage


firms and entrepreneurs to invest


productively, create jobs, and


contribute to growth and poverty


reduction. On average, 22 percent


of the world’s output is invested


for production purposes. High


rates of investment alone do not


ensure rapid economic growth.


Countries that have high savings and


investment rates are likely to have high


rates of economic growth. Growth is also


spurred by improved efficiency as a result of


technological advances and investments in


people, through better education and health


care. To sustain growth, government policies


must create a climate that encourages


productive investment.


In most recent years, the East Asia and


the Pacific region has had the highest


investment rate, averaging 40 percent of


gross domestic product (GDP). South Asia


invested between 30 and 34 percent of its


output. Even Sub-Saharan Africa, at 20 percent


the lowest investment rate among developing


regions, exceeded the rate of 18 percent in


high-income economies. Total investment in


developing regions in 2010 was $6.4 trillion,


about 80 percent of the level of investment


in high-income economies.


Government policies play a key role


in shaping the investment climate. They


influence the security of property rights,


the effectiveness of regulation, the impact


of taxation, the quality and accessibility


of infrastructure, and the functioning of


Physical investment takes many forms:


buildings, machinery and equipment,


improvements to property, and additions


to inventories. Investment is financed out


of domestic savings or external savings.


However, external financing is limited and


generally more volatile than domestic savings.




South Asia


East Asia & Pacific


Middle East & North Africa


Latin America & Caribbean


High-income


Sub-Saharan Africa


Asian countries have invested heavily and grown rapidly, but other regions have not obtained the same results


Annual average GDP growth rate (%), 1995–2010


Source: World Development Indicators database
Average gross capital formation (% of GDP), 1995–2010


10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


Europe & Central Asia


Countries in the region that made at least one positive reform (%)


Source: World Bank, Doing Business database


East Asia &
Pacific


Latin America &
Caribbean


Europe &
Central Asia


Middle East &
North Africa


Sub-Saharan
Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa had the second-highest percentage of countries with
positive business reform in 2010–2011


0


20


40


60


80


100


79Economy


financial and labor markets. The quality of the investment


climate also contributes strongly to increased productivity and


employment creation, both necessary for poverty reduction.


Poor governance increases transaction costs, encourages


unproductive activities such as lobbying, and reduces


transparency. Hence, it leads to misallocation of resources


and discourages new investment.


Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa made rapid changes to


their economies’ regulatory environment. Regulatory reforms


were implemented in 36 of the 46 economies between 2010


and 2011, representing 78 percent of countries in the region.


Europe and Central Asia was the most active reformer for the


eighth year in a row: 88 percent of countries in the region


made at least one positive reform to


make doing business easier.


Although China and some of the


other ‘tigers’ in the East Asia and


the Pacific region have obtained


spectacular growth rates, high levels


of investment do not guarantee high


growth rates. Investment produces


growth, but investment also chases


growth. More investment is likely in


places where high returns are possible.


Over 1995–2010, most developing


regions invested an average of 19 to


36 percent of their GDP each year.


The results obtained have varied,


from Latin America and the Caribbean,


where an investment ratio of 20 percent


produced growth of only 3.1 percent, to


South Asia, where an investment ratio


of 28 percent resulted in annual growth


of 6.5 percent. Sub-Saharan Africa is an


interesting exception: an investment


ratio of 19 percent led to an annual


growth rate of 4.3 percent, as good


as or better than several regions with


higher investment ratios.




Country with population
over 1 million


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


China’s rapidly growing economy has benefited from
foreign investment


China


Lesotho


Turkmenistan


Vietnam


Iran, Islamic Rep.


Qatar


Mongolia


Algeria


Korea, Rep.


Azerbaijan


41


40


35


34


33


33


32


31


31


30


% of GDP
1995–2010Rank


Highest average gross capital formation


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Bermuda
(UK)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Antigua and Barbuda


Barbados


The Gambia


Luxembourg


Dominica Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


St. Vincent and the GrenadinesGrenada


French Guiana
(Fr)


The Bahamas


St. Lucia


St. Kitts and Nevis


Cape Verde


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Aruba
(Neth)


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


São Tomé and Príncipe


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)
Western
Sahara


Brazil
20%


United States
15%


25–29%


20–24%


15–19%


less than 15%


30% or more


no data


gross capital formation as a share of GDP,
2009–2011, most recent year available


investment for growth


80




Capital formation has grown fastest in South Asia. Between 2000
and 2010, it increased at an average rate of 12.4 percent a year.


Investment declined in six countries between 2000 and 2010.


In China, investment grew at an average of 13.3 percent a year
between 2000 and 2010.


Capital formation has been slowest in Latin America and the
Caribbean, averaging 5.3 percent a year between 2000 and 2010.


Of the top 10 countries with the highest average investment rate
between 1995 and 2010, three were from Sub-Saharan Africa.


Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and
Development—Statistics


World Bank Data and Statistics data.worldbank.org/indicator/
NG.GDI.TOTL.CD


International Monetary Fund—
World Economic Outlook


www.imf.org/weo


UNCTAD World Investment
Report Series


unctad.org/en/pages/
DIAE/World%20Investment
%20Report/WIR-Series.aspx


www.oecd.org
(click on ‘Statistics’)


United Nations data data.un.org


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Malta


Solomon Islands


Brunei Darussalam


KuwaitIsrael


Cyprus


Seychelles


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)
Mauritius


Singapore


Fiji
Vanuatu


Tonga


Bahrain
West Bank and Gaza


Qatar


Lebanon


Kosovo


Maldives


San
Marino


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Timor-Leste


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Samoa


Tuvalu


Nauru


China
47%


India
36%


Russian Federation
25%


20%
23%
29%
29%
18%


World
Low-income
Middle-income
Low- & middle-income
High-income


81Economy




Best performers based on number of days
to start a business in developing countriesBusiness meeting, Mozambique


Georgia


Macedonia, FYR


Rwanda


Albania


Belarus


Senegal


Liberia


Malaysia


Mauritius


Turkey


2


3


3


5


5


5


6


6


6


6


Country
Days


(as of June 2011)Rank


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nc


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


The Bahamas


Kiribati


St. Lucia


Grenada


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda
The Gambia


Luxembourg


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Dominica


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Puerto
Rico (US)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Aruba
(Neth)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Bermuda
(UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Barbados


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Monaco


Gibraltar (UK)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
23 days


Latin America & Caribbean
58 days


High-income countries
17 days


10–14 days


15–29 days


30–44 days


45 days or more


less than 10 days


no data


time required to start a new business,
June 2011


starting a business


82




World Bank—
Enterprise Surveys


World Bank—
Doing Business database


www.doingbusiness.org


www.enterprisesurveys.org


World Bank—
Privatization database


rru.worldbank.org/
Privatization/


World Bank—
Private Participation in
Infrastructure database


ppi.worldbank.org/


In the past six years, policy makers in 163 economies made
domestic regulations more business friendly.


Fifty-three economies made it easier to start a business between
2010 and 2011.


In 2010–2011, Bhutan launched a public credit registry and
streamlined business start-up procedures.


In Colombia, new firm registrations increased by 5.2 percent after
the creation of a one-stop shop for businesses in 2010–2011.


In 2010–2011, FYR Macedonia streamlined the filing and
payment of taxes, introduced an electronic cadastre for property
registration, and started an operation of the online system for
business registration.


In 2010–2011, Malawi improved its credit information system by
passing a new law allowing the creation of a private credit bureau.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Kosovo


West Bank and Gaza


Brunei Darussalam


Timor-Leste


Fiji


Solomon Islands


Vanuatu


Seychelles


Israel Kuwait


Comoros


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Tonga


Qatar


Réunion (Fr)
Mauritius


Mayotte
(Fr)


Lebanon


Cyprus


Bahrain


SingaporeMaldives


Samoa


San
Marino


Malta


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Sub-Saharan Africa
34 days


Europe & Central Asia
16 days


South Asia
23 days


East Asia & Pacific
39 days


83Economy




Low-income economiesMiddle-income economies


Exports to developing economies outside region Exports to developing economies within region Exports to high-income economies


1990 1995 20052000 1990 1995 20052000


Source: World Bank calculation based on data from the IMF's Direction of Trade Statistics database


Developing economies are trading more with other developing economies


2010


Share of exports (%)


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


2010


Share of exports (%)


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2009200820072006200520042003200220012000


Merchandise trade, high-income


Trade in services, high-income


Merchandise trade, middle-income


Trade in services, middle-income


Merchandise trade, low-income


Trade in services, low-income


2010


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


After a sharp decline in 2009, global trade rebounded in 2010


Share of GDP (%)


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


84


The integrating world


Economies have become more


dependent on each other for goods,


services, labor, and capital. Although


many barriers remain, advances in


information and communications


technology, expanding financial


markets, and cheaper transportation


systems enable easier movement


of inputs and outputs among


economies, accelerating global


integration. Global integration


creates many opportunities, but the


benefits need to be shared equitably


both among and within economies.


production and distribution, which are often


spread over multiple locations. Developing


economies offering lower costs and new


markets are attracting foreign investment


in manufacturing. Skilled as well as


unskilled workers are seeking employment


in economies that offer higher wages.


High-income economies are looking at the


developing world to meet their increasing


demand for service and technology workers.


International trade is a critical channel for


integration. Despite a drop in global trade in


2009, goods equivalent to 48 percent of global


gross domestic product (GDP) were traded


in 2010, up from 32 percent in 1990. Over


the same period, trade in services increased


from 8 percent to 12 percent of global


GDP. These trends are likely to continue as


globally diversified production processes


require more trade in intermediate goods.


Traditional patterns of production and


employment have given way to new modes of




Foreign direct
investment


Portfolio
equity flows


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


Foreign direct investment and portfolio
equity flows to developing economies
continue to increase


Net inflows to developing economies ($ billions)


0


100


200


300


400


500


600
1995


2000


2005


2010


Agriculture 2000 2010 Manufacturing 2000 2010 Textiles 2000 2010


Agricultural and textile products are subject to higher trade restrictions


Simple mean applied tariff rates (%)


Source: World Bank, World Integrated Trade Solution, based on data from the UN Conference on Trade and Development’s
Trade Analysis and Information System database and the UN Statistics Division’s Comtrade database


On imports from
high-income economies


On imports from
high-income economies


On imports from
developing economies


On imports from
developing economies


Imposed by high-income economies Imposed by developing economies


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


85Economy


High-income economies remain the principal source


and destination of international trade, but more developing


economies are participating, and trade with other developing


economies is growing.


Developing economies now account for almost 30 percent of


world trade. Some, such as China, Mexico, and Thailand, are


specializinginmanufacturedgoods,butmanyremainprimary
exporters of food, fuel, and raw materials. Between 2000 and 2010,


trade (in nominal terms) among developing economies grew


at an annual average rate of 21.7 percent—over 14 percentage


points faster than trade among high-income economies—while


trade between high-income economies and low- and middle-


income economies grew by 14 percent during the period. As


of 2010, almost half of merchandise exports from low-income


economies and a third from middle-income economies now go


to other developing economies, but demand from high-income


economies remains the driving force of international trade.


Reductions in tariff and nontariff barriers have helped to spur


trade, but many trade barriers remain. The poorest countries


impose higher barriers across a broad range of goods to protect


their producers and raise revenues for their governments. Rich


countries often impose their highest barriers selectively on the


exports of developing countries, especially agricultural and


textile products. In addition to tariff protection, they provide


subsidies and other forms of support to their farmers, enabling


them to sell agricultural products at very low prices that


developing country producers cannot match. Total agricultural


support in OECD countries exceeded $366 billion in 2010,


representing a 3.1 percent increase


from 2009, in nominal terms.


During the past decade, flows


of foreign direct investment (FDI)


toward developing economies have


increased substantially. It has long


beenrecognizedthatFDIlowscan
carry with them benefits of knowledge


and technology transfer to domestic


firms and the labor force, productivity


spillover, enhanced competition, and


improved access for exports abroad.


Moreover, they are the preferred


source of capital for financing a


current account deficit because FDI is


non-debt-creating. Although slowed


by the financial crisis, FDI inflows


to developing economies recovered


significantly from $400 billion in 2009


to $587 billion in 2010. Emerging


economies, particularly in East Asia


and the Pacific, experienced a robust


increase in economic growth supported


by foreign investment. China received


79 percent of the regional inflows and


commanded one-quarter of all FDI


inflows in the developing economies.




Developing country


Largest merchandise
exporters, 2010


Largest merchandise
importers, 2010


1


2


3


4


5


Merchandise trade


Rank
$


billions


China


Russian Federation


Mexico


India


Brazil


1,578


400


298


220


202


Developing country


1


2


3


4


5


Rank
$


billions


China


India


Mexico


Russian Federation


Brazil


1,395


350


310


249


191


Mexico is a major importer


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Bermuda
(UK)


The Gambia


Cape Verde


The Bahamas


Grenada


St. Lucia


Dominica
St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Kiribati


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


São Tomé and Príncipe


Luxembourg


French Polynesia (Fr)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Western Sahara


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Latin America & Caribbean
2000: 36%
2005: 40%
2010: 35%


Middle East & North Africa
2000: 48%
2005: 63%
2010: 61%


75–99%


60–74%


40–59%


less than 40%


100% or more


no data


merchandise trade
exports and imports as a share of GDP, 2010


86




Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD)—Trade


www.oecd.org/tradeThe five largest exporters in 2010 accounted for more than half
the merchandise exports of developing economies.


Average tariffs imposed by high-income economies have declined,
but high barriers to some exports of developing countries remain,
especially agricultural and textile products. For instance, simple mean
applied tariff on imported agricultural products from developing
countries rose to 4.7 percent in 2010 from 2.5 percent in 2000.


World trade in services as a percentage of GDP grew from
7 percent in 1990 to over 12 percent in 2008, but after the global
financial crisis, it declined to 11 percent in 2009 and 2010.


Starting in 2009, China replaced Germany as the second-ranking
importer of the world, with only the United States importing more
goods.


World Trade Organization—
Statistics Database


International Monetary Fund—
Statistics


United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development—
Statistics


United Nations—
Trade Statistics


www.wto.org
(go to ‘Documents and resources’,
select ‘Statistics Database’)


www.imfstatistics.org
(select ‘BOPS’ or ‘DOTS’)


www.unctad.org
(go to ‘Statistics’, select ‘UNCTADstat’)


unstats.un.org/unsd/trade
unstats.un.org/unsd/
servicetrade


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros Timor-Leste


Tuvalu


Vanuatu


Tonga


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Israel


Cyprus


Mauritius


Maldives


Lebanon


Kuwait


Qatar


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Samoa
Fiji


Marshall Islands


Solomon Islands


Brunei Darussalam


Malta


Bahrain


Singapore


Seychelles


San
Marino


Kosovo


West Bank and Gaza


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Nauru


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


South Asia
2000: 23%
2005: 32%
2010: 34%


East Asia & Pacific
2000: 59%
2005: 71%
2010: 57%


Europe & Central Asia
2000: 53%
2005: 54%
2010: 52%


Sub-Saharan Africa
2000: 51%
2005: 57%
2010: 58%


87Economy




1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


China received over 80 percent of FDI inflows to East Asia and
the Pacific in 2010


China


Brazil


Russian Federation


India


Mexico


Chile


Indonesia


Kazakhstan


Thailand


Malaysia


185.1


48.5


43.3


24.2


20.2


15.1


13.8


10.8


9.7


9.2


Developing countries that attracted the
largest FDI net inflows, 2010


Developing country $ billionsRank


© Cory Doctorow
Used via a Creative Commons license, creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Kiribati


The Gambia


Dominica


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Cape Verde


Antigua and Barbuda


St. Kitts and Nevis


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada
Barbados


São Tomé and Príncipe


Luxembourg


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Greenland (Den)


French Polynesia (Fr)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
2.7%


Latin America & Caribbean
2.4%


4.0–5.9%


2.0–3.9%


1.0–1.9%


less than 1.0%


6.0% or more


no data


foreign direct investment
foreign direct investment net inflows as a
share of GDP, 2010 or latest available data


88




World Bank Group—Data


International Monetary Fund—
Balance of Payments Statistics


www.imfstatistics.org
(select ‘BOPS’)


data.worldbank.org


United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development—
Statistics


www.unctad.org
(go to ‘Statistics’, then
select ‘UNCTADstat’)


Luxembourg’s net outward direct investment in foreign economies in
2010 was nearly 3.5 times its GDP. Hong Kong S.A.R., China was the
second-highest with FDI outflows accounting for 42 percent of its GDP.


Low-income countries as a group saw FDI inflows increase by almost
40 percent in 2010, largely due to rising South-South investment
in extractive industries and infrastructure development. But an
overwhelming share of FDI inflows went to China, where they
increased by 62 percent to $185 billion.


FDI net flows to high-income countries accounted for nearly 65 percent
of the world total in 2010. Among developing regions, East Asia and
the Pacific received the largest amount in 2010 ($231.3 billion), having
grown fivefold since 2000.


Mexico, the second-largest recipient of FDI in Latin America and the
Caribbean, received US$19 billion FDI in 2010, up 25 percent over
the 2009 level.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Kuwait


Bahrain


Samoa


Cyprus


Palau


Comoros


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Federated States of Micronesia


Mauritius


Israel


Brunei Darussalam Marshall Islands


Tonga


Tuvalu


Vanuatu


Qatar


Seychelles


Maldives Singapore


Timor-Leste


Solomon Islands


Fiji


Kosovo


Malta
Lebanon


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


American Samoa (US)


Nauru


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


San
Marino


West Bank and Gaza


Sub-Saharan Africa
2.3%


Europe & Central Asia
2.8%


South Asia
1.4%


East Asia & Pacific
3.1%


89Economy




World
$68.4 billion


World
$449.2 billion


High-income
57%


Sub-Saharan Africa
3%


South Asia
8%


East Asia & Pacific
5% Europe & Central Asia


5%
Latin America &
Caribbean
8%


Middle East &
North Africa
14%


High-income
27%


Sub-Saharan
Africa


5%


South Asia
18%


East Asia & Pacific
21%


Europe &
Central Asia
8%


Latin America &
Caribbean
13%


Middle East &
North Africa
8%


20101990


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


A larger share of remittance flows are now going to developing economies


Workers’ remittances and compensation of employees, received


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 2000 20051995 2010


Most migrants reside in high-income economies


International migrant stock (millions)


Source: World Bank estimates based on data from the UN Population Division


0


20


40


60


80


100


120


140
High-income


Middle-income


Low-income


90


People on the move


The movement of people across


national borders is a visible and


increasingly important aspect of


global integration. Three percent


of the world’s population—more


than 213 million people—now live


in countries in which they were not


born. The forces driving the flow


of migrants from poor economies


to rich economies are likely to


grow stronger in the future.


economies, the population is aging and


growing slowly, while in many developing


countries the population is young and


growing rapidly. This imbalance creates a


strong demand for developing-economy


workers, especially to provide services that


can be supplied only locally. Immigrants


in high-income economies have increased


to 12 percent of the population, up from


8 percent two decades before. There can


be other reasons for immigration. After


the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991,


many people moved between the newly


independent states, raising the number


of migrants recorded in middle-income


economies.


Migration is often accompanied by a


flow of remittances—transfers of gifts and


wages and salaries earned abroad—from


migrants to their countries of origin. The


direction of the remittances is related to


the geographical movement of the labor


force and the relative economic positions


of sending and receiving countries, as


well as the impact these flows have on the


receiving economies. Over the past decade,


international migration has intensified and


this is reflected in remittances becoming


an increasing source of financial flows to


low- and middle-income and even some


Migration is on the rise, especially from


poor economies to rich economies. Wage


differences and demographic trends


encourage migration. In many high-income




Source: United Nations Population Division,
World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


Among developing regions, Sub-Saharan Africa
was the highest net migrant sender during
2005–2010


Net out-migration (millions)


0


2


4


6


8


10


1990


2000


2010


199
0


199
1


199
2


199
3


199
4


199
5


199
6


199
7


199
8


199
9


200
0


200
1


200
2


200
3


200
4


200
5


200
6


200
7


200
8


200
9


201
0


Source: World Bank estimates based on the International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Statistics and
OECD DAC’s International Development Statistics


Remittances to developing countries have fallen slightly since 2008


Remittances received (% of GDP)


0


2


4


6


8


10


12


Remittances received, low-income economies


Remittances received, middle-income economies


Remittances received, high-income economies


91Economy


high-income economies. Unlike other kinds of financial


flows, remittances do not create liabilities and are often


received by people who need financing the most. From


2000 to 2010, remittance inflows to developing economies


more than quadrupled. Global remittance flows almost


reached $450 billion in 2010, with 72 percent going to


developing economies.


In 2010, the largest share of remittances went to Asia:


East Asia and the Pacific received $94.0 billion in remittances


and South Asia received $82.0 billion. The top remittance-


receiving developing economies in 2010 were India


($54.0 billion), China ($53.0 billion), Mexico ($22.0 billion),


and the Philippines ($21.4 billion). Among the high-income


economies, France ($15.6 billion), Germany ($11.3 billion),


Spain ($10.5 billion), and the Republic of Korea ($8.7 billion)


received the largest amount of remittances in the form of


compensation of employees.


Empirical studies have found that remittances can raise


income levels, especially among the poor. Evidence from


some countries suggests that a large proportion of


remittances received are invested, which should lead to


improvements in the overall economy. Migration opportunities


may also encourage higher levels of educational attainment.


And increases in income from remittances along with the


transfer of knowledge through migrants result in better health


outcomes for other household members.


Migration may also have negative effects. Among


international migrants are millions of highly educated


people who have moved to developed


countries from developing countries.


By migrating they improve their own


prospects and provide valuable services


in high-income economies, but the


loss of human capital, so-called brain


drain, from developing countries, may


increase the concentration of poverty


and reduce the social benefits of


migration.


Remittances have remained fairly


resilient during the global financial


crisis. The slowdown of the global


economy during the second half


of 2008 affected remittance flows


in all regions. Remittance flows to


developing countries dropped from


$323 billion in 2008 to $306 billion


in 2009, but increased in 2010 to


$325 billion, above the 2008 level.


Even though remittances fell


5.2 percent in 2009, other financial


flows to developing countries, such as


foreign direct investment, fell much


more drastically in response to the


financial crisis (36.3 percent from


2008 to 2009).




Country
Net in-migration


(thousands)


Countries with highest migrations, 2005–2010


4,955


3,077


2,250


1,999


1,136


United States


United Arab Emirates


Spain


Italy


Russian Federation


1


2


3


4


5


Rank


Country
Net out-migration


(thousands)


3,000


2,908


2,000


1,884


1,805


India


Bangladesh


Pakistan


China


Mexico


1


2


3


4


5


Rank


Immigrants becoming U.S. citizens at a naturalization
oath ceremony


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Kiribati


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


St. Lucia


French Polynesia (Fr)


The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica
St. Kitts and Nevis


Guadeloupe (Fr)


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada
Barbados


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Monaco


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


The Gambia


Bermuda
(UK)


Antigua and Barbuda


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Gibraltar (UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Western
Sahara


Middle East & North Africa
3.6%


Latin America & Caribbean
1.1%


1.0–2.9%


3.0–5.9%


6.0–14.9%


15.0% or more


less than 1.0%


no data


migration
international migrants as a
share of population, 2010


92




United Nations
Population Division—
International Migration


www.un.org/esa/
population/migration


United Nations Refugee
Agency—Statistics


www.unhcr.org/
statistics.html


OECD—Migration www.oecd.org/migration


International Labour
Organization—
Labour Migration


www.ilo.org
(go to ‘Topics’, select
‘Labour Migration’)


International Organization
for Migration


www.iom.int


In the 1960s, the majority of migrants lived in developing countries.
In 2010, nearly two-thirds resided in high-income countries.


As of 2010, 81 million migrants lived in developing countries
(about 1.4 percent of their population), compared to 132 million in
high-income countries (about 12 percent of their population).


The number of migrants in the world grew from about 72 million in
1960 to more than 213 million in 2010. This represents about 3 percent
of the world’s population.


Refugees are an important component of the migrant stock. At the end
of 2010, the number of refugees, including those under the mandate of
the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the
Near East (UNRWA), stood at 15.4 million, accounting for approximately
7 percent of the migrants in the world.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Vanuatu


Tonga


Maldives


Comoros Timor-Leste


Federated States of Micronesia


Solomon Islands Tuvalu


Fiji
Samoa


Marshall Islands


Mauritius


Malta


Cyprus


Seychelles


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)
New


Caledonia
(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


PalauBrunei Darussalam


Singapore


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Lebanon


Israel


West Bank and Gaza


San
Marino


Kosovo


Nauru


Sub-Saharan Africa
2.1%


Europe & Central Asia
6.9%


South Asia
0.8%


East Asia & Pacific
0.3%


High-income
12.0%


93Economy




Top recipients of workers’ remittances and
compensation of employees, 2010


India


China


Mexico


Philippines


Bangladesh


Nigeria


Pakistan


Vietnam


Egypt, Arab Rep.


Lebanon


54.0


53.0


22.0


21.4


10.9


10.0


9.7


8.3


7.7


7.6


India has the world’s largest migrant outflow


Developing country $ billionsRank


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr) São Tomé and Príncipe


Antigua and Barbuda
St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


Luxembourg


Bermuda
(UK)


Dominica


Grenada


St. Kitts and Nevis


The Gambia


Cape Verde


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Puerto
Rico (US)


The Bahamas


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Western Sahara


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Over 38 percent of the
remittances received in


Latin America & Caribbean
go to Mexico. Guatemala,


second-highest in the region,
received 7 percent


Middle East & North Africa
received the largest workers’


remittances and compensation
of employees as a share of its


GDP in 2010 (4.3 percent)


0.5–0.9%


1.0–2.4%


2.5–4.9%


5.0% or more


less than 0.5%


no data


remittances
remittances received as a share of GDP,
2010 or latest available data


94




As a share of GDP, Tajikistan (40 percent), Lesotho (34 percent), the
Kyrgz Republic (27 percent), and Samoa (24 percent) were the largest
recipients of remittances in 2010. Chile (0.001 percent), Japan
(0.03 percent), R.B. Venezuela (0.04 percent), and the United States
(0.04 percent) were the lowest.


Remittances to developing countries increased from 1.1 percent of
GDP in 1990 to 1.7 percent in 2010. In high-income countries they
remained constant at 0.3 percent.


At the beginning of the 1990s, more than half of remittances went to
high-income economies. In 2010, middle-income economies received
nearly 67 percent of all remittances, and low-income economies
received 5.5 percent.


High-income economies are the principal source of outward remittance
flows. The United States is the largest, with $51.6 billion in 2010. Saudi
Arabia ($27.1 billion) is the second, followed by Switzerland ($21.7 billion).


World Bank—
Migration and Remittances


www.worldbank.org/prospects/
migrationandremittances


OECD—Migration www.oecd.org/migration


International Monetary
Fund—Balance of
Payments Statistics


www.imf.org/
(go to ‘Data and Statistics’,
then select ‘Balance of
Payments Statistics’)


Migration Information
Source


www.migrationinformation.org


Development Research
Centre on Migration,
Globalisation and Poverty


www.migrationdrc.org


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Solomon Islands


Maldives


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Vanuatu


Malta
Israel


Cyprus


Seychelles


Mauritius


Kosovo


Lebanon


Fiji


Tonga


Samoa


San
Marino


West Bank and Gaza


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Comoros


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Timor-Leste


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


Marshall Islands


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Sub-Saharan Africa received the
smallest amount of remittances in
2010 ($21 billion in 2010),
equivalent to 2.2 percent of its GDP


Outflows of remittances from high-income economies
were $245 billion in 2010, up from $61 billion in 1990


East Asia & Pacific received the
largest amount of remittances
in 2010 ($94 billion)


In 2010 only two countries in
Europe & Central Asia had a
larger outflow in remittances
than their inflow. Russia
($19 billion outflow vs $5 billion
inflow) and Kazakhstan
($3 billion outflow vs
$0.3 billion inflow)


India accounted for 67 percent
of all workers’ remittances and


compensation of employees
($54 billion) flowing into


South Asia in 2010


95Economy




Aid by sector as share of donors’ bilateral commitments, 2010


The social sector received the most DAC donor
bilateral aid in 2010


Source: OECD DAC


Social
37%


Other
10%


Humanitarian
9%


Debt-related
3%


General
program aid


3%


Multi-sector
13%


Production
8% Economic


17%


Who were the largest donors in 2010?


Source: OECD DAC


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


United States


European Commission


France


Germany


United Kingdom


Japan


Netherlands


Spain


Norway


Canada


Other DAC members


All DAC members


26,586


12,428


8,036


8,017


7,787


7,337


4,841


3,999


3,926


3,561


16,867


103,385


25.7


12.0


7.8


7.8


7.5


7.1


4.7


3.9


3.8


3.4


16.3


100.0


% of total$ millionsCountryRank


Net bilateral ODA
disbursements in 2010


DAC donors


1990 2000 2010


Net ODA received in per capita terms has increased
for most regions


Net ODA per capita ($)


Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database


Middle East
& North


Africa


Sub-
Saharan
Africa


East Asia
& Pacific


Latin
America &
Caribbean


Europe &
Central


Asia


South
Asia


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


96


Aid for development


The global economy is more


integrated than ever. Countries


are exchanging more goods and


services, international financial


flows have increased, and private


investors are active in many


developing countries. But even


in an expanding world economy,


many countries cannot finance


their own development. Aid helps


to fill the gap.


Development is a partnership between


developing and donor countries. Donor


countries help recipient countries build


the capacity to foster change; recipient


countries invest in their people and


create an environment that sustains


growth. Countries that have difficulty


tapping financial markets must rely


on aid flows from wealthier countries


to fund development programs. Net


official development assistance (ODA)


to developing countries reached


$131.1 billion in 2010, the highest


ever in nominal terms—representing


a 3.2 percent increase in real terms


from the 2009 level.


According to the Organisation for


Economic Co-operation and Development’s


Development Assistance Committee (DAC),


the top 10 donors in 2010 contributed


84 percent of all aid provided by DAC


members. The top four—the United States,


the European Commission, France, and


Germany—contributed 53 percent.


Aid increased sharply in 2005, as


donor countries followed through on


promises made at the 2002 United Nations




In 2010, DAC aid to recipient countries increased, but the amount of aid received as a percentage of GNI decreased


2010 $ (billions) % of GNI


Source: OECD DAC


0


25


50


75


100


125


150


0.00


0.05


0.10


0.15


0.20


0.25


0.30


1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010


Net ODA received
as a % of GNI


Net ODA received in
constant 2010 dollars


Source: World Bank’s Global Development Finance; World Bank estimates
based on data from International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments
Statistics; OECD DAC’s International Development Statistics


South Asia


Middle East &
North Africa


Latin America &
Caribbean


Europe &
Central Asia


East Asia &
Pacific


Sub-Saharan
Africa


Aid is the biggest source of financing for
Sub-Saharan Africa


Sources of financial flows (US$ billions), 2010


0 50 100 150 200 250 300


FDI & portfolio
equity inflows


Aid Workers’
remittances
received


97Economy


International Conference on Financing for Development,


in Monterrey, Mexico, and reinforced at the 2005 Group of


Eight (G8) summit at Gleneagles, Scotland. But a large


part of this increase came as debt relief, not new aid flows.


Aid in absolute terms and measured as a share of donors’


gross national income declined between 2005 and 2007,


but has increased since then. Still, a significant increase in


donor commitment is required to meet the targets set at


Gleneagles.


The form of aid and purpose for which it is given make a


difference. Debt-related aid provides relief from liabilities


that recipient countries have difficulty servicing, and can


free up public resources for other purposes, but it may not


result in an equivalent expansion of development activities.


Humanitarian assistance provides relief for sudden disasters


and emergency situations, but it does not generally contribute


to financing long-term development. Furthermore, the


administrative costs of providing aid are mainly spent in the


donor economy.


Aid is not the only source of development finance or, for


many countries, the most important. Remittances and private


capital flows are a growing source of financing for some.


Remittances received worldwide more than tripled in the


past decade, from $136 billion in 2000 to $449 billion in


2010. But extremely poor countries, especially in Sub-Saharan


Africa, still require substantial increases in aid to reach their


development goals.




Developing country


Net ODA received as a share of GNI, 2010
A British Chinook helicopter takes UNHCR relief items to the
Leepa Valley, in Pakistan-administered Kashmir


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Liberia


Solomon Islands


Marshall Islands


Haiti


Afghanistan


Federated States of Micronesia


Burundi


Democratic Republic of Congo


Tuvalu


Samoa


175.5


61.4


45.9


45.5


42.4


40.2


31.0


29.0


26.2


25.5


%Rank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


Kiribati


St. Lucia


Dominica


St. Vincent and the GrenadinesGrenada


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cape Verde


The Gambia


Barbados


French Polynesia (Fr)


Bermuda
(UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)The Bahamas


Puerto
Rico (US)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Greenland (Den)


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)
Western
Sahara


Luxembourg


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


The United States is the
largest donor of total aid


In 2010, aid per capita received by
developing countries was $23,


up from $13, in 2008


less than $10


$10–49


$50–99


$100 or more


no data


received


* A ‘net aid donor’ both
gives and receives official
development assistance


less than $50


$50–99


net donor*


$100–199


$200 or more


donated


aid
aid per capita, 2010


98




Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development
(OECD), Development Assistance
Committee (DAC)


www.oecd.org/dacMany donor countries pledged to provide aid equivalent to at least
0.7 percent of GNI, but the average remains around 0.31 percent.
In 2010, only five countries—Denmark, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden—fulfilled their pledge.


Aid received by low-income countries in 2010 constituted
9.5 percent of their GNI. In middle-income countries, aid was
only 0.3 percent of GNI.


Since 1990, aid per capita has increased by $17 in Sub-Saharan
Africa, from $35 to $52. Aid per capita to the Middle East and
North Africa decreased by more than half in recent years, from
$76 in 2008 to $37 in 2010.


The top non-DAC donor that reports aid is Saudi Arabia, which
provided $3.5 billion in 2010. This would rank 11th among the top
DAC donors behind Norway's 3.6 billion. Turkey is the second-
highest non-DAC donor, providing less than a billion in aid in 2010.


Statistics on aid from OECD DAC www.oecd.org/dac/stats


World Bank Group, International
Development Association


www.worldbank.org/ida


The European Commission,
Development and Cooperation—
Europeaid


ec.europa.eu/europeaid/
index_en.htm


International Monetary Fund,
Extended Credit Facility


www.imf.org
(go to ‘About the IMF’, then
select ‘Factsheet’)


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Kosovo


Lebanon


West Bank and Gaza


Seychelles


Maldives


Timor-Leste


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Vanuatu


Tonga


Samoa


Solomon Islands Tuvalu


Marshall Islands


Fiji


Mauritius


Comoros


San
Marino


Malta


Cyprus


Qatar


Bahrain


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Nauru


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


KuwaitIsrael


Sub-Saharan Africa received the largest
amount of net aid of any region


Norway leads all donors in the share of gross
national income provided as aid in 2010


East Asia and the Pacific received
the smallest amount of aid per
capita of any region


99Economy




India was the largest recipient of IDA disbursements
in 2010


2009 2010IDA loans and grants disbursement ($ millions)


Source: World Bank, Global Development Finance database


Pakistan


Bangladesh


Uganda


Ghana


Congo,
Dem. Rep.


India


Nigeria


Vietnam


Tanzania


Ethiopia


0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400


Eighty-five percent of IBRD disbursements in 2010
went to the 10 largest borrowers


2009 2010IBRD disbursements ($ millions)


Source: World Bank, Global Development Finance database


Kazakhstan


China


Colombia


Argentina


Egypt, Arab Rep.


Brazil


India


Turkey


Mexico


Indonesia


0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000


Debt service continued to decline for most regions
in 2010


Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services, and income)


Source: World Bank, Global Development Finance database


Middle East
& North


Africa


Sub-
Saharan
Africa


East Asia
& Pacific


Latin
America &
Caribbean


Europe &
Central


Asia


South
Asia


0


5


10


15


20


25


30


35


40


45 2000


2005


2010


100


External debt


Many countries borrow from


abroad to finance development,


but when debt exceeds a country’s


capacity to service it, the debt


burden becomes unsustainable


and hinders development.


Making debt manageable for poor


countries frees up resources that


can be used to support economic


growth and social development.


Developing countries borrow because at


early stages of development they have


small stocks of capital and are likely to


have investment opportunities that may


be risky but have high returns. Often these


investment projects have a significant public


good component, such as transportation,


infrastructure, education, and public health.


Because government budgets and domestic


savings are low, many countries must turn


to external sources of funding. Poor and


less creditworthy countries may qualify for


concessional lending by official creditors,


such as the multilateral development banks


and other governments; creditworthy middle-


income countries can borrow at market rates


from official and private lenders.


By the end of 2010, developing countries’


external debt was $4 trillion, with the 10


largest debtors owing 73 percent of the


total. External debt from private creditors


to developing countries increased from


$1.3 trillion in 2000 to $3 trillion in 2010.


Short-term debt was the fastest growing


component. Multilateral creditors, the


World Bank Group in particular, were


important sources of financing to public


sector borrowers. In 2010 alone the World




Middle East
& North


Africa


Sub-
Saharan
Africa


East Asia
& Pacific


Latin
America &
Caribbean


Europe &
Central


Asia


South
Asia


Source: World Bank, Global Development Finance database


External debt stocks (% of GNI) 2000 2010


Sub-Saharan Africa saw significant reductions
in its external debt stocks over the last decade,
mostly due to HIPC and MDRI


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


70


2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 201020042000 200320022001


Net debt flows (US$ billions)


Source: World Bank, Global Development Finance database


Net debt inflows from private creditors rebounded in 2010


-75


0


75


150


225


300


375


450


525


Official
creditors


Private
creditors


Short
term


101Economy


Bank Group made $43 billion in new commitments and


disbursements of $34 billion. This included commitments


of $32 billion made through the International Bank for


Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) at market rates and


$11 billion in grants and concessional lending made by the


International Development Association (IDA).


Debt burdens and debt relief


Overborrowing and unexpected events such as terms-of-trade


shocks, natural disasters, or civil conflict can turn ordinary debt


burdens into unmanageable ones. Oil price increases in the


1980s precipitated a debt crisis among middle-income countries.


For many poor countries, especially those in Africa, debt


burdens became unsustainable after a decade of slow growth


in the 1990s. In 1996, the World Bank and the International


Monetary Fund (IMF) launched the Heavily Indebted Poor


Countries (HIPC) initiative to provide relief to low-income


countries with recurring debt repayment problems. The


initiative aimed to provide permanent relief from unsustainable


debt and to redirect the resources going to debt service to


social expenditures aimed at poverty reduction. By the end of


2011, 36 countries had participated in the initiative and received


debt relief of $76.4 billion. Since 2006, the World Bank, the


IMF, the African Development Fund, and the Inter-American


Development Bank have provided additional debt relief under


the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). As of September


2011, 32 HIPC countries, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa, had


received additional assistance of $47.1 billion under the MDRI.


All developing regions have


improved their external debt position.


Measured against gross national


income (GNI), the stock of external


debt was 21 percent in 2010, compared


to 37.8 percent in 2000. The ratio of


debt service (principal and interest


payments) to exports fell to 9.8 percent.


And the ratio of external debt


outstanding to exports fell from


128.5 percent in 2000 to 68.7 percent


in 2010. East Asia and the Pacific and


the Middle East and North Africa had


the lowest external debt ratios. Europe


and Central Asia was the most indebted


region in 2010: the ratios of external


debt outstanding to GNI (43 percent)


and to export earnings (121 percent)


were three times those of the East


Asian countries. The debt-to-export


ratio in Sub-Saharan African countries


declined to 54 percent at the end of


2010, compared with 185.1 percent in


2000, and the debt service to export


ratio fell to 3.3 percent, less than


one-third its 2000 level.




Developing
country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Highest debtors in 2010
Total external debt


(US$ billions)
[Total debt (% of GNI)]


China


Russian Federation


Brazil


Turkey


India


Mexico


Indonesia


Argentina


Romania


Kazakhstan


548 [9%]


384 [27%]


346 [17%]


293 [40%]


290 [17%]


200 [20%]


179 [26%]


127 [36%]


121 [76%]


118 [94%]


India is among the 10 most indebted developing economies


Rank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra
Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Dominica


Grenada


The Gambia


São Tomé
and Príncipe


Cape Verde


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


St. Lucia


St. Kitts and Nevis


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Puerto
Rico (US)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Barbados


Antigua and Barbuda


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Greenland (Den)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)
Western
Sahara


Guinea-Bissau
2000: 467%
2010: 125%


Nicaragua
2000: 181%
2010: 77%


Liberia
2000: 719%


2010: 28%


15–29%


30–44%


45–59%


60% or more


less than 15%


no data


external debt as a share of GNI, 2010


external debt


102




Quarterly External
Debt Statistics


Bank for International
Settlements


www.bis.org
(go to ‘Statistics’, then
select ‘External debt’)


World Bank Data


www.worldbank.org/qeds


External Debt Statistics and
the IMF


Joint External Debt Hub www.jedh.org


In Sub-Saharan Africa, the ratio of debt to GNI fell from an average
65 percent in 2000 to 20 percent in 2010.


The ratio of debt service to exports for developing countries fell
from 21 percent in 2000 to 9.8 percent in 2010.


In 2010 the World Bank committed over $43 billion in loan, credits,
and grants, equivalent to 53 percent of the commitments from all
multilateral institutions to public sector borrowers in 2010.


Net debt inflows from private creditors surged to $424 billion in
2010, from $86 billion in 2009.


Short-term debt inflow to the top 10 borrowers was $220 billion,
80 percent of the total short-term inflow of $269 billion in 2010.
Half of this went to China, where imports rose 34 percent in
U.S. dollar terms in 2010.


data.worldbank.org


www.imf.org/external/
np/sta/ed/ed.htm


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Maldives


Comoros


Seychelles


Lebanon


Samoa


Tonga


Solomon Islands


Vanuatu
Fiji


Kosovo


Mauritius
Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Israel


Cyprus


West Bank and Gaza


Malta


San
Marino


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


Timor-Leste


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


Marshall Islands


Russian Federation
2000: 63%
2010: 27%


Latvia
2000: 62%
2010: 164%


Low- & middle-income
Low-income
Middle-income


2000
38%
68%
37%


2010
21%
28%
21%


103Economy




0


30


60


90


120


150


1990 2009 1990 2009 1990 2009 1990 2009 1990 2009 1990 2009 1990 2009


East Asia &
Pacific


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia Sub-Saharan
Africa


High-income


Source: World Bank estimates based on the study Ambient Particulate Matter Concentration in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of the World Cities;
New estimates based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS), 2011


Pollution from particulate matter in cities is decreasing


Urban-population-weighted particulate matter (PM10 per cubic meter)


196
0


196
5


197
0


197
5


198
0


198
5


199
0


199
5


200
0


200
5


201
0


Source: UN World Urbanization Prospects, 2011 revision; World Bank estimates


0


200


400


600


800


1,000


East Asia now has the largest number of people living in cities


Population living in urban areas (millions) East Asia & Pacific


Europe & Central Asia


High-income


Latin America & Caribbean


Middle East & North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


104


The urban environment


Cities will continue to grow as


people seek the economic and


social opportunities they offer.


Cities can be efficient providers of


water and sanitation services and


access to health care, education,


and other social and cultural


services, but they also face


increasing costs of congestion and


pollution, and they make demands


on the environment and natural


resources.


access to public services, and a higher


standard of living. The world’s urban


population is expected to almost double by


2050, rising to 6.4 billion from 3.5 billion in


2010. Sub-Saharan Africa will experience a


drastic increase in its urban population,


from 315 million to more than a billion


over the next four decades.


Among developing regions, urbanization


has gone farthest in Latin America and the


Caribbean, where 79 percent of the people


now live in urban areas; this number is


expected to increase to 88 percent by 2050.


By 2050, 70 percent of the world’s population


will live in urban areas, in some countries


placing tremendous pressure on the capacity


of the natural and human-made environment


to support them. The consequences could be


further deterioration of living conditions, the


growth of slums, the destruction of habitat,


and increased air and water pollution.


Cities, now home to more than half of


the world’s people, are growing rapidly in


size and number, especially in developing


countries. People flock to cities for work,




Cities house more than half the world’s population, but basic services are
often lacking in poor areas


0 20 40 60 80 100


East Asia &
Pacific


Latin America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan
Africa


High-income


Europe &
Central Asia


Source: World Health Organization; World Bank estimates


Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have
the lowest access to improved sanitation
in urban areas


Proportion of urban population with access to
improved sanitation facilities (%)


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


Source: United Nations Population Division; World Bank estimates


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca


H
ig


h-
in


co
m


e


Sub-Saharan Africa is urbanizing more
rapidly than other regions


Average annual growth in urban population (%), 1990–2010


0


1


2


3


4


5


105Environment


UN Habitat defines a slum dwelling as a household that


lacks one or more of the following:


• Durablehousingofapermanentnature
• Suficientlivingspace
• Easyaccesstosafewater
• Accesstoadequatesanitation
• Securityoftenurethatpreventsforcedevictions.


By this definition, more than 900 million people in


developing regions live in slums—about one in three people


living in urban areas or one of every six people worldwide.


To achieve significant improvements in the lives of slum


dwellers, public and private investment in durable, affordable


housing is required.


Urbanization and the environment


The cost of urbanization to human health comes from a variety


of sources. The proximity to industrial works and roadways and


the use of inefficient and polluting sources of energy can result


in exposure to high levels of soot and small, airborne particles


(designated ‘PM10’—fine, suspended particles less than


10 microns in diameter) that contribute to lung cancer,


other respiratory diseases, and heart disease.


Air and water pollution in many of the world’s major cities


cause moderate to severe sickness and death and cost billions


of dollars in lost productivity and damages. Although all the


world’s large cities share these problems, water pollution tends


to be most serious in South, Southeast, and Central Asia. Air


pollution has the biggest impact in China, Latin America and


theCaribbean,andEasternEurope.
Not only are the human and financial


costs of pollution high, they tend to


fall disproportionately on poor people.


Therefore addressing pollution is


justified on equity, economic, and


environmental grounds.




Dhaka, Bangladesh, is one of the fastest-growing cities in the
developing world


Country
Urban
agglomeration


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Rank
Population
(millions)


22.7


20.4


20.2


19.9


19.7


15.6


15.4


14.4


13.9


13.5


Delhi


Mexico City


Shanghai


São Paulo


Mumbai


Beijing


Dhaka


Calcutta


Karachi


Buenos Aires


India


Mexico


China


Brazil


India


China


Bangladesh


India


Pakistan


Argentina


Largest urban agglomerations in developing
countries, 2011


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria
Dominican
Republic


St. Lucia


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Liechtenstein


Channel Islands (UK)


Kiribati


Aruba
(Neth)


Grenada


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Barbados


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


São Tomé and Príncipe


The Gambia


Cape Verde


Isle of Man (UK)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Dominica


Monaco


Luxembourg


Andorra


Greenland (Den)


Bermuda
(UK)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


The Bahamas


Cayman Islands (UK) Puerto
Rico (US)


French Guiana
(Fr)


Gibraltar (UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Latin America & Caribbean
79%


Middle East & North Africa
59%


35–49%


50–64%


65–79%


80% or more


less than 35%


no data


urbanization
urban population as a share of
total population, 2011


106




Population Reference Bureau


United Nations Population
Information Network


www.un.org/popin


www.prb.org


World Bank Urban Development www.worldbank.org/urban


United Nations, World
Urbanization Prospects,
2011 Revision


esa.un.org/unpd/wup/
CD-ROM/Urban-Rural-
Population.htm


United Nations—Habitat www.unhabitat.org/
documents/SOWC10/
R1.pdf


World Bank Open Data data.worldbank.org/


Latin America and the Caribbean has the highest share of people
living in urban areas.


The urban population of Sub-Saharan Africa is growing at an
average annual rate of 3.9 percent, faster than any other region.


An estimated 1 billion people live in urban slums in developing
countries.


In 1800, 3 percent of the world’s people lived in urban areas;
by 1900, 14 percent did; and today more than 50 percent do.


A total of 227 million people in the world have moved out of slum
conditions since 2000.


Over 90 percent of urbanization is taking place in the developing
world.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros Timor-Leste


Federated States of Micronesia


Solomon Islands


Vanuatu


Tonga


Samoa


Mauritius


Maldives


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Tuvalu


Fiji


Seychelles


Cyprus


West Bank and Gaza


Brunei Darussalam Marshall Islands


American Samoa (US)


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Singapore


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Lebanon


Israel


San
Marino


Malta


Nauru


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
36%


Europe & Central Asia
64%


South Asia
31%


East Asia & Pacific
48%


107Environment




Real food price index, 2002–2004 = 100


World food prices rose sharply in 2008 and 2011,
reaching their highest levels in 30 years


20
12


*


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization


19
90


19
92


19
94


19
96


19
98


20
00


20
02


20
04


20
08


20
06


20
10


60


80


100


120


140


160


180


Food


Meat


Dairy


Cereals


* July 2012


19
90


19
92


19
94


19
96


19
98


20
00


20
02


20
04


20
08


20
06


20
10


Over the past two decades, world food production
has increased by 18 percent


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization


Food production index, 2002–2004 = 100


World


Africa


South America


Southeast Asia


50


60


70


80


90


100


110


120


108


Feeding a
growing world


The world’s food supply has


expanded faster than its


population, but increasing


consumption in middle- and


high-income economies and


industrial demand for agricultural


outputs have led to higher prices


and local shortages. One billion


people lack adequate nutrition


to meet their daily needs—


a situation that climate change


could make worse.


The demand for agricultural outputs will


continue to grow because of population


growth, rising incomes, changes in dietary


preferences, and industrial demand for


commodities such as maize and oilseeds.


By 2050, there will be 9 billion people living


onEarth,almost2billionmorethantoday.
Most will live in cities, but all will depend


on agricultural areas around the world to


feed them.


Meeting the growing demand for food


requires producing more food and moving


it, often across borders, from surplus to


deficit areas. Improving the quality of


life of those who produce it requires a


continuously increasing productivity and


sustainable use of land. In recent decades,


about two-thirds of growth of the world


agricultural output has come from higher


agricultural productivity and only one-third


from the expansion of agricultural land.


Agricultural output has grown more rapidly


than population, but so has the demand for


agricultural products. For the past 50 years,


production in the developing regions of Asia


and South America has grown even faster,


around 2 percent a year. But in Sub-Saharan


Africa, with some of the highest rates of


In recent years, the world has had difficulty


producing enough food to feed all at


affordable prices, causing 1 billion people


to lack sufficient food to meet their daily


energy needs. Inadequate calorie intake


and diets that do not supply vital nutrients


take a pervasive toll on early childhood


development, impairing children’s cognitive


development and adversely affecting health


and productivity.




Land degradation costs an estimated $40 billion annually worldwide.
Overgrazing is one of many causes of land degradation


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and
World Bank estimates


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic
Eu


ro
pe


&
C


en
tr


al
A


si
a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an
M


id
dl


e
Ea


st
&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


...and cereal production has increased


Cereal production (million metric tons)


0


100


200


300


400


500


600


700


800


19
90


20
10 1


99
0


19
90


19
90


19
90 1


99
0


19
90


20
10


20
10 2


01
0


20
10


20
10


20
10


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and
World Bank estimates


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic
Eu


ro
pe


&
C


en
tr


al
A


si
a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an
M


id
dl


e
Ea


st
&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


Land under cereal production has expanded...


Land under cereal production (million hectares)


0


20


40


60


80


100


120


140


160


180


19
90


20
10


19
90


19
90


19
90


19
90


19
90


19
90


20
10


20
10


20
10


20
10


20
10


20
10


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and
World Bank estimates


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic
Eu


ro
pe


&
C


en
tr


al
A


si
a


La
tin


A
m


er
ic


a
&


C
ar


ib
be


an
M


id
dl


e
Ea


st
&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


Cereal yields have improved in most developing
regions but still trail high-income producers


Cereal yield (kilograms per hectare)


0


1,000


2,000


3,000


4,000


5,000


6,000


19
90


20
10


19
90


19
90


19
90


19
90


19
90


19
90


20
10


20
10


20
10


20
10


20
10


20
10


109Environment


undernourishment, food production has barely kept pace with


population increase, and it remains expensive to import food


fromLatinAmerica,EasternEurope,andothersurplusregions.
Producing more affordable food entails more efficient


use of the agricultural inputs. Intensified cultivation through


the use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and new plant


varieties can make limited land more productive. Such


practices, however, may also cause further environmental


degradation. Moreover, agricultural inputs are becoming


costlier along with rising crude oil prices. The effects of climate


change that causes more frequent droughts and floods as well


as more erratic weather patterns represent another challenge


to efforts to raise agricultural productivity.


Many poor farmers subsist on fragile lands, not always


wellsuitedtointensivefarming.Evenonlandssuitablefor
intensive farming practices, the farmers often lack fertilizers,


farm equipment, irrigation systems, and high-yielding plant


varieties and are poorly linked to markets for their produce.


Overgrazing, deforestation, improper crop rotation, and poor


soil and water management contribute to land degradation.


The degradation of land reduces its productivity, encouraging


growing populations to move on to new and poorer land,


converting forests and fragile, semiarid areas into low-


productivity cultivated areas.


Sustainable production methods, based on environmentally


sound practices, along with the development of more efficient


markets for farm inputs and outputs and off-farm activities,


are the keys to improving rural livelihoods and expanding the


global food supply.




Country


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Agriculture is the main user of land and water, but to remain viable,
it must also maintain the quality and quantity of these resources


Rank


Oman


Mauritius


Belgium


Netherlands


Ireland


New Zealand


France


United States


United Kingdom


Chile


Kilograms per
hectare


18,987


10,000


9,231


8,574


7,409


7,387


7,093


6,988


6,957


6,822


Countries with highest cereal yield, 2010


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Togo


Ghana


French Polynesia (Fr)


Bermuda
(UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


The Bahamas


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Aruba
(Neth)


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Cape Verde
St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


St. Lucia


Puerto
Rico (US)


Kiribati


Dominica


Grenada
Barbados


Channel Islands (UK)


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Luxembourg


São Tomé and Príncipe
French Guiana


(Fr)


Isle of Man (UK)


The Gambia


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Curaçao
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Latin America & Caribbean
36%


Middle East & North Africa
23%


agricultural land
agricultural land (% of land area),
2007−2009, most recent year available


15.0–29.9%


30.0–44.9%


45.0–59.9%


60.0% or more


less than 15.0%


no data


110




FAO Statistical Yearbook 2012


Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations—Statistics


International Fund for
Agricultural Development—
Water and Food Security


To meet the demand of a larger and more affluent population,
annual cereal production will have to grow from 2.1 billion tons to
3 billion tons by 2050.


Seventy percent of freshwater withdrawals are used for
irrigating crops.


Only 0.2 hectare of arable land is available per person, less than
half the amount 50 years ago.


Thirty percent of the Earth's land is used for growing crops and
pastureland; another 30 percent is covered by forests.


Facts Internet links


www.fao.org/docrep/015/
i2490e/i2490e00.htm


www.fao.org/corp/statistics/en/


www.ifad.org/english/water/
pub/water_food.pdf


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Togo


Cyprus


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Seychelles


Singapore


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Palau


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Solomon Islands


American Samoa (US)


Samoa
Fiji


Timor-Leste


Vanuatu


Maldives


San
Marino


Malta
Israel


Guam (US)


Tonga


Tuvalu


Federated States of Micronesia


Kosovo


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Mauritius


Lebanon


West Bank and Gaza


Comoros


Marshall Islands


Nauru


Sub-Saharan Africa
45%


Europe & Central Asia
28%


South Asia
55%


East Asia & Pacific
49%


111Environment




Irrigated lands are increasing, putting more
pressure on water resources


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and World Bank estimates


Irrigated land
(million hectares)


0


20


40


60


80


100


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


20
09


19
90


19
70


20
09


19
90


19
70


20
09


19
90


19
70


20
09


19
90


19
70


20
09


19
90


19
70 2


00
9


19
90


19
70


20
09


19
90


19
70


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


Most freshwater in developing countries is used
for agriculture


Source: World Resources Institute; Food and Agriculture Organization’s
AQUASTAT database


Share of freshwater withdrawals (%), MRY 1999–2009


0


20


40


60


80


100


AgricultureaIndustryiDomesticd


a


i


d


a


i


d


a


i


d


a


i


d


a


d
i


a


i


d


a


i


d


South Asia and Middle East and North Africa
face severe water conditions


Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita
(1,000 cubic meters), 2009


Source: World Resources Institute; Food and Agriculture Organization’s
AQUASTAT database


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


0


5


10


15


20


25


112


A thirsty planet
gets thirstier


Water is crucial to economic


growth and development—and


to the survival of terrestrial and


aquatic ecosystems. Demand


for water is increasing for food


production, industrial uses,


and human consumption.


Meanwhile, over 800 million


people lack convenient access


to safe drinking water.


With the projected growth in population


and economic activity, the share of the


world’s population facing water shortages


will increase more than fivefold by 2050.


Human needs for water in daily life compete


with demands from agriculture, energy


production, and other industrial uses.


Urbanization and changes in lifestyle have


led to higher per capita use. Climate change


is also expected to influence the availability


and distribution of freshwater supplies.


These trends pose a significant challenge


formeetingtheMillenniumDevelopment
Goals and sustaining the growth of


developing countries.


AlthoughtheEarth’swaterresources
are estimated at about 1.4 billion cubic


kilometers, only a fraction is available for


human needs. Freshwater makes up only


2.5 percent of total water resources, or


about 35 million cubic kilometers. Most


freshwater occurs in the form of permanent


ice or snow, locked up in Antarctica and


Greenland, or in deep groundwater aquifers.


The principal sources of water for human use


are lakes, rivers, soil moisture, and relatively


shallow groundwater basins. The usable




Increasing water scarcity increases the competition for water by different
sectors of the economy, and agriculture accounts for 70 percent of global
water withdrawal


0 50 100 150 200 250 300


Source: World Health Organization and World Bank estimates


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan
Africa


East Asia &
Pacific


High-income


People in rural areas are more likely to lack
access to improved water sources


People without access to improved
water (millions), 2010


Urban


Rural


Source: World Health Organization and World Bank estimates


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia


Sub-Saharan
Africa


East Asia &
Pacific


High-income


0 20 40 60 80 100


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


1990


2010


Despite progress, almost 40 percent of
the population of Sub-Saharan Africa
lacks access to an improved water source


Access to an improved water source (% of population)


113Environment


portion is less than 1 percent of all freshwater and only


0.03percentofallwateronEarth.Muchofthatislocated
far from human populations.


Humans compete with natural systems in the use of


freshwater.Extractionofwaterforhumanneedsdiminishes
the amount available to maintain the integrity of terrestrial


and marine ecosystems. The three major factors leading to


increased water demand over the past century have been


population growth, industrial development, and the expansion


of irrigated land in agriculture. Agriculture accounts for


more than 70 percent of freshwater withdrawals in the world


and 90 percent in low-income countries. Most of this water


is used for irrigation to provide about 40 percent of world


food production. Pollution of water bodies causes further


degradation of natural systems and reduces the supply fit


for human consumption.


Although domestic use of water for drinking and


washing is the smallest part of the demand for water—


usually less than 5 percent of the total—providing safe


water for human consumption is of great importance for


health and wellbeing. Water supplies should be free of


chemical and biological contaminants and delivered in such


a way that their cleanliness is protected. They should also be


regularly and conveniently available.




Country


Access to an improved
water source


(% of population)


Many people still lack access to a convenient and reliable water source


Somalia


Papua New Guinea


Ethiopia


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Madagascar


Mozambique


Niger


Afghanistan


Mauritania


Angola


29


40


44


45


46


47


49


50


50


51


Lowest access to clean water sources, 2010


Rank


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Togo


Ghana


Cape Verde


The Gambia


São Tomé and Príncipe


Cayman Islands (UK)


St. Kitts and Nevis


St. Lucia


French Polynesia (Fr)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Barbados


Greenland (Den)


Luxembourg


Monaco


Andorra


French Guiana
(Fr)


Gibraltar (UK)


Liechtenstein


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Antigua and Barbuda


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada


Dominica


Kiribati


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)Puerto
Rico (US)


Western
Sahara


Latin America & Caribbean
94%


Middle East & North Africa
89%


50–69%


70–89%


90–99%


100%


less than 50%


no data


access to water
share of population with access to
an improved water source, 2010


114




Between 1990 and 2000, world population increased from
1.6 billion to 6 billion while water withdrawals increased from
500 cubic kilometers to 3,830 cubic kilometers.


Latin America, with 32 percent, and East Asia, with 21 percent,
have more than half of the world’s freshwater resources.


By 2050, the world’s water will have to support the agricultural
systems to feed and create livelihoods for an additional
2.7 billion people.


South Asia uses 91 percent of total freshwater withdrawals for
agriculture.


UN Environment Programme


AQUASTAT, Food and
Agriculture Organization


www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/
main/index.stm


www.unep.org


World Resources Institute www.wri.org


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Togo


Timor-Leste


Palau


West Bank and Gaza


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


Vanuatu
Fiji


Samoa


Maldives


Mauritius


Comoros


Kuwait
Malta


Lebanon


Israel


Cyprus


Qatar


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Guam (US)


Singapore


Tonga
New


Caledonia
(Fr)


American Samoa (US)


Solomon Islands


Nauru


Federated States of Micronesia


Brunei Darussalam


Seychelles


Bahrain


Kosovo


San
Marino


Sub-Saharan Africa
61%


Europe & Central Asia
96%


South Asia
90%


East Asia & Pacific
90%


115Environment




High-income
9,630


Latin America & Caribbean
9,460


Europe & Central Asia
8,784


Sub-Saharan Africa
6,605


East Asia & Pacific
4,698


South Asia
817


Middle East & North Africa
211


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and World Bank estimates


Nearly 75 percent of all forest areas are in
developing economies


Regional forest coverage (1,000 sq. km), 2010


Source: United Nations Environment Programme;
World Conservation Monitoring Centre and World Bank estimates


High-income
5,127


Latin America &
Caribbean
4,118


Sub-Saharan Africa
2,846


East Asia & Pacific
2,404


Europe & Central Asia
1,765


Middle East & North Africa
336


South Asia
290


Among developing regions, Latin America and
the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa have the
largest areas of protected land


Regional distribution of protected land area (1,000 sq. km), 2010


0


5


10


15


20


25


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a
So


ut
h


As
ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


Source: United Nations Environment Programme;
World Conservation Monitoring Centre and World Bank estimates


Protected areas conserve habitat for
plants and animals


Nationally protected terrestrial areas (% of total area), 2010


0


10


20


30


40


50


60


Forests cover more than 31 percent of all land
worldwide


Forest coverage (% of land area)


Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and World Bank estimates


Ea
st


A
si


a
&


Pa
ci


fic


Eu
ro


pe
&


C
en


tr
al


A
si


a
La


tin
A


m
er


ic
a


&
C


ar
ib


be
an


M
id


dl
e


Ea
st


&


N
or


th
A


fr
ic


a


So
ut


h
As


ia


Su
b-


Sa
ha


ra
n


Af
ri


ca
H


ig
h-


in
co


m
e


19
90


20
10


19
90


20
10


19
90


20
10 19


90


20
10


19
90


20
10


19
90


20
10


19
90


20
10


116


Protecting forests


Forests contribute to the


livelihood of poor people and


nourish the natural systems on


which many more people depend.


More than 31 percent of the


world’s land area is forested,


which accounts for as much


as 90 percent of terrestrial


biodiversity. In most countries,


however, forests are shrinking.


Forest loss is taking a terrible toll on both


the natural and the economic resources of


many countries. Forests meet many people’s


basic, everyday needs, providing food, fuel,


building materials, and clean water. Forests


also provide essential public goods of global


value. They facilitate the hydrological and


nutrient cycles and act as carbon sinks,


reducing the accumulation of greenhouse


gases in the atmosphere.


Deforestationisthemaincauseof
biodiversity loss. Biodiversity refers to the


variety of plants and animal species on


Earth,thegeneticvariabilitywithineach
species, and the variety of ecosystems in




Rainforest protected from destruction within
the Argentinian sector of Iguazú National Park


A bend in the Ganga River, India


117Environment


which they live. Tropical forests are particularly


rich in diversity of life. In addition, forest loss in


the tropics is responsible for 10 to 30 percent of


global greenhouse gas emissions.


Deforestationislargelydrivenbyhumanaction.
Because many services provided by forests are


not valued, forests are subject to destructive and


unsustainable exploitation that is not economically


or environmentally justified. Forests are cleared to


expand agricultural land or allow the exploitation of


minerals. Timber is used to provide fuel and raw


material for manufacturing and construction. In


many cases, a proper accounting would show that


forests are more valuable than these destructive


uses.


Global deforestation is proceeding at 13 million


hectares a year, but because of reforestation


in some regions, net forest losses will average


5 million hectares a year between 2000 and


2010. New incentives and careful regulation are


needed to stop deforestation. Forest areas may be


designated as protected areas to prevent illegal and


unsustainable exploitation. About 13 percent of the


world’s forest area is under protection, including


some lower-density forest areas. Generally, the


least well-protected forests are located in Africa.




Forest area
(1,000 sq. km)


Indonesia is among the top 10 countries with the largest forest area


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Russian Federation


Brazil


Canada


United States


China


Congo, Dem. Rep.


Australia


Indonesia


Sudan


India


8,091


5,195


3,101


3,040


2,069


1,541


1,493


944


699


684


Country


Countries with the largest forest area, 2010


Rank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Dominica


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Antigua and Barbuda


Kiribati


Monaco


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Greenland (Den)


São Tomé and Príncipe


Bermuda
(UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


The Bahamas


Aruba
(Neth)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Barbados


Grenada


St. Martin (Fr)


Cape Verde


The Gambia


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


St. Lucia


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Channel Islands (UK)


Gibraltar (UK)


Curaçao
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Sint Maarten (Neth)
Western
Sahara


decrease of 0.1–0.9%


no significant change


increase of 0.1–0.9%


increase of 1.0% or more


decrease of 1.0% or more


no data


forest lost and gained
average annual change in forest area,
between 2000 and 2010


118




International Union for
Conservation of Nature


Food and Agriculture
Organization—Forestry


www.fao.org
(click on Forestry)


www.iucn.org


Food and Agriculture
Organization’s
Global Forest Resources
Assessment 2010 database


www.fao.org/forestry/fra2010


Between 1990 and 2010, the world lost about 138 million
hectares of forest, almost 7 million hectares per year.


The forest area in Brazil decreased by more than 55 million
hectares, more than 40 percent of the world’s forest loss,
between 1990 and 2010.


China added an average of about 2.5 million hectares of forest
each year from 1990 to 2010.


At the global level, deforestation seems to be slowing:
the estimate of forest cover change indicates an annual loss of
5.3 million hectares during the years 2000 to 2010, compared
with 13.8 million hectares annually between 1990 and 2010.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Comoros


Mauritius


Timor-Leste


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Solomon Islands


American Samoa (US)


Guam (US)


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Tuvalu


Vanuatu


Tonga


Samoa


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Singapore


Seychelles


Maldives


Qatar


Malta


San
Marino


Palau


Fiji


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


West Bank and Gaza


Lebanon


Israel


Cyprus


Kuwait


Bahrain


Nauru


Kosovo


119Environment




Terrestrial and marine
protected areas (% of
total territorial area)


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Venezuela, RB


Liechtenstein


Germany


Hong Kong SAR, China


Greenland


Ecuador


Nicaragua


Zambia


Botswana


Saudi Arabia


50


42


42


42


40


38


37


36


31


30


The Cara, one of the many species of fish found in the
Amazon region of Brazil near Manaus


Economy


Economies with the highest proportion of
protected terrestrial and marine areas, 2010


Rank


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Ghana


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


French Polynesia (Fr)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Barbados


Aruba
(Neth)


Grenada


Cape Verde


Channel Islands (UK)


The Gambia


Cayman Islands (UK)


The Bahamas
Turks and Caicos


Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica
Antigua and Barbuda


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Bermuda
(UK)


Andorra


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)Kiribati


Greenland (Den)


Luxembourg


Liechtenstein


Monaco


São Tomé and Príncipe


Gibraltar (UK)


Isle of Man (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Curaçao
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Latin America & Caribbean
19.8%


Middle East & North Africa
4.0%


1.0–4.9%


5.0–9.9%


10.0–19.9%


20.0% or more


less than 1.0%


no data


protected areas
nationally protected terrestrial and marine areas
as a share of total land area, 2010


120




International Union for
Conservation of Nature


United Nations Environment
Programme World Conservation
Monitoring Centre


unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/
Data.aspx


www.iucn.org


World Database on
Protected Areas


www.wdpa.org/Default.aspx


www.fao.org/forestry/fra2010


The world’s nationally protected areas were about 17 million
square kilometers or 12 percent of the total terrestrial area
in 2010.


Global marine protected areas were about 1.4 million square
kilometers or 10 percent of the world’s territorial waters up to
12 nautical miles in 2010.


There were 130,709 nationally and 27,188 internationally
designated marine and terrestrial protected areas in 2011.


About 10 percent, or about 400 million hectares, of the world’s
forest area has been declared protected.


Facts Internet links


Food and Agriculture
Organization’s
Global Forest Resources
Assessment 2010 database


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


West Bank and Gaza


Lebanon


Bahrain


Seychelles


Mauritius


Federated States of Micronesia


Marshall Islands


Solomon Islands Tuvalu


Vanuatu
Fiji


Samoa


Guam (US)


Palau


Singapore


Qatar


Kuwait


Cyprus


Malta


Timor-Leste


Tonga


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Israel


American Samoa (US)


Brunei Darussalam


N. Mariana Islands (US)


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Nauru


Maldives


Comoros


San
Marino


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
12.4%


Europe & Central Asia
7.7%


South Asia
5.6%


East Asia & Pacific
13.3%


121Environment




0


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


0


5


10


15


20


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
081


99
0


20
08


19
90 20


08


19
90


20
081


99
0


Carbon dioxide emissions (billion metric tons)


Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and World Bank estimates


United States Russian
Federation


China India


Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)


Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and World Bank estimates


United States Russian
Federation


China India


The four largest emitters account for about half of all carbon dioxide emissions produced in 2008, but average
emissions per person in China and India are still quite low


East Asia &
Pacific


Europe &
Central Asia


Latin America &
Caribbean


Middle East &
North Africa


South Asia Sub-Saharan
Africa


Low- & middle-
income


High-income


Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and World Bank estimates


0


2


4


6


8


10


12


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90 2


00
8


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


20
08


19
90


Carbon dioxide emissions are highest in high-income economies, and still growing


Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)


122


Energy security and
climate change


World demand for energy is


surging. The share of energy


production from alternative sources


has increased slightly since 1990,


but fossil fuels supplied more than


80 percent of the world’s total


energy production in 2009. Fossil


fuels are the primary source of


carbon dioxide emissions, which,


along with the other greenhouse


gases, are believed to be the


principal cause of global climate


change. Producing the energy


needed for growth while mitigating


its effects on the world’s climate is


a global challenge for everyone.


Developingcountriescontainmorethan
five-sixths of the world’s population and


use more than half the world’s energy, and


their demand is growing faster than richer


countries’.Energyusearoundtheglobe
decreased by about 1 percent during the


recession from 2007 to 2008, but in fast-


growingEastAsiaandthePaciic,itgrew
by 5.3 percent.


As economies develop, technological


progress and a shift away from energy-


intensive activities help to increase energy


efficiency, but rising incomes and growing


populations increase the demand for energy.


As a result, between 1990 and 2009, worldwide


energy use increased by about 38 percent


while the population rose by only 29 percent.


The way energy is generated determines


its environmental consequences. The


extensive use of fossil fuels in recent decades


has boosted emissions of carbon dioxide,




Using solar energy to generate electricity has changed the lives of
hundreds of rural families


Nuclear
6%


Hydro
2%


Natural gas
21%


Crude oil
33%


Coal
27%


Combustible
renewable and


waste
10%


Other
1%


Source: International Energy Agency’s World Energy Balance database


Fossil fuels are the source of more than
80 percent of the world's energy supply


Global primary energy supply by sources, 2009


High-
income


Upper-middle-
income


Lower-middle-
income


Low-
income


0


2


4


6


8


10


12


20
00


20
01


20
02


20
03


20
04


20
05


20
06


20
07


20
08


20
09


Energy use (million kilotons of oil equivalent)


Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) and World Bank estimates


High-income economies use almost 50 percent
of the world’s energy, but developing countries’
demand is rising


123Environment


the principal greenhouse gas that traps heat in the


atmosphere. Burning coal releases twice as much carbon


dioxide as burning the equivalent amount of natural gas.


It is estimated that half the amount of carbon released each


year by human activities stays in the atmosphere, contributing


to climate change; half the remaining carbon is being


dissolved in the ocean and the other half is absorbed on land


by vegetation and soils. Clearing of forests has reduced their


ability to trap carbon dioxide.


The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has


increased by more than 30 percent since the beginning of


the industrial revolution. According to the Intergovernmental


Panel on Climate Change, the rate and duration of global


warming in the 20th century are unprecedented in the past


thousand years. The global average surface temperature has


increased by about 0.6 degrees Celsius since 1861, the year


instrument records became available, and the 1990s were


the warmest decade yet recorded. A recent study found that


average summer temperatures in the northern hemisphere


are now about 0.5–0.6 degrees Celsius warmer than during a


1950–1980 base period. An important change in recent years


is the emergence of extremely hot outliers. These hot


extremes,whichcoveredmuchlessthan1percentofEarth’s
surface during the base period, now typically cover about


10 percent of the land area. Warming is expected to continue,


with increases in the range of 1.4–5.8 degrees Celsius over


the next 100 years.


Global warming shrinks glaciers,


changes the frequency and intensity of


rainfall, shifts growing seasons, advances


the flowering of trees and emergence


of insects, and causes the sea level to


rise. The magnitude and effect of


climate change vary across regions, but


developing countries are likely to suffer


most because of their dependence on


climate-sensitive activities such as


agriculture and fishing. They also have


more limited capacity to respond to the


effects of climate change.




Water pipes at mini hydroelectric plant


China


United States


India


Russian Federation


Japan


Germany


France


Canada


Brazil


Korea, Rep.


2,257


2,163


676


647


472


319


256


254


240


229


CountryRank


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


Million metric
tons of oil
equivalent


Countries with highest energy consumption,
2009


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Ghana


Luxembourg


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Kiribati


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas
Turks and Caicos


Islands (UK)


Cayman Islands (UK)


Aruba
(Neth)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


St. Kitts and Nevis


Antigua and Barbuda


Puerto
Rico (US)


Dominica


St. Lucia


St. Vincent and the GrenadinesGrenada


Barbados


The Gambia


Cape Verde


Gibraltar (UK)


Monaco


Liechtenstein


Andorra


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


São Tomé and Príncipe


Greenland (Den)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)
Western
Sahara


2,500–4,999


1,000–2,499


500–999


less than 500


5,000 or more


no data


energy use
energy use per capita,
kilograms of oil equivalent, 2009


124




International Energy Agency www.iea.org


The World Bank Group
Energy Program


www.worldbank.org/energy


www.iea.org/publications/
worldenergyoutlook/resources


International Energy Agency’s
World Energy Outlook


In 2009, petroleum, coal, and natural gas were the top sources of
the world’s energy supply, accounting for 33, 26, and 21 percent,
respectively.


Renewable energy from nuclear, hydro, and solar sources constituted
less than 10 percent of the world’s energy consumption in 2009.


About 1.8 billion people in the world live without access to electricity.


In Sub-Saharan Africa, almost 68 percent of people live without
access to electricity.


Latin America and the Caribbean produces more than 55 percent
of its electricity from hydropower.


China, Brazil, Canada, the United States, and the Russian Federation
produce more than half of the world’s hydropower energy.


Sub-Saharan Africa still gets more than half of its energy from
traditional combustible renewable sources and waste.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Brunei Darussalam


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Réunion (Fr)


Mayotte
(Fr)


Israel


Singapore


Malta


Cyprus


Lebanon


San
Marino


Kosovo


West Bank and Gaza


Islands


Seychelles


Mauritius


Maldives


Comoros


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


Palau


Federated States of Micronesia


Timor-Leste


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Vanuatu


Solomon Islands


Tonga


Samoa
Fiji


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


Marshall Islands


125Environment




1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


China


India


United States


Iran, Islamic Rep.


Korea, Rep.


Indonesia


Saudi Arabia


Thailand


Brazil


Malaysia


4,571


1,052


582


311


265


256


219


190


184


152


Use of biomass energy increases health risks for many poor
people who depend on biomass energy from plant materials or
animal wastes for cooking and heating


CountryRank


Increase in carbon dioxide
emissions (million metric


tons of oil equivalent)


Greatest increase in emissions between
1990 and 2008


Uruguay


U n i t e d S t a t e s


United
Kingdom


Trinidad
and Tobago


Togo


Suriname


Spain


Sierra Leone


Senegal


R.B. de
Venezuela


Portugal


Peru


Paraguay


Panama


Nicaragua


The Netherlands


Morocco


Mexico


Mauritania


Mali


Liberia


Jamaica


Ireland


Iceland


Honduras


Haiti


Guyana


Guinea-Bissau
Guinea


Guatemala


Fra nce


El Salvador


Ecuador


Dominican
Republic


Cuba


Côte
d'Ivoire


Costa Rica


Colombia


Chile


C a n a d a


Burkina Faso


B r a z i l


Bolivia


Benin


Belize


Argentina


Alg eria


Ghana


Aruba
(Neth)


Luxembourg


Cayman Islands (UK)


Greenland (Den)


Faeroe
Islands
(Den)


Andorra


Bermuda
(UK)


The Bahamas


Guadeloupe (Fr)


Martinique (Fr)


Barbados


Antigua and Barbuda


French Guiana
(Fr)


French Polynesia (Fr)


Turks and Caicos
Islands (UK)


St. Kitts and Nevis


St. Lucia


Dominica


St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Grenada


Kiribati


The Gambia


Cape Verde


São Tomé and Príncipe


Isle of Man (UK)


Channel Islands (UK)


Liechtenstein


Monaco


Gibraltar (UK)


British Virgin
Islands (UK)


US Virgin
Islands (US)


Puerto
Rico (US)


Curaçao
(Neth)


Sint Maarten (Neth)


St. Martin (Fr)


Western
Sahara


Latin America & Caribbean
2.8 metric tons


Middle East & North Africa
3.8 metric tons


10.0–14.9 metric tons


5.0–9.9 metric tons


1.0–4.9 metric tons


less than 1.0 metric tons


15.0 metric tons or more


no data


carbon dioxide emissions per capita, 2008


greenhouse gases


126




National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA)


Carbon Dioxide Information
Analysis Center


U.S. Energy Information
Administration


www.eia.gov/


cdiac.ornl.gov


Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change


www.ipcc.ch


www.noaa.gov/


The IEA Greenhouse Gas
R&D Programme


www.ieaghg.org


Between 1990 and 2008, the world’s carbon dioxide energy-related
emissions rose by 36 percent to 30.2 billion metric tons. They are
projected to rise to 35.2 billion metric tons in 2020 and 43.2 billion
metric tons in 2035.


Developing countries emitted nearly half the world’s 32 billion
metric tons of total carbon dioxide emissions in 2008.


High-income economies emit more than four times as much
carbon dioxide per person as developing economies.


Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased
from 280 parts per million in preindustrial times to 390.4 in 2011
—an increase of more than 39 percent—and will likely reach
400 by 2016.


Carbon dioxide constitutes about 75 percent of global greenhouse
gas emissions.


Facts Internet links


Zimbabwe


Zambia


Vietnam


Uzbekistan


United Arab
Emirates


Ukraine


Uganda


TurkmenistanTurkey


Tunisia


Togo


Thailand


Tanzania


Tajikistan


Syrian
Arab Rep.


Switzerland


Sweden


Swaziland


Sri Lanka


South Africa


Somalia


Slovenia
Slovak Republic


Serbia


Saudi Arabia


Rwanda


R u s s i a n F e d e r a t i o n


Romania


Rep. of
Yemen


Rep. of
Korea


Poland


Philippines


Papua New
Guinea


Pakistan


Oman


Norway


Nigeria


Niger


Nepal


Namibia


Myanmar


Mozambique


Mongolia
Moldova


Malaysia


Malawi


Madagascar


Lithuania


Libya


Lesotho


Latvia


Lao
P.D.R.


Kyrgyz Republic


Kenya


Kazakhstan


Jordan


Japan


Italy


Islamic Republic
of Iran


Iraq


Indonesia


India


Hungary


Greece


Germany


Georgia


Gabon


FYR Macedonia


Fra nce


Finland


Ethiopia


Estonia


Eritrea


Equatorial Guinea


Djibouti


Denmark


Dem. Rep.
of Congo


Dem. People's
Rep. of Korea


Czech Republic


Croatia


C h i n a


Chad


Central
African


RepublicCameroon


Cambodia


Burundi


Burkina Faso


Bulgaria


Botswana


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bhutan


Benin


Belgium


Belarus


Bangladesh


Azerbaijan


Austria


A u s t r a l i a


New Zealand


Armenia


Arab Rep.
of Egypt


Angola


Alg eria


Montenegro


Afghanistan


Albania


Sudan


South
Sudan


Rep. of
Congo


Qatar


Kuwait


Bahrain


Brunei Darussalam


Islands


Palau


New
Caledonia


(Fr)


Singapore


Seychelles


Mayotte
(Fr)


Réunion (Fr)


Israel


Cyprus


Malta


Maldives


Lebanon


Tonga


Fiji


Marshall Islands


Mauritius


West Bank and Gaza


Comoros Timor-Leste


Federated States of Micronesia


Vanuatu


Solomon Islands


Samoa


N. Mariana Islands (US)


Guam (US)


American Samoa (US)


Tuvalu


Nauru


San
Marino


Kosovo


Sub-Saharan Africa
0.8 metric tons


Europe & Central Asia
7.8 metric tons


East Asia & Pacific
4.3 metric tons


South Asia
1.2 metric tons


127Environment




128


Total population
millions


2011


Life expectancy at birth
years
2010


Under-5 mortality rate
per 1,000 live births


2011


Access to an improved
water source


% of population
2010


Gross national income (GNI)ª


$ billions
2011Economy


per capita $
2011


Afghanistan 35.32 48 101 50 14.3 410


Albania 3.22 77 14 95 12.8 3,980


Algeria 35.98 73 30 83 160.8 4,470


American Samoa 0.07 .. .. .. .. .. d


Andorra 0.09 .. 3 100 .. .. e


Angola 19.62 51 158 51 79.7 4,060


Antigua and Barbuda 0.09 .. 8 .. 1.1 12,060


Argentina 40.76 76 14 .. 397.2 9,740


Armenia 3.10 74 18 98 10.4 3,360


Aruba 0.11 75 .. 100 .. .. e


Australia 22.62 82 5 100 1,030.3 46,200


Austria 8.42 80 4 100 406.6 48,300


Azerbaijan 9.17 71 45 80 48.5 5,290


Bahamas, The 0.35 75 16 .. 7.5 21,970


Bahrain 1.32 75 10 .. 20.1 15,920


Bangladesh 150.49 69 46 81 116.4 770


Barbados 0.27 77 20 100 3.5 12,660


Belarus 9.47 70 6 100 55.3 5,830


Belgium 11.01 80 4 100 508.1 46,160


Belize 0.36 76 17 98 1.3 3,690


Benin 9.10 56 106 75 7.1 780


Bermuda 0.06 79 .. .. .. .. e


Bhutan 0.74 67 54 96 1.5 2,070


Bolivia 10.09 66 51 88 20.5 2,040


Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.75 75 8 99 18.0 4,780


Botswana 2.03 53 26 96 15.2 7,480


Brazil 196.66 73 16 98 2,107.6 10,720


Brunei Darussalam 0.41 78 7 .. 12.5 31,800


Bulgaria 7.48 74 12 100 48.9 6,550


Burkina Faso 16.97 55 146 79 9.7 570


Burundi 8.58 50 139 72 2.2 250


Cambodia 14.31 63 43 64 11.8 830


Cameroon 20.03 51 127 77 24.2 1,210


Canada 34.48 81 6 100 1,570.9 45,560


Cape Verde 0.50 74 21 88 1.8 3,540


Cayman Islands 0.06 .. .. 96 .. .. e


Central African Republic 4.49 48 164 67 2.1 470


Chad 11.53 49 169 51 8.0 690


Channel Islands 0.15 80 .. .. .. .. e


Chile 17.27 79 9 96 212.0 12,280


China 1,344.13 73 15 91 6,644.3 4,940


Hong Kong SAR, China 7.07 83 .. .. 248.7 35,160


Macao SAR, China 0.56 81 .. .. 24.7 45,460


Colombia 46.93 73 18 92 286.5 6,110


Comoros 0.75 61 79 95 0.6 770


Congo, Dem. Rep. 67.76 48 168 45 13.1 190


Congo, Rep. 4.14 57 99 71 9.4 2,270


Costa Rica 4.73 79 10 97 36.2 7,660


Côte d'Ivoire 20.15 55 115 80 22.1 1,100


Croatia 4.41 76 5 99 61.0 13,850


Cuba 11.25 79 6 94 .. .. d


Curaçao 0.15 .. .. .. .. .. e


Cyprus 1.12 79 3 100 23.7 f 29,450 f


Czech Republic 10.55 77 4 100 195.3 18,520


Denmark 5.57 79 4 100 336.6 60,390


Djibouti 0.91 58 90 88 1.1 1,270


Dominica 0.07 .. 12 .. 0.5 7,090


Dominican Republic 10.06 73 25 86 52.6 5,240


Ecuador 14.67 75 23 94 60.7 4,140


Egypt, Arab Rep. 82.54 73 21 99 214.7 2,600


El Salvador 6.23 72 15 88 21.7 3,480


Equatorial Guinea 0.72 51 118 .. 10.5 14,540


Eritrea 5.42 61 68 .. 2.3 430


Estonia 1.34 75 4 98 20.4 15,200


Ethiopia 84.73 59 77 44 33.8 400


Faeroe Islands 0.05 .. .. .. .. .. e


Fiji 0.87 69 16 98 3.2 3,680


Finland 5.39 80 3 100 260.8 48,420


France 65.44 81 4 100 2,775.7 42,420


French Polynesia 0.27 75 .. 100 .. .. e


Gabon 1.53 62 66 87 12.2 7,980


Gambia, The 1.78 58 101 89 1.1 610


Georgia 4.49 73 21 98 12.8 g 2,860 g


Germany 81.73 80 4 100 3,594.3 43,980


Ghana 24.97 64 78 86 35.1 1,410


Greece 11.30 80 4 100 283.0 25,030


Key indicators of development




129Statistics


Total debt service
% of exports of goods,
services and incomeb


2010


Merchandise trade
% of GDP


2010


Foreign direct investment
net inflows, % of GDP


2010


Starting a business
time required in days


June 2011


Mobile cellular
subscriptionsc


per 100 people
2011 Economy


Carbon dioxide emissions
per capita


metric tons
2008


.. 28 0.4 7 54 0.0 Afghanistan


11.1 52 9.4 5 96 1.3 Albania


1.0 60 1.4 25 99 3.2 Algeria


.. .. .. .. .. .. American Samoa


.. .. .. .. 75 6.5 Andorra


4.5 91 -3.9 68 48 1.4 Angola


.. 55 8.4 21 182 5.1 Antigua and Barbuda


16.7 34 1.6 26 135 4.8 Argentina


33.4 51 6.5 8 104 1.8 Armenia


.. .. .. .. 123 21.7 Aruba


.. 37 2.7 2 108 18.6 Australia


.. 83 3.3 28 155 8.1 Austria


1.4 63 2.3 8 109 5.4 Azerbaijan


.. 42 7.6 31 86 6.5 Bahamas, The


.. 103 0.7 9 128 21.4 Bahrain


4.7 47 0.7 19 56 0.3 Bangladesh


.. 49 16.3 .. 127 5.0 Barbados


4.6 109 7.2 5 112 6.5 Belarus


.. 172 18.0 4 117 9.8 Belgium


12.1 74 6.2 44 64 1.3 Belize


.. 52 1.7 29 85 0.5 Benin


.. 17 7.0 .. 136 6.1 Bermuda


.. 86 1.3 36 66 1.0 Bhutan


9.3 59 3.2 50 83 1.3 Bolivia


19.9 84 2.4 40 85 8.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina


1.5 69 1.8 61 143 2.5 Botswana


19.0 18 2.7 119 123 2.1 Brazil


.. 98 4.0 101 109 27.5 Brunei Darussalam


14.2 97 3.4 18 141 6.6 Bulgaria


.. 38 0.4 13 45 0.1 Burkina Faso


.. 30 0.0 14 14 0.0 Burundi


.. 111 7.0 85 70 0.3 Cambodia


3.6 39 0.0 15 52 0.3 Cameroon


.. 50 2.4 5 75 16.3 Canada


5.3 47 6.7 11 79 0.6 Cape Verde


.. .. .. .. 168 10.1 Cayman Islands


.. 24 3.6 21 25 0.1 Central African Republic


.. 71 9.1 66 32 0.0 Chad


.. .. .. .. .. .. Channel Islands


15.2 60 7.0 7 130 4.4 Chile


3.3 50 3.1 38 73 5.3 China


.. 376 34.1 3 210 5.5 Hong Kong SAR, China


.. 23 12.3 .. 243 2.6 Macao SAR, China


21.0 28 4.0 14 98 1.5 Colombia


.. 38 1.7 24 29 0.2 Comoros


3.8 75 22.4 65 23 0.0 Congo, Dem. Rep.


.. 92 23.5 160 94 0.5 Congo, Rep.


7.7 63 5.1 60 92 1.8 Costa Rica


.. 79 1.8 32 86 0.4 Côte d'Ivoire


.. 52 2.3 7 116 5.3 Croatia


.. .. .. .. 12 2.8 Cuba


.. .. .. .. .. .. Curaçao


.. 43 1.0 8 98 7.9 Cyprus


.. 131 2.5 20 122 11.2 Czech Republic


.. 58 4.6 6 126 8.4 Denmark


7.5 .. .. 37 21 0.6 Djibouti


9.8 58 5.2 14 164 1.9 Dominica


11.0 42 3.2 19 87 2.2 Dominican Republic


9.4 66 0.3 56 105 1.9 Ecuador


6.0 36 2.9 7 101 2.7 Egypt, Arab Rep.


19.0 61 1.5 17 126 1.0 El Salvador


.. 112 4.8 137 59 7.3 Equatorial Guinea


.. 33 2.6 84 4 0.1 Eritrea


.. 127 0.8 7 139 13.6 Estonia


.. 36 1.0 9 17 0.1 Ethiopia


.. .. .. .. 122 14.6 Faeroe Islands


.. 71 6.2 45 84 1.5 Fiji


.. 58 0.0 14 166 10.6 Finland


.. 44 1.5 7 105 5.9 France


.. .. .. .. 81 3.4 French Polynesia


.. 94 1.3 58 117 1.7 Gabon


7.2 28 3.2 27 89 0.3 Gambia, The


18.1 57 6.8 2 102 1.2 Georgia


.. 72 1.1 15 132 9.6 Germany


3.4 58 7.9 12 85 0.4 Ghana


.. 28 0.6 10 106 8.7 Greece




130


Total population
millions


2011


Life expectancy at birth
years
2010


Under-5 mortality rate
per 1,000 live births


2011


Access to an improved
water source


% of population
2010


Gross national income (GNI)ª


$ billions
2011Economy


per capita $
2011


Greenland 0.06 .. .. 100 1.5 26,020


Grenada 0.10 76 13 .. 0.8 7,220


Guam 0.18 76 .. 100 .. .. e


Guatemala 14.76 71 30 92 42.4 2,870


Guinea 10.22 54 126 74 4.5 440


Guinea-Bissau 1.55 48 161 64 0.9 600


Guyana 0.76 70 36 94 2.2 2,900


Haiti 10.12 62 70 69 7.1 700


Honduras 7.75 73 21 87 15.3 1,970


Hungary 9.97 74 6 100 126.9 12,730


Iceland 0.32 81 3 100 11.2 35,020


India 1,241.49 65 61 92 1,746.5 1,410


Indonesia 242.33 69 32 82 712.7 2,940


Iran, Islamic Rep. 74.80 73 25 96 330.4 4,520


Iraq 32.96 68 38 79 87.0 2,640


Ireland 4.49 80 4 100 173.1 38,580


Isle of Man 0.08 .. .. .. .. .. e


Israel 7.77 82 4 100 224.7 28,930


Italy 60.77 82 4 100 2,147.0 35,330


Jamaica 2.71 73 18 93 13.5 4,980


Japan 127.82 83 3 100 5,774.4 45,180


Jordan 6.18 73 21 97 27.1 4,380


Kazakhstan 16.56 68 28 95 136.1 8,220


Kenya 41.61 56 73 59 34.2 820


Kiribati 0.10 .. 47 .. 0.2 2,110


Korea, Dem. Rep. 24.45 69 33 98 .. .. h


Korea, Rep. 49.78 81 5 98 1,039.0 20,870


Kosovo 1.79 70 .. .. 6.3 3,520


Kuwait 2.82 75 11 99 133.8 48,900


Kyrgyz Republic 5.51 69 31 90 5.1 920


Lao P.D.R. 6.29 67 42 67 7.1 1,130


Latvia 2.22 73 8 99 27.4 12,350


Lebanon 4.26 72 9 100 38.8 9,110


Lesotho 2.19 47 86 78 2.7 1,220


Liberia 4.13 56 78 73 1.0 240


Libya 6.42 75 16 .. 77.1 12,320


Liechtenstein 0.04 .. 2 .. 4.9 137,070


Lithuania 3.20 73 6 .. 39.3 12,280


Luxembourg 0.52 80 3 100 40.4 78,130


Macedonia, FYR 2.06 75 10 100 9.8 4,730


Madagascar 21.32 66 62 46 9.1 430


Malawi 15.38 53 83 83 5.2 340


Malaysia 28.86 74 7 100 243.1 8,420


Maldives 0.32 77 11 98 2.1 6,530


Mali 15.84 51 176 64 9.6 610


Malta 0.42 81 6 100 7.7 18,620


Marshall Islands 0.05 .. 26 94 0.2 3,910


Mauritania 3.54 58 112 50 3.5 1,000


Mauritius 1.29 73 15 99 10.6 8,240


Mexico 114.79 77 16 96 1,060.2 9,240


Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 0.11 69 42 .. 0.3 2,900


Moldova 3.56 69 16 96 7.1 i 1,980 i


Monaco 0.04 .. 4 100 6.5 183,150


Mongolia 2.80 68 31 82 6.5 2,320


Montenegro 0.63 74 7 98 4.5 7,060


Morocco 32.27 72 33 83 97.6 j 2,970 j


Mozambique 23.93 50 103 47 11.2 470


Myanmar 48.34 65 62 83 .. .. h


Namibia 2.32 62 42 93 10.9 4,700


Nepal 30.49 68 48 89 16.6 540


Netherlands 16.70 81 4 100 830.2 49,730


New Caledonia 0.25 76 .. .. .. .. e


New Zealand 4.41 81 6 100 128.2 29,350


Nicaragua 5.87 74 26 85 6.8 1,170


Niger 16.07 54 125 49 5.8 360


Nigeria 162.47 51 124 58 195.3 1,200


Northern Mariana Islands 0.06 .. .. 98 .. .. e


Norway 4.95 81 3 100 440.2 88,890


Oman 2.85 73 9 89 53.6 19,260


Pakistan 176.75 65 72 92 197.6 1,120


Palau 0.02 .. 19 85 0.1 7,250


Panama 3.57 76 20 .. 28.3 7,910


Papua New Guinea 7.01 62 58 40 10.4 1,480


Paraguay 6.57 72 22 86 19.5 2,970


Peru 29.40 74 18 85 161.7 5,500


Philippines 94.85 68 25 92 209.4 2,210


Poland 38.22 76 6 .. 477.0 12,480


Portugal 10.64 79 3 99 226.0 21,250


Puerto Rico 3.71 79 .. .. 61.6 16,560




131Statistics


Total debt service
% of exports of goods,
services and incomeb


2010


Merchandise trade
% of GDP


2010


Foreign direct investment
net inflows, % of GDP


2010


Starting a business
time required in days


June 2011


Mobile cellular
subscriptionsc


per 100 people
2011 Economy


Carbon dioxide emissions
per capita


metric tons
2008


.. .. .. .. 103 10.2 Greenland


14.3 40 7.7 15 117 2.4 Grenada


.. .. .. .. .. .. Guam


14.3 54 2.2 37 140 0.9 Guatemala


5.6 50 2.1 40 44 0.1 Guinea


.. 41 1.1 9 26 0.2 Guinea-Bissau


.. 101 11.9 26 69 2.0 Guyana


15.7 56 2.3 105 41 0.3 Haiti


7.6 93 5.9 14 104 1.2 Honduras


.. 143 17.1 4 117 5.4 Hungary


.. 68 7.2 5 106 7.0 Iceland


5.6 34 1.4 29 72 1.5 India


16.6 41 2.1 45 98 1.7 Indonesia


.. .. .. 8 75 7.4 Iran, Islamic Rep.


.. 117 1.8 77 78 3.4 Iraq


.. 86 6.4 13 108 9.9 Ireland


.. .. .. .. .. .. Isle of Man


.. 55 4.7 34 122 5.2 Israel


.. 46 1.5 6 152 7.4 Italy


27.9 47 1.6 7 108 4.5 Jamaica


.. 27 0.0 23 103 9.5 Japan


4.9 85 6.4 12 118 3.7 Jordan


71.4 60 6.9 19 143 15.1 Kazakhstan


4.4 54 0.6 33 65 0.3 Kenya


.. 73 2.4 31 14 0.3 Kiribati


.. .. .. .. 4 3.2 Korea, Dem. Rep.


.. 88 0.4 7 109 10.4 Korea, Rep.


1.6 .. 8.5 58 .. .. Kosovo


.. 72 0.1 32 161 30.1 Kuwait


21.9 104 6.6 10 105 1.2 Kyrgyz Republic


.. 47 3.9 93 87 0.3 Lao P.D.R.


76.4 88 5.5 16 103 3.3 Latvia


19.1 60 11.0 9 79 4.1 Lebanon


1.9 139 5.4 40 48 .. Lesotho


1.3 94 45.8 6 49 0.2 Liberia


.. .. .. .. 156 9.5 Libya


.. .. .. .. 102 .. Liechtenstein


34.3 122 2.9 22 151 4.5 Lithuania


.. 82 542.9 19 148 21.5 Luxembourg


15.2 96 4.0 3 109 5.8 Macedonia, FYR


2.6 43 9.9 8 38 0.1 Madagascar


.. 59 2.8 39 25 0.1 Malawi


5.2 153 3.9 6 127 7.6 Malaysia


21.3 62 7.9 9 166 3.0 Maldives


2.5 55 1.6 8 68 0.0 Mali


.. 82 12.2 .. 125 6.2 Malta


.. 90 5.3 17 7 1.9 Marshall Islands


.. 107 0.4 19 93 0.6 Mauritania


2.4 68 4.4 6 99 3.1 Mauritius


9.8 59 1.7 9 82 4.3 Mexico


.. 61 3.4 16 25 0.6 Micronesia, Fed. Sts.


12.8 94 3.9 9 105 1.3 Moldova


.. .. .. .. 86 .. Monaco


5.0 100 23.5 13 105 4.1 Mongolia


5.9 65 18.5 10 185 3.1 Montenegro


10.7 58 2.5 12 113 1.5 Morocco


2.9 84 8.6 13 33 0.1 Mozambique


.. .. .. .. 3 0.3 Myanmar


.. 85 7.1 66 105 1.8 Namibia


10.5 38 0.5 29 44 0.1 Nepal


.. 141 1.9 8 115 10.6 Netherlands


.. .. .. .. 89 12.9 New Caledonia


.. 44 0.5 1 109 7.8 New Zealand


14.3 91 13.3 39 82 0.8 Nicaragua


.. 57 17.5 17 27 0.1 Niger


0.4 64 3.1 34 59 0.6 Nigeria


.. .. .. .. .. .. Northern Mariana Islands


.. 50 2.8 7 117 10.5 Norway


.. 98 1.1 8 169 17.3 Oman


15.2 34 1.1 21 62 1.0 Pakistan


.. 74 1.4 28 75 10.5 Palau


5.7 37 8.8 8 204 2.0 Panama


12.9 100 0.3 51 34 0.3 Papua New Guinea


4.6 80 2.1 35 99 0.7 Paraguay


16.7 43 4.8 26 110 1.4 Peru


18.4 55 0.6 35 92 0.9 Philippines


.. 70 2.8 32 128 8.3 Poland


.. 55 4.3 5 115 5.3 Portugal


.. .. .. 6 83 .. Puerto Rico




132


Total population
millions


2011


Life expectancy at birth
years
2010


Under-5 mortality rate
per 1,000 live births


2011


Access to an improved
water source


% of population
2010


Gross national income (GNI)ª


$ billions
2011Economy


per capita $
2011


Qatar 1.87 78 8 100 150.4 80,440


Romania 21.39 73 13 .. 169.2 7,910


Russian Federation 141.93 69 12 97 1,476.1 10,400


Rwanda 10.94 55 54 65 6.2 570


Samoa 0.18 72 19 96 0.6 3,190


San Marino 0.03 83 2 .. .. .. e


São Tomé and Principe 0.17 64 89 89 0.2 1,360


Saudi Arabia 28.08 74 9 .. 500.5 17,820


Senegal 12.77 59 65 72 13.7 1,070


Serbia 7.26 74 7 99 41.2 5,680


Seychelles 0.09 73 14 .. 1.0 11,130


Sierra Leone 6.00 47 185 55 2.1 340


Singapore 5.18 82 3 100 222.6 42,930


Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 0.04 .. .. .. .. .. e


Slovak Republic 5.44 75 8 100 87.4 16,070


Slovenia 2.05 79 3 99 48.5 23,610


Solomon Islands 0.55 67 22 .. 0.6 1,110


Somalia 9.56 51 180 29 .. .. h


South Africa 50.59 52 47 91 352.0 6,960


South Sudan 10.31 .. 121 .. .. .. k


Spain 46.24 82 4 100 1,432.8 30,990


Sri Lanka 20.87 75 12 91 53.8 2,580


St. Kitts and Nevis 0.05 .. 7 99 0.7 12,480


St. Lucia 0.18 74 16 96 1.2 6,680


St. Martin (French part) 0.03 .. .. .. .. .. e


St. Vincent and the


Grenadines 0.11 72 21 .. 0.7 6,100


Sudan 34.32 61 86 58 56.7 l 1,300 l


Suriname 0.53 70 30 92 4.0 7,640


Swaziland 1.07 48 104 71 3.5 3,300


Sweden 9.45 81 3 100 503.2 53,230


Switzerland 7.91 82 4 100 603.9 76,380


Syrian Arab Republic 20.82 76 15 90 56.3 2,750


Tajikistan 6.98 67 63 64 6.1 870


Tanzania 46.22 57 68 53 24.3 m 540 m


Thailand 69.52 74 12 96 307.1 4,420


Timor-Leste 1.18 62 54 69 3.1 2,730


Togo 6.15 57 110 61 3.4 560


Tonga 0.10 72 15 100 0.4 3,580


Trinidad and Tobago 1.35 70 28 94 20.2 15,040


Tunisia 10.67 75 16 .. 43.4 4,070


Turkey 73.64 74 15 100 766.4 10,410


Turkmenistan 5.11 65 53 .. 21.0 4,110


Turks and Caicos Islands 0.04 .. .. 100 .. .. e


Tuvalu 0.01 .. 30 98 0.0 5,010


Uganda 34.51 54 90 72 17.5 510


Ukraine 45.71 70 10 98 142.8 3,120


United Arab Emirates 7.89 77 7 100 321.7 40,760


United Kingdom 62.64 80 5 100 2,366.5 37,780


United States 311.59 78 8 99 15,097.1 48,450


Uruguay 3.37 76 10 100 40.0 11,860


Uzbekistan 29.34 68 49 87 44.2 1,510


Vanuatu 0.25 71 13 90 0.7 2,870


Venezuela, R.B. 29.28 74 15 .. 349.1 11,920


Vietnam 87.84 75 22 95 110.9 1,260


Virgin Islands (U.S.) 0.11 79 .. .. .. .. e


West Bank and Gaza 4.02 73 22 85 .. .. k


Yemen, Rep. 24.80 65 77 55 26.4 1,070


Zambia 13.47 48 83 61 15.6 1,160


Zimbabwe 12.75 50 67 80 8.1 640




World 6,973.74 s 70 w 52 w 88 w 66,185.0 t 9,491 w


Low-income 816.81 59 95 65 463.0 567


Middle-income 5,021.92 69 47 90 20,717.3 4,125


Lower-middle-income 2,532.83 66 63 87 4,457.7 1,760


Upper-middle-income 2,489.10 73 20 93 16,253.0 6,530


Low- & middle- income 5,838.73 68 57 86 21,203.3 3,631


East Asia & Pacific 1,974.22 72 21 90 8,376.8 4,243


Europe & Central Asia 407.56 71 21 96 3,101.4 7,610


Latin America &


Caribbean 589.02 74 19 94 5,032.8 8,544


Middle East &


North Africa 336.63 72 32 89 1,280.6 3,869


South Asia 1,656.46 65 62 90 2,151.1 1,299


Sub-Saharan Africa 874.84 54 108 61 1,098.1 1,255


High-income 1,135.00 80 6 100 45,153.9 39,783


Euro area 332.99 81 4 100 12,844.3 38,573


See page 142 for explanation of symbols.


Note: Figures in italics are for years other than those specified.


a. Calculated using World Bank Atlas method.


b. Exports include workers’ remittances.


c. Data are from the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) World Telecommunication/


ICT Indicators database. Please cite ITU for third-party use of these data.


d. Estimated to be upper-middle-income ($4,036 to $12,475).


e. Estimated to be high-income ($12,476 or more).




133Statistics


Total debt service
% of exports of goods,
services and incomeb


2010


Merchandise trade
% of GDP


2010


Foreign direct investment
net inflows, % of GDP


2010


Starting a business
time required in days


June 2011


Mobile cellular
subscriptionsc


per 100 people
2011 Economy


Carbon dioxide emissions
per capita


metric tons
2008


.. 67 4.3 12 123 49.1 Qatar


31.2 69 1.5 14 109 4.4 Romania


12.8 44 2.8 30 179 12.0 Russian Federation


2.3 31 0.8 3 41 0.1 Rwanda


5.2 62 0.1 9 91 0.9 Samoa


.. .. .. .. 112 .. San Marino


6.5 61 12.3 10 68 0.8 São Tomé and Principe


.. 77 2.8 5 191 16.6 Saudi Arabia


.. 54 1.8 5 73 0.4 Senegal


30.9 69 6.0 13 125 6.8 Serbia


5.7 109 17.4 39 146 7.8 Seychelles


2.6 58 4.5 12 36 0.2 Sierra Leone


.. 311 18.1 3 149 6.7 Singapore


.. .. .. .. .. .. Sint Maarten (Dutch part)


.. 151 0.6 18 109 6.9 Slovak Republic


.. 127 2.2 6 107 8.5 Slovenia


5.9 93 35.1 43 50 0.4 Solomon Islands


.. .. .. .. 7 0.1 Somalia


4.9 48 1.4 19 127 8.9 South Africa


.. .. .. .. .. .. South Sudan


.. 40 1.7 28 114 7.2 Spain


13.0 44 1.0 35 87 0.6 Sri Lanka


23.2 51 17.9 19 153 4.9 St. Kitts and Nevis


7.1 59 9.2 15 123 2.3 St. Lucia


.. .. .. .. .. .. St. Martin (French part)


St. Vincent and the


16.4 62 15.3 10 121 1.8 Grenadines


4.2 32 3.1 36 56 0.3 Sudan


.. 81 -5.9 694 179 4.7 Suriname


.. 88 3.7 56 64 1.1 Swaziland


.. 66 2.3 15 119 5.3 Sweden


.. 70 0.4 18 130 5.3 Switzerland


.. 51 2.5 13 63 3.6 Syrian Arab Republic


44.8 73 0.3 24 91 0.5 Tajikistan


3.0 50 1.9 29 56 0.2 Tanzania


4.8 118 3.0 29 113 4.2 Thailand


.. 36 32.0 103 53 0.2 Timor-Leste


.. 74 1.3 84 50 0.2 Togo


9.1 50 4.5 16 53 1.7 Tonga


.. 82 2.6 43 136 37.4 Trinidad and Tobago


10.4 87 3.2 11 117 2.4 Tunisia


36.7 41 2.1 6 89 4.0 Turkey


.. 60 10.4 .. 69 9.7 Turkmenistan


.. .. .. .. .. 4.4 Turks and Caicos Islands


.. 52 4.8 .. 22 .. Tuvalu


1.8 36 4.7 34 48 0.1 Uganda


40.7 82 4.4 24 123 7.0 Ukraine


.. 128 1.3 13 149 25.0 United Arab Emirates


.. 43 2.2 13 131 8.5 United Kingdom


.. 22 1.5 6 106 18.0 United States


12.4 39 4.1 7 141 2.5 Uruguay


.. 51 2.1 14 92 4.6 Uzbekistan


1.7 48 5.6 35 119 0.4 Vanuatu


8.8 27 1.7 141 98 6.1 Venezuela, R.B.


1.7 148 7.5 44 143 1.5 Vietnam


.. .. .. .. .. .. Virgin Islands (U.S.)


.. .. .. 49 46 0.5 West Bank and Gaza


2.8 59 0.2 12 47 1.0 Yemen, Rep.


1.9 77 10.3 18 61 0.2 Zambia


.. 84 1.4 90 72 0.7 Zimbabwe




.. w 48 w 2.6 w 31 u 86 w 4.8 w World


4.8 52 3.1 33 41 0.3 Low-income


9.9 48 2.6 36 86 3.4 Middle-income


10.1 47 2.2 33 79 1.5 Lower-middle-income


9.9 48 2.7 40 92 5.3 Upper-middle-income


9.8 48 2.6 35 79 3.0 Low- & middle-income


4.8 57 3.1 39 80 4.3 East Asia & Pacific


24.2 52 3.1 16 132 7.8 Europe & Central Asia


Latin America &


13.8 35 2.4 58 107 2.8 Caribbean


Middle East &


5.1 61 2.7 23 89 3.8 North Africa


6.4 34 1.4 23 69 1.2 South Asia


3.3 58 2.3 34 53 0.8 Sub-Saharan Africa


.. 48 2.6 17 117 11.9 High-income


.. 66 4.7 12 126 8.0 Euro area


f. Data are for the area controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus.


g. Data excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.


h. Estimated to be low-income ($1,025 or less).


i. Data excludes Transnistria.


j. Data includes Former Spanish Sahara.


k. Estimated to be lower-middle-income ($1,026 to $4,035).


l. Data includes South Sudan.


m. Data refer to mainland Tanzania only.




134


Rank


Rank


Economy


Economy


Atlas
methodology


$


Atlas
methodology


$


Purchasing
power parity


international $


Purchasing
power parity


international $


PPP
rank


PPP
rank


1 Monaco 183,150 a .. ..


2 Liechtenstein 137,070 a .. ..


3 Bermuda .. a .. ..


4 Norway 88,890 62,970 6


5 Qatar 80,440 87,030 3


6 Luxembourg 78,130 64,410 5


7 Switzerland 76,380 52,320 12


8 Isle of Man .. a .. ..


9 Denmark 60,390 42,300 22


10 Channel Islands .. a .. ..


11 Sweden 53,230 42,200 23


12 Cayman Islands .. a .. ..


13 Faeroe Islands .. a .. ..


14 Netherlands 49,730 43,260 21


15 Kuwait 48,900 a 53,820 a 10


16 United States 48,450 48,890 16


17 Finland 48,420 38,500 32


18 Austria 48,300 42,080 24


19 Australia 46,200 a 36,410 a 33


20 Macao SAR, China 45,462 a 57,060 a 8


21 Belgium 46,160 39,270 31


22 Canada 45,560 39,730 30


23 Japan 45,180 35,530 36


25 Germany 43,980 39,970 27


27 Singapore 42,930 59,790 7


28 France 42,420 35,650 35


29 United Arab Emirates 40,760 48,220 b 17


32 Ireland 38,580 33,230 37


34 United Kingdom 37,780 35,940 34


35 Greenland 26,020 a .. ..


36 Italy 35,330 32,710 38


37 Hong Kong SAR, China 35,160 51,490 13


38 Iceland 35,020 30,760 43


39 Brunei Darussalam 31,800 a 49,790 a 14


40 Spain 30,990 31,660 39


41 Cyprus 29,450 a,c 30,910 a,c 42


42 New Zealand 29,350 a 28,970 a 46


43 Israel 28,930 27,120 51


46 Greece 25,030 26,090 54


47 Slovenia 23,610 26,960 52


48 Bahamas, The 21,970 a 29,850 a,b 45


51 Portugal 21,250 24,480 59


53 Korea, Rep. 20,870 30,340 44


55 Oman 19,260 a 25,770 a 53


56 Malta 18,620 a 24,170 a 58


57 Czech Republic 18,520 24,280 60


58 Saudi Arabia 17,820 24,870 57


59 Puerto Rico 16,560 a .. ..


60 Bahrain 15,920 a 21,240 a 64


61 Slovak Republic 16,070 22,230 63


62 Estonia 15,200 20,830 65


63 Trinidad and Tobago 15,040 24,940 b 56


64 Equatorial Guinea 14,540 24,110 61


65 Croatia 13,850 19,330 71


66 Barbados 12,660 a 18,850 a,b 72


67 Hungary 12,730 20,260 67


69 Poland 12,480 20,480 66


69 St. Kitts and Nevis 12,480 14,490 b 87


71 Latvia 12,350 17,820 73


72 Chile 12,280 16,330 76


72 Lithuania 12,280 19,690 70


74 Antigua and Barbuda 12,060 15,670 b 77


75 Venezuela, RB 11,920 12,620 92


76 Uruguay 11,860 14,740 83


77 Seychelles 11,130 25,320 b 55


78 Brazil 10,720 11,500 98


80 Turkey 10,410 17,340 74


81 Russian Federation 10,400 19,940 69


82 Argentina 9,740 17,250 75


83 Mexico 9,240 15,060 81


84 Lebanon 9,110 14,000 88


85 Malaysia 8,420 15,190 78


86 Mauritius 8,240 14,760 82


87 Kazakhstan 8,220 11,310 100


88 Gabon 7,980 13,650 91


89 Panama 7,910 14,740 b 83


89 Romania 7,910 15,140 80


91 Suriname 7,640 a 7,710 a,b 120


92 Costa Rica 7,660 11,950 b 95


93 Botswana 7,480 14,560 85


94 Palau 7,250 12,330 b 94


95 Grenada 7,220 10,530 b 103


96 Dominica 7,090 12,460 b 93


97 Montenegro 7,060 13,720 90


98 Libya 12,320 a 16,750 a,b 107


99 South Africa 6,960 10,790 101


100 St. Lucia 6,680 9,080 b 111


101 Bulgaria 6,550 13,980 89


102 Maldives 6,530 8,540 114


103 Colombia 6,110 9,640 106


104 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 6,100 10,560 b 102


105 Belarus 5,830 14,560 85


107 Serbia 5,680 11,640 97


108 Peru 5,500 10,160 104


109 Azerbaijan 5,290 9,020 112


110 Dominican Republic 5,240 9,490 b 108


111 Iran, Islamic Rep. 4,520 a 11,400 a 96


112 Tuvalu 5,010 .. ..


113 Jamaica 4,980 7,770 b 121


114 China 4,940 8,450 115


115 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,780 9,200 109


116 Macedonia, FYR 4,730 11,490 99


117 Namibia 4,700 6,600 125


118 Algeria 4,470 8,370 b 117


119 Thailand 4,420 8,390 116


120 Jordan 4,380 5,970 131


121 Ecuador 4,140 8,310 119


122 Turkmenistan 4,110 8,350 b 118


123 Tunisia 4,070 9,090 110


124 Angola 4,060 5,290 137


125 Albania 3,980 8,900 113


126 Marshall Islands 3,910 .. ..


127 Belize 3,690 6,070 b 129


128 Fiji 3,680 4,590 144


129 Tonga 3,580 4,690 b 143


130 Cape Verde 3,540 4,000 150


131 Kosovo 3,520 .. ..


132 El Salvador 3,480 6,690 b 124


133 Armenia 3,360 6,140 127


134 Swaziland 3,300 5,970 131


135 Samoa 3,190 4,430 b 147


136 Ukraine 3,120 7,080 123


Ranking of economies
by GNI per capita




135Statistics


Rank RankEconomy Economy


Atlas
methodology


$


Atlas
methodology


$


Purchasing
power parity


international $


Purchasing
power parity


international $
PPP
rank


PPP
rank


137 Morocco 2,970 d 4,910 d 141


137 Paraguay 2,970 5,310 136


139 Guyana 2,900 a 3,460 a,b 157


140 Indonesia 2,940 4,530 145


141 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 2,900 3,610 b 156


142 Guatemala 2,870 4,800 b 142


142 Vanuatu 2,870 4,500 b 146


144 Georgia 2,860 e 5,390 e 135


145 Syrian Arab Republic 2,750 a 5,090 a 139


146 Timor-Leste 2,730 a 5,210 a,b 137


147 Iraq 2,640 3,770 153


148 Egypt, Arab Rep. 2,600 6,160 126


149 Sri Lanka 2,580 5,560 133


150 Mongolia 2,320 4,360 148


151 Congo, Rep. 2,270 3,280 160


152 Philippines 2,210 4,160 149


153 Kiribati 2,110 3,480 b 158


154 Bhutan 2,070 5,480 134


156 Bolivia 2,040 4,920 140


157 Moldova 1,980 f 3,670 f 154


158 Honduras 1,970 3,840 b 151


159 Uzbekistan 1,510 3,440 b 159


160 Papua New Guinea 1,480 2,590 b 165


161 Ghana 1,410 1,820 181


161 India 1,410 3,620 155


163 Djibouti 1,270 a 2,450 a 166


164 São Tomé and Principe 1,360 2,080 175


165 Sudan 1,300 a,g 2,020 a,g 178


166 Vietnam 1,260 3,260 161


167 Lesotho 1,220 2,070 176


168 Cameroon 1,210 2,360 168


170 Nigeria 1,200 2,300 171


171 Nicaragua 1,170 2,840 b 163


172 Zambia 1,160 1,490 188


173 Lao P.D.R. 1,130 2,600 164


174 Pakistan 1,120 2,880 162


175 Solomon Islands 1,110 2,360 b 168


176 Côte d’Ivoire 1,100 1,730 183


177 Senegal 1,070 1,960 179


177 Yemen, Rep. 1,070 2,180 174


179 Mauritania 1,000 2,410 167


180 Kyrgyz Republic 920 2,290 172


181 Tajikistan 870 2,310 170


182 Cambodia 830 2,260 173


183 Kenya 820 1,720 184


184 Benin 780 1,630 186


185 Bangladesh 770 1,940 180


185 Comoros 770 1,120 198


188 Haiti 700 1,190 196


189 Chad 690 1,370 189


190 Zimbabwe 640 .. ..


191 Gambia, The 610 2,060 177


191 Mali 610 1,050 201


193 Guinea-Bissau 600 1,250 194


194 Burkina Faso 570 1,310 192


194 Rwanda 570 1,240 195


196 Togo 560 1,030 203


197 Tanzania 540 h 1,510 h 187


199 Uganda 510 1,320 191


200 Nepal 540 1,260 193


201 Central African Republic 470 810 208


201 Mozambique 470 980 204


203 Guinea 440 1,050 201


204 Eritrea 430 580 b 211


204 Madagascar 430 950 205


206 Afghanistan 410 a 1,060 a,b 200


207 Ethiopia 400 1,110 199


208 Niger 360 720 209


209 Malawi 340 870 206


209 Sierra Leone 340 850 207


211 Burundi 250 610 210


212 Liberia 240 520 212


213 Congo, Dem. Rep. 190 350 214


Note: Rankings include all 214 World Bank Atlas economies


presented in the key indicators table, but only those with confirmed


GNI per capita estimates or those that rank among the top twenty


for the Atlas method are shown in rank order.


Estimated ranges for economies that do not have confirmed


World Bank Atlas GNI per capita figures are :


High-income ($12,476 or more):


Andorra


Aruba


Curaçao


French Polynesia


Guam


New Caledonia


Northern Mariana Islands


San Marino


Sint Maarten (Dutch part)


St. Martin (French part)


Turks and Caicos Islands


Virgin Islands (U.S.)




Upper-middle-income ($4,036 to $12,475)


American Samoa


Cuba




Lower-middle-income ($1,026 to $4,035)


South Sudan


West Bank and Gaza




Low-income ($1,025 or less)


Korea, Dem. Rep.


Myanmar


Somalia


.. Not available. Figures in italics are for 2010 or 2009.


a. 2011 data not available; ranking is approximate.


b. Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are


extrapolated from the 2005 International Comparison


Program benchmark estimates.


c. Data are for the area controlled by the government of the


Republic of Cyprus.


d. Data include Former Spanish Sahara.


e. Data exclude Abkhazia and South Ossetia.


f. Data exclude Transnistria.


g. Data include South Sudan.


h. Data refer to mainland Tanzania only.




136


Adjusted net saving Net national saving plus education
expenditure minus energy depletion, mineral depletion,
net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particle
emissions damage. (World Bank)


Adolescent fertility rate The number of births per 1,000
women ages 15–19. (UN Population Division)


Agricultural land Permanent pastures, arable land, and
land under permanent crops. Permanent pasture is
land used for five or more years for forage, including
natural and cultivated crops. Arable land includes land
defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops
(double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary
meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market
or kitchen gardens, and land that is temporarily fallow.
Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is
excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated
with crops that occupy the land for long periods and
need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa,
coffee, and rubber. Land under flowering shrubs, fruit
trees, nut trees, and vines is included, but land under
trees grown for wood or timber is not. (FAO)


Agricultural products Commodities classified in SITC
revision 2 sections 0,1, 2, excluding 27 and 28, and 4.


Agricultural support, total The value of gross transfers
from taxpayers and consumers arising from policy
measures, net of associated budgetary receipts,
regardless of their objectives and impacts on farm
production and income or production of farm
products. (OECD)


Aid, net Aid flows classified as official development
assistance, net of repayments. (OECD DAC)


Aid, untied Bilateral official development assistance
commitment not subject to restrictions by donors on
procurement sources. (OECD)


Antiretroviral therapy coverage The percentage of adults
and children with advanced HIV infection currently
receiving antiretroviral therapy according to nationally
approved treatment protocols (or WHO/UNAIDS
standards) among the estimated number of people
with advanced HIV infection. (WHO)


Bilateral ODA commitments Firm obligations,
expressed in writing and backed by the necessary
funds, undertaken by official bilateral donors to
provide specified assistance to a recipient country or
a multilateral organization. Bilateral commitments
are recorded in the full amount of expected transfer,
irrespective of the time required for completing
disbursements. (OECD DAC)


Birth at health facility Percentage of live births in the
years preceding the survey that took place at a health
facility. (Household Surveys)


Births attended by skilled health staff The proportion
of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give
the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women
during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period,
to conduct deliveries on their own and to care for
newborns. (Household Surveys)


Bonds Securities issued with a fixed rate of interest for
a period of more than one year. They include net flows
through cross-border public and publicly guaranteed
and private nonguaranteed bond issues. (World Bank)


Business, time to start up The time, in calendar days,
needed to complete all the procedures required to
legally operate a business. If a procedure can be
speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure,
regardless of cost, is chosen. Time spent gathering
information about the registration process is excluded.
(World Bank)


Carbon dioxide emissions Emissions from the burning of
fossil fuels (including the consumption of solid, liquid,
and gas fuels and gas flaring) and the manufacture of
cement. (CDIAC)


Cereal production Cereals generally of the gramineous
family harvested for dry grain only. (FAO)


Cereal yield The production of wheat, rice, maize, barley,
oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains,
measured in kilograms per hectare of harvested land.
Refers to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal
crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food,
feed, or silage, and those used for grazing are excluded.
The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year
in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a
crop harvested near the end of the year will be used in
the following year. (FAO)


Child labor Children ages 7–14 who are involved in
economic activity for at least one hour in the reference
week of the survey. (UCW)


Child labor, Agriculture Children ages 7–14 who are
involved in economic activity in the agricultural sector.
Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2),
categories A and B (ISIC revision 3), or category A
(ISIC revision 4) and includes agriculture and hunting,
forestry and logging, and fishing. (UCW)


Child labor, Manufacturing Children ages 7–14 who are
involved in economic activity in the manufacturing
sector. Manufacturing corresponds to division 3 (ISIC
revision 2), category D (ISIC revision 3), or category C
(ISIC revision 4). (UCW)


Child labor, Service Children ages 7–14 who are involved
in economic activity in the service sector. Services
correspond to divisions 6–9 (ISIC revision 2), categories
G–P (ISIC revision 3) or categories Q–U (ISIC revision
4) and include wholesale and retail trade, hotels and
restaurants, transport, financial intermediation, real
estate, public administration, education, health and
social work, other community services, and private
household activity. (UCW)


Definitions, sources,
notes, and abbreviations




137Statistics


Child labor, paid workers Children ages 7–14 who are
involved in economic activity and hold the type of jobs
defined as “paid employment jobs.” (UCW)


Child labor, self-employed workers Children ages
7–14 who are involved in economic activity and hold
the type of jobs defined as a “self-employment jobs,”
working on their own account or with one or a few
partners. (UCW)


Child labor, unpaid family workers Children ages
7–14 who are involved in economic activity and work
without pay in a market-oriented establishment or
activity operated by a related person living in the
same household. (UCW)


Children out of school, primary school-age children
The number of children of primary school age who
are not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Commercial bank and other lending Net flows of
commercial bank lending (public and publicly
guaranteed and private nonguaranteed) and other
private credits. (World Bank)


Contraceptive prevalence rate The percentage of women
married or in-union ages 15–49 who are practicing,
or whose sexual partners are practicing, any form of
contraception. (Household Surveys)


Corruption is the abuse of public office for private gain
and is an outcome of poor governance, reflecting the
breakdown of accountability. (World Bank)


Debt, private nonguaranteed The long-term external
obligations of private debtors that are not guaranteed
for repayment by a public entity. (World Bank)


Debt, public and publicly guaranteed The long-term
external obligations of public debtors, including the
national governments and political subdivisions (or
an agency of either) and autonomous public bodies,
and the external obligations of private debtors that are
guaranteed for repayment by a public entity. (World Bank)


Debt, short term All debt having an original maturity of
one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term
debt. (World Bank)


Debt, total external Debt owed to nonresidents repayable
in foreign currency, goods, or services. It is the sum of
public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed
long-term debt, use of International Monetary Fund
credit, and short-term debt. (World Bank)


Debt service, public The sum of principal repayments
and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or
services for long-term public and publicly guaranteed
debt and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the
International Monetary Fund. (World Bank)


Debt service, total The sum of principal repayments and
interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or
services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term
debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the
International Monetary Fund. (World Bank)


Deforestation The permanent conversion of natural
forest area to other uses, including shifting cultivation,
permanent agriculture, ranching, settlements, and
infrastructure development. Deforested areas do not
include areas logged but intended for regeneration or
areas degraded by fuelwood gathering, acid precipitation,
or forest fires. Negative numbers indicate an increase in
forest area. (FAO)


Education, primary The level of education that provides
children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics
skills along with an elementary understanding of such
subjects as history, geography, natural science, social
science, art, and music. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Education, secondary The level of education that
completes the provision of basic education aimed
at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and
human development by offering more subject- or skill-
oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Education, tertiary The level of education leading to
an advanced research qualification that normally
requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the
successful completion of education at the secondary
level. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Energy and minerals rents The product of unit resource
rents and the physical quantities extracted. Energy
covers coal, crude oil, and natural gas; minerals include
bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate,
silver, tin, and zinc. (World Bank)


Energy use The use of primary energy before
transformation to other end-use fuels, which equals
indigenous production plus imports and stock changes,
minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft
engaged in international transport. (IEA)


Enrollment rate, gross The ratio of children who are
enrolled in an education level, regardless of age, to the
population of the corresponding official school age, as
defined by the International Standard Classification of
Education 1997 (ISCED97). (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Enrollment rate, net The ratio of children of official school
age who are enrolled in school, to the population of
the corresponding official school age, as defined by the
International Standard Classification of Education 1997
(ISCED97). (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Exchange rate, official The exchange rate (local currency
units relative to the U.S. dollar) determined by national
authorities or the rate determined in the legally
sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an
annual average based on monthly averages. (IMF)


Exports of goods, services, and income International
transactions involving a change in ownership of
general merchandise, goods sent for processing
and repairs, nonmonetary gold, services, receipts of
employee compensation for nonresident workers,
and investment income. (IMF)




138


Exports to developing economies outside region
The sum of merchandise exports from the reporting
economy to other developing economies in other
World Bank regions as a percentage of total
merchandise exports by the economy. (World Bank)


Exports to developing economies within region
The sum of merchandise exports from the reporting
economy to other developing economies in the
same World Bank region as a percentage of total
merchandise exports by the economy. (World Bank)


Exports to high-income economies The sum of
merchandise exports from the reporting economy
to high-income economies as a percentage of total
merchandise exports by the economy. (World Bank)


Female-to-male enrollments in secondary schools
The ratio of female-to-male gross enrollment rates
in secondary schools. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Fertility rate, total The number of children that would
be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of
her childbearing years and bear children in accordance
with the age-specific fertility rates of the specific year.
(World Bank)


Financing from abroad (obtained from nonresidents)
and domestic financing (obtained from residents)
The means by which a government provides financial
resources to cover a budget deficit or allocates financial
resources arising from a budget surplus. Includes all
government liabilities—other than those for currency
issues or demand, time, or savings deposits with
government—or claims on others held by government,
and changes in government holdings of cash and
deposits. Excludes government guarantees of the
debt of others. (IMF)


Food price index Includes the average of six commodity
group price indexes of meat, dairy, cereals, oil and
fats, and sugar. These commodities are weighted with
the average export shares of each of the groups for
2002–2004. (FAO)


Food production index Covers food crops that are
considered edible and that contain nutrients. (FAO)


Foreign direct investment, net inflows Net inflows
of investment to acquire a lasting interest in or a
management control over (10 percent or more of
voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy
other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity
capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term
capital, and short-term capital as shown in the
balance of payments. (IMF)


Forest area Land under natural or planted stands of trees
of at least 5 meters in height in situ, whether productive
or not, excluding trees stands in agriculture production
systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry
systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. (FAO)


Freshwater resources, internal renewable resources
Average annual flows of river and groundwater from
rainfall. (FAO)


Freshwater withdrawals, annual Total water withdrawals,
not counting evaporation losses from storage basins but
including water from desalination plants in countries
where they are a significant source. Withdrawals also
include water from desalination sources. Withdrawals
for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals
for irrigation and livestock production and for direct
industrial use (including for cooling thermoelectric
plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking
water, municipal use or supply, and use for public
services, commercial establishments, and homes. (FAO)


Gross capital formation (commonly called investment)
Outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy,
net of changes in the level of inventories, and net
acquisitions of valuables. Fixed assets include land
improvements (such as fences, ditches, and drains);
plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and
the construction of roads, railways, and dwellings.
(World Bank, OECD, UN)


Gross domestic product (GDP) The sum of gross value
added by all resident producers in the economy plus
any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the
value of the products. It is calculated using purchaser
prices and without deductions for the depreciation of
fabricated assets or for the depletion and degradation
of natural resources. (World Bank)


Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Gross domestic
product divided by midyear population. (World Bank)


Gross national income (GNI) Gross domestic product
plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of
employees and property income) from abroad. Data are
converted to dollars using the World Bank Atlas method.
(World Bank)


Gross national income (GNI) per capita Gross national
income divided by midyear population. (World Bank)


Gross national income (GNI), PPP Gross national income
converted to international dollars using purchasing
power parity rates. An international dollar has the same
purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the
United States. (World Bank)


Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative
A program of official creditors designed to relieve
the poorest, most heavily indebted countries of their
debt to certain multilateral creditors, including the
World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
(World Bank)


High-income economies Those with a gross national
income (GNI) per capita of $12,476 or more in 2011.
(World Bank)


HIV, adult prevalence of The proportion of people ages
15–49 who are infected with HIV. (UNAIDS)


Households reporting adult women and men as
the usual person collecting water Proportion of
households reporting adult women and men as
the usual person collecting water. (Nistha Sinha, 2010,
“Infrastructure, Gender Differences, and Impacts: The Evidence”)




139Statistics


Immunization rate, measles, child Percentage of children
ages 12–23 months who received a vaccination for
measles before 12 months of age or at any time before
the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized
against measles after receiving one dose of the vaccine.
(WHO and UNICEF)


Individuals using the Internet Refers to the percentage
of individuals who have used the Internet (from any
location) in the past 12 months. The Internet can be
used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital
assistant, games machine, digital TV, etc. (ITU)


Industry The output of the industrial sector corresponding
to International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)
divisions 2–5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories
C–F (ISIC revision 3). (ILO)


Interest payments Payments of interest on debt—
including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and
other debt instruments—to both domestic and
foreign residents. (World Bank)


International migrant, stock The number of people
born in a country other than that in which they live;
this includes refugees. (UN Population Division)


Irrigated land Areas purposely provided with water,
including land irrigated by controlled flooding. (FAO)


Labor force participation rate The proportion of the
population ages 15 and older that is economically
active: all people who supply labor for the production
of goods and services during a specified period. (ILO)


Land area A country’s total area, excluding area under
inland water bodies and national claims to the
continental shelf and to exclusive economic zones.
In most cases, definitions of inland water bodies
includes major rivers and lakes. (FAO)


Land under cereal production Refers to harvested areas,
although some countries report only sown or cultivated
areas. (FAO)


Life expectancy at birth The number of years a newborn
infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at
the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout
its life. (World Bank)


Lifetime risk of maternal death The probability that a
15-year-old female will die eventually from a maternal
cause, if throughout her lifetime she experiences the
maternal death risk and overall fertility and mortality
rates of the specified year for a given population. (WHO,
UNICEF, UNFPA, and World Bank)


Low-income economies Those with a gross national income
(GNI) per capita of $1,025 or less in 2011. (World Bank)


Malnutrition, underweight children, prevalence of
The percentage of children under 5 whose weight for
age is more than two standard deviations below the
median for the international reference population ages
0–59 months. The data are based on the international
child growth standards for infants and young children,
Child Growth Standards, released in 2006 by the World
Health Organization. (WHO)


Manufactured products Commodities classified in SITC
revision 2 sections 5–8 excluding division 68.


Manufacturing The output of industries corresponding
to International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)
divisions 15–37.


Merchandise trade The sum of merchandise exports and
imports measured in current U.S. dollars. Also referred
to as trade in goods. (WTO)


Middle-income economies Those with a gross national
income (GNI) per capita of $1,026 or more but less
than $12,476 in 2011. (World Bank)


Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions Subscriptions
to a public mobile telephone service using cellular
technology, which provides access to the public switched
telephone network. Post-paid and pre-paid subscriptions
are included. (ITU)


Mortality rate, infant The number of infants dying before
reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given
year. (UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation)


Mortality rate, under-5 The probability that a newborn
baby will die before reaching age 5, if subject to the
age-specific mortality rates of the specified year.
The probability is expressed as a rate per 1,000.
(UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation)


Mortality ratio, maternal The number of women who
die from pregnancy-related causes while pregnant or
within 42 days of pregnancy termination, per 100,000
live births. The data shown are modeled estimates based
on an exercise by the World Health Organization, the
United Nations Children’s Fund, the United Nations
Population Fund, and the World Bank. (WHO, UNICEF,
UNFPA, and World Bank)


Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) An initiative
that further reduces the debt of heavily indebted poor
countries and provides resources for meeting the
Millennium Development Goals. Under the MDRI,
the International Development Association, the
International Monetary Fund, the African Development
Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank
provide 100 percent debt relief on eligible debts due
to them from countries that completed the HIPC
Initiative process. (World Bank)


Nationally protected terrestrial and marine areas
Totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000
hectares that are designated as national parks, natural
monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries,
protected landscapes or seascapes, or scientific reserves
with limited public access. The terrestrial protected
areas exclude marine areas, unclassified areas, littoral
(intertidal) areas, and sites protected under local or
provincial law. Marine protected areas (territorial waters
up to 12 nautical miles) are areas of intertidal or subtidal
terrain (and overlying water and associated flora and
fauna and historical and cultural features) that have
been reserved to protect part of or the entire enclosed
environment. (UNEP/WCMC)




140


Net migration The total number of immigrants less the
total number of emigrants, including both citizens and
noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. (UN Population
Division)


Number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy
The number of adults and children with advanced
HIV infection currently receiving antiretroviral therapy
according to nationally approved treatment protocols
(or WHO/UNAIDS standards). (WHO)


Official development assistance (ODA) Disbursement of
loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments)
and grants by official agencies of the members of
the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by
multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries
to promote economic development and welfare
in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA
recipients. (OECD DAC)


Overqualification rate The share of people working in
jobs or occupations for which their skills are too high.
Education and job qualification levels are grouped
into three categories: low, intermediate, and high.
An overqualified individual is one who holds a job
that requires lesser qualifications than one that would
theoretically be available at his or her education level.
Overqualification rates are calculated for individuals
with an intermediate or higher education. (OECD)


Particulate matter concentration Fine suspended
particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10)
that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory
tract and causing significant health damage. Data are
urban-population-weighted PM10 levels in residential
areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The
estimates represent the average annual exposure level
of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate
matter. (World Bank)


Percent of repeaters, primary The number of students
enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year as a
percentage of all students enrolled in primary school.
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Population, average annual growth rate The exponential
rate of change in population for the period indicated.
(World Bank)


Population, rural Calculated as the difference between
the total population and the urban population.
(UN Population Division, World Bank)


Population, total Midyear population that includes all
residents regardless of legal status or citizenship—
except for refugees not permanently settled in the
country of asylum, who are generally considered part
of the population of their country of origin. (World Bank)


Population, urban The midyear population of areas
defined as urban in each country and reported to the
United Nations. (UN Population Division, World Bank)


Population ages 0–14 The percentage of total population
whose ages are between 0 and 14. (UN Population Division)


Population ages 15–64 The percentage of total
population whose ages are between 15 and 64.
(UN Population Division)


Population ages 65+ The percentage of total population
whose ages are 65 and older. (UN Population Division)


Population below $1 a day The proportion of the
population living on less than $1.08 a day at 1993
purchasing power parity prices. (World Bank)


Population below $2 a day The proportion of the
population living on less than $2.15 a day at 1993
purchasing power parity prices. (World Bank)


Population density Midyear population divided by
land area in square kilometers. (World Bank)


Portfolio equity flow Net inflows from equity securities
other than those recorded as direct investment,
including shares, stocks, depository receipts, and
direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by
foreign investors. (World Bank)


Pregnant women receiving prenatal care The proportion
of women attended to at least once during pregnancy
by skilled health personnel for reasons related to
pregnancy. (Household Surveys)


Primary completion rate The proportion of students
completing the last year of primary school, calculated
by taking the total number of students in the last grade
of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in
that grade, divided by the total number of children of
official graduation age. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)


Private participation in infrastructure Investment
commitments in infrastructure projects in
telecommunications, energy, transport, and water and
sanitation with private participation that have reached
financial closure and directly or indirectly serve the
public. All investment (public and private) in projects
in which a private company assumes the operating
risk is included. (World Bank)


Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)
Internationally comparable assessment, coordinated
by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD), that measures the knowledge
and skills of 15-year-olds. The assessment tests reading,
mathematical, and scientific literacy in terms of general
competencies. (OECD)


Public sector management and institutions A proxy
measure of governance that includes assessments of
property rights and rule-based governance; quality of
budgetary and financial management; efficiency of
revenue mobilization; quality of public administration;
and transparency, accountability, and corruption in the
public sector. (World Bank)


Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor
The number of units of a country’s currency required
to buy the same amount of goods and services in the
domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the
United States. (World Bank)




141Statistics


Ratio of female-to-male hourly wage The ratio of the
female hourly wage to male hourly wage. (Household Surveys)


Refugees People recognized as refugees under the
1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
or its 1967 Protocol; the 1969 Organization of African
Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of
Refugee Problems in Africa; people recognized as
refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute;
people granted a refugee-like humanitarian status;
and people provided with temporary protection.
Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants)
whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and
May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of
livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict.
(UNHCR and UNRWA)


Renewable internal freshwater resources Average
annual flows of rivers and groundwater from rainfall
in the country. Natural incoming flows originating
outside a country’s borders are excluded. Overlapping
water resources between surface runoff and
groundwater recharge are also deducted.
(FAO’s AQUASTAT)


Sanitation, access to an improved facility The share of
the urban population with access to at least adequate
excreta disposal facilities (private or shared but not
public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and
insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range
from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets
with a sewage connection. (WHO/UNICEF)


Services Corresponds to International Standard Industrial
Classification (ISIC) divisions 6–9 (ISIC revision 2) or
tabulation categories G–P (ISIC revision 3). (ILO)


Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring
Educational Quality (SACMEQ) A regional network
consisting of 15 Ministries of Education in Southern
and Eastern Africa. It measures student performance
on reading and mathematics. (SACMEQ)


Tariff, simple mean The unweighted average of the
effectively applied rates for all products subject to
tariffs. (World Bank, UNCTAD, WTO)


Textiles Commodities classified in SITC revision 2
divisions 26, 65 and 84.


Time spent fetching water Minutes per day that people
spent fetching water (Nistha Sinha, 2010, “Infrastructure,
Gender Differences, and Impacts: The Evidence”)


Trade The two-way flow of exports and imports of goods
(merchandise trade) and services (service trade). (IMF)


Trade in services The sum of services exports and
imports. (IMF)


Treated bednets, use of The proportion of children ages
0–59 months who slept under an insecticide-impregnated
bednet the night before the survey. (UNICEF)


Tuberculosis, incidence of The number of new and
relapse cases of tuberculosis (all types) including
patients with HIV per 100,000 people. (WHO)


Unofficial payments to public officials The percentage of
firms expected to make unofficial or informal payments to
public officials to “get things done” with regard to customs,
taxes, licenses, regulations, and services. (World Bank)


Value added The net output of an industry after adding
up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs.
The industrial origin of value added is determined by
the International Standard Industrial Classification
(ISIC) revision 3.


Water source, access to an improved The share of the
population with reasonable access to an adequate
amount of water from an improved source, such as
a household connection, public standpipe, borehole,
protected well or spring, or rainwater collection.
Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks,
and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access
is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person
per day from a source within one kilometer of the
dwelling. (WHO and UNICEF)


Women in parliament The percentage of parliamentary
seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
(IPU)


Workers’ remittances and compensation of employees,
received and paid Current transfers by migrant workers
and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers.
(World Bank and IMF)


World Bank Atlas method A conversion factor to convert
national currency units to U.S. dollars at prevailing
exchange rates, adjusted for inflation and averaged
over three years. The purpose is to reduce the effect
of exchange rate fluctuations in the cross-country
comparison of national incomes. (World Bank)


Data sources


The indicators presented in this Atlas are compiled by international
agencies and by public and private organizations, usually on the basis
of survey data or administrative statistics obtained from national
governments. The principal source of each indicator is given in
parentheses following the definition.


The World Bank publishes these and many other statistical series in
the World Development Indicators, available in print, CD-ROM, and
online. Excerpts from this Atlas, additional information about sources,
definitions, and statistical methods, and suggestions for further reading
are available at data.worldbank.org.




142


Data notes and symbols
The data in this book are for the most recent year, unless otherwise noted.
•Growthratesareproportionalchangesfromthepreviousyear.
•Regionalaggregatesincludedataforlow-andmiddle-incomeeconomiesonly.
•Figuresinitalicsindicatedataforyearsorperiodsotherthanthosespeciied.
Dataareshownforeconomieswithpopulationsgreaterthan30,000,orlessiftheyaremembersoftheWorldBank.
The term country(usedinterchangeablywitheconomy)doesnotimplypoliticalindependenceoroficialrecognitionby
theWorldBank,butreferstoanyeconomyforwhichtheauthoritiesreportseparatesocialoreconomicstatistics.
Theregionalgroupingsofcountriesincludeonlylow-andmiddle-incomeeconomies.Fortheincomegroups,every
economyisclassiiedaslow-income,middle-income,orhigh-income.
•Low-income economiesarethosewithagrossnationalincome(GNI)percapitaof$1,025orlessin2011.
•Middle-income economiesarethosewithaGNIpercapitaof$1,026ormorebutlessthan$12,476.
•Lower-middle-income economies and upper-middle-income economiesareseparatedataGNIpercapitaof$4,035.
•High-income economiesarethosewithaGNIpercapitaof$12,476ormore.
Symbols used in the data table
..meansthatdataarenotavailableorthataggregatescannotbecalculatedbecauseofmissingdata.
0 or 0.0 means zero or less than half the unit shown.
$ means current U.S. dollars.
Themethodsusedtocalculateregionalandincomegroupaggregatesaredenotedby:
m (median), s(simpletotal),t(totalincludingestimatesformissingdata),u(unweightedaverage),andw(weightedaverage).
Abbreviations
CDIAC CarbonDioxideInformationAnalysisCenter PPI PrivateParticipationinInfrastructure
CPIA CountryPolicyandInstitutionalAssessment PPP PurchasingPowerParity
DAC DevelopmentAssistanceCommitteeofthe UCW UnderstandingChildren’sWork
OrganisationforEconomicCo-operationand UN UnitedNations
Development UNAIDS JointUnitedNationsProgrammeonHIV/AIDS
DHS DemographicandHealthSurveys UNDP UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme
FAO FoodandAgricultureOrganizationofthe UNEP UnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme
UnitedNations UNESCO UnitedNationsEducational,Scientiicand
FDI ForeignDirectInvestment CulturalOrganization
GDP GrossDomesticProduct UNFPA UnitedNationsPopulationFund
GNI GrossNationalIncome UNHCR TheOficeoftheUnitedNations
HIPC HeavilyIndebtedPoorCountries HighCommissionerforRefugees
ICT InformationandCommunicationsTechnology UNICEF UnitedNationsChildren’sFund
IDA InternationalDevelopmentAssociation UNIFEM UnitedNationsDevelopmentFundforWomen
IEA InternationalEnergyAgency UNPD UnitedNationsPopulationDivision
ILO InternationalLabourOrganization UNSD UnitedNationsStatisticsDivision
IMF InternationalMonetaryFund UNRWA UnitedNationsReliefandWorksAgencyfor
IPU Inter-ParliamentaryUnion PalestineRefugeesintheNearEast
ITU InternationalTelecommunicationUnion WCMC WorldConservationMonitoringCentre
MDGs MillenniumDevelopmentGoals WDI WorldDevelopmentIndicators
MDRI MultilateralDebtReliefInitiative WHO WorldHealthOrganization
ODA OficialDevelopmentAssistance WRI WorldResourcesInstitute
OECD OrganisationforEconomicCo-operationand WTO WorldTradeOrganization
Development


For more information
•World Development Indicators (WDI)istheWorldBank’spremiercompilationofdataaboutdevelopment.
This AtlascomplementstheWorld Development Indicatorsbyprovidingageographicalviewofpertinentdata.
The World Development Indicatorsisavailableatdata.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators
• International Debt Statistics (IDS) (formerly Global Development Finance)istheWorldBank’scomprehensivecompilationof
dataonexternaldebtandinanciallows.Itisavailableatdata.worldbank.org/data-catalog/international-debt-statistics
•African Development Indicators,theWorldBank’smostdetailedcollectionofdataonAfrica,isavailableinonevolumeat
www.worldbank.org/adi
• TheMillennium Development Goals (MDG)andthedataandindicatorsrequiredtotrackprogresstowardthemare
availableatwww.developmentgoals.org
• TheMDG databaseisavailableatmdgs.un.org
• ThePARIS21 Consortiumandinformationabouthowitpromotesevidence-basedpolicymakingandmonitoringare
availableatwww.paris21.org
• TheStatistical Capacity Building Program,whichofferstoolsandadviceforstatisticalcapacitybuildingindeveloping
countries,canbeaccessedatwww.worldbank.org/data/bbsc
• TheInternational Comparison Program (ICP)andinformationabouttheICPandtheinalresultsfromthe2005round
canbefoundatwww.worldbank.org/data/icp
•United Nations datacanbeaccessedatunstats.un.org/unsd/databases.htm




143Index


Index
Note:Pagenumbersinboldrefertomaps;pagenumbersinitalics refer to information
presentedingraphsandtables.
abortion59,61
accountability70,73
adjustednetsaving(ANS)24–5,24–5,
26–7, 26–7
AfricanDevelopmentFund101
agriculture66–7,67–9, 68–9
andchildlabor38,41
anddeforestation117
andenvironmentaldegradation109
intensivemethods109
andinternationaltrade85,85
productivity108
sustainability109
andtradebarriers85,85
andwatersupplies112–3,112, 115
aid13,13,96–9,96–9, 98–9
debtrelief97,100,101
humanitarian97
net96,96,98
AIDS12,12, 55,62,64–5
see alsoHIV
ANSseeadjustednetsaving
antenatalcare12,46,58,61
antiretroviraltherapy62,62
assets24
bednets,insecticide-treated52,63,63
biodiversity116–7
braindrain91
breastfeeding52–3
business
reform79,79
start-ups82–3 , 82–3, 129, 131, 133
BusinessFightingCorruptionThrough
CollectiveActionInitiative70
capital
human24–5
natural24–5,24, 26–7
physical24
carbondioxideemissions122–3,122, 126–7,
126–7, 129, 131, 133
carbonsinks116
cereals108,109
childlabor38–41,38–41, 40–1,42
agricultural38,41
andeducation38–9,39
girls39
unpaid38–9
childmortality11,11, 29,52–5,52–5, 54–5,
128, 130, 132
childbirth12,46,47,58,58
childcarepractices52–3
children
healthcarefor52–3
andHIV62,65
andnutrition53,56–7, 56–7
rightsof39
underweight53,56–7, 57
cities33,104–7,104–7, 106–7
climatechange108,112,122–7,122–3,
126–7, 126–7
coal123,123, 125
communicablediseases62–5,62–5, 64–5
ConstructionSectorTransparencyInitiative
(CoST)70
contraception59,59, 60
corruption70–1,70, 72–3, 72–3
debt,external100–3,100–3, 102–3
debtrelief97,100,101


debtservice129, 131, 133
ratios100–1,100, 103
deforestation116–17,118–19, 119
developing(low-/middle-income)economies
8–9,8–9,14
diarrhea52,55
disease
chronic/non-communicable33,63,65
combating12
communicable62–5,62–5, 64–5
deathsfrom12
domesticlabor39,46,47
donorcountries96–7,96,99
EarthSummit199213
eAtlas6–7
economicgrowth18–23,18–21, 20–1
investmentfor78–81,78–81, 80–1
economicintegration,global84–9,84–9,
86–9
economicwellbeing24
economies
classiication8–9,8–9
globalstructure66–9,66–9, 68–9
grossnationalincomeranking128, 130,
132
ecosystems113,116–17
education42–5,42–5, 44–5
attendance42
andchildlabor38–9,39
andemployment38–9,39
enrollmentin15,15,42–3,43, 45, 46, 48–9
female11,43, 45,46,46, 48–9, 48–9,59
non-attendance42
primary10,10,42–3,42–5, 48, 48–9
primarycompletionrates42,42, 44, 44–5
andremittances91
secondary15,15,43,43, 48–9, 48–9
tertiary43,43, 49
universalprimary10,10,42
EITIseeExtractiveIndustriesTransparency
Initiative
electricitysupplies74,125
employment
vulnerable51
see alsochildlabor;labor
energy
renewable sources 125
security122–7,123, 124–5, 125
environment
deforestation116–17,118–19, 119
degradation109,113
exploitation117
protection116–21,116–21, 118–21
sustainabilityissues13,13
andurbanization104–5,104–5
exchangerates14,15
exports84–5,84, 86–7, 86–7
externaldebt100–3,100–3, 102–3
ExtractiveIndustriesTransparencyInitiative
(EITI)70
fertilityrate32,33
adolescent59,59
fertilizers109
inancialcrisis2007–918–19,18, 21
andinternationaltrade84–5,84, 87
foodprices108
foodproduction108–11,108–11, 110–11
foreigndirectinvestment(FDI)85,85, 88–9,
88–9, 129, 131, 133


forests116,116, 118,123
loss116–17,118–19, 119
tropical117
fossilfuels122–3,123, 125
fragilelands109
freshwatersupplies112–13,112, 115
gas123,123, 125
GDPseegrossdomesticproduct
gender46–51
andeducation11,45,46,46, 48–9, 48–9,59
andemployment50–1, 50–1
equity11,11, 48–51, 48–51,59
see also women
Ginicoeficient19,19
globaleconomicstructure66–9,66–9, 68–9
globalintegration84–9,84–9, 86–9
globalpartnershipfordevelopment13,13
globalwarming123
goods84–5
governance70–3,70–3, 72–3,79
governmentpolicy,andinvestment78
greenhousegasemissions116,122–3,122,
126–7, 126–7, 129, 131, 133
grosscapitalformation78–81,78–81, 80–1
grossdomesticproduct(GDP)18,18, 20, 20–1,
66–7,79,79
grossnationalincome(GNI)14,14, 128, 130,
132
percapita8,14–15,15–17, 16–17, 128, 130,
132, 134
GroupofEight(G8)summit200597
hazards,workplace38,39
health,andurbanization105
health care
child52–3
HIV62,62
maternal46,47,58–9,58–9, 61
healthfacilities46,47
HeavilyIndebtedPoorCountries(HIPC)101
high-income(developed)economies8,8–9,14
HIV
antiretroviraltherapy62,62
andchildren62,65
andtheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals
12,12
mother-to-childtransmission52,62
prevalence62,62, 64–5, 64–5
andwomen12,62,65
see alsoAIDS
hunger,eradication10
hydropower123, 125
IBRDseeInternationalBankfor
ReconstructionandDevelopment
illiteracy 49
IMFseeInternationalMonetaryFund
immigration32,90
immunizations11,11
imports86–7, 86–7
income
andeatinghabits108
gap18
inequality19,19, 22–3, 22–3
measures14–17,14–15, 16–17
ofthepoor28,29
andremittances91
see alsohigh-incomeeconomies;
low-incomeeconomies;middle-income
economies




144


indicatorsofdevelopment,key128–33
industry66–7,69
inequality
gender11,11,46–7,46–51, 48–51,59
income19,19, 22–3, 22–3
ofopportunity19
inequality ratio 22
informationandcommunicationtechnology
74–7,74–7, 76–7
see alsoInternet
infrastructure74–7,74–7, 76–7
institutions70–1
integration,global84–9,84–9, 86–9
Inter-AmericanDevelopmentBank101
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange
(IPCC)123
InternationalBankforReconstructionand
Development(IBRD)101
InternationalComparisonProgram29
InternationalMonetaryFund(IMF)101
internationalpovertyline28–9, 28, 30–1, 30–1
internationaltrade84–5,84–5
Internet75,75, 77
investment
foreigndirect85,85, 88–9, 88–9, 129,
131, 133
forgrowth78–81,78–81, 80–1
ininfrastructure74–5,74
physical(grosscapitalformation)78–81,
78–81, 80–1
IPCCseeIntergovernmentalPanelon
ClimateChange
irrigation109,112,113
isolation75
labor
domestic39,46,47
see alsochildlabor;employment
land
degradation109
fragile109
protected116,117,120–1, 120–1
lifeexpectancyatbirth32,36–7, 36–7
by country 128, 130, 132
andGNIpercapita15,15
livingstandards14,15
low-incomeeconomies8–9,8–9,14
malaria12,52,55,63,65
malnutrition53,56–7, 56–7
manufacturing85
marketexchangerates14,15
maternalhealth12,12,46,47,58–9,
58–9, 61
maternalhealthcare12,12,46,47,58–9,
58–9, 61
maternalmortalityrates12,58–9,58,
60–1, 61
MDRIseeMultilateralDebtReliefInitiative
measles11,11,53
merchandise trade 86–7, 86–7, 129, 131, 133
middle-incomeeconomies8–9,8–9,14
migration32,90–3,90–3, 92–3
MillenniumDevelopmentGoals10–13,10–13,
71,112
childmortalityreduction11
combatingdisease12,12
environmentalsustainability13,13
eradicationofextremepovertyand
hunger10
genderequalityandfemaleempowerment
11,11
globalpartnershipfordevelopment13,13
improvingmaternalhealth12,12
universalprimaryeducation10,10
mobilecellularsubscriptions129, 131, 133
mobilephones75,75, 76–7, 76–7


mortality
child11,11, 29,52–5,52–5, 54–5, 128,
130, 132
anddisease12
maternal12,58–9,58, 60–1, 61
MultilateralDebtReliefInitiative(MDRI)101
nationallyprotectedareas116,117,120–1,
120–1
naturalresources24–5,26–7
rents 24,25,27
nutrition58
child53,56–7, 56–7
foodprices108
foodproduction108–11,108–11, 110–11
malnutrition53,56–7, 56–7
undernourishment108
underweight53, 56–7, 57
oficialdevelopmentassistance(ODA)96,
96, 98
onlineatlas6–7
opportunity19
OrganisationforEconomicCo-operation
andDevelopment(OECD),Development
AssistanceCommittee(DAC)96,96–7, 99
overgrazing109
pandemics12
particulatematterconcentration104,105
pesticides109
pneumonia54
politicalparticipation47, 51, 73
pollution
air104–5,104
andurbanization104–5,104
water104–5,113
see alsogreenhousegasemissions
population
aging32–3,33,63,90
iguresbycountry128, 130, 132
populationgrowth
andenergyuse122
andfoodproduction108
andtransition32–7,32–5, 34–5
andwatersupplies112–13,115
in urban areas104,105
poverty28–9,28–31, 30–1
andchildmortality52,53
andcommunicabledisease62
andeconomicgrowth19
eradication10,10
extreme10,10,28–9,31
andglobalrecession18
andinfrastructure75
andmaternalhealthcare58,59
andpollution105
povertyline,international28–9, 28, 30–1, 30–1
pregnancy12,12,58–9,59, 61
antenatalcare12,46,58,61
complications58,61
teenage59,59
prenatalcare12,58,59
protectedareas116,117,120–1, 120–1
purchasingpowerparities(PPPs)14,14,15,29
rainforests117,117
ratios,externaldebt100–1
recession74
global200918–19,18,74
reforestation117,118–19, 119
refugees93
regionalgroupings8–9
remittances90–1,90–1, 94–5, 94–5,97
renewableenergy125
reproductivehealth12,12,46,47,58–61
roads75


rural areas
and child mortality 53
andinfrastructure75
andmaternalhealthcare47
andunderweightchildren57
andwatersupplies113
sanitation13,74–5,74,105,105
savings78
see alsoadjustednetsaving
servicesector66–7,66, 69,84,87
slumdwellings33,104–5,107
StolenAssetRecovery(StAR)Initiative70
sustainability13,13,109
tariffs85,85, 87
teenagemothers59,59
textiles85
timberindustry117
trade
barriersto85,85, 87
international84–5,84–5
merchandise 86–7, 86–7, 129, 131, 133
transportinfrastructure75
tuberculosis12,62–3,63, 65
undernourishment108
underweight53,56–7, 57
UnitedNationsInternationalConferenceon
FinancingforDevelopment200296–7
urbanenvironment104–7,104–7, 106–7
urbanization33,35,104–7,104–7, 106–7,
112
violence,organized71
waterpollution104–5,113
watersupplies112–15,112–15, 114–15
by country 128, 130, 132
infrastructure74–5,74
MillenniumDevelopmentGoals
regarding13,13
wealth24–7,24–7, 26–7
women46–51,46–51
andeducation11,43, 45,46,46, 48–9,
48–9,59
inemployment50–1, 50–1
empowerment11,11
andHIV/AIDS12,62,65
maternalhealth12,12,46,47,58–9,
58–9, 61
see alsopregnancy
workplacehazards38,39
WorldBank
classiicationofeconomies8–9,8–9
CountryPolicyandInstitutional
Assessment71
anddebtrelief100–1,103
InternationalDevelopmentAssociation
71,101
website9
WorldBankGroup100–1
WorldHealthOrganization(WHO)12,13






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